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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 153)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oxford Open Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Number of Followers: 33  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-4433
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1521: Highly Efficient Removal of CO2 Using
           Water-Lean KHCO3/Isopropanol Solutions

    • Authors: Lei Wang, Mohammad Saeed, Jianmin Luo, Anna Lee, Rowan Simonet, Zhao Sun, Nigel Walker, Matthew Aro, Richard Davis, Mohammad Abu Zahra, Malek Alkasrawi, Sam Toan
      First page: 1521
      Abstract: The use of aqueous carbonate as an inorganic absorbent is not only inexpensive but also stable and environmentally friendly. However, the regeneration processes for aqueous carbonate sorbents require high regeneration heat duty; this energy intensity makes their wide utilization unaffordable. In this work, a low-temperature, energy-saving, and environmentally friendly carbon dioxide desorption method has been investigated in potassium bicarbonate-water-alcohol solutions. The addition of alcohol, particularly isopropanol, to the potassium bicarbonate-water solution can significantly increase carbon dioxide desorption capacity. The potassium bicarbonate-water-isopropanol solution used in this study (36 wt % isopropanol) resulted in 15.2 mmol of carbon dioxide desorption within 2400 s at 80 °C, which was 2000-fold higher than the potassium bicarbonate-water-solution. This research demonstrates a water-lean solvent-based carbon dioxide removal route with the potential to be economical, environmentally safe, and energy-efficient. CO2 sequestration, capture, and utilization technologies will play a key role in reducing CO2 emissions. The excellent desorption kinetics and relatively moderate desorption temperatures (80 °C) of water-lean solvent could help in reducing the cost of CO2 capture, particularly in terms of the heat demand at the regenerator.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091521
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1522: Impact of Radar and Surface Data
           Assimilation on the Forecast of a Nocturnal Squall Line in the
           Yangtze–Huaihe River

    • Authors: Zongmei Pan, Shuwen Zhang, Weidong Zhang
      First page: 1522
      Abstract: The impact of radar and surface data assimilation on the forecast of a nocturnal squall line initiated above the stable boundary layer in the Yangtze–Huaihe River is investigated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational assimilation system (WRFDA 3DVar). Results show that the assimilation of radar and surface data can improve the prediction of the convection initiation time, height and vertical ascending motion during the early stage of the squall line formation by adjusting the thermodynamic structure, circulation patterns, water vapor conditions and hydrometeor mixing ratios. Although the radar and surface data assimilation can improve the forecast of the location of the squall line to a certain extent, the squall line is stronger in the radar data assimilation than that in the surface data assimilation, leading to stronger radar reflectivity and heavier precipitation. The assimilation of both radar and surface data has a more positive impact on the forecast skill than the assimilation of either type of data. Moreover, during the mature stage of the squall line, radar and surface data assimilation can enhance the intensity of the surface cold pool. Specifically, radar data assimilation or assimilating the two data simultaneously can produce a stronger cold pool than only assimilating surface data, which is more conducive to the maintenance and development of the squall line.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091522
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1523: Seismo-Ionospheric Effects Prior to Two
           Earthquakes in Taiwan Detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic

    • Authors: Yufan Guo, Xuemin Zhang, Jiang Liu, Muping Yang, Xing Yang, Xiaohui Du, Jian Lü, Jian Xiao
      First page: 1523
      Abstract: In this paper, we focused on the characteristics of the seismo-ionospheric effects related to two successive earthquakes, namely, the earthquakes in 2022 in Taitung Sea, Taiwan, China, with magnitudes (M) of 6.7 and 6.3, at 23.45° N, 121.55° E and 23.39° N, 121.52° E and with the same focal depth of 20 km, which were detected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES). By applying the sliding interquartile range method to electron density (Ne) data acquired by the Langmuir probe (LAP) onboard the CSES and the grid total electron content (TEC) data obtained from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), positive anomalies were found under quiet geomagnetic conditions on 2‒3 March and 8‒9 March 2022—that is, 19–20 and 13–14 d before the earthquakes, respectively, and the global ionospheric mapping (GIM) TEC data suggested that anomalies may also have been triggered in the magnetic conjugate area 13–14 d prior to the earthquakes occurrences. In addition, the CSES Ne data showed enhancements 3 and 5 d before the earthquakes occurred. Furthermore, 138 earthquakes with M ≥ 5.0 that occurred in Taiwan and the surrounding region during the period February 2019 to March 2022 were statistically analyzed using the CSES Ne data. The results show that most of the Ne anomalies were positive. Moreover, the greater the earthquake magnitude, the greater the frequency of the anomalies; however, the amplitude of the anomalies did not increase with the earthquake magnitude. The anomalies were concentrated during the period of 10 d before to 5 d after the earthquakes. No increase in the amplitude of anomalies was observed as the time of the earthquakes approached. Finally, based on evidence relating to earthquake precursor anomalies, we conclude that it is possible that earthquakes in Taiwan and the surrounding region affect the ionosphere through the geochemical, acoustic, and electromagnetic channels, as described by the lithosphere‒atmosphere‒ionosphere coupling (LAIC) model, and that the two studied earthquakes in Taiwan may have induced ionospheric effects through the geochemical channel.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091523
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1524: Attention-Based BiLSTM Model for Pavement
           Temperature Prediction of Asphalt Pavement in Winter

    • Authors: Shumin Bai, Wenchen Yang, Meng Zhang, Duanyang Liu, Wei Li, Linyi Zhou
      First page: 1524
      Abstract: Pavement temperature is the main factor determining road icing, and accurate and timely pavement temperature prediction is of significant importance to regional traffic safety management and preventive maintenance. The prediction of pavement temperature at the micro-scale has been a challenge to be tackled. To solve this problem, a bidirectional extended short-term memory network model based on the attention mechanism (Att-BiLSTM) was proposed to improve the prediction performance by using the time series features of pavement temperature and meteorological factors. Pavement temperature data and climatic data were collected from a road weather station in Yunnan, China. The results show that the MAE, MSE, and MAPE of the proposed Att-BiLSTM model were 0.330, 0.339, and 10.1%, respectively, which were better than the other baseline models. It was shown that 93.4% of the predicted values had an error less than 1 °C, and 82.1% had an error less than 0.5 °C, indicating that the proposed Att-BiLSTM model enables significant performance improvement. In addition, this paper quantified and analyzed the effects of parameters such as the size of the sliding window, the number of hidden layer neurons, and the optimizer on the performance of the prediction model.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091524
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1525: Increasing Wind Speeds Fuel the Wider
           Spreading of Pollution Caused by Fires over the IGP Region during the
           Indian Post-Monsoon Season

    • Authors: Vinay Kumar, Rupesh Patil, Rohini L. Bhawar, P.R.C. Rahul, Subbarao Yelisetti
      First page: 1525
      Abstract: Every year, forest fires and harvest harnessing produce atmospheric pollution in October and November over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). The fire count data (MODIS) shows a decreasing/increasing trend of fire counts in all confidence ranges in October/November over Northern India. There is a widespread increase in fires with a confidence level above 60 to 80% over the whole Northern Indian region. The Aerosol Optical Index (AOD) also shows an increase with values > 0.7 over the northwestern and IGP regions. There have been some startling results over the lower IGP belt, where there has been increasing trend in AOD during October ~56% and during November, the increase was by a whopping ~116%. However, in November, a slight turning of the winds towards central India might be transporting the AOD towards the central Indian region. Hence, during November, it is inferred that due to the low wind speed over the lower IGP belt and increased fires, the AODs in the polluted air tend to hover for a long time. During recent years from 2010, the winds have become stronger, indicating more transport of AOD is occurring over the lower IGP belt as compared to previous years till 2009, especially in October.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091525
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1526: Air Pollution and Economic Impact from
           Ships Operating in the Port of Varna

    • Authors: Yordan Garbatov, Petar Georgiev
      First page: 1526
      Abstract: The present work develops a multidisciplinary approach for evaluating the air pollution and economic impact from ships operating in the port of Varna. The work collects and analyses automatic identification system (AIS) data of the arriving and queuing dry cargo ships in the seaport of Varna in identifying the statistical descriptors of the length of the ships, gross tonnage (GT), and ship engine power. The queueing theory (QT) is employed to analyse the ship operations in a single queue and is processed by three parallel terminals, satisfying the port regulations. The Gaussian dispersion model (GDM) is adopted to predict the pollution concentration from ships arriving at the seaport, queuing, approaching, waiting, processing at the berth, and departing. The gas emission is estimated as a function of the ship movement trajectory, and the time duration at any stage is defined by QT for the most critical surrounding areas, considering the wind speed, as well as horizontal and vertical dispersion as a function of the location of the ship, accounting for the effective emission height, weather conditions, and speed. To mitigate the potential impact on health, the gas emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and air-borne particles (PM10) generated by ships during the queuing and port operation are evaluated. Potential cleaning measures for any ship are implemented to satisfy the maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) in surrounding areas. The implemented ship pollution cleaning measures and overall ship and terminal operating costs are minimised to identify the most efficient berth operation. The developed approach is flexible and can be used for any particular conditions for ships operating in ports.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091526
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1528: Numerical Investigation on Mixing
           Characteristics and Mechanism of Natural Gas/Air in a Super-Large-Bore
           Dual-Fuel Marine Engine

    • Authors: Long Liu, Shihai Liu, Qian Xia, Bo Liu, Xiuzhen Ma
      First page: 1528
      Abstract: Premixed combustion mode dual-fuel (DF) engines are widely used in large-bore marine engines due to their great potential to solve the problem of CO2 emissions. However, detonation is one of the main problems in the development of marine engines based on the premixed combustion mode, which affects the popularization of liquefied natural gas (LNG) engines. Due to the large bore and long stroke, marine dual-fuel engines have unique flow characteristics and a mixture mechanism of natural gas and air. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present a simulated investigation on the influence of swirl on multiscale mixing and the concentration field, which provides a new supplement for mass transfer theory and engineering applications. It is suggested that the phenomenon of abnormal combustion occurs on account of the distribution of the mixture being uneven in a super-large-bore dual-fuel engine. Further analysis showed that the level of swirl at the late compression stage and the turbulence intensity are the decisive factors affecting the transmission process of natural gas (NG) and distribution of methane (CH4) concentration. Finally, a strategy of improving mixture quality and the distribution of the mixture was proposed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091528
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1529: A Circulation Weather Type Analysis of
           Urban Effects on Daily Thermal Range for Milan (Italy)

    • Authors: Giuseppe Colangelo, Giovanni Sanesi, Luigi Mariani, Simone G. Parisi, Gabriele Cola
      First page: 1529
      Abstract: We present a first attempt to analyse the effect of a large urban park (Parco Nord Milano—PNM) on the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of the city area of Milan. Specifically, analysis of the effect of three cyclonic and three anticyclonic circulation weather types (CWTs) on the frequency distribution of the daily thermal range (DTR) of five weather stations in Milan shows the stabilizing effect of the city on the DTR when compared with suburban and rural areas, generating a modal class of 4 °C in winter and 9 °C in summer. In parallel, a temperature transect of the urban park Parco Nord Milano was performed by bicycle during a day of anticyclonic summer weather in order to understand the effect of the park on the UHI. This investigation highlighted the homogenization effect on temperatures induced by the thermal turbulence triggered by intense sunshine.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091529
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1530: Interdecadal Change of Ural Blocking
           Highs and Its Atmospheric Cause in Winter during 1979–2018

    • Authors: Yao Lu, Yan Li, Quan Xia, Qingyi Yang, Chenghai Wang
      First page: 1530
      Abstract: The Ural blocking (UB) high is a weather system closely related to the cold air process during winter, which could trigger extreme cold events in East Asia. By retrieving five single blocking indexes, including accumulation frequency, central latitude, blocking intensity, mean duration and north rim, it is found that the UB in winter occurs more frequently, grows stronger, lasts longer and is located more northward after 2002, compared with 1985–2001. In order to describe the UB comprehensively, a new comprehensive blocking index (CBI) is developed based on the above five blocking indexes. The CBI can also reflect the interdecadal change of UB synthetically. Analysis on the corresponding atmospheric circulation shows that the relationship between the UB and atmospheric circulation, such as the polar vortex and jet, is closer in 2002–2018 than in 1985–2001. Compared with the atmospheric circulation in 1985–2001, the most prominent feature in 2002–2018 is that the intensity of the polar vortex is weaker at 100 hPa, and that the subtropical jet moves northward. Meanwhile, the East Asian trough downstream of the Urals deepens at 500 hPa and the Siberian high strengthens, indicating that the East Asia winter monsoon is stronger during 2002–2018. Further analysis on atmospheric waves and baroclinicity demonstrates that the meridional circulation of planetary waves strengthens, especially the 2-waves, which may increase the frequency of the UB and shift its location northward after 2002. Additionally, the baroclinicity (−𝜕T/𝜕y) in the mid-high latitudes is weakened during winter since 2002, which is also beneficial for the establishment of meridional circulation, causing a stronger intensity and longer duration of the UB.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091530
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1531: Characteristics of Propagation of
           Meteorological to Hydrological Drought for Lake Baiyangdian in a Changing

    • Authors: He, Zhang, Huo, Yang
      First page: 1531
      Abstract: The analysis of drought propagation has garnered mounting attention in the changing global environment. The current studies tend to focus on the propagation characteristics from meteorological to hydrological drought in rivers. Lakes, despite being a key component of watershed ecosystems, have received little attention to their response to meteorological and hydrological droughts. To this end, here, we investigated the characteristics of propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought for a lake in a changing environment. To determine the drought propagation time from meteorological to hydrological drought, we analyzed correlations between the standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and standardized water level index (SWI). Lake Baiyangdian in China served as the case study. The results showed that meteorological droughts occur at high frequency but are short in duration, indicating that not every meteorological drought will necessarily lead to a hydrological drought. By contrast, lake hydrological droughts have low frequency and long duration and feature more severe consequences. Comparing drought characteristics before and after a changing environment, we found a reduced frequency of the SPI, SRI, and SWI, yet their duration was prolonged. For the SWI especially, these results were even more pronounced, which suggests the changing environment enabled further intensification of the lake hydrological drought. In addition, more time was needed for a meteorological drought to transition into a lake hydrological drought after a changing environment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091531
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1532: Directivity of Coseismic Ionospheric
           Disturbances Propagation Following the 2016 West Sumatra Earthquake Using
           Three-Dimensional Tomography GNSS-TEC

    • Authors: Mokhamad Nur Cahyadi, Deasy Arisa, Ihsan Naufal Muafiry, Buldan Muslim, Ririn Wuri Rahayu, Meilfan Eka Putra, Mega Wulansari, Bambang Setiadi, Andria Arisal, Pakhrur Razi, Syachrul Arief
      First page: 1532
      Abstract: Ionospheric disturbances caused by the 2016 West Sumatra earthquake have been studied using total electron content (TEC) measurements by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observation stations evenly distributed in Sumatra and Java, Indonesia. Previous observation focused on the coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CID) detected 11–16 min after the earthquake. The maximum TEC amplitude measured was 2.9 TECU (TEC Unit) with speed between 1 and 1.72 km/s. A comprehensive analysis needs to be done to see how the growth and direction of the movement of the CID due to the earthquake is using the 3D tomography method. The dimensions of 3D tomographic model are setup to 1° × 1.2° × 75 km. The continuity constraints were used to stabilize the solution, and multiple resolution tests with synthetic data were conducted to evaluate the precision of the results. This research focuses on the anomalous movement of the ionosphere observed in three dimensions. From the model, the positive anomaly initially appeared 11 min after the earthquake at the altitude of 300 km, which is the highest ionization layer and correspond to the electron density profile using IRI model. The anomalous movement appeared 12 min after the mainshock and moved 1° toward the geomagnetic field every minute. The density anomaly of the ionosphere began to weaken 8 min after the appearance of CID. To check the accuracy of the 3D tomography model, we carried out two types of tests, namely checkerboard resolution test and the second resolution test.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13091532
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 9 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1527: Regional Predictions of Air Pollution in
           Guangzhou: Preliminary Results and Multi-Model Cross-Validations

    • Authors: Zhi Qiao, Shengcheng Cui, Chenglei Pei, Zhou Ye, Xiaoqing Wu, Lei Lei, Tao Luo, Zihan Zhang, Xuebin Li, Wenyue Zhu
      First page: 1527
      Abstract: A precise air pollution forecast is the basis for targeted pollution control and sustained improvements in air quality. It is desirable and crucial to select the most suitable model for air pollution forecasting (APF). To achieve this goal, this paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of performances of different models in simulating the most common air pollutants (e.g., PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO) in Guangzhou (23.13° N, 113.26° E), China. To simulate temporal variations of the above-mentioned air pollutant concentrations in Guangzhou in September and October 2020, we use a numerical forecasting model (i.e., the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem)) and two artificial intelligence models (i.e., the back propagation neural network (BPNN) model and the long short-term memory (LSTM) model). WRF-Chem is also used to simulate the meteorological elements (e.g., the 2 m temperature (T2), 2 m relative humidity (RH), and 10 m wind speed and direction (WS, WD)). In order to investigate the simulation accuracies of classical APF models, we simultaneously compare the simulations of the WRF-Chem, BPNN, and LSTM models to ground truth observations. Comparative assessment results show that WRF-Chem simulated air pollutant (i.e., PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO) concentrations have the best correlations with ground measurements (i.e., Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.88, 0.73, 0.61, and 0.61, respectively). Furthermore, to evaluate model performance in terms of accuracy and stability, the normalized mean bias (NMB, %) and mean fractional bias (MFB, %) are adopted as the standard performance metrics (SPMs) proposed by Boylan et al. The comparison results indicate that when simulating PM2.5, WRF-Chem was more effective than the BPNN but less effective than the LSTM. While simulating concentrations of NO2, SO2, and CO, the WRF-Chem model performed better than the BPNN and LSTM models. With regards to WRF-Chem, the NMBs and MFBs for the PM2.5 simulations are, respectively, 6.49% and 0.02%, –11.96% and –0.031% for NO2, 7.93% and 0.019% for CO, and 5.04% and 0.012% for SO2. Our results suggest that WRF-Chem has superior performance and better accuracy than the NN-based prediction models, making it a promising and useful tool to accurately predict and forecast regional air pollutant concentrations on a city scale.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101527
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1533: The Temporal−Spatial
           Characteristics of Column NO2 Concentration and Influence Factors in
           Xinjiang of Northwestern Arid Region in China

