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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Climate Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 145)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Nīvār     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Atmosphere
Number of Followers: 33  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-4433
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 703: Short-Term Intensive Rainfall Forecasting
           Model Based on a Hierarchical Dynamic Graph Network

    • Authors: Huosheng Xie, Rongyao Zheng, Qing Lin
      First page: 703
      Abstract: Accurate short-term forecasting of intensive rainfall has high practical value but remains difficult to achieve. Based on deep learning and spatial–temporal sequence predictions, this paper proposes a hierarchical dynamic graph network. To fully model the correlations among data, the model uses a dynamically constructed graph convolution operator to model the spatial correlation, a recurrent structure to model the time correlation, and a hierarchical architecture built with graph pooling to extract and fuse multi-level feature spaces. Experiments on two datasets, based on the measured cumulative rainfall data at a ground station in Fujian Province, China, and the corresponding numerical weather grid product, show that this method can model various correlations among data more effectively than the baseline methods, achieving further improvements owing to reversed sequence enhancement and low-rainfall sequence removal.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050703
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 704: On the Redox-Activity and Health-Effects
           of Atmospheric Primary and Secondary Aerosol: Phenomenology

    • Authors: Francesca Costabile, Stefano Decesari, Roberta Vecchi, Franco Lucarelli, Gabriele Curci, Dario Massabò, Matteo Rinaldi, Maurizio Gualtieri, Emanuela Corsini, Elena Menegola, Silvia Canepari, Lorenzo Massimi, Stefania Argentini, Maurizio Busetto, Gianluca Di Iulio, Luca Di Liberto, Marco Paglione, Igor Petenko, Mara Russo, Angela Marinoni, Gianpietro Casasanta, Sara Valentini, Vera Bernardoni, Federica Crova, Gianluigi Valli, Alice Corina Forello, Fabio Giardi, Silvia Nava, Giulia Pazzi, Paolo Prati, Virginia Vernocchi, Teresa La Torretta, Ettore Petralia, Milena Stracquadanio, Gabriele Zanini, Gloria Melzi, Emma Nozza, Martina Iulini, Donatella Caruso, Lucia Cioffi, Gabriele Imperato, Flavio Giavarini, Maria Battistoni, Francesca Di Renzo, Maria Agostina Frezzini, Cinzia Perrino, Maria Cristina Facchini
      First page: 704
      Abstract: The RHAPS (Redox-Activity And Health-Effects Of Atmospheric Primary And Secondary Aerosol) project was launched in 2019 with the major objective of identifying specific properties of the fine atmospheric aerosol from combustion sources that are responsible for toxicological effects and can be used as new metrics for health-related outdoor pollution studies. In this paper, we present the overall methodology of RHAPS and introduce the phenomenology and the first data observed. A comprehensive physico-chemical aerosol characterization has been achieved by means of high-time resolution measurements (e.g., number size distributions, refractory chemical components, elemental composition) and low-time resolution analyses (e.g., oxidative potential, toxicological assays, chemical composition). Preliminary results indicate that, at the real atmospheric conditions observed (i.e., daily PM1 from less than 4 to more than 50 μg m−3), high/low mass concentrations of PM1, as well as black carbon (BC) and water soluble Oxidative Potential (WSOP,) do not necessarily translate into high/low toxicity. Notably, these findings were observed during a variety of atmospheric conditions and aerosol properties and with different toxicological assessments. Findings suggest a higher complexity in the relations observed between atmospheric aerosol and toxicological endpoints that go beyond the currently used PM1 metrics. Finally, we provide an outlook to companion papers where data will be analyzed in more detail, with the focus on source apportionment of PM1 and the role of source emissions on aerosol toxicity, the OP as a predictive variable for PM1 toxicity, and the related role of SOA possessing redox-active capacity, exposure-response relationships for PM1, and air quality models to forecast PM1 toxicity.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050704
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 705: Comparative Analysis of SCMOC and Models
           Rainstorm Forecasting Performance in Qinling Mountains and Their
           Surrounding Areas