    • Authors: Zhixiang Yu, Xia Li
      First page: 1533
      Abstract: This paper investigates the temporal−spatial characteristics of column NO2 concentration and influence factors in Xinjiang based on the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the EU/ESA Sentinel−5 Precursor satellite. The findings indicate that there is a high linear correlation between TROPOMI NO2 data and ground-based data, with Yining having the highest correlation (R2 = 0.8132) and Aksu having the lowest correlation (R2 = 0.7307). The TROPOMI NO2 data can be used to approximate the characteristics of near−surface atmospheric NO2 concentration. NO2 VCD in the troposphere varies greatly geographically, with a noticeable ‘island’ pattern. The high−value zones are mostly found on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountain, in the capital cities of several prefectures, and occasionally in the industrial parks. Urumqi has the highest annual average NO2 VCD of 553.9 × 10−6 mol·m−2. The NO2 VCD is characterized by seasonal shifts and cyclical swings of “low in spring, high in winter, and transition in summer and autumn”. The monthly mean value is highest in December (27.14 × 10−6 mol m−2) and lowest in March (12.66 × 10−6 mol m−2). Meteorological factors can influence the temporal and spatial distribution of NO2 VCD. The GRA in Urumqi is 0.774 between the monthly mean of NO2 VCD and relative humidity. The main causes of the increase in NO2 VCD are man-made emissions. The annual GDP of the secondary industry and its annual average NO2 VCD in fifteen key cities in Xinjiang have a correlation coefficient of 0.78. TROPOMI NO2 data can provide strong support for the fine control of air pollution and air quality in early warning forecast in Xinjiang.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101533
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1534: How Photochemically Consumed Volatile
           Organic Compounds Affect Ozone Formation: A Case Study in Chengdu, China

    • Authors: Hefan Liu, Ning Wang, Dongyang Chen, Qinwen Tan, Danlin Song, Fengxia Huang
      First page: 1534
      Abstract: Surface ozone (O3) pollution has not improved significantly in recent years. It is still the primary air pollution problem in many megacities in China during summertime. In high temperature and intense radiation weather, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily oxidized and degraded to induce O3 pollution. In order to understand the impact of difference between photochemical initial concentration (PIC) of VOCs and the actual measured concentration on O3 formation, a campaign was carried out during O3 pollution in Chengdu (25 July–5 August 2021). During this O3 pollution episode, the maximum value of O3 concentration reached 335.0 μg/m3, and the precursor concentrations increased significantly. The mean values of VOCmeasured and VOCPICs were 19.7 ppbv and 30.7 ppbv, corresponding to O3 formation potential (OFP) of 175.3 μg/m3 and 478.8 μg/m3, respectively, indicating that the consumption of VOCs content could not be ignored. Alkenes accounted for 77.2% of VOCs consumption. Alkenes and aromatics contributed 63.0% and 29.2% to OFP values which derived from PIC of each VOC species. The relative incremental reactivity analysis based on PICs showed that the O3 formation was controlled by the cooperation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs, and the effect of NOx emission reduction was better.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101534
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1535: Sounding Data from Ground-Based Microwave
           Radiometers for a Hailstorm Case: Analyzing Spatiotemporal Differences and
           Initializing an Idealized Model for Prediction

    • Authors: Rongjun Ma, Xiaofei Li
      First page: 1535
      Abstract: Atmospheric physical sounding data from three ground-based microwave radiometers located in Xi’an were analyzed to explore the temporal and spatial differences of a hailstorm event and were initialized into an idealized Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to predict the total evolution of the event, which occurred on 29 July 2019. Liquid water and relative humidity profiles revealed a consistent sequence of hailstorm intensity among observations from surface meteorological stations and the FY-4A satellite, where the precipitation and cloud top temperature intensified from north to south, corresponding to the locations of the ground-based microwave radiometers in Gaoling, Weiyang, and Chang’an. Compared with those of a similar storm without hail that occurred on 9 August 2018, the humidity profiles and heights at 0 °C and −20 °C exhibited more dramatic changes. The heights at 0 °C and −20 °C obviously increased with a low-value zone in the relative humidity profiles during the strongest stage of the hailstorm in Chang’an and Weiyang. Later, the heights sharply dropped in Chang’an when strong, downward ice-phased hydrometers occurred with hail production in the storm. A time-saving, idealized WRF simulation, initialized with pre-3-h sounding data from ground-based microwave radiometers, was designed to qualitatively predict this hailstorm. The simulations consistently showed a strong-to-weak intensity of storms from Chang’an to Weiyang to Gaoling. Although the first attempt at this model has uncertainties in both the observations and the model, it provides a potential new method for single-point fine hailstorm prediction.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101535
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1536: Estimating FAO Blaney-Criddle b-Factor
           Using Soft Computing Models

    • Authors: Suthira Thongkao, Pakorn Ditthakit, Sirimon Pinthong, Nureehan Salaeh, Ismail Elkhrachy, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh, Quoc Bao Pham
      First page: 1536
      Abstract: FAO Blaney-Criddle has been generally an accepted method for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration. In this regard, it is inevitable to estimate the b-factor provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Irrigation and Drainage Paper number 24. In this study, five soft computing methods, namely random forest (RF), M5 model tree (M5), support vector regression with the polynomial function (SVR-poly), support vector regression with radial basis function kernel (SVR-rbf), and random tree (RT), were adapted to estimate the b-factor. And Their performances were also compared. The suitable hyper-parameters for each soft computing method were investigated. Five statistical indices were deployed to evaluate their performance, i.e., the coefficient of determination (r2), the mean absolute relative error (MARE), the maximum absolute relative error (MXARE), the standard deviation of the absolute relative error (DEV), and the number of samples with an error greater than 2% (NE > 2%). Findings reveal that SVR-rbf gave the highest performance among five soft computing models, followed by the M5, RF, SVR-poly, and RT. The M5 also derived a new explicit equation for b estimation. SVR-rbf provided a bit lower efficacy than the radial basis function network but outperformed the regression equations. Models’ Applicability for estimating monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was demonstrated.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101536
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1537: The Impact of Traditional Raw Earth
           Dwellings’ Envelope Retrofitting on Energy Saving: A Case Study from
           Zhushan Village, in West of Hunan, China

    • Authors: Liang Xie, Zhe Li, Jiayu Li, Guanglei Yang, Jishui Jiang, Zhezheng Liu, Shuyuan Tong
      First page: 1537
      Abstract: This study presents the CO2 emissions and energy performance of traditional raw earth dwellings’ envelope retrofitting located in the Zhushan Village, western Hunan Province, China. The numerical simulations of heating energy consumption on the building models were performed using DesignBuilder, an energy simulation program. The energy performance was evaluated using the indexes (including energy consumption, CO2 emissions, heat balance analysis, and air temperature profiles). The detailed evaluation process of the energy performance is presented as follows. First, the current situation was analyzed through the field research, and two typical building models were built. Second, all schemes were simulated using the DesignBuilder software. Subsequently, the four main retrofit measures (replacing the external insulation windows, setting the external wall insulation layer, setting the roof insulation layer, and setting the ceiling insulation layer) were analyzed, respectively. The optimal parameters of the respective retrofit measure were calculated. Lastly, a multi-objective optimization analysis was conducted on all retrofit plans using the coupling method. In the winter, the results indicated that the “I-shape” dwelling heat consumption of the enclosure structure was reduced by 12.8 kW·h/m2, and the CO2 emissions were reduced by 882.8 kg. While in the benchmark building, the results showed that the “L-shape” dwelling heat consumption of the enclosure structure was decreased by 13.27 kW·h/m2, and the CO2 emissions were reduced by 894.4 kg. As the renewal scheme has been progressively implemented, the whole Zhushan Village will save energy by 11.2 × 104 kW·h after the insulation renewal of the envelope structure is completed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101537
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1538: Testing Filter-Based Air Cleaners with
           Surrogate Particles for Viruses and Exhaled Droplets

    • Authors: Stefan Schumacher, Arantxa Banda Sanchez, Anna Caspari, Katharina Staack, Christof Asbach
      First page: 1538
      Abstract: Indoor air cleaners can contribute to reducing infection risks by the filtration of virus-carrying droplets. There are various national standards to test indoor air cleaners that determine the clean air delivery rate (CADR), but typically only as a size-integrated value for particles >0.3 μm. Thus, a test method using potassium chloride (KCl) and paraffin as surrogate particles in the size range of viruses and exhaled droplets was developed. We show that air cleaners with fibrous and electrostatic filters are generally capable of reducing the airborne particle concentrations. However, for electret filters, the performance can strongly degrade over time by being loaded with particles. By comparing filters with different efficiencies in the same air cleaner, we demonstrate that the use of high-efficiency filters can be even at the expense of the cleaning efficacy. We developed a mathematical model to estimate the inhaled dose of viruses and show that the combination of natural venting and an air cleaner can lead to a substantial reduction of the infection risk.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101538
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1539: Influence of the Geographic Channel
           Effect on PM2.5 Concentrations over the Taipei Basin in Relation to
           Continental High-Pressure Systems during Winter

    • Authors: Li-Wei Lai, Chuan-Yao Lin
      First page: 1539
      Abstract: In addition to the Taiwan Strait, the geographical channel effect (GCE) has been observed in the Taipei Basin during winters. This study explored the potential links amongst GCE phenomena in the basin, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) events, and position of the continental high-pressure system (CHPS). Principal component analysis was applied to classify the CHPS distribution patterns influencing PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters in the Taipei metropolis. In addition, non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis and Dwass–Steel–Critchlow–Fligner tests were applied to compare the parameters amongst distinct groups. Moreover, track analysis was utilised to trace the trajectories of air masses. The merged Dark Target Aerosol Angstrom Exponent (Ocean), Deep Blue Aerosol Angstrom Exponent (Land), and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) 3 km (Land and Ocean) of Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS were used to confirm the connection of long-range PM2.5 transport. Two features in the atmospheric environment induce double GCEs: (1) wind direction below 90° in most of the upwind area of the Taisumi and Xindian River Basins; (2) CHPS centres moved across 110° E. Double GCEs can reduce the magnitude of PM2.5 air pollution and shape the distribution of PM2.5; however, they cannot prevent PM2.5 events.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101539
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1540: Cost–Benefit Analysis of
           Synergistic CO2 and NOx Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Road
           Transport Sector in China

    • Authors: Liying Ping, Yuan Wang, Lien-Chieh Lee, Binbin Peng, Bushra Y. Ahmed, Hongyu Zhang, Wenchao Ma
      First page: 1540
      Abstract: The transportation sector is a major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, and it has a crucial effect on the synergistic reduction of NOx and carbon. In order to find the energy-efficient vehicle technologies with the highest net reduction potential and lowest net reduction cost over the life cycle, this study traced the CO2 and NOx emission streams of 33 energy-efficient technologies, hidden in the supply chain during the production phase, through structural path analysis, and measured the emission reductions during the use phase using the emission factor method. Moreover, we applied structural decomposition analysis to quantify the three main drivers, including emission intensity, industrial structure, and final demand, of changes in CO2 and NOx emissions from 11 transport subsectors during 2012–2018. Results indicate that CO2 emissions of the transport sector more than doubled from 2012 to 2018; however, the influence of NOx was less significant. The final demand of the road subsector was the most significant driver contributing to CO2 emission changes, with an increase of 109.27 Mt. The emission intensity of road transportation caused the greatest mitigation effect on NOx emission changes, with a decrease of 1902 Kt. The findings of the scenario analysis demonstrate that the most efficient action of the pure electric technology for passenger cars reduces 20.92 Mt NOx emissions, and the parallel hybrid technology for heavy trucks offers the greatest cost effectiveness with a net abatement of 2577 Mt CO2 over its life cycle. Consequently, the aggressive development of new energy technology has become a prerequisite strategy to synergistically reduce CO2 and NOx emissions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101540
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1541: Relationships between Mass Level of
           Allergenic Platanus acerifolia Protein 3 (Pla a3) and Redox Trace Elements
           in the Size-Resolved Particles in Shanghai Atmosphere

    • Authors: Senlin Lu, Teng Ma, Lu Zhang, Yule Feng, Shumin Zhou, Wei Zhang, Shinichi Yonemochi, Xinchun Liu, Enyoh Christian Ebere, Weiqian Wang, Qingyue Wang
      First page: 1541
      Abstract: Allergenic pollen protein can be released from pollen grains and suspended in the air to cause allergenic reactions. However, the allergenic protein and its relationship with redox trace elements in ambient size-resolved particles has not been reported. Ambient size-resolved particles in Shanghai’s atmosphere were sampled during the Platanus pollen season in the spring season of 2017. Planatus pollen protein 3 (Pla a3) and redox trace elements in the ambient particles were investigated and their relationship was analyzed. Our data demonstrated that the mass level of the Pla a3 in the size-resolved particles ranged from 0.41 ± 0.28 to 7.46 ± 2.23 pg/m3, and decreased with the size range. Mass concentrations (ppb) of crustal elements (Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na) in the size-resolved particles ranged from 20.11 ± 9.87 to 1126.22 ± 659.51, while trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb) varied from 0.05 ± 0.03 to 57.53 ± 19.7. Mass levels of these trace elements decreased according to particle size. The Abundance of redox trace elements, including Fe (R2 = 0.82), Mn (R2 = 0.54), Cu (R2 = 0.61), Ba (R2 = 0.82), and Pb (R2 = 0.82) in the size-resolved particles was significantly related to that of Pla a3, and our data implied redox trace elements might take syngenetic effects on the allergenicity induced by Pla a3 protein.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101541
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1542: Research on the Spatiotemporal
           Characteristics and Concentration Prediction Model of PM2.5 during Winter
           in Jiangbei New District, Nanjing, China

    • Authors: Yuanxi Li, Zhongzheng Zhu, Chengrui Xin, Zhilong Chen, Sunyuan Wang, Zhenyu Liang, Xiuguo Zou
      First page: 1542
      Abstract: Accurate prediction of PM2.5 concentration is one of the key tasks of air pollution assessment, early warning, and treatment. In this paper, four monitoring sites were arranged in Jiangbei New District of Nanjing City, China. The environmental parameters such as PM2.5/PM10 concentration, temperature, and humidity were monitored from January to February 2020. A gated recurrent unit (GRU) network based on the PM2.5 concentration prediction model was established to predict PM2.5 concentration. The mean relative error (MRE), root mean square error (RMSE), and Pearson correlation coefficient were selected as the evaluation criteria for the accuracy of the GRU model. The data set was divided into a training set, a test set and a validation set at a ratio of 7:2:1, and the GRU model was used to predict the hourly value of PM2.5 concentration in the next week. The prediction results show that the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted values and the monitored values of the four monitoring sites have reached more than 0.9, reflecting a strong correlation. The relative average errors are around 10%. The GRU model prediction of NJAU (Nanjing Agricultural University)-Pukou Campus Site is the most accurate, and the correlation coefficient, MRE, and RMSE are 0.970, 7.85%, and 9.6049, respectively, reflecting the good prediction performance of the model. Therefore, this research supports the prediction of air quality in different cities and regions, so people can take protective measures in advance and reduce the damage caused by air pollution to human bodies.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101542
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1543: CFD-Based Numerical Simulation on the
           Combined Spraying Dust Suppression Device

    • Authors: Shitu Mo, Pengfei Wang, Runze Gao, Shiqiang Chen, Shilin Li
      First page: 1543
      Abstract: Spraying for dust suppression is a conventional technological means for industrial dust control. The traditional spraying technique shows a few shortcomings, including low dust suppression efficiency, great water consumption, and failure in far-distance dust suppression. This study proposed a novel combined spraying dust suppression device and established the related physical model and mathematical model. Using the CFD numerical simulation method, the basic characteristics of the airflow field and spray field around the device and the related influencing factors were investigated in depth. Results showed that the Coanda effect appeared near the wall surface in the air duct when the combined spraying dust suppression device was operated. Under this effect, negative pressure formed at the center of the device. The velocity of the combined device showed a symmetrical distribution and decayed steadily downward from the outlet of the device. An obvious stratification can be observed in the spray field. The mean droplet size first increased and then decreased along the airflow direction. Meanwhile, the effects of the air supply pressure and water supply pressure were examined. On the one hand, the velocity of the combined spraying dust suppression device and the spraying range were in direct proportion with the air supply pressure. As the air supply pressure increased, the droplet size first increased and then decreased. On the other hand, increasing the water supply pressure imposed almost no effect on the airflow field of the combined spraying dust suppression device but can reduce the droplet size and enhance the spraying range.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101543
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1544: Influence of Karst Reservoir Capacity on
           Flood in Lijiang Basin Based on Modified HEC-HMS through Soil Moisture
           Accounting Loss

    • Authors: Dai, Rad, Xu, Wan, Li, Pan, Shahab
      First page: 1544
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to modify the HEC-HMS flood prediction for the karstic watershed of the Lijiang River, South China, through the quantitative inclusion into the model of the available reservoir capacity of karst (ARCK) as a case study. Due to the complexities caused by hidden drainage networks in karst hydrology, as a new approach, soil moisture accounting loss was used to reflect the ARCK in flood forecasting. The soil moisture loss was analyzed against daily rainfall runoff data across 1.5 years by using an artificial neural network via phyton programming. Through the correlations found among the amounts of soil moisture and river flow fluctuations in response to precipitation and its intervals, coefficients were introduced to the model for output modifications. ARCK analysis revealed that while heavy rainfalls with longer intervals (i.e., 174 mm/2d after 112 days of the dry season) may not cause considerable changes in the river flow magnitude (0.1–0.64 higher owing to high ARCK), relatively small rainfalls with higher frequency (i.e., 83 mm/4d during the wet season) can cause drastic raise of river flow (10–20 times greater at different stations) due to lower ARCK. Soil moisture accounting loss coefficients did enhance the model’s simulated hydrographs accuracy (NSE) up to 16% on average as compared to the initial forecasting via real data. However, the modifications were valid for flood events within a few years from the soil moisture observation period. Our result suggested that the inclusion of ARCK in modeling through soil moisture accounting loss can lead to increased prediction accuracy through consistent monitoring.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101544
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1545: Estimation of Sensible and Latent Heat
           Fluxes Using Flux Variance Method under Unstable Conditions: A Case Study
           of Tea Plants

    • Authors: Noman Ali Buttar, Hu Yongguang, Josef Tanny, Ali Raza, Yasir Niaz, Muhammad Imran Khan, Naeem Saddique, Abid Sarwar, Ahmad Azeem, Fiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal Idrees
      First page: 1545
      Abstract: Evapotranspiration is essential for precise irrigation and water resource management. Previous literature suggested that eddy covariance (EC) systems could directly measure evapotranspiration in agricultural fields. However, the eddy covariance method remains difficult for routine use, due to its high cost, operational complexity, and relatively multifaceted raw data processing. An alternative method is the flux variance (FV) method, which can estimate the sensible heat flux using high-frequency air temperature measurements by fine-wire thermocouples, at relatively low-cost and with less complexity. Additional measurements of the net radiation and soil heat flux permit the extraction of latent heat flux through the energy balance closure equation. This study examined the performance of the FV method and the results were compared against direct eddy covariance measurements. Data were collected from September 2020 to August 2021, covering seasonal variations. Due to the method’s limitation, only the data under unstable conditions were used for the analysis and days with rainfall were omitted. The results showed that the FV-estimated sensible heat flux was in good agreement with that of eddy covariance in the seasons of winter 2020 and summer 2021. The best agreement between the estimated and measured sensible heat fluxes was observed in the summer, with R2 = 0.83, RMSE = 34.97 Wm−2 and RE = 8.20%. The FV extracted latent heat flux was in good agreement with that measured by EC for both seasons. The best result was obtained in the summer, with R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 23.12 Wm−2, and RE = 6.37%. Overall estimations of sensible and latent heat fluxes by the FV method were in close relation with the eddy covariance data.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101545
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1546: Physical Formation Mechanisms of the
           Southwest China Vortex

    • Authors: Liu, Li, Liu, Ye
      First page: 1546
      Abstract: On the basis of the Prandtl boundary layer theory and an improved perturbation method, the process of laminar flow bifurcating into the Southwest China vortex (SWV) in the Hengduan Mountains is studied. The results show that the formation of SWV is mainly determined by the speed of incoming airflow in the direction of the main axis of the Hengduan Mountains. The vortex is generated in the leeward area of the HengduanMountains when the speed of incoming airflow is greater than the critical velocity. Moreover, it means that the laminar flow bifurcates into a vortex. The formation position of the SWV is mainly determined by the relative position of the incoming airflow in the windward area of the Hengduan Mountains and the main axis of the Hengduan Mountains. The seasonal distribution of SWVs is determined by both the velocity of the incoming airflow and the relative position of the incoming airflow to the main axis of the Hengduan Mountains. These findings are consistent with the SWV observation facts, which not only adequately explain the physical formation mechanisms and processes of SWVs, but also present the formation location and seasonal distribution of SWVs. Meanwhile, a solution from laminar to vortex in circumflow motion is also presented.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101546
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1547: Editorial for the Special Issue
           “Atmospheric Composition and Regional Climate Studies in

    • Authors: Kostadin Ganev, Georgi Gadzhev
      First page: 1547
      Abstract: The Special Issue “Atmospheric composition and regional climate studies in Bulgaria” is focused on the following two problems, which are of great societal and scientific importance: [...]
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101547
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1548: Evaluation of Urban Canopy Models against
           Near-Surface Measurements in Houston during a Strong Frontal Passage

    • Authors: Eric A. Hendricks, Jason C. Knievel
      First page: 1548
      Abstract: Urban canopy models (UCMs) in mesoscale numerical weather prediction models need evaluation to understand biases in urban environments under a range of conditions. The authors evaluate a new drag formula in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model’s multilayer UCM, the Building Effect Parameterization combined with the Building Energy Model (BEP+BEM), against both in-situ measurements in the urban environment as well as simulations with a simple bulk scheme and BEP+BEM using the old drag formula. The new drag formula varies with building packing density, while the old drag formula is constant. The case study is a strong cold frontal passage that occurred in Houston during the winter of 2017, causing high winds. It is found that both BEP+BEM simulations have lower peak wind speeds, consistent with near-surface measurements, while the bulk simulation has winds that are too strong. The constant-drag BEP+BEM simulation has a near-zero wind speed bias, while the new-drag simulation has a negative bias. Although the focus is on the impact of drag on the urban wind speeds, both BEP+BEM simulations have larger negative biases in the near-surface temperature than the bulk-scheme simulation. Reasons for the different performances are discussed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101548
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1549: Contrasts in the Evolution and
           Microphysical Features of Two Convective Systems during a Heavy Rainfall
           Event along the Coast of South China

    • Authors: Ye, Liu, Pu, Li, Xia, Xu
      First page: 1549
      Abstract: On 1 June 2021, a heavy rainstorm hit the coast of South China (148.6 mm in 1 h, 361 mm over 12 h). The storm process was successively affected by two convective systems (CSs). The initial convection of the two CSs occurred at a similar location; however, they subsequently showed different evolution characteristics. Based on multi-source data, including dual-polarimetric radars, wind profiling radars, sounding, and automatic weather stations, we explored the differences in the key characteristics of these two CSs. It was found that the convection was initially triggered at a similar location for both CSs, closely related to the mesoscale boundary and the hilly terrain. After formation, CS1 moved eastward to the regions with lower surface temperature and weaker lower-level convergence but similar humidity, which means the environmental conditions for sustaining the CS became less favorable. As a result, CS1 dissipated rapidly and only lasted for about 90 min, resulting in 5% of the total precipitation of the overall storm. In contrast, during the lifespan of CS2, the southerly wind over the South China Sea became stronger. This caused an intense lower-level convergence zone along the coastal region of Guangdong Province, which provided favorable dynamic conditions for maintaining CS2. Favored by the strong coastal convergence and abundant moisture, new convective cells (CCs) were generated continuously and merged with CS2, acting as another favorable condition for its sustainment. Overall, CS2 lasted for 8 h, and its precipitation accounted for 95% of the total rainfall. In CS1, CCs showed a notable evaporation process below 4 km, manifested by the large raindrops. However, in CS2, the CCs had a higher concentration of small raindrops and higher ice and liquid water content. Since CS2 was close to the coastal region, the warm local environment promoted convection, leading to intense precipitation. In addition, the riming and melting processes were active, leading to a high precipitation efficiency and strong local precipitation during a short period of time.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101549
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1550: Arctic Stratosphere Dynamical Processes
           in the Winter 2021–2022

    • Authors: Pavel N. Vargin, Andrey V. Koval, Vladimir V. Guryanov
      First page: 1550
      Abstract: The Arctic stratosphere winter season of 2021–2022 was characterized by a stable, cold stratospheric polar vortex with a volume of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) close to the maximum values since 1980, before the beginning of minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events in the late February and early March and major SSW on 20 March. Analysis of dynamical processes of the Arctic stratosphere using reanalysis data indicates that the main reasons for the strengthening of the stratospheric polar vortex in January–February are the minimum propagation of planetary wave activity from the troposphere to the stratosphere over the past 40 years and its reflection in the upper stratosphere–lower mesosphere in the second half of January. The first minor SSW was limited to the upper polar stratosphere, whereas the second one propagated to the middle and lower stratosphere and led to the disappearance of the PSC, which prevented significant ozone depletion. Both minor and major SSW events led to a weakening of the residual meridional circulation in the upper Arctic stratosphere and its intensification in the middle and lower stratosphere, which contributed to additional warming of the subpolar region and weakening of the polar vortex.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101550
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1551: Depolarization Ratio for Randomly
           Oriented Ice Crystals of Cirrus Clouds

    • Authors: Natalia Kustova, Alexander Konoshonkin, Victor Shishko, Dmitry Timofeev, Ilya Tkachev, Zhenzhu Wang, Anatoli Borovoi
      First page: 1551
      Abstract: The depolarization ratio and backscattering cross sections have been calculated for shapes and size of ice crystals that are typical in cirrus clouds. The calculations are performed in the physical-optics approximation. It is shown that the depolarization ratio approaches some constant when the size of the crystals becomes much larger than the incident wavelength. For the transparent ice crystals, when absorption is absent, the magnitude of this constant strongly depends on crystal shapes. This fact allows inferring the crystal shape from magnitudes of the depolarization ratio in lidar signals. For the lidar wavelengths, where absorption of light is considerable, the depolarization ratio of lidar signals can be used for inferring crystal sizes. Such results are important for the development of algorithms interpreting the signals obtained by both ground-based and space-borne lidars.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101551
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1552: Satellite Support to Estimate Livestock
           Ammonia Emissions: A Case Study in Hebei, China

    • Authors: Liu, Ding, Ji, Xu, Liu, Xiao, Jin, Zhong, Guo, Wang, Liu
      First page: 1552
      Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) is an important precursor of secondary inorganic aerosols that affect air quality and human health. Livestock production is an essential source of NH3 emissions, which exceeded half of the total NH3 emissions in China. However, our understanding of the livestock point NH3 emissions is still limited, due to the lack of both monitoring and statistical data. In this study, we established a satellite-based approach to estimating livestock point NH3 emissions by combining satellite observations and digital maps of points-of-interest (POI). Taking a case study in Hebei province over China, 1267 livestock points were identified. The point livestock NH3 emissions in 2020 ranged from 16.8 to 126.6 kg N ha−1 yr−1, with an average emission of 42.0 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The livestock NH3 emissions in Hebei showed an overall increasing trend, with a growth rate of 5.8% yr−1 between 2008 and 2020. In terms of seasonal changes, high livestock NH3 emissions mainly occurred in spring and summer, while low NH3 emissions were generally in autumn and winter. Satellite-derived point livestock NH3 emissions in Hebei were 2–4 times that of bottom-up NH3 emissions (EDGAR), suggesting that current used bottom-up emissions underestimated point livestock NH3 emissions. This study proposed a framework for the satellite-based estimation of livestock NH3 emissions, which is of great significance for relevant N management and NH3 emission reduction policy formulation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101552
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1553: Impact of Aviation Emissions and its
           Changes Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on Air Quality in South Korea

    • Authors: Yoonbae Chung, Young Sunwoo
      First page: 1553
      Abstract: This study analyzed the impact of aviation emissions based on the 2017 CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. We focused on major airports in South Korea and examined the concentration of NO2 and PM2.5 by the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system. Furthermore, the number of flights in Korea greatly declined in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the impact of COVID-19 on aviation emissions, time resolution data were newly derived and air pollutant emissions for 2020 were calculated. Additional BAU (Business as Usual) emissions were calculated as well for comparison. Among airports in Korea, RKSI (Incheon International Airport) had the greatest impact on air quality in nearby areas. Changes in emissions due to COVID-19 showed a large deviation by airports for domestic emissions while international emissions had a consistent decrease. The reduced emissions had the strongest impact on air quality in the RKSI area as well. By analyzing aviation emissions due to COVID-19, this study confirmed the notable relationship with the pandemic and air quality. We conclusively recommend that policymakers and industry take note of trends in aviation emissions while establishing future atmospheric environment plans.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101553
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1554: Using Low-Cost Sensors to Assess PM2.5

    • Authors: Esmeralda Mendez, Owen Temby, Dawid Wladyka, Katarzyna Sepielak, Amit U. Raysoni
      First page: 1554
      Abstract: Low-cost sensors have been used considerably to characterize air pollution in the last few years. This study involves the usage of this technology for the first time to assess PM2.5 pollution at four cities on the U.S.–Mexico border. These cities in the Lower Rio Grande Valley Region of South Texas are Brownsville, Edinburg, Weslaco, and Port Isabel. A year-long sampling campaign was undertaken from 1 March 2021 to 31 March 2022. TSI BlueSky™ Air Quality Monitors were deployed concurrently at 11 different locations in these four cities. Twenty-four-hour PM2.5 concentrations from these sensors were then compared with ambient PM2.5 data available at the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Continuous Ambient Monitoring Station (CAMS) sites to elucidate spatial and temporal variability in the pollutant concentrations at the neighborhood level. The results indicate low to moderate spatial heterogeneity in the PM2.5 concentrations throughout the region. Our findings suggest that low-cost sensors in combination with CAMS sites have the potential to aid community monitoring for real-time spatiotemporal PM2.5 pollution patterns.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101554
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1555: Effects of Effective Precipitation and
           Accumulated Temperature on the Terrestrial EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index)
           in the Yellow River Basin, China

    • Authors: Huiliang Wang, Linpo He, Jun Yin, Zhilei Yu, Simin Liu, Denghua Yan
      First page: 1555
      Abstract: To identify the vegetation dynamics and relationship with the hydrothermal conditions in the Yellow River basin (YRB), the spatial–temporal variations of EVI, effective precipitation (Epr), accumulated temperature (At), and their relationships were obtained based on the MODIS EVI data and meteorological data from the YRB during 2001–2020. The results indicate that EVI trends increased during 2001 to 2020, especially in the farmland, forestland, and grassland ecosystems. Epr and At have also increased over the last 20 years. Epr mostly increased faster in the grassland, and water bodies and wetland ecosystems. At mostly increased faster in the water bodies and wetland, desert, and forest ecosystems. Affected by Epr and At, the correlation between the EVI and hydrothermal conditions varied under different hydrothermal conditions. Compared to the At, the Epr was the restrictive factor for the EVI variations in the terrestrial ecosystem in the YRB. In addition, the dynamical thresholds of the EVI, Epr, and At were confirmed. This study can improve the understanding of vegetation variations and their response to regional climate change, which is critical for ecological conservation and the high-quality development of the YRB.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101555
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1556: Characteristics Analysis of the
           Multi-Channel Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Observations during
           Various Weather Conditions

    • Authors: Meng Liu, Yan-An Liu, Jiong Shu
      First page: 1556
      Abstract: Ground-based multi-channel microwave radiometers (MWRs) can continuously detect atmospheric profiles in the tropospheric atmosphere. This makes MWR an ideal tool to supplement radiosonde and satellite observations in monitoring the thermodynamic evolution of the atmosphere and improving numerical weather prediction (NWP) through data assimilation. The analysis of product characteristics of MWR is the basis for applying its data to real-time monitoring and assimilation. In this paper, observations from the latest generation of ground-based multi-channel MWR RPG-HATPRO-G5 installed in Shanghai, China, are compared with the radiosonde observations (RAOB) observed in the same location. The detection performance, characteristics of various channels, and the accuracy of the retrieval profile products of the MWR RPG are comprehensively evaluated during various weather conditions. The results show that the brightness temperatures (BTs) observed by the ground-based MWR RPG during precipitation conditions were high, which affected its detection performance. The bias and the standard deviation (SD) between the BT observed by MWR RPG and the simulated BT during clear and cloudy sky conditions were slight and large, respectively, and the coefficient of determination (R2) was high and low, respectively. However, when the cloud liquid water (CLW) information was added when simulating BT, the bias and the SD of the observed BT and the simulated BT during cloudy days were reduced and the R2 value improved, which indicated that CLW information should be taken into account when simulating BT during cloudy conditions. The temperature profiles of the MWR retrieval had the same accuracy of RMSEs (root-mean-square error) with heights during both clear-sky and cloudy sky conditions, where the RMSEs were below 2 K when the heights were below 4 km. In addition, the MWR RPG has the potential ability to retrieve the temperature inversion in the boundary layer, which has important application value for fog and air pollution monitoring.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101556
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1557: The Importance of Cumulus
           Parameterization and Resolution in Simulating Rainfall over Peninsular

    • Authors: Abdul Azim Amirudin, Ester Salimun, Muhamad Zuhairi, Fredolin Tangang, Liew Juneng, Mohd Syazwan Faisal Mohd, Jing Xiang Chung
      First page: 1557
      Abstract: In this study, five simulations were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model with different cumulus parameterizations schemes (CPSs) for the period from 2013 until 2018. A one-year simulation of 2013 with three different horizontal resolutions of 25, 5, and 1.6 km was also performed. The CPSs used were Kain–Fritsch (KF), Grell–Devenyi (GR), Betts–Miller–Janjic (BM), and a non-parameterized scheme (NC). In assessments of model resolutions, both the 25 and 5 km resolutions depicted a strong negative bias in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia during December–January–February (DJF), with marginal differences between the two simulations. Among all 5 km experiments, the best performing scheme was the BM scheme for almost all seasons. Furthermore, the 5 km simulation did not exhibit significant differences relative to the 25 km of the diurnal cycle. The 1.6 km simulation showed significant added value as it was the only simulation that was able to simulate the high precipitation intensity in the morning and a precipitation peak during the evening. The 1.6 km resolution was also the only resolution capable of picking up the precipitation signals in the R4 region (South Peninsular Malaysia) compared to the other two resolutions. While both CPSs and resolutions are important for accurate predictions, the role of CPSs became less significant in a higher resolution simulation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101557
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1558: Potential Strong Inhibition on Ozone
           Production Sensitivity by Particle Uptake

    • Authors: Xinliang Cheng, Liqiang Wang, Lijuan Fang, Shiyan Chen, Xin Zhou, Jingjun Ma, Yuqing Pan, Pengfei Li
      First page: 1558
      Abstract: The accurate identification of ozone (O3) production sensitivity is central to developing O3 pollution control policies. It is determined by the relative ratio of the radical loss to the total primary radical production. However, such radical losses in the traditional sensitivity analysis typically rely on nitrogen oxide (NOx) sinks while ignoring particle uptake (collisions between compounds in the gas phase and condensed phases that result in irreversible uptake due to chemical reactions). Therefore, we combine NOx and particle uptakes to optimize peroxy radical loss estimates and thus analyze the relative sensitivity. We also assess the absolute responses of precursor reduction to O3 production. Such relative and absolute sensitivity analysis is applied to measurements in Chun’an, a county in China, where volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx are both rich. Consequently, the relative sensitivity analysis presents that the dominant precursor for O3 production sensitivity shifts from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the morning and evening to NOx in the afternoon, the main driver of which is related to NO depletion. In contrast, the absolute sensitivity analysis confirms that VOCs persistently determine the diurnal ozone production sensitivity. Moreover, they both show that particle uptake does not change the regime classification of O3 production sensitivity (i.e., VOC- or NOx-sensitive regime) but potentially has a strong inhibition on the sensitivity magnitude (within 16% and 38% for VOC- or NOx-sensitive regimes, respectively). Our results partly explain more insensitive O3 production measurements than those suggested by traditional sensitivity analyses, which has important implications for synergistic controls on O3 and fine particulate matter pollution.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101558
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1559: Application of Empirical Orthogonal
           Function Analysis to 1 km Ensemble Simulations and Himawari–8
           Observation in the Intensification Phase of Typhoon Hagibis (2019)