    • Authors: Liujie Pan, Hongfang Zhang, Jing Liu, Xingxing Gao, Chunjuan Qi
      First page: 705
      Abstract: Taking CMPA (CMA Multi-source Merged Precipitation Analysis System) analysis data as a reference, the research analyzes the forecast performance of ECMWF, CMA-Meso, and SCMOC (National Meteorological Center grid precipitation forecast guidance product) in 74 rainstorm cases in 2020 and 2021 in Qinling Mountains and their surrounding areas by using the dichotomy classical verification score comprehensive diagram and the object-oriented MODE spatial verification method, based on the circulation classification in rainstorm weather. The research conclusions are as follows: (1) based on the high- and low-altitude circulation situation and focused on the direct impact system, rainstorms in the Qinling Mountains and their surrounding areas can be divided into five patterns. (2) Point-to-point verification shows that SCMOC has obvious advantages in rainstorm forecast, but the disadvantage is that the Bias is relatively high. CMA-Meso has advantages in RST (weak weather system) decentralized rainstorm forecast. (3) MODE verification shows that the number of ECMWF and SCMOC independent objects is significantly lower than that of observation, the forecast area of regional rainstorm objects of SCMOC is significantly larger, the SCMOC scattered rainstorm objects are missed, and the number of independent precipitation objects of CMA-Meso is higher than that of the other two precipitation products. (4) The forecast object area and intensity of SCMOC and observation match best in the XFC (westerly trough) circulation situation, while ECMWF has the best results for the forecast of FGXFC (subtropical high westerly trough) rainstorms.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050705
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 706: Air Quality and Behavioral Impacts of
           Anti-Idling Campaigns in School Drop-Off Zones

    • Authors: Daniel L. Mendoza, Tabitha M. Benney, Ryan Bares, Benjamin Fasoli, Corbin Anderson, Shawn A. Gonzales, Erik T. Crosman, Madelyn Bayles, Rachel T. Forrest, John R. Contreras, Sebastian Hoch
      First page: 706
      Abstract: Vehicle emissions are a major source of pollution in urban communities and idling may contribute up to 34% or more to local air pollution levels. Reduced idling has been found to be an effective policy tool for improving air quality, especially around schools, where it may also improve outcomes for asthmatic children. We studied two anti-idling campaigns in Salt Lake County, Utah to understand if reduced engine idling leads to behavioral change and subsequent reduction in traffic-related air pollution exposure of the related school. We found a 38% decrease in idling time following an anti-idling campaign and an 11% decrease in the number of vehicles idling at the school drop-off zones. The air quality measurements showed improvement in the middle of the campaign, but seasonal variability as well as atmospheric inversion events had substantial effects on overall ambient pollutant concentrations. This study provides an encouraging starting point to develop more effective anti-idling campaigns to protect the health of children, school staff, and the surrounding community.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050706
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 707: Predicting Atlantic Hurricanes Using
           Machine Learning

    • Authors: Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera, Raúl Martell-Dubois, Willie Soon, Graciela Velasco Herrera, Sergio Cerdeira-Estrada, Emmanuel Zúñiga, Laura Rosique-de la Cruz
      First page: 707
      Abstract: Every year, tropical hurricanes affect North and Central American wildlife and people. The ability to forecast hurricanes is essential in order to minimize the risks and vulnerabilities in North and Central America. Machine learning is a newly tool that has been applied to make predictions about different phenomena. We present an original framework utilizing Machine Learning with the purpose of developing models that give insights into the complex relationship between the land–atmosphere–ocean system and tropical hurricanes. We study the activity variations in each Atlantic hurricane category as tabulated and classified by NOAA from 1950 to 2021. By applying wavelet analysis, we find that category 2–4 hurricanes formed during the positive phase of the quasi-quinquennial oscillation. In addition, our wavelet analyses show that super Atlantic hurricanes of category 5 strength were formed only during the positive phase of the decadal oscillation. The patterns obtained for each Atlantic hurricane category, clustered historical hurricane records in high and null tropical hurricane activity seasons. Using the observational patterns obtained by wavelet analysis, we created a long-term probabilistic Bayesian Machine Learning forecast for each of the Atlantic hurricane categories. Our results imply that if all such natural activity patterns and the tendencies for Atlantic hurricanes continue and persist, the next groups of hurricanes over the Atlantic basin will begin between 2023 ± 1 and 2025 ± 1, 2023 ± 1 and 2025 ± 1, 2025 ± 1 and 2028 ± 1, 2026 ± 2 and 2031 ± 3, for hurricane strength categories 2 to 5, respectively. Our results further point out that in the case of the super hurricanes of the Atlantic of category 5, they develop in five geographic areas with hot deep waters that are rather very well defined: (I) the east coast of the United States, (II) the Northeast of Mexico, (III) the Caribbean Sea, (IV) the Central American coast, and (V) the north of the Greater Antilles.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050707
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 708: The Impact of Improved Topographic
           Resolution on the Distribution of Terrain Spectra and Grid-Size Selection
           for Mesoscale Models