    • Authors: Akiyoshi Wada, Masahiro Hayashi, Wataru Yanase
      First page: 1559
      Abstract: An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was performed for the inner core of Typhoon Hagibis (2019) in the intensification phase. The Himawari–8 geostationary infrared (IR) brightness temperature (BT) collocated at the Hagibis’s center was combined with the IR BT simulated by a radiative transfer model, with 1 km ensemble simulations conducted by an atmosphere model and the coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean model. The ensemble simulations were conducted under one control atmospheric initial condition and the 26 perturbed ones with two different oceanic initial conditions. The first four EOF modes showed symmetric and asymmetric patterns such as a curved band, cloud dense overcast, and eye pattern used in the classification of the Dvorak technique. The influence of ocean coupling on the modes appeared only in the early intensification phase but was relatively small compared to the difference from the Himawari–8 observations. While ocean coupling and different oceanic initial condition quantitatively affected the IR BT, the normalized amplitude for the first EOF mode did not become close to that of the Himawari–8 observation in the late intensification phase. The intensification rate in the late intensification phase was inconsistent between the simulation results and the estimate from the Himawari–8 normalized amplitude by multiple linear regression analysis.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101559
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1560: Measurement of Indoor-Outdoor Carbonyls
           in Three Different Universities Located in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico
           Valley during the First Period of Confinements Due to COVID-19

    • Authors: Rocío García, Sandra Silva Gómez, Gema Andraca, Ricardo Torres Jardón, Agustín García Reynoso, Julia Griselda Cerón, Rosa María Cerón, Violeta Mugica Alvarez
      First page: 1560
      Abstract: Carbonyl concentrations in indoor-outdoor air were measured at three urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley (MZMV) during the first period of confinements due to COVID-19; the exposure for people living in indoor environments was also assessed. Indoor and outdoor samples were simultaneously collected sequentially with Sep-Pack DNPH-Silica cartridges. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde and acrolein were quantified according to the US-EPA TO-11A method. Acrolein and acetone were the most abundant carbonyls in indoor air, with average concentrations of 55.5 µg m−3 and 46.4 µg m−3, respectively, followed by formaldehyde (29.1 µg m−3), acetaldehyde (21.4 µg m−3) and butyraldehyde (7.31 µg m−3). Propionaldehyde was not detected. Acetone was the dominant carbonyl in outdoor samples with an average concentration of 8.4 µg m−3, followed by formaldehyde (2.8 µg m−3) and acetaldehyde (0.7 µg m−3). Butyraldehyde and acrolein were not detected in outdoor air. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios showed that indoor sources prevail for most aldehydes. Statistical analysis of simple correlations showed that the measured carbonyls were influenced by the presence of indoor sources. The average cancer risk coefficients (LTCR) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and the non-cancer risk coefficients (HQ) for acrolein and formaldehyde were higher than the recommended limits, which should be a cause for public concern.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101560
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1561: Temporal Variability of Temperature,
           Precipitation and Drought Indices in Hyper-Arid Region of Northwest China
           for the Past 60 Years

    • Authors: Jing He, Boshan Li, Yang Yu, Lingxiao Sun, Haiyan Zhang, Ireneusz Malik, Malgorzata Wistuba, Ruide Yu
      First page: 1561
      Abstract: The temporal variability and abrupt change analysis of temperature and precipitation in Turpan was investigated and examined based on a monthly data set of temperature, precipitation and drought indices (1960–2019) from three meteorological stations over the study area. The Yamamoto method, Mann–Kendall test, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI), and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) were applied to reveal temperature, precipitation and drought indices trends in their annual volumes. The conclusions were as follows: (1) in the past 60 years, the annual average temperature in the Turpan region has increased at a rate of 0.33 °C·(10a)−1. Whereas the temperature has accelerated since the 1980s, the annual average minimum temperature has increased more than the annual average maximum temperature, and the temperature difference between winter and summer has increased since the 1990s. (2) The inter-annual, inter-decadal and normal value changes in precipitation in the Turpan region and its three meteorological stations indicated a decreasing trend during 1960–2019. Though the normal value of summer and autumn precipitation decreased and increased as a whole, the normal values of spring, summer, winter and annual precipitation in the Turpan region displayed downward trends. (3) Abrupt changes in temperature were observed in the mid-1990s, and abrupt changes in precipitation were not obvious. (4) The SPI and RDI responded quickly to precipitation and temperature, and the overall characteristics of dry and wet trend changes were consistent. When the SPEI considered the combined effect of temperature and precipitation, the SPI and SPEI are better correlated, and the SPI and RDI are better correlated than the SPEI and RDI. On the whole, the occurrence of drought has obvious regional and seasonal characteristics. These conclusions not only provide scientific data for sustainable development in Turpan but also offer scientific information to further understand the trends and periodicity of climate change and drought conditions in hyper-arid regions around the world.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101561
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1562: Ozone-Induced Lung and Bronchial Injury:
           A Mouse Model Study

    • Authors: Shi Liang, Yan Sha, Chuanhong Yang, Huangwen Lai, Chong Sun, Weisen Zhao, An Zhang, Qingwen Qi, Ying Xie
      First page: 1562
      Abstract: Ozone pollution is a prominent public health issue, but there are few studies on the effect of ozone on the ultrastructure of respiratory system; we conducted this research. Exposed to 1.1 ppm O3 4 h per day, the mice lungs and bronchi were taken on the 15th or 30th day. The sections stained with HE and immunohistochemical streptavidin–peroxidase methods for NQO1, Nrf2, and Keap1 were observed and measured under the optical microscope. TEM was used for ultrastructure observation. The animals’ serums were detected for CRP and IL-6 levels. The HE-stained sections showed no obvious micromorphological changes in the O3 exposure, but the NQO1 average optical density was higher than the control on the 15th day (p < 0.05). The ultrastructural changes were found in the O3 exposure group, such as bulges and vacuoles in type I alveolar cells, the increased evacuation of substance from lamellar bodies in the type II alveolar cells, the increased space around the goblet nucleus, binuclear goblet, and columnar cells. CRP and IL-6 levels increased compared with the control (p < 0.05). Although inhaling 1.1 ppm O3 had no significant effect on the micromorphology of the mice lungs and bronchi, it did affect the ultrastructure with oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101562
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1563: Assessment of Lockdown Effectiveness
           during COVID-19 Pandemic Using Air Pollution Data in Armenia in
           March–June 2019 and 2020: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Aelita Sargsyan, Narek Galstyan, Hamazasp Nahatakyan, Maria Manuela Morales-Suárez-Varela
      First page: 1563
      Abstract: Various methods used by different countries’ governments to control the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the cause of pandemic in 2020, affected air quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lockdown in Armenia on the content of the main air pollutants—dust, SO2 and NO2. This was a cross-sectional study. We analyzed data on the concentrations of SO2, NO2 and dust from March to June, 2019 and the same period in 2020 as well as data on positive COVID-19 cases from Yerevan, Vanadzor and Hrazdan. In 2020, dust was found to be lower in Yerevan and in Hrazdan and higher in Vanadzor than in the same period in 2019. The same pattern was present for SO2 concentrations: in Yerevan and Hrazdan there was a decrease, and there was an increase in Vanadzor. The concentrations of NO2 increased in Yerevan and Hrazdan, with a slight decrease in Vanadzor. New cases of COVID-19 had a negative correlation with dust and a positive correlation with SO2. The strict quarantine measures were effective in containing the spread of COVID-19.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101563
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1564: Detailed Evolution Characteristics of an
           Inclined Structure Hailstorm Observed by Polarimetric Radar over the South
           China Coast

    • Authors: Honghao Zhang, Xiaona Rao, Zeyong Guo, Xiantong Liu, Xiaoding Yu, Xingdeng Chen, Huiqi Li, Jingjing Zhang, Guangyu Zeng, Shidong Chen
      First page: 1564
      Abstract: A hailstorm with an inclined structure occurred in the western part of the South China coast on 27 March 2020. This study investigates the detailed evolution characteristics of this inclined structure using the Doppler radar data assimilation system (VDRAS) and the improved fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA). Obvious differential reflectivity (often referred to as ZDR) arc characteristics, ZDR column characteristics, and the specific differential phase (often referred to as KDP) of the column are observed using dual-polarization radar prior to hailfall. Both the ZDR column and KDP column reached their strongest intensities during the hailfall phase, with their heights exceeding the height of the −20 °C layer (7.997 km above ground level), displaying a cross-correlation coefficient (CC) valley during this phase. Meanwhile, two centers of strong reflectivity were found, with one (C1) being located at 2–4 km, and the other (C2) being located at 6–8 km. The maximum horizontal distance between the two centers is 8 km, suggesting a strongly inclined structure. This inclined structure was closely related to the interaction between upper-level divergent outflows and ambient horizontal winds. The updraft on the front edge of the hailstorm continued to increase, keeping C2 at the upper level. At the same time, large raindrops at the lower part of C2 are continuously lifted, leading to ice formation. These ice particles then fell obliquely from their high altitude, merging with C1.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101564
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1565: Molecule Simulation of CH4/CO2
           Competitive Adsorption and CO2 Storage in Shale Montmorillonite

    • Authors: Dali Hou, Fengming Gong, Hongming Tang, Jianchun Guo, Xianyu Qiang, Lei Sun
      First page: 1565
      Abstract: The main source of production in the middle and late stages of shale gas extraction is the adsorbed gas in shale, and the adsorbed gas in shale mainly comes from organic matter casein and clay minerals in shale; therefore, this paper uses sodium-based montmorillonite to characterize the clay minerals in shale and study the CH4 adsorption law in clay minerals, and this study has certain guiding significance for shale gas extraction. In addition, this paper also conducts a study on the competitive adsorption law of CH4 and CO2, and at the same time, predicts the theoretical sequestration of CO2 in shale clay minerals, which is a reference value for the study of CO2 burial in shale and is beneficial to the early realization of carbon neutral. In this paper, the slit model of sodium-based montmorillonite and the fluid model of CH4 and CO2 were constructed using Materials Studio software, and the following two aspects were studied based on the Monte Carlo method: Firstly, the microscopic adsorption behavior of CH4 in sodium-based montmorillonite was studied, and the simulations showed that the adsorption capacity of montmorillonite decreases with increasing temperature, increases and then decreases with increasing pressure, and decreases with increasing pore size. CH4 has two states of adsorption and free state in the slit. The adsorption type of CH4 in montmorillonite is physical adsorption. Secondly, the competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 in sodium-based montmorillonite was studied, and the simulations showed that the CO2 repulsion efficiency increased with increasing CO2 injection pressure, and the CO2/CH4 competitive adsorption ratio decreased with increasing pressure. The amount of CO2 storage decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing CO2 injection pressure.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101565
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1566: 15N Natural Abundance Characteristics of
           Ammonia Volatilization from Soils Applied by Different Types of Fertilizer

    • Authors: Lingyun Peng, Limin Tao, Shutan Ma, Xi Wang, Ruhai Wang, Yonghui Tu, Liangjie Wang, Chaopu Ti, Xiaoyuan Yan
      First page: 1566
      Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) volatilized from cropland significantly impacts the ecological environment and human health. The identification and quantification of atmospheric sources of NH3 from cropland are therefore important for NH3 emission reduction and air pollution control. Choosing appropriate nitrogen (N) fertilizer types is one of the key ways to reduce NH3 emissions from agricultural systems due to different N fertilizers with different emission factors. The natural abundance isotope of N (δ15N) values can well identify the source of NH3 volatilization, although there is rare research on δ15N-NH3 values volatilized when applying different types of N fertilizers. Here, we conducted an incubation experiment to study the characteristics of δ15N-NH3 values during the whole volatilization process after different N fertilizers were applied to the soil. The results show that the cumulative NH3 volatilization from urea (U), urease inhibitor fertilizer (UI), compound fertilizer (CF) and ammonium nitrate phosphate fertilizer (AP) treatment was 5.25 ± 0.00, 3.11 ± 0.00, 3.22 ± 0.19 and 1.38 ± 0.12 kg N ha−1 at the end of the 15-day incubation period, respectively. The average δ15N value of NH3 volatilized from the U, UI, CF and AP treatments was −36.02 ± 4.95, −29.08 ± 9.70, −35.18 ± 4.98 and −29.42 ± 4.33‰, respectively. Generally, the δ15N-NH3 values ranged from −41.33 to −6.30‰ during the NH3 volatilization process. The δ15N-NH3 value was lower in the U treatment than in the UI and AP treatments (p < 0.05), which suggests that N forms and the slow-release additions of different fertilizers, such as NO3−-N and urease inhibitors, can delay or slow down NH3 volatilization, resulting in relative isotopic enrichment. Therefore, the basic properties of different N fertilizers, the changes in soil NH4+-N and cumulative NH3 during the volatilization process significantly impacted the δ15N-NH3 values.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101566
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1567: The Impacts of Wind Shear on Spatial
           Variation of the Meteorological Element Field in the Atmospheric
           Convective Boundary Layer Based on Large Eddy Simulation

    • Authors: Hailiang Zhang, Jinfang Yin, Qing He, Minzhong Wang
      First page: 1567
      Abstract: As wind shear increases, the quasi-two-dimensional structure of flows becomes more significant in the convective boundary layer (CBL), indicating that wind shear plays an essential role in the variation of the field of atmospheric flow. Therefore, sensitive numerical experiments based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques were conducted to comprehensively investigate the effects of wind shear on the spatial variations in the velocity and potential temperature (θ) horizontal fields. Under the constant surface heat flux condition, the main findings are summarized. Firstly, in the CBL, the variances of the streamwise velocity (u), cross-stream velocity (v), and θ enhance as wind shear increases, whereas the variance of vertical velocity (w) is insensitive to wind shear. Secondly, in the CBL, with increasing wind shear, low-wavenumber Power Spectrum Densities (PSDs) of u, v, w, and θ increase significantly, suggesting that the increasing wind shear always enhances the large-scale motions of the atmosphere (i.e., low-wavenumber PSD). Therefore, it is more likely that some mesoscale weather processes will be triggered. Thirdly, generally, in the high-wavenumber range, with increasing wind shear, the PSDs of u, v, and θ increase slightly, whereas the PSD of w decreases slightly. This study provides a new perspective for understanding the role of wind shear in the spatial variations of the horizontal fields of meteorological elements under the same conditions of surface heat flux.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101567
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1568: Spatio-Temporal Prediction of
           Ground-Level Ozone Concentration Based on Bayesian Maximum Entropy by
           Combining Monitoring and Satellite Data

    • Authors: Shiwen Xu, Chen Cui, Mei Shan, Yaxin Liu, Zequn Qiao, Li Chen, Zhenxing Ma, Hui Zhang, Shuang Gao, Yanling Sun
      First page: 1568
      Abstract: Ozone (O3) pollution is one of the predominant environmental problems, and exposure to high O3 concentrations has a significant negative influence on both human health and ecosystems. Therefore, it is essential to analyze spatio-temporal characteristics of O3 distribution and to evaluate O3 exposure levels. In this study, O3 monitoring and satellite data were used to estimate O3 daily, seasonal and one-year exposure levels based on the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) model with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) results showed that R2 for daily and one-year exposure levels were 0.81 and 0.69, respectively, and the corresponding values for RMSE were 19.58 μg/m3 and 4.40 μg/m3, respectively. The simulation results showed that the heavily polluted areas included Tianjin, Cangzhou, Hengshui, Xingtai, and Handan, while the clean areas were mainly located in Chengde, Qinhuangdao, Baoding, and Zhangjiakou. O3 pollution in summer was the most severe with an average concentration of 134.5 μg/m3. In summer, O3 concentrations in 87.7% of the grids were more than 100 μg/m3. In contrast, winter was the cleanest season in the BTH region, with an average concentration of 51.1 μg/m3.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101568
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1569: Weather Preferences for Ski Tourism: An
           Empirical Study on the Largest Ski Resort in Greece

    • Authors: Dimitrios Kapetanakis, Elena Georgopoulou, Sevastianos Mirasgedis, Yannis Sarafidis
      First page: 1569
      Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated the tourism industry to be especially sensitive to weather and climate variability. Snow-related tourism, being largely dependent on climatic resources, is particularly affected by climate change. Our study provides a new index to reflect the climatic suitability of a given destination for snow-related tourism activities, focusing on resorts with usually limited snowfall. The proposed Skiing Utility Index (SUI) is based purely on the weather preferences of skiers, extracted by questionnaires distributed at the Parnassos ski center (Greece). The index incorporates four different weather variables considered to be the most influential for this type of tourism. The ideal temperature for skiing was found to be close to 0 °C, the ideal wind speed between 0–3.3 m/s, the ideal cloud cover between 0–25% and the snowfall duration between 1–2 h, with the latter found to be the most important variable for skiing. For each climatic variable, a mean utility score profile was developed from all respondents. Following, a utility function was fitted via linear regression to the above-mentioned utility score. All four utility functions were aggregated into one total SUI score. When combined with climate projections, the SUI can support the assessment of climate change risks for snow-related tourism destinations.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101569
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1570: The “Weekend Effect” in
           Lightning Activity during Winter Thunderstorms over the Tel-Aviv, Israel,
           Metropolitan Area

    • Authors: Yoav Y. Yair, Barry H. Lynn, Menahem Korzets, Mordecai Jaffe
      First page: 1570
      Abstract: We report the analysis of nine winter seasons (December, January, February (DJF)) aerosol and lightning data over the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area, Israel’s largest and densest urban region. Hourly averaged aerosol concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) were obtained from 27 automatic air quality stations operated by the Ministry for Environmental Protection. Lightning data obtained from the Israeli Lightning Detection Network (ILDN) and by the Earth Network Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) for four overlapping seasons showed an irregular pattern, with lower activity during Sunday–Tuesday, and maximum activity on Wednesday and Thursday, but also on Saturday, when less pollution was present. The accepted explanation for the weekend effect is that increased amounts of particles tend to prolong the lifetime of storms and their total lightning amounts and change their intracloud/cloud-to-ground flash ratios. However, our results suggest that lightning is not directly related to the level of ambient pollution, but likely depends on the synergistic effects of desert dust and urban pollution particles in the area that affect the electrical structure of winter thunderstorms. Since the source of desert dust is independent of any regularity that can be attributed to anthropogenic activity (e.g., increased levels of pollution due to the traffic-load in Tel-Aviv), it obscures any weekend–weekday patterns that are often detected in other large metropolitan areas.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101570
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1571: An Evaluation of Precipitation in
           Dongting Lake Basin on CMIP5 Models

    • Authors: Yiwen Yin, Shuai Jiang, Jie Peng, Hao Zhu, Neng Ruan, Wei Wang
      First page: 1571
      Abstract: The rainfall in the Dongting Lake Basin influences tens of millions of people, and its long-term change remains uncertain. In this paper, 15 CMIP5 models with precipitation data for the time period of 2006−2019 for which reliable observations are available under the RCP4.5 scenario were evaluated for their applicability, and the models with better simulation results were selected for predicting the precipitation in the Dongting Lake Basin during the flood season (April−September) in the mid-21st century (2020−2049). The results of the study show that (i) most models behaved reasonably consistent with the observation in the Dongting Lake Basin, and predicted an upward trend for the future precipitation while the multi-model ensemble (MME) showed a relatively slow increasing trend of 0.8 mm/year; (ii) the future precipitation in Dongting Lake Basin presented a variation form of “peak−valley−peak−valley”, suggesting strong interannual and interdecadal variations; (iii) the interannual variability showed great agreement with large-scale circulation, implying that the rainfall is controlled by the circulation. The analysis of the wind fields at 200 hPa and 850 hPa in the peak and valley years showed that the characteristics of low-level convergence and high-level divergence were significantly stronger in the peak precipitation years than in the weak years; moreover, the teleconnection pattern of “+ – +” from Europe, the Ural Mountains, and East Asia was clearly manifested in the 500 hPa height field of the Dongting Lake Basin, which can influence the intensity of the trough ridge over East Asia and change the low-level water vapor convergence and divergence, thus affecting the source of water vapor in the Dongting Lake Basin.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101571
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1572: System of Imaging Photometers for Upper
           Atmospheric Phenomena Study in the Arctic Region

    • Authors: Pavel Klimov, Sergei Sharakin, Alexander Belov, Boris Kozelov, Alexei Murashov, Roman Saraev, Daniil Trofimov, Alexei Roldugin, Vladimir Lubchich
      First page: 1572
      Abstract: A Pulsating Aurora Imaging Photometers Stereoscopic System (PAIPS) is suggested and described in the paper. The system is based on two lens telescopes with a matrix of multianode photomultiplier tubes as photodetectors placed in two high latitude observatories of the Polar Geophysical Institute. Telescopes provide simultaneous observations of a large volume of the atmosphere at altitudes in the range 50–100 km with high temporal resolution (up to 2.5 μs) and a spatial resolution of about 2 km. This is a novel system for pulsating aurora study aimed to determine the energies of precipitating electrons responsible for the pulsating aurora occurrence. The system can be used for other atmospheric phenomena studies: meteors, transient luminous events, etc. One telescope has been operating since September 2021 and has measured a variety of optical phenomena.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101572
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1573: Present and Future Changes in Winter
           Cyclonic Activity in the Mediterranean–Black Sea Region in the 21st
           Century Based on an Ensemble of CMIP6 Models

    • Authors: Voskresenskaya, Maslova, Lubkov, Zhuravskiy
      First page: 1573
      Abstract: A better understanding of expected future cyclonic activity, especially in winter in the Mediterranean basin, is essential in developing scientifically based adaptation and mitigation methods to study extreme precipitation and wind anomalies. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in winter cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean–Black Sea region, as part of the North Atlantic–European sector, at three 15 year periods: the beginning, middle, and end of the 21st century. Our projections were based on an ensemble of seven Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP), phase 6, models, which showed the best agreement with NCEP/NCAR and ERA5 reanalyses under the intermediate SSP2-4.5 and highest-emission SSP5-8.5 scenarios. The results showed a consistent increase in the frequency of cyclones over Central Europe and the British Isles, which was associated with shifts in cyclone tracks: northward from the western Mediterranean region and southward from the Icelandic Low region. The latter shift led to a decrease in the frequency in the northern Atlantic–European region. At the same time, there was a reduction in the frequency of cyclones over the eastern region of the Mediterranean Sea, consistent with the decrease in cyclogenesis events. Area-averaged cyclone numbers in the western and eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea subregions reduced at the end of the century under the highest-emission scenario, but not constantly. There was a rise in the middle of the 21st century under both scenarios, which may be linked to long-term multidecadal variability or regional features. In general, our study showed that the future winter cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean–Black Sea region will respond unevenly to global climate changes, due to regional and monthly features and long-term quasiperiodic variability.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101573
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1574: Dynamics of the Response of Vegetation
           Activity to Air Temperature Change in Temperate China

    • Authors: Mingxing Qin, Ning Jin, Jie Zhao, Meichen Feng, Chao Wang
      First page: 1574
      Abstract: Previous research has documented a tight positive relationship between vegetation activity and growing season air temperature in China’s temperate zone (TC). However, this relationship may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Using the linear regression analysis and the moving windows based on partial correlation analysis method, the temporal variations of responses of vegetation NDVI to rising air temperature during 1982–2015 in the TC were examined. The results showed that the interannual partial correlation between NDVI and air temperature (RNDVI−T, include RNDVI−Tmean, RNDVI−Tmax, and RNDVI−Tmin, represents the partial correlation between NDVI and Tmean, Tmax, and Tmin, respectively) for the growing season (GS) in a 17−year moving window showed a significant decreasing trend during the last 34 years, mainly due to decreasing RNDVI−T in summer and autumn. The area with a significant decrease of RNDVI−Tmean, RNDVI−Tmax, and RNDVI−Tmin for the GS approximately accounted for 52.36%, 45.63%, and 49.98% of the TC, respectively. For the seasonal patterns of RNDVI−T, the regions with a significant downward trend in all seasons were higher than those with a significant upward trend. We also found a more significant and accelerating decrease of RNDVI−T for warm years compared to cold years, implying a decoupling or even a reverse correlation between NDVI and air temperature with continuous climate warming over the TC. Overall, our study provided evidence that the impact of Tmean, Tmax, and Tmin on vegetation activities exhibited a weakening trend and cautioned using results from interannual time scales to constrain the decadal response of vegetation growth to future global warming.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101574
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1575: Particulate Matter versus Airborne
           Viruses—Distinctive Differences between Filtering and Inactivating
           Air Cleaning Technologies

    • Authors: Andrea Burdack-Freitag, Michael Buschhaus, Gunnar Grün, Wolfgang Karl Hofbauer, Sabine Johann, Anna Maria Nagele-Renzl, Andreas Schmohl, Christian Rudolf Scherer
      First page: 1575
      Abstract: The current pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 virus requires measures to reduce the risk of infection. In addition to the usual hygiene measures, air cleaners are a recommended solution to decrease the viral load in rooms. Suitable technologies range from pure filters to inactivating units, such as cold plasma or UVC irradiation. Such inactivating air cleaners, partly combined with filter technology, are available on the market in various designs, dimensions and technical specifications. Since it is not always clear whether they may produce undesirable by-products, and the suitability for particular applications cannot be assessed on the basis of the principle of operation, the effectivity of six inactivating devices was investigated in a near-real environment. The investigations were based on a standard method published by the VDI. The procedure was extended in such a way that a permanent virus source was simulated, which corresponds to the presence of a person suffering from COVID-19 in a room. The study addresses the difference of the mere presence of viruses to the determination of the virulence. As a result, a deep understanding is provided between the behavior of a virus as a pure aerosolized particle and its real infectivity in order to enable the assessment of suitable air cleaners.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101575
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1576: Graduation Towers Impact on the
           Concentration and Chemical Composition of Ambient Aerosol: A Case Study
           from Wieliczka Salt Mine in Poland

    • Authors: Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska, Artur Badyda, Marzena Rachwał, Patrycja Rogula-Kopiec, Małgorzata Majder-Łopatka, Magdalena Kostrzon, Barbara Mathews
      First page: 1576
      Abstract: The aim of the research was to determine the effect of graduation towers on the aerosol concentration and its composition not only in the vicinity of the graduation tower itself, but also at a distance from it, on the example of the brine graduation tower in the Wieliczka Salt Mine health resort. Two measurement sites were selected for the research, one located inside the graduation tower and the other at the guard booth—at a considerable distance from the graduation tower. Total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter that does not exceed 10 µm) samples were taken simultaneously using the aspiration method. The collected samples were subjected to analyses of TSP and PM10 concentrations, the content of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and selected ions. It was confirmed that the composition of the aerosol in the Wieliczka Salt Mine significantly differs from the typical aerosol composition in inland locations and is similar to the aerosol composition in coastal zones. The comparison of the aerosol composition at both measuring sites clearly indicates a very favorable influence of the brine graduation tower on the composition of the atmospheric aerosol, even at a certain distance from it.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101576
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1577: Regime Changes in Atmospheric Moisture
           under Climate Change

    • Authors: Roger N. Jones, James H. Ricketts
      First page: 1577
      Abstract: Recent work attributing decadal regime changes in temperature to radiative forcing is extended to atmospheric moisture. Temperature, and specific and relative humidity (T, q, RH) from the HadISDH data set were analyzed for regime shifts using the bivariate test. Most shifts in q and T for global and northern hemisphere (NH), and tropical land occurred within a year of each other. Only one shift of q was recorded in the southern hemisphere (SH). RH increased in the NH in 1990–91 and decreased in a series of shifts from the late 1990s, while in the SH decreased from 2001. The tropics have remained neutral, shifting negative over land and positive over the ocean. The global decreases in 2001 and 2011 was −0.56%. Global RH from 32 climate models from the CMIP5 RCP4.5 archive all contained regime shifts but only 4 reached or exceeded the observed decreases by 2100, the earliest in 2056. Regime shifts in RH and fire danger over Australia are consistent with the SH decreases in RH, shifting within one year of global fire season length in 2002, showing that impacts are also being underestimated by current analyses. Methods for nonlinear attribution and the contributing processes for nonlinear change are discussed. These results show that developing a better understanding of nonlinear change in moisture-related climate risk is an urgent task.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101577
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1578: Statistical Characterization of the
           Magnetic Field in Space during Magnetic Storms

    • Authors: Shi-Han Wang, Lei Li, Tao Chen, Shuo Ti, Chun-Lin Cai, Wen Li, Jing Luo
      First page: 1578
      Abstract: Magnetic storms are an important type of space weather and are usually caused by large streams of charged elementary particles (ions, for example) generated during solar wind production. The occurrence of magnetic storms can pose a threat to the internal electronics of satellites, communication, navigation, remote sensing, etc. Additionally, ground-based electrical facilities may be impacted. In this paper, we focus on the statistical characteristics of the space channel during the occurrence of magnetic storms. By analyzing the observed data for each component of the magnetic field during a magnetic storm and applying the relevant cognitive radio theory, we obtain the probability density function, autocorrelation function, and power spectrum of the magnitude of each component of the magnetic field. The results show that the probability density of the magnitude of each component of the magnetic field gradually deviates from the Gaussian distribution as the Magnetic storm ring current index (Dst index) increases during a magnetic storm, and the autocorrelation function exhibits nonstationary characteristics, which further leads to the time-varying characteristics of the power spectrum.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101578
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1579: Reliability of Lower-Cost Sensors in the
           Analysis of Indoor Air Quality on Board Ships

    • Authors: Olivier Schalm, Gustavo Carro, Borislav Lazarov, Werner Jacobs, Marianne Stranger
      First page: 1579
      Abstract: Air quality in and around ships is governed by a variety of pollution sources that are unique for the shipping context. This makes the living and working conditions on ships substantially different from situations in cities or inside buildings. To gain insight into these differences, information about trends and absolute pollutant amounts on board ships is needed. However, the installation of reference instruments to monitor NO2, NO, O3, particulate matter and other environmental parameters is often not possible because of their size, weight or because of safety reasons. For that reason, more compact devices incorporating a variety of sensors are a good alternative. However, the use of such sensors is only possible when their behaviour and performance in a shipping context are well understood. To study this context, we were allowed to compare sensor-based measurements performed on a 36-year old ship dedicated to near shore operations with measurements of reference-grade instruments. Additional behavioural information of sensors is obtained by measuring campaigns organized on several inland ships. This contribution demonstrates that trends registered by gas and particulate matter sensors are reliable but that insufficient detection limits, higher noise, imperfect calibration and sensor errors result in some reliability constraints.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101579
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1580: Analysis of the Carbon Intensity of
           Container Shipping on Trunk Routes: Referring to the Decarbonization
           Trajectory of the Poseidon Principle

    • Authors: Hui-Huang Tai, Yun-Hua Chang, Chin-Wei Chang, Yu-Meng Wang
      First page: 1580
      Abstract: Container shipping industries are highly capital intensive. If shipping carriers want to execute international shipping financing, they must follow the IMO emission reduction targets and meet the decarbonization trajectory of the Poseidon Principle (PP). This article used an activity-based model to calculate container shipping industry carbon emissions. It was found that the carbon intensity per unit for each ship was decreased because of the upsizing of container vessels and route deployment based on the alliance strategy. On the Asia–Europe (A/E) trunk route, as the ship size increased from 11,300 to 24,000 TEU, the results showed that the carbon intensity ranged from 6.48 to 3.06 g/ton-nm. It is also proven that the mega-container deployment on the A/E trunk route followed the decarbonization trajectory proposed by PP, while the Asia–Pacific trunk route was not fully in line with the trajectory of EEOI/AER. It is worth noting that starting from 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, shipping companies deployed a higher number of small-size vessels to boost revenues, resulting in more pollutants produced and a mismatch of the trajectory proposed by PP.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101580
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1581: The Spatio-Temporal Onset Characteristics
           of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall and Their Relationship with Climate

    • Authors: Atul Saini, Netrananda Sahu, Saroj K. Mishra, Shipra Jain, Swadhin Behera, Sushil K. Dash
      First page: 1581
      Abstract: Regional variations of monsoon onset dates across India were analyzed for 67 years (1951–2017) under different modes of climate variations, i.e., El Niño, La Niña, and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), along with flood and drought years using the objective method and statistical techniques. Monsoon onset analysis revealed that the northern, northeastern, and southern parts were highly susceptible to the early onset of La Niña, and the northern and northern northwest parts were highly susceptible to the early onset of El Niño. The onset dates were early (late) in the sub-regions of the central, southern, and northeastern (northern, northwestern, and western) parts of India during flood (drought) years. Further, onset dates in flood years occurred earlier than those in La Niña years, and onset dates in drought years were later than those in El Niño years. The onset occurrence probability and influence of the synoptic events are discussed. This research could help in understanding the onset of monsoon and its predictability for societal applications.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101581
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1582: Effect of Densification on Biomass
           Combustion and Particulate Matter Emission Characteristics

    • Authors: Wei Yang, Leida Lv, Yong Han, Yu Li, Huihui Liu, Youjian Zhu, Wennan Zhang, Haiping Yang
      First page: 1582
      Abstract: The effect of biomass densification on combustion characteristics and particulate matter (PM) emission was studied in this work by means of thermogravimetric, combustion kinetic, and PM analyses with respect to the size distribution and elementary composition. Cornstalk as a typical agricultural biomass residue and camphorwood as a woody biomass were used in the experiment for comparison. It can be concluded that the biomass densification increases the ignition, burnout, and composite combustion indexes, leading to a better performance of biomass combustion. The main reaction mechanism of cornstalk pellets can be well-expressed with the chemical reaction series model, whereas the diffusion mechanism and chemical reaction series models can be applied to the combustion of camphorwood pellets. The biomass densification has little effect on the composition of PM but significantly changes the yield of PM. The influence of biomass densification on PM emission is related to the biomass properties. The densification significantly reduces the PM emission for cornstalk but significantly increases the yield of particles of aerodynamic cutoff diameters less than 1μm (PM1) for camphorwood.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101582
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1583: The Characteristics of Nonlinear Trends
           and the Complexity of Hydroclimatic Change in China from 1951 to 2014

    • Authors: Wanru Tang, Feifei Zhou, Zepeng Mei, Zhipeng Dong, Maowei Bai
      First page: 1583
      Abstract: Hydroclimatic change across China has received considerable attention due to its vital significance for regional ecosystem stability and economic development, yet the spatiotemporal dynamics of its nonlinear trends and complexity have not been fully understood. Herein, the spatiotemporal evolution of Dai’s self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI) trends in China during the period from 1951 to 2014 is diagnosed using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method. A persistent and noticeable drying has been identified in North and Northeastern China (NNEC) since the 1950s. Significant wetting in the north of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the south of the western parts of Northwestern China (WNWC) started sporadically at first and accelerated until around 1980. A slight wetting trend was found in Southwest China (SC) before 1990, followed by the occurrence of a dramatic drying trend over the following decades. In addition, we have found that the scPDSI variations in WNWC and the TP are more complex than those in NNEC and SC based on our application of Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) analysis, which may be related to complex circulation patterns and diverse geomorphic features.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101583
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1584: Effects of Supplementary Irrigation on
           Soil Respiration of Millet Farmland in a Semi-Arid Region in China

    • Authors: Gao, Zhao, Lu, Han, Yang
      First page: 1584
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is recognized as key part of evaluating the soil environment, and the soil respiration rate is an effective indicator of CO2 emission. To explore the influence and coupling mechanism of irrigation on the soil respiration of millet farmland in the Northern Shanxi Province in China, conventional rainfed (CK) and supplementary irrigation (W1) at the late jointing stage were conducted. The soil respiration rate and carbon emission flux in millet farmland under different treatments were observed. The relationship between soil respiration rate and soil physical–chemical properties and the crop growth index was further analyzed. The result showed that the soil respiration rate and carbon emission flux of W1 were higher than those of CK treatment. The comparison of the linear regression correlation between soil respiration rate and soil physical–chemical properties revealed that the major regulating factors of the soil respiration rate were soil moisture (<10.6%) followed by soil pH, soil moisture (>10.6%), soil temperature, and finally soil organic matter content. There are uncertainties regarding the soil moisture content variation range in soil respiration. Moreover, supplementary irrigation promoted the growth indexes, yield, and irrigation water use efficiency in millet farmland. Further research with less irrigation treatment is necessary for exploring an optimization model of water use efficiency and low carbon dioxide emissions in millet fields, which would be helpful to realize agricultural water utilization and a “carbon peak” in the sense of farmland.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101584
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1585: Feasibility of Using Isokinetic Sampling
           Techniques to Extract a Representative Sample from Processes in the United

    • Authors: Daniel Nicklin, Hamidreza Gohari Darabkhani
      First page: 1585
      Abstract: The requirement to monitor and control particulate emissions from industrial processes using continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) has significantly increased over recent years. Under current legislation, CEMS equipment requires calibration against the standard reference method (SRM) using isokinetic sampling and gravimetric analysis under controlled conditions as detailed through BS EN 13284-1 “Stationary source emissions–Determination of low range mass concentration of dust. Manual gravimetric method”. This process includes pumping a known volume of gas through a filter, which is weighed before and after sampling, and the total mass of dust per m3 can then be calculated to output results in mg/m3. As tougher legislation is introduced and stringent emission limit values (ELVs) are imposed on emissions processes in the United Kingdom (UK), the calibration of CEMS is increasingly more difficult due to the reliability of the SRM at low concentrations. The accuracy of results from the SRM and therefore CEMS equipment must be questioned when the uncertainty of measurement is higher than process ELVs. This research analyses data taken from an industrial survey and 21 UK processes where the standard reference method, in accordance with the procedure in BS EN 13284-1 has been used for particulate measurement. Investigating the reliability of isokinetic sampling when used as a method to extract a representative sample from a stack process when used in conjunction with innovative, alternative methods of sample analysis. In processes with particulate emissions <5 mg/m3, 80.7% of the total sample was collected in the rinse, and for processes >5 mg/m3, 56.4% of the sample was collected in the rinse. The data does not suggest any correlation between any of the measured parameters and the percentage of particulate in the rinse, including the stack velocity, isokinetic percentage, sample volume, and total mass concentration.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101585
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1586: Evaluation of Microclimate Benefits Due
           to Cool Pavements and Green Infrastructures on Urban Heat Islands

    • Authors: Giulia Del Serrone, Paolo Peluso, Laura Moretti
      First page: 1586
      Abstract: Ongoing climate change is manifesting in the expansion of the urban heat island (UHI) effect. This paper evaluates the microclimate benefits of cool pavements and green infrastructures in a historical square in Rome, Italy. The ENVI-Met software enabled us to conduct a microclimatic analysis of the examined square in July 2021, through a comparison of the thermal performances of the current asphalt and sampietrini pavement (AS) with three alternatives. The proposed options are to change the existing layout to include: light concrete slabs and green furniture consisting of 5 m high trees (LC+G1), a perimeter hedge with 5 m high trees (LC+G2), and a perimeter hedge with 15 m high trees (LC+G3). The effects of the road pavements as passive countermeasures to the UHI effect are investigated in terms of air temperature (AT), mean radiant temperature (MRT), and predicted mean vote (PMV). The results show that the existing asphalt pavement is the worst option, while the cool pavement integrated with vegetation is greatly beneficial to human thermal comfort. Compared to the current layout, LC+G3 is the best scenario, because it implies an AT reduction higher than 3 °C, a MRT reduction equal to 50%, and a maximum PMV value equal to 2.2.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101586
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1587: Predictive Analysis of In-Vehicle Air
           Quality Monitoring System Using Deep Learning Technique

    • Authors: Abdul Syafiq Abdull Sukor, Goh Chew Cheik, Latifah Munirah Kamarudin, Xiaoyang Mao, Hiromitsu Nishizaki, Ammar Zakaria, Syed Muhammad Mamduh Syed Zakaria
      First page: 1587
      Abstract: In-vehicle air quality monitoring systems have been seen as promising paradigms for monitoring drivers’ conditions while they are driving. This is because some in-vehicle cabins contain pollutants that can cause drowsiness and fatigue to drivers. However, designing an efficient system that can predict in-vehicle air quality has challenges, due to the continuous variation in parameters in cabin environments. This paper presents a new approach, using deep learning techniques that can deal with the varying parameters inside the vehicle environment. In this case, two deep learning models, namely Long-short Term Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) are applied to classify and predict the air quality using time-series data collected from the built-in sensor hardware. Both are compared with conventional methods of machine learning models, including Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP). The results show that GRU has an excellent prediction performance with the highest coefficient of determination value (R2) of 0.97.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101587
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1588: CO2 and CH4 Emission Factors from
           Light-Duty Vehicles by Fuel Types in Thailand

    • Authors: Duanpen Sirithian, Pantitcha Thanatrakolsri, Surangrat Pongpan
      First page: 1588
      Abstract: Correct emission factors are necessary for evaluating vehicle emissions and making proper decisions to manage air pollution in the transportation sector. In this study, using a chassis dynamometer at the Automotive Emission Laboratory, CO2 and CH4 emission factors of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) were developed by fuel types and driving speeds. The Bangkok driving cycle was used for the vehicle’s running and controlling under the standard procedure. Results present that the highest average CO2 and CH4 emission factors were emitted from LDG vehicles, at 232.25 g/km and 9.50 mg/km, respectively. The average CO2 emission factor of the LDD vehicles was higher than that of the LDG vehicles, at 182.53 g/km and 171.01 g/km, respectively. Nevertheless, the average CH4 emission factors of the LDD vehicles were lower than those of the LDG vehicles, at 2.21 mg/km and 3.02 mg/km, respectively. The result reveals that the lower driving speed emitted higher CO2 emission factors for LDVs. It reflects the higher fuel consumption rate (L/100 km) and the lower fuel economy rate (km/L). Moreover, the portion of CO2 emissions emitted from LDVs was 99.96% of total GHG emissions. The CO2 and CH4 emission factors developed through this study will be used to support the greenhouse gas reduction policies, especially concerning the CO2 and CH4 emitted from vehicles. Furthermore, it can be used as a database that encourages Thailand’s green transportation management system.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101588
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1589: Validation and Comparison of Climate
           Reanalysis Data in the East Asian Monsoon Region

    • Authors: Minseok Kim, Eungul Lee
      First page: 1589
      Abstract: Understanding East Asian monsoon (EAM) has been a crucial issue due to its socio-economic effects on one-fifth of the world’s population and its interactions with the global climate system. However, the reliabilities of climate reanalysis data are still uncertain at varying temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we examined the correlations and differences for climate reanalyses with weather observations and suggested the best climate reanalysis for the EAM region. The three reanalyses of ERA5, JRA55, and NCEP2 along with a gridded observation (CRU) were evaluated using the correlation coefficients (Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall), difference statistics (RMSE and bias), and Taylor diagrams, comparing their annual and seasonal temperatures and precipitations with those from the total of 537 weather stations across China, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan. We found that ERA5 showed the best performance in reproducing temporal variations in temperature with the highest correlations in annual, summer, and autumn, and the smallest RMSEs and biases in the annual and four seasons. For precipitation, among the three reanalysis datasets, ERA5 had the highest correlations in annual and all seasons with the smallest RMSEs in annual, spring, summer, and autumn and the smallest biases in annual, summer, and autumn. Regarding spatial variations, ERA5 was also the most suitable reanalysis data in representing the annual and seasonal climatological averages.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101589
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1590: Uncovering the Fresh Snowfall Microbiome
           and Its Chemical Characteristics with Backward Trajectories in Daejeon,
           the Republic of Korea

    • Authors: Zohaib Ul Hassan, Jayant Nirmalkar, Dongju Park, Jinsang Jung, Seil Kim
      First page: 1590
      Abstract: Snow covers a large surface area of the Earth and provides a surface for the exchange of biological and chemical components. However, the microbial composition and chemical components of snow are poorly understood. We assessed the bacterial and fungal diversity and chemical characteristics in freshly deposited snowfall samples collected from a sub-urban site in Daejeon, the Republic of Korea. We analyzed the snow samples using DNA amplification followed by Illumina MiSeq Sequencing for the microbiome, ion chromatography for the cations (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4+) and anions (SO42−, NO3−, and Cl−), and a water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water-soluble nitrogen (WSTN) analyzer for WSOC and WSTN. NO3−, Actinobacteria (bacteria), and Ascomycota (fungi) were the most abundant components in the fresh snowfall samples. The air mass backward trajectories arrived mostly at this site from the northwest direction during this study period, which included the regions belonging to Russia, China, Mongolia, the Gobi Desert, the Yellow Sea, and South Korea. Principal component analysis suggested that the snow components were associated with sources belonging to secondary chemical compounds, dust, and sea salt during the study period.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101590
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1591: Joint Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Various
           Wildfire and Drought Indicators in Indonesia

    • Authors: Sri Nurdiati, Ardhasena Sopaheluwakan, Pandu Septiawan, Muhammad Reza Ardhana
      First page: 1591
      Abstract: Wildfires are well known as annual disasters in Indonesia. More than 3 million ha was burned in the last 5 years. During an extreme event such as in 2019, carbon emissions can cause smog disasters in neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. Though difficult to predict, many hotspots that appear can be used to indicate the emergence of large-scale wildfires. The objective of this research is to provide suggestions in terms of used variables when analyzing fire event indication (hotspot), fire event scale (burned area), and fire event impact (carbon emissions). This research provides a spatio-temporal analysis and dependency between drought (precipitation and its derivative variables) and fire indicators (hotspot, burned area, and carbon emission). This research provides the different characteristics of each indicator when used to find joint patterns of burned areas, hotspots, and carbon emissions. Overall, using potential evapotranspiration and precipitation to calculate climate water balance gives great results in all analysis. Precipitation anomalies give the best joint spatial pattern to describe wildfire events in the area with monsoonal rainfall. Meanwhile, precipitation gives better results by capturing more wildfire events in a temporal pattern, even on robust analysis.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101591
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1592: Potential Effect of Air Pollution on the
           Urban Traffic Vitality: A Case Study of Nanjing, China

    • Authors: Yang Cao, Hao Wu, Hongbin Wang, Duanyang Liu, Shuqi Yan
      First page: 1592
      Abstract: Studies on the vitality of urban residents’ daily commuting and air pollution are scarce. Based on the cell phone mobile signaling data, urban air quality observation data, and urban transportation infrastructure environment data of Nanjing in 2019, and through the panel regression model and the standard deviation ellipse analysis (SDE) to measure the impact of air pollution on residents’ daily traffic vitality, we construct the survey panel matrix data system with streets as spatial units. Through SDE and panel regression model analysis, we measured the restraining effect of air pollution on the traffic vitality. The scope of the traffic vitality area SDE was found to shrink as the air quality index (AQI) increases. The study found three main characteristics: (1) Under different transportation models and different location conditions, there are obvious differences in traffic vitality. The entire city presents a trend of “northeast-southwest” axial expansion in the spatial pattern of the traffic vitality. Compared with the urban core area, the traffic vitality of residents in the north-south areas of Nanjing’s periphery has declined significantly. (2) The inhibitory effect of air pollution on public traffic vitality and self-driving traffic vitality are differences. Approximately one-tenth of traffic activities may be inhibited by air pollution. The weakening of traffic vitality greatly reduces the city’s ability to attract and gather people, materials, and resources. (3) The inhibitory effect of air pollution on traffic vitality is heterogeneous under different transportation infrastructure environments. The higher the public transportation station density and public transportation frequency of the street, the more obvious the suppression effect of air pollution. The higher the parking density, station accessibility, road intersections density, and transportation facility diversity, the lower the suppression effect of air pollution. This study elucidates the relationship among air pollution, the transportation infrastructure environment, and the traffic vitality, and provides significant guidelines for optimizing the organization of elements in the transportation infrastructure environment, thereby mitigating the inhibitory effect of air pollution on traffic vitality.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101592
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1593: Longitudinal Ambient PM2.5 Measurement at
           Fifteen Locations in Eight Sub-Saharan African Countries Using Low-Cost

    • Authors: Babatunde Awokola, Gabriel Okello, Olatunji Johnson, Ruaraidh Dobson, Abdoul Risgou Ouédraogo, Bakary Dibba, BH Mbatchou Ngahane, Chizalu Ndukwu, Chuka Agunwa, Diana Marangu, Herve Lawin, Ifeoma Ogugua, Joy Eze, Nnamdi Nwosu, Ogochukwu Ofiaeli, Peter Ubuane, Rashid Osman, Endurance Awokola, Annette Erhart, Kevin Mortimer, Christopher Jewell, Sean Semple
      First page: 1593
      Abstract: Air pollution is a major global public health issue causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Measuring levels of air pollutants and facilitating access to the data has been identified as a pathway to raise awareness and initiate dialogue between relevant stakeholders. Low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) urgently need simple, low-cost approaches to generate such data, especially in settings with no or unreliable data. We established a network of easy-to-use low-cost air quality sensors (PurpleAir-II-SD) to monitor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations at 15 sites, in 11 cities across eight sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) countries between February 2020 and January 2021. Annual PM2.5 concentrations, seasonal and temporal variability were determined. Time trends were modelled using harmonic regression. Annual PM2.5 concentrations ranged between 10 and 116 µg/m3 across study sites, exceeding the current WHO annual mean guideline level of 5 µg/m3. The largest degree of seasonal variation was seen in Nigeria, where seven sites showed higher PM2.5 levels during the dry than during the wet season. Other countries with less pronounced dry/wet season variations were Benin (20 µg/m3 versus 5 µg/m3), Uganda (50 µg/m3 versus 45 µg/m3), Sukuta (Gambia) (20 µg/m3 versus 15 µg/m3) and Kenya (30 µg/m3 versus 25 µg/m3). Diurnal variation was observed across all sites, with two daily PM2.5 peaks at about 06:00 and 18:00 local time. We identified high levels of air pollution in the 11 African cities included in this study. This calls for effective control measures to protect the health of African urban populations. The PM2.5 peaks around ‘rush hour’ suggest traffic-related emissions should be a particular area for attention.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101593
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1594: Temporal Evolution of Urban Heat Island
           and Quantitative Relationship with Urbanization Development in Chongqing,

    • Authors: Junmiao Zhang, Liu Tian, Jun Lu
      First page: 1594
      Abstract: Urban development always has a strong impact on the urban thermal environment, but it is unclear to what extent urbanization factors influence urban heat island intensity (UHII) in mountainous cities, and fewer studies have been conducted on the trends of long-term UHII in mountainous cities. Chongqing, as the only municipality directly under the central government in Southwest China and a typical mountainous city, is chosen as the case study. This study analyzed the interannual and seasonal variations of UHII based on the data from meteorological stations in Chongqing from 1959 to 2018 using the least-squares method and the Mann–Kendall test, and explored the relationship between urbanization factors (urban resident population, gross domestic product (GDP), fixed investments, and gross industrial output value) and UHII. The results show that the increasing rates of temperature in urban areas of Chongqing are significantly higher than those in rural areas affected by urbanization. Using the Mann–Kendall test, it is found that almost all abrupt temperature changes in Chongqing occurred after the rapid urbanization of Chongqing in the 21st century. The annual mean UHII increased from 0.1 °C to 1.5 °C during the study period, with summer making the largest contribution. It is also found that the UHII in Chongqing has increased year by year, especially after the 1980s. The increasing rates of UHII are larger at night and smaller during the day. The increasing trends of nighttime UHII are statistically significant, while those of daytime UHII are not. In addition, UHII and urbanization factors are found to be correlated using the grey relational analysis (GRA). Eventually, a comprehensive UHII index and a comprehensive urbanization index are constructed using principal component analysis (PCA). A tertiary regression model of UHII and urbanization index is established, which reflects that the UHII in Chongqing will continue to grow rapidly with the development of the city.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101594
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1595: Emission Factors and Inventories of
           Carbonaceous Aerosols from Residential Biomass Burning in Guizhou
           Province, China

    • Authors: Yan-Ni Wang, Yan Cheng, Zhao-Lin Gu, Jing-Ting Yang, Huan-Huan Ren
      First page: 1595
      Abstract: Biomass combustion results in the emission of substantial amounts of carbonaceous aerosols. Here, we report the emission characteristics of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from biofuel combustion according to field measurements in rural households in Guizhou Province, China. The average emission factor of OC was 0.57 ± 0.16 g kg−1 for firewood burning, which was lower than that for crop straw burning. The average emission factor of EC was 1.1 ± 0.63 g kg−1 for firewood burning, which was higher than most crop straw burning, including corn (0.68 ± 0.29 g kg−1), rice (0.48 ± 0.40 g kg−1), and soybean (0.17 ± 0.21 g kg−1). The average OC/EC ratios from crop straw burning were high, 14.2 for rice straw burning, 11.7 for soybean straw burning, 5.1 for corn straw burning, and 2.8 for pepper straw burning. The average OC/EC ratio of firewood was the lowest at 0.54. In 2019, the estimated emissions of OC and EC from residential biomass fuel combustion in Guizhou Province were 3.6 and 5.6 Gg, respectively. Firewood burning was the primary contributor to total residential biofuel OC (≈81%) and EC (≈97%) emissions. High-emission areas included Tongren, Qiandongnan, and Qiannan.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101595
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1596: Quantification of Urban Methane
           Emissions: A Combination of Stationary with Mobile Measurements

    • Authors: Kohler, Schaller, Klemm
      First page: 1596
      Abstract: The mixing ratios of methane (CH4) were recorded with high temporal and spatial resolution in Münster, Germany, to identify urban CH4 sources and to quantify the overall inner city CH4 emissions. Both mobile and stationary measurement techniques were employed. The background mixing ratios showed a diurnal cycle with higher values at night under stable stratification conditions. In the industrial park, periodic peaks were detected. Ten mappings of the urban CH4 mixing ratio were made with an instrumented cargo bicycle. Repeated local increases in mixing ratios were found at 13 individual locations. The emission rate was estimated to be 22.0 g h−1 km−1. A total of five leaks from the underground gas distribution network were identified. From the increase in background mixing ratio, the overall source strength of the study area was estimated to be 24.6 g m−2 a−1, which is approximately three times the total CH4 emissions from the city’s most recent emissions report. The contribution of point sources was 0.64 g m−2 a−1, suggesting that significant additional CH4 sources exist within the study area. In the interest of climate protection, there is an urgent need for further research on the urban CH4 sources and emission fluxes in detail.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101596
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1597: The Spatial Variation of the Influence of
           Lockdown on Air Quality across China and Its Major Influencing Factors
           during COVID-19

    • Authors: Jing Yang, Xiao Chen, Qi Yao, Manchun Li, Miaoqing Xu, Qiancheng Lv, Bingbo Gao, Ziyue Chen
      First page: 1597
      Abstract: China has experienced a series of COVID-19 recurrences in different cities across the country since 2020, and relatively strict (full lockdown) or lenient closure (semi-lockdown) strategies have been employed accordingly in each city. The differences in detailed transmission control measures during lockdown periods led to distinct effects on air quality, which has rarely been studied. To fill this gap, we examined the effects of semi-lockdown and full lockdown on six major airborne pollutants, based on 55 lockdown cases. For all lockdown cases, the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and CO were much lower than in previous years. Specifically, due to the stricter transmission control, the concentration of the five airborne pollutants experienced a much sharper decline during full lockdown. However, O3 presented a different variation pattern during lockdown periods. Generally, O3 concentrations presented a slight increase in semi-lockdown cases and a notable increase in full lockdown cases. Meanwhile, O3 increased notably in northern China, particularly in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, while O3 had a slight variation in southern China. The unique variation of O3 across regions and lockdown types was mainly attributed to the spatial heterogeneity of O3 formation regimes, especially the VOCs-controlled O3 formation in northern China. Based on Geographical Detector, we examined the spatial continuity of natural and socio-economic factors on the variation of airborne pollutants during lockdown. In terms of meteorological factors, humidity and precipitation were the dominant factors for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, while humidity and temperature were the dominant factors for O3. In terms of socio-economic factors, the numbers of taxis and private cars were the dominant factors for PM2.5 and O3 variations during lockdown. GD also revealed that the combination of natural and socio-economic factors had a significantly enhanced effect on airborne pollutants during lockdown. The combination of relative humidity and total area of urban built-up areas exerted the strongest interactive effects on both PM2.5 and O3. This research highlighted the challenge for urban O3 management, and suggested the control of VOCs emissions should be preferably considered, especially in northern China.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101597
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1598: Evaluation of Extreme Precipitation
           Indices in Brazil’s Semiarid Region from Satellite Data

    • Authors: Ana Letícia Melo dos Santos, Weber Andrade Gonçalves, Daniele Tôrres Rodrigues, Lara de Melo Barbosa Andrade, Claudio Moises Santos e Silva
      First page: 1598
      Abstract: Brazil’s semiarid region (SAB) has a heterogeneous precipitation distribution, with the occurrence of periodic droughts and occasional extreme rainfall events. The precipitation monitoring system in this region is insufficient, but remote sensing products can provide information on rainfall in areas with low data coverage. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate 12 extreme precipitation indices calculated using Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) data in comparison with indices calculated from data measured by rain gauges for different SAB locations. To evaluate the IMERG product, we used rainfall data measured by 56 rain gauges during the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2020. The satellite product was evaluated through juxtaposition between the IMERG and actual rainfall data, by calculating the statistical indices bias, root-mean-squared error, Spearman correlation, and probability density function. The results showed that most of the extreme precipitation indices were well represented by the satellite data, except for the simple precipitation intensity index (SDII), in which case the correlation coefficient was 0.2. This result can be explained as this index is calculated from the exact value of daily precipitation, while the other indices are estimated by rainfall values above some thresholds. On the other hand, total annual precipitation and precipitation above 1 mm presented Spearman correlation reaching 0.97 in some locations. We conclude that the IMERG database is adequate to represent the maximum precipitation in the Brazilian semiarid region, and the extreme precipitation indices had good performance according to the region where the maximum rain occurred.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101598
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1599: Spatiotemporal Variability, Trends, and
           Potential Impacts of Extreme Rainfall Events in the Sudano-Sahelian Region
           of Cameroon

    • Authors: Ibrahim Njouenwet, Lucie Angennes Djiotang Tchotchou, Brian Odhiambo Ayugi, Guy Merlin Guenang, Derbetini Appolinaire Vondou, Robert Nouayou
      First page: 1599
      Abstract: The Sudano-Sahelian region of Cameroon is mainly drained by the Benue, Chari, and Logone rivers; which are very useful for water resources; especially for irrigation, hydropower generation, and navigation. Long-term changes in mean and extreme rainfall events in the region may be of crucial importance in understanding the impacts of climate change. Daily and monthly rainfall data from fifteen climate stations in the study area from 1980 to 2018 and measurements from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) were estimated using the non-parametric innovative trend analysis (ITA) and the Sen slope estimator. The precipitation concentration index (PCI), the precipitation concentration degree (PCD), and the precipitation concentration period (PCP) were used to explore the spatiotemporal variations in the characteristics of rainfall concentrations. The results showed complex spatial patterns of the annual average PCI values across the Sudano-Sahelian region; which varied from values lower in the south to higher in the far north, which were the characteristic of seasonality and a strong seasonal precipitation distribution throughout the year; respectively. The PCD results revealed that the annual rainy days in a year decreased from the south to the far north. Additionally, the PCP results indicated a slightly later occurrence of precipitation. A significant trend toward more intense–extreme rainfall events was observed in most parts of the study area, but a significant trend toward more humid days was observed in the southeastern part. Trends in dry days significantly increased in the central and southwestern parts of the study area. This could mean that the prevalence of flood and drought risks are higher in the study area. Overall, the increase in annual rainfall could benefit the hydro-power sector, agricultural irrigation, the availability of potable water sources, and food security.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101599
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1600: Characterising Large-Scale Meteorological
           Patterns Associated with Winter Precipitation and Snow Accumulation in a
           Mountain Range in the Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama)

    • Authors: Cristina González-Flórez, Álvaro González-Cervera, Luis Durán
      First page: 1600
      Abstract: Snow precipitation in mountains surrounded by semi-arid regions represents an important reservoir of fresh water during the melting season. The snow cover helps to compensate for the scarce precipitation that occurs during their long summer droughts. Knowing the phenomenology that leads to winter precipitation and snow at these areas becomes even more relevant in a context of climate change. Precipitation in Sierra de Guadarrama, a medium size mountain range in the middle of the Iberian Plateau, is the main source of fresh water for millions of inhabitants living under its area of influence, for an active industry and for agriculture and farming. In addition, scarce but heavy snow events affect logistics, transport and security in an area with abundant ground and air traffic. This work analyses the links between large scale atmospheric patterns and the complex winter precipitation and snow cover dynamics observed at local scale. Applying principal component analysis and K-means clustering on geopotential height field, a set of circulation weather types are obtained. The contribution of each circulation weather type to precipitation, snow and heavy snow events is analysed, and favouring conditions leading to snowfalls are identified. Results from this work can be useful as a framework for future modelling exercises, statistical downscaling of climate change scenarios, or even for the development of early warning systems.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101600
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1601: The Effect of a Hybrid Pretreatment
           Device for CEMS on the Simultaneous Removal of PM2.5 and Water Vapor

    • Authors: In-Young Choi, Trieu-Vuong Dinh, Dong-Eun Kim, Bong-Hyun Jun, Seung-Ae Lee, Young-Min Park, Jo-Chun Kim
      First page: 1601
      Abstract: Stationary emission sources still account for a significant portion of total air pollution emissions. Continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) have been used to estimate the emissions of stack pollutants. A large amount of moisture and other interfering factors in the sample discharged from a stack result in the loss of target gases due to artifact formation or gas absorption, thereby reducing measurement accuracy. Therefore, a pretreatment process is essential. Among various pretreatment technologies available, a cyclone with a rapid cooling unit is a special one that can be applied to remove particles and water vapor at the same time in CEMS. This study aimed at the simultaneous removal of water vapor and particles by operating a hybrid pretreatment device at low temperatures such as −5, −15, and −25 °C. When using the hybrid cyclone under the conditions of high temperature (180 °C), humidity (150 g/m3), PM2.5 (1 mg/m3), and SO2 (105.2 ppm) concentrations, the reduction rates of water vapor and PM2.5 concentration and the recovery rates of SO2 concentration were 82.2, 80.2, and 96.4%, respectively. These data suggested that the hybrid cyclone could be used as a pretreatment device for CEMS.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101601
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1602: Assessment of Three Satellite-Derived
           Surface Downward Longwave Radiation Products in Polar Regions

    • Authors: Xiaozhou Xin, Shanshan Yu, Daozhong Sun, Hailong Zhang, Li Li, Bo Zhong
      First page: 1602
      Abstract: The radiation budget in polar regions plays an important role in global climate change study. This study investigates the performance of downward longwave radiation (DLR) of three satellite radiation products in polar regions, including GEWEX-SRB, ISCCP-FD, and CERES-SYN. The RMSEs are 35.8, 40.5, and 26.9 W/m2 at all polar sites for GEWEX-SRB, ISCCP-FD, and CERES-SYN. The results in the Arctic are much better than those in the Antarctic, RMSEs of the three products are 34.7 W/m2, 36.0 W/m2, and 26.2 W/m2 in the Arctic and are 38.8 W/m2 and 54.8 W/m2, and 28.6 W/m2 in the Antarctic. Both GEWEX-SRB and CERES-SYN underestimate DLRs at most sites, while ISCCP-FD overestimates DLRs at most sites. CERES-SYN and GEWEX-SRB DLR products can capture most of the DLR seasonal variation in both the Antarctic and Arctic. Though CERES-SYN has the best results that RMSE within 30 W/m2 in most polar sites, the accuracy of satellite products in polar regions still cannot meet the requirement of climate research. The improvement of satellite DLR products in polar regions mainly depends on the quality of improving input atmospheric parameters, the accuracy of improving cloud detection over the snow and ice surface and cloud parameters, and better consideration of spatial resolution and heterogeneity.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101602
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1603: Analysis of Intraseasonal Oscillation
           Features of Winter Cold Precipitation Events in Southern China

    • Authors: Qingjiu Gao, Ziqi Zhang, Yesheng Zhu, Shuyi Chen
      First page: 1603
      Abstract: Based on the daily minimum air temperature (Tmin) data and the daily precipitation data from the NCC/CMA combined with the NCEP/DOE reanalysis data, the intraseasonal features and circulations of the winter cold precipitation events (CPEs) in southern China under the influence of strong Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) were explored. The results show that: (1) Winter temperatures in southern China are characterized by intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) of 10–30-d and 30–60 -d, with six CPEs under strong MJO all occurring during these two intraseasonal scales in cooling phases. The invasion of cold air coupled with the availability of appropriate moisture conditions in southern China is more conducive to the CPEs. (2) A cyclone and anticyclone lying to the east of the Ural Mountains and the northwest of Lake Baikal at 925-hPa gradually move southeastward. The merging of the low-frequency (LF) blocking highs over the Ural Mountains and the North Pacific Ocean at 500-hPa leads to the contraction and southward movement of the LF cold vortex. The following anomalous northerly winds steer the cold air towards southern China. The cold advection is the dominant term in the cooling process, while the adiabatic cooling accompanied with ascending motion is also beneficial to the cooling process. (3) MJO has some effect on the LF blocking highs and the cold vortex in the mid-high latitudes and induces the CPEs over southern China. The joint effect of mid-high and low latitudes on the 30–60-d intraseasonal oscillation scale can have a significant impact on the cooling and precipitation processes of CPEs.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101603
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1604: Improving the Thermal Comfort of an Open
           Space via Landscape Design: A Case Study in Hot and Humid Areas

    • Authors: Jiahao Yang, Yang Zhao, Yukai Zou, Dawei Xia, Siwei Lou, Tongye Guo, Zhengnan Zhong
      First page: 1604
      Abstract: Hot and humid areas experience constant high temperatures and high humidity during summer, causing widespread concern about outdoor thermal discomfort. This paper investigates the effects of landscape design strategies on outdoor thermal environments during typical summer and winter weather conditions in the hot–humid areas of China. The physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is used for evaluating the thermal performance of the proposed outdoor environments. ENVI-met software was validated via field measurements for this study and was used to evaluate the outdoor thermal environment under typical summer and winter weather conditions. Three kinds of common landscape elements were analyzed: tree species, pavement, and water bodies. The results show that (1) by properly arranging landscape elements, the PET can be reduced by up to 1.6 °C in summer without sacrificing relevant thermal comfort during winter. (2) Arbors with high leaf area density (LAD) values performed better than those with a low LAD value for improved outdoor thermal comfort. (3) The influence of pavement on outdoor thermal comfort differs when under conditions with and without shade. This study provides practical suggestions for landscape design in open spaces within hot–humid areas.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101604
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1605: A Review on Lignin-Based Carbon Fibres
           for Carbon Footprint Reduction

    • Authors: Victoria Dumebi Obasa, Oludolapo Akanni Olanrewaju, Oluwashina Phillips Gbenebor, Ezenwanyi Fidelia Ochulor, Cletus Chiosa Odili, Yetunde Oyebolaji Abiodun, Samson Oluropo Adeosun
      First page: 1605
      Abstract: Carbon fibers (CFs) are made mostly from a non-environmentally friendly polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and little from rayon. PAN-based CFs, require huge amount of energy for its production aside its contributions to the global CO2 emission. Therefore, there is recourse to a more environmentally friendly sources of CFs biomass. Recently lignin has been recognized as a potential renewable raw material for carbon fibers to replace PAN-based. The magnitude and quality of CO2 emission of lignin-based CFs are dependent on the processing route. On this premise; this review examines the various lignin-based CFs processing route adopted by researcher in the recent past to establish the most viable route with minimum carbon footprint emission. Outcome of the review shows that the major advantages of aromatic polymer (AP) generated precursor over PAN is the presence of higher quantity of guaiacyl units and oxygen content which makes the stabilization phase efficient and faster requiring less energy. Though there are several methods and options for the various stages of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into CFs as highlighted in the study, establishing an optimum processing route will be a trade-off amongst various issues of concern; carcinogenic risk, carbon footprint emission, CFs Yield and mechanical strength of the CFs. Inferences from the study shows that the L-CF significantly produced reduced climatic impact in terms of CO2 emission.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101605
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1606: Implementing Hydrological Forecasting
           Services Supporting Waterway Management and Transportation Logistics
           Relating to Hydroclimatic Impacts

    • Authors: Dennis Meißner, Bastian Klein, Barbara Frielingsdorf
      First page: 1606
      Abstract: As recent years have shown, inland waterways are prone to hydroclimatic impacts. Dry spells, such as in 2003, 2015 or 2018, significantly affected freight transport as well as passenger shipping along Central Europe’s major inland waterways, such as the River Rhine. At the same time, heavy rainfall and the proceeding sea-level rise increasingly hamper the management of numerous inland waterways, such as the Kiel Canal. As prognostic information enables waterway stakeholders to take preventive measures regarding hydroclimatic impacts, the demand for extended-range hydrological forecasts tailored to the management and use of waterways is significantly increasing. Based on preliminary studies, the Federal Institute of Hydrology started developing preliminary extended-range forecast products for relevant gauges at the German waterways since 2015. Step-by-step operational services supplying these new forecast products have been set-up. For the River Rhine, a ten-day forecast has been publicly available since 2019. In 2022, a six-week forecast for Rhine and Elbe will further extend the waterway-related forecasting services in Germany. This article provides insight into the setting of these extended navigation-related forecasting services, where the communication of forecast uncertainties is still a major challenge.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101606
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1607: A Novel Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast
           Model Based on Attention Mechanism

    • Authors: Wei Fang, Wenhe Lu, Jiaxin Li, Liyao Zou
      First page: 1607
      Abstract: Tropical cyclones are one of the most powerful and destructive weather systems on Earth. Accurately forecasting the landing time, location and moving paths of tropical cyclones are of great significance to mitigate the huge disasters it produces. However, with the continuous accumulation of meteorological monitoring data and the application of multi-source data, traditional tropical cyclone track forecasting methods face many challenges in forecasting accuracy. Recently, deep learning methods have proven capable of learning spatial and temporal features from massive datasets. In this paper, we propose a new spatiotemporal deep learning model for tropical cyclone track forecasting, which adopts spatial location and multiple meteorological factors to forecast the tracks of tropical cyclones. The model proposes a multi-layer ConvGRU to extract the nonlinear spatial features of tropical cyclones, while Spatial and Channel Attention Mechanism (CBAM) is adopted to overcome the large-scale problem of high response isobaric surface affecting the tropical cyclones. Meanwhile, this model utilizes a Deep and Cross framework to combine the traditional CNN model with the multi-ConvGRU model. Experiments were conducted on the China Meteorological Administration Tropical Cyclone Best Track Dataset (CMA) from 2000 to 2020, and the EAR-Interim dataset provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The experimental results show that the proposed model is superior to the deep learning tropical cyclone forecasting methods.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101607
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1608: Operational Probabilistic Fog Prediction
           Based on Ensemble Forecast System: A Decision Support System for Fog

    • Authors: Avinash N. Parde, Sachin D. Ghude, Narendra Gokul Dhangar, Prasanna Lonkar, Sandeep Wagh, Gaurav Govardhan, Mrinal Biswas, R. K. Jenamani
      First page: 1608
      Abstract: One of the well-known challenges of fog forecasting is the high spatio-temporal variability of fog. An ensemble forecast aims to capture this variability by representing the uncertainty in the initial/lateral boundary conditions (ICs/BCs) and model physics. The present study highlights a new operational Ensemble Forecast System (EFS) developed by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, to predict the fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region using the visibility (Vis) diagnostic algorithm. The EFS framework comprises the WRF model with a 4 km horizontal resolution, initialized by 21 ICs/BCs. The advantages of probabilistic fog forecasting have been demonstrated by comparing control (CNTL) and ensemble-based fog forecasts. The forecast is verified using fog observations from the Indira Gandhi International (IGI) airport during the winter months of 2020–2021 and 2021–2022. The results show that with a probability threshold of 50%, the ensemble forecasts perform better than the CNTL forecasts. The skill scores of EFS are relatively promising, with a Hit Rate of 0.95 and a Critical Success Index of 0.55; additionally, the False Alarm Rate and Missing Rate are low, with values of 0.43 and 0.04, respectively. The EFS could correctly predict more fog events (37 out of 39) compared with the CNTL forecast (31 out of 39) and shows the potential skill. Furthermore, EFS has a substantially reduced error in predicting fog onset and dissipation (mean onset and dissipation error of 1 h each) compared to the CNTL forecasts.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101608
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1609: Monitoring the Dynamic Changes in
           Vegetation Cover Using Spatio-Temporal Remote Sensing Data from 1984 to

    • Authors: Sajjad Hussain, Shujing Qin, Wajid Nasim, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari, Muhammad Mubeen, Shah Fahad, Ali Raza, Hazem Ghassan Abdo, Aqil Tariq, B. G. Mousa, Faisal Mumtaz, Muhammad Aslam
      First page: 1609
      Abstract: Anthropogenic activities and natural climate changes are the central driving forces of global ecosystems and agriculture changes. Climate changes, such as rainfall and temperature changes, have had the greatest impact on different types of plant production around the world. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal variation of major crops (cotton, rice, wheat, and sugarcane) in the District Vehari, Pakistan, from 1984 to 2020 using remote sensing (RS) technology. The crop identification was pre-processed in ArcGIS software based on Landsat images. After pre-processing, supervised classification was used, which explains the maximum likelihood classification (MLC) to identify the vegetation changes. Our results showed that in the study area cultivated areas under wheat and cotton decreased by almost 5.4% and 9.1% from 1984 to 2020, respectively. Vegetated areas have maximum values of NDVI (> 0.4), and built-up areas showed fewer NDVI values (0 to 0.2) in the District Vehari. During the Rabi season, the temperature was increased from 19.93 °C to 21.17 °C. The average temperature was calculated at 34.28 °C to 35.54 °C during the Kharif season in the District Vehari. Our results showed that temperature negatively affects sugarcane, rice, and cotton crops during the Rabi season, and precipitation positively affects sugarcane, rice, and cotton crops during the Kharif season in the study area. Accurate and timely assessment of crop estimation and relation to climate change can give very useful information for decision-makers, governments, and planners in formulating policies regarding crop management and improving agriculture yields.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101609
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1610: Rainfall in the Urban Area and Its Impact
           on Climatology and Population Growth

    • Authors: Lua da Silva Monteiro, José Francisco de Oliveira-Júnior, Bushra Ghaffar, Aqil Tariq, Shujing Qin, Faisal Mumtaz, Washington Luiz Félix Correia Correia Filho, Munawar Shah, Alexandre Maniçoba da Rosa Ferraz Jardim, Marcos Vinícius da Silva, Dimas de Barros Santiago, Heliofábio Gomes Barros, David Mendes, Marcel Carvalho Abreu, Amaury de Souza, Luiz Cláudio Gomes Pimentel, Jhon Lennon Bezerra da Silva, Muhammad Aslam, Alban Kuriqi
      First page: 1610
      Abstract: Due to the scarcity of studies linking the variability of rainfall and population growth in the capital cities of Northeastern Brazil (NEB), the purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability and multiscale interaction (annual and seasonal), and in addition, to detect their trends and the impact of urban growth. For this, monthly rainfall data between 1960 and 2020 were used. In addition, the detection of rainfall trends on annual and seasonal scales was performed using the Mann–Kendall (MK) test and compared with the phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The relationship between population growth data and rainfall data for different decades was established. Results indicate that the variability of multiscale urban rainfall is directly associated with the ENSO and PDO phases, followed by the performance of rain-producing meteorological systems in the NEB. In addition, the anthropic influence is shown in the relational pattern between population growth and the variability of decennial rainfall in the capitals of the NEB. However, no capital showed a significant trend of increasing annual rainfall (as in the case of Aracaju, Maceió, and Salvador). The observed population increase in the last decades in the capitals of the NEB and the notable decreasing trend of rainfall could compromise the region’s water security. Moreover, if there is no strategic planning about water bodies, these changes in the rainfall pattern could be compromising.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101610
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1611: Climate Change Mitigation in Forestry:
           Paying for Carbon Stock or for Sequestration'

    • Authors: Álvaro Enríquez-de-Salamanca
      First page: 1611
      Abstract: Climate change requires mitigation actions, mainly preventive, by reducing greenhouse gas emissions; however, carbon sequestration is a complementary measure. Although short-term carbon sequestration can be somewhat effective, it is really interesting when it is permanent. Sequestration calculates the carbon removed from the atmosphere over a period, while the stock expresses the cumulative carbon of a forest. Sequestration and stock are closely related, but ecosystem service valuation often focuses on the former, which can discourage forest maintenance. This study analyzes carbon sequestration and storage in four pine forests located in central Spain, comparing its valuation for different equivalence times, a period considered sufficient to compensate for the emission of one ton of CO2 into the atmosphere. Equilibrium equivalence times were calculated for each forest, defined as the period in which carbon sequestration and stock payments are equal; values ranged from 33 to 101 years, with significant correlations with commercial volume and carbon stock. Equivalence times of 30–50 years are reasonable in Mediterranean forest stands with moderate growth and density, while in dense mature stands this time should increase to 50–100 years. Valuing carbon stocks and paying for them in a sustained manner over time promotes sustainable forest management, while the sale of sequestration credits may generate a speculative “greenwashing” market. In addition, payments for stocks can be applied to any forest stand and not only to new plantations. Carbon stock valuation is a win–win strategy for climate change mitigation, sustainable forest management, and rural development.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101611
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1612: A Novel Approach to Estimating the Dose
           of Ambient Air Pollution during Cycling Commutes from Home to School and
           Route Optimizations

    • Authors: Yue (Jason) Gao, Xuying Ma, Shun Xiao
      First page: 1612
      Abstract: Students’ exposure to air pollution during active commuting between home and school has been linked with numerous adverse health outcomes. An accurate assessment of cycling students’ dose of air pollution during commutes could help mitigate the adverse health effect of exposure. However, up to date, it is still challenging to fill this research gap. In this study, we proposed a modeling framework to estimate cycling students’ terrain-based dosage of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during home-school commutes for the very first time. The approach was further applied to compare the benefit and costs of different route choices and examine exposure justice issues during students’ cycling from home to school in Auckland, New Zealand. Results show that most of the cycling students could find an alternative lowest-dose route, and for around 25% of them, a 1% increase in route length was associated with a more than 1% decrease in NO2 dosage. Evidence demonstrates that exposure inequalities existed to some extent during students’ cycling commutes. This study could deepen our understanding of cyclists’ exposure, and some recommendations were also provided to optimize students’ daily active commute routes.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101612
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1613: Scenario Analysis of Air Quality
           Improvement in Warsaw, Poland, by the End of the Current Decade

    • Authors: Piotr Holnicki, Andrzej Kałuszko, Zbigniew Nahorski
      First page: 1613
      Abstract: Very low air quality in the Warsaw conurbation, Poland, similarly to the case in many large European cities, poses a serious threat to the residents’ health, being a significant source of premature mortality. Many results presented in earlier publications indicated local heating installations and car traffic as the main emission categories responsible for this adverse population exposure, where the dominant polluting compounds are NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and BaP. The last two mainly originate from individual household heating installations, both in the city of Warsaw and in its vicinity. To reduce the health risk of air pollution, the city authorities have recently made fundamental decisions, related to the individual housing sector, aimed at the radical decarbonization of all heating installations in Warsaw and its surroundings. On the other hand, the ongoing modernization of the city’s car fleet (including individual and public transport), taking into account the restrictive EU emission standards, as well as the quickly growing share of electric and hybrid cars (BEVs and PHEVs), gives a good prospect of a fundamental improvement in air quality in Warsaw conurbation. The main subject of the paper is a quantitative assessment of the air quality improvement in the current decade (by 2030), resulting from the above modernization activities. The final results are expressed as the attributed reduction in population exposure, which was found to be 28–30% with respect to NOx and PM, and the associated health risk, i.e., 204 fewer avoidable deaths with respect to NOx and 607 fewer with respect to PM2.5.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101613
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1614: Deep Learning Based Calibration Time
           Reduction for MOS Gas Sensors with Transfer Learning

    • Authors: Yannick Robin, Johannes Amann, Payman Goodarzi, Tizian Schneider, Andreas Schütze, Christian Bur
      First page: 1614
      Abstract: In this study, methods from the field of deep learning are used to calibrate a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensor in a complex environment in order to be able to predict a specific gas concentration. Specifically, we want to tackle the problem of long calibration times and the problem of transferring calibrations between sensors, which is a severe challenge for the widespread use of MOS gas sensor systems. Therefore, this contribution aims to significantly diminish those problems by applying transfer learning from the field of deep learning. Within the field of deep learning, transfer learning has become more and more popular. Nowadays, building a model (calibrating a sensor) based on pre-trained models instead of training from scratch is a standard routine. This allows the model to train with inherent information and reach a suitable solution much faster or more accurately. For predicting the gas concentration with a MOS gas sensor operated dynamically using temperature cycling, the calibration time can be significantly reduced for all nine target gases at the ppb level (seven volatile organic compounds plus carbon monoxide and hydrogen). It was possible to reduce the calibration time by up to 93% and still obtain root-mean-squared error (RMSE) values only double the best achieved RMSEs. In order to obtain the best possible transferability, different transfer methods and the influence of different transfer data sets for training were investigated. Finally, transfer learning based on neural networks is compared to a global calibration model based on feature extraction, selection, and regression to place the results in the context of already existing work.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101614
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1615: Ionospheric Disturbances after the 2022
           Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai Eruption above Indonesia from GNSS-TEC

    • Authors: Muafiry, Meilano, Heki, Wijaya, Nugraha
      First page: 1615
      Abstract: On 15 January 2022, a VEI 5 eruption occurred at the submarine Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (HTHH) Volcano in the Southwest Pacific, causing an ash plume reaching a height of 50–55 km. The eruption generated strong acoustic-gravity waves in the near-field and stations all over the world recorded Lamb waves (LW) that travelled around the earth multiple times at a speed of ~0.3 km/s. Here we report ionospheric anomalies due to the LW over Indonesian islands, 5000–10,000 km away from the volcano, in terms of changes in total electron contents (TEC) using the nationwide network of GNSS stations. We detected ionospheric anomalies travelling above Indonesia several times both westward and eastward. The first passage of LW over Java caused strong TEC increases of >12 TECU. The wave circled the earth and returned to Java on subsequent days. The second passage was recorded early 1/17, the anomaly decayed to 6 TECU. We also detected the passage of long-path waves propagating from west to east. In addition to such anomalies, we examined the existence of ionospheric disturbances apparently propagating from the geomagnetic conjugate point of the volcano that could possibly emerge in Indonesia. However, their signatures in Indonesia were not clear.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101615
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1616: Forecasting Crop Residue Fires in
           Northeastern China Using Machine Learning

    • Authors: Bing Bai, Hongmei Zhao, Sumei Zhang, Xiaolan Li, Xuelei Zhang, Aijun Xiu
      First page: 1616
      Abstract: With repeated changes to local crop residue disposal policies in recent years, the distribution and density of crop residue fire events have been irregular in both space and time. A nonlinear and complex relationship between natural and anthropogenic factors often affects the occurrence of crop residue field fires. To overcome this difficulty, we used the Himawari-8 wildfire data for 2018–2021 to verify the likelihood of crop residue fires against the results of three machine learning methods: logistic regression, backpropagation neural network (BPNN), and decision tree (DT). The results showed the verified accuracies of BPNN and DT methods were 68.59 and 79.59%. Meantime, the sensitivity and specificity of DT performed the best, with the value of area under the curve (AUC) 0.82. Furthermore, among all the influencing factors, open burning prohibition constraints, relative humidity and air pressure showed significant correlations with open burning events. As such, BPNN and DT could accurately forecast the occurrence of agricultural fires. The results presented here may improve the ability to forecast agricultural field fires and provide important advances in understanding fire formation in Northeastern China. They would also provide scientific and technical support for crop fire control and air quality forecasting.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101616
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1617: Nutrient Accumulation in Cover Crops
           under Contrasting Water Regimes in the Brazilian Cerrado

    • Authors: Alberto do Nascimento Silva, Walter Quadros Ribeiro Junior, Maria Lucrecia Gerosa Ramos, Cristiane Andrea de Lima, Adilson Jayme-Oliveira, Antonio Marcos Miranda Silva, Arminda Moreira de Carvalho
      First page: 1617
      Abstract: Brazilian Cerrado has a dry period, and the inclusion of new species for diversification in the production system needs to be drought-tolerant. This work aimed to evaluate biomass and nutrient accumulation in species with potential as cover crops and grain crops under different water levels. Irrigation treatments were obtained through an irrigation bar with sprinklers with increasing water flows to create a continuous gradient. The experimental design randomized complete blocks in split plots with four replications. The main plots were composed of four water regimes (167 mm, 268 mm, 381 mm and 432 mm), and the subplots were formed by the following cover crops: Amaranthus cruenthus, Chenopodium quinoa and Pennisetum glaucum, the latter already used for this purpose. Amaranthus cruenthus and P. glaucum recorded the highest dry biomass (10.16 and 9.75 Mg ha−1, respectively). Dry biomass production and the cellulose contents decreased with the reduction of water availability for all species. A. cruenthus was the species that most accumulated P (37.42 kg ha−1), K (416.92 kg ha−1), Mg (30.88 kg ha−1), S (43.53 kg ha−1), Fe (2.22 kg ha−1), B (0.124 kg ha−1) and Zn (0.240 kg ha−1). Amaranthus cruenthus produced the highest yield. Under high and low water availability conditions, A. cruenthus presents potential as a cover crop and grain cash crop, in addition to accumulating more nutrients; P. glaucum has potential as a cover crop and C. quinoa only for grain production.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101617
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1618: Influence of Particulate Matter on the
           Albedo of Qiangtang No. 1 Glacier, Tibetan Plateau

    • Authors: Tianli Xu, Guangjian Wu, Zhengliang Yu, Yifan Pan, Sen Li, Ni Yan
      First page: 1618
      Abstract: The melting behavior of glaciers on and around the Tibetan Plateau is strongly influenced by their albedo. In this paper, we report continuous observations made on the Qiangtang (QT) No. 1 Glacier, located in the central Tibetan Plateau, during its 2013–2015 melting seasons. Surface snow on the QT No. 1 Glacier mainly had a dust content less than 600 ppm and a black carbon (BC) content less than 10 ppb. A strong negative correlation was observed between albedo and dust content up to a threshold concentration of 1000 ppm, although albedo remained constant when dust concentrations increased above this value. The radii of snow particles showed a log-normal distribution that had a mean value of ~500 μm, but maximum and minimum values of 2539 μm and 40 μm, respectively. Snow density showed a normal distribution with a total range of 193–555 kg/m3, although most snow had a density of 400 kg/m3. Snow, ice, and aerosol radiative (SNICAR) simulations showed that dust and BC in the surface snow of the QT No. 1 Glacier reduced the snow and ice albedo by 5.9% and 0.06%, respectively, during the ablation season in 2015; however, the simulated particle impact was greater than the albedo reduction measured from field data. We interpret that dust has played a significantly more important role in melting of the QT No. 1 Glacier than BC over the study period, which is mainly due to the scarcity of human activities in the region and the low concentration of BC being produced.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101618
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1619: On the Spatio-Temporal Dependence of
           Anomalies in the Atmospheric Electric Field Just around the Time of

    • Authors: Yasuhide Hobara, Mako Watanabe, Risa Miyajima, Hiroshi Kikuchi, Takuo Tsuda, Masashi Hayakawa
      First page: 1619
      Abstract: In this study, we report atmospheric electric field (AEF) anomalies observed around the time of earthquakes (EQs) in Japan. Using a newly developed AEF observation network with three spatially separated stations in Japan (Chofu, Kakioka, and Iwaki), we conducted a study for two EQs that occurred within a few 100 km from the EQ epicenter under relatively good local weather conditions as shown by a local all-sky camera and weather information. Time series and wavelet analyses of the AEF indicate that fluctuation anomalies in the AEF with periods of 10–60 min and larger than 70 min were observed from a few hours before up to a few hours after the occurrence of the EQs. The lag in the onset time increased with increasing distance from the EQ epicenter to the field site. The above-mentioned characteristics of these AEF fluctuation anomalies were similar among the three stations, and therefore the observed AEF anomalies were considered to be an imminent precursor of EQs. The observed AEF anomalies were likely to be caused by internal gravity waves (IGWs) generated around the EQ epicenter a few hours before the EQ, passing over the field site while changing the AEF by changing the space charge density in the surface layer of the atmosphere.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101619
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 1620: Sustainability Enhancement of
           Fossil-Fueled Power Plants by Optimal Design and Operation of
           Membrane-Based CO2 Capture Process

    • Authors: Javad Asadi, Pejman Kazempoor
      First page: 1620
      Abstract: Fossil-fueled power plants are a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and the membrane process is a promising technology for CO2 removal and mitigation. This study aims to develop optimal membrane-based carbon capture systems to enhance the sustainability of fossil-fuel power plants by reducing their energy consumption and operating costs. The multi-stage membrane process is numerically modeled using Aspen Custom Modeler based on the solution-diffusion mechanism and then the effects of important operating and design parameters are investigated. Multi-objective process optimization is then carried out by linking Aspen Plus with MATLAB and using an evolutionary technique to determine optimal operating and design conditions. The results show that, as the CO2 concentration in the feed gas increases, the CO2 capture cost significantly decreases and CO2 removal is enhanced, although the process energy demand slightly increases. The best possible trade-offs between objective functions are reported and analyzed, which confirm the considerable potential for improving the sustainability of the process. The CO2 capture cost and energy penalty of the process is as low as 13.1$/tCO2 and 10% at optimal design and operating conditions. This study provides valuable insight into membrane separation and can be used by decision-makers for the sustainable improvement of fossil-fueled power plants.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13101620
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 10 (2022)
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