    • Authors: Chengxin Wang, Li Liang, Wancheng Zhang, Shouting Gao, Shuai Yang
      First page: 708
      Abstract: Spectral analysis of terrain height variance is conducive to quantitatively study the terrain characteristics and grid-size selection for mesoscale models. Improved topographic resolutions can lead to the variations of terrain characteristics and the appropriate grid size for a fixed analyzed area. Spectral methods of one-dimensional weighted average and arithmetic mean were used to investigate the specific impact on the distribution of terrain spectra and grid-size selection for mesoscale models of the landslide-prone areas in western Sichuan. The results indicate that the maximum spectral energy (the variance of the terrain height series) of 30″ resolution (R1) is larger than that of 90 m resolution (R2), indicating a gentler undulation of terrain for R2. The spectral curve of R2 almost overlaps with that of R1 because the difference in topographic resolution does not change the dominant distribution of the topography. Their differing spectral energies at longer wavelengths are related to the majority of grid points of R2 distributed at shorter wavelength bands. A least squares fit in the form of S=aλb was used to estimate the decreasing trend of the spectral distribution. The difference in spectral slope between R1 and R2 is mainly caused by the spectral energy of R2 at shorter wavelengths. The exponent b is connected with grid-size selection for mesoscale models. A universal horizontal grid size of 2.5 km for R1 and 1.9 km for R2 are required to resolve 95% of the terrain height variance for a mesoscale model application without a subgrid-scale parameterization. The simulation tests show that the improved topographic resolution appears to perform better in reproducing precipitation, which is probably related to the finer details of the terrain recognized by the model.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050708
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 709: Determination of Volatility Parameters of
           Secondary Organic Aerosol Components via Thermal Analysis

    • Authors: Fawad Ashraf, Zaeem Bin Babar, Jun-Hyun Park, Pham Duy Quang Dao, Chan Sik Cho, Ho-Jin Lim
      First page: 709
      Abstract: To date, there are limited data on the thermal properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components. In this study, we employed an experimental method to evaluate the physical properties of some atmospherically relevant compounds. We estimated the thermodynamic properties of SOA components, in particularly some carboxylic acids. The molar heat capacity, melting point and enthalpy, and vaporization enthalpy of the samples were determined via differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, and their vaporization enthalpy (ΔHvap) was estimated using Clausius–Clapeyron and Langmuir equations based on their thermogravimetric profiles. The thermodynamic properties of benzoic acid as a reference compound agree well with the reported values. The obtained specific heat capacities of benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, ketopinic acid, cis-pinonic acid, terpenylic acid and diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA) are 118.1, 169.4, 189.9, 223.9, 246.1, 223.2, and 524.1 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. The ΔHvap of benzoic acid, phthalic acid, ketopinic acid, DTAA, and 3-methylbutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) are 93.2 ± 0.4, 131.6, 113.8, and 124.4 kJ mol−1, respectively. The melting and vaporization enthalpies of the SOA components range from 7.3 to 29.7 kJ mol−1.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050709
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 710: Density Estimation of Fog in Image Based
           on Dark Channel Prior

    • Authors: Hong Guo, Xiaochun Wang, Hongjun Li
      First page: 710
      Abstract: This paper proposes a method and an original index for the estimation of fog density using images or videos. The proposed method had the advantages of convenient operation and low costs for applications in automatic driving and environmental monitoring. The index was constructed based on a dark channel map and the pseudo-edge details of the foggy image. The effectiveness of the fog density index was demonstrated and validated through experiments on the two existing open datasets. The experimental results showed that the presented index could correctly estimate the fog density of images: (1) the estimated fog density value was consistent with the corresponding label in the Color Hazy Image Database (CHIC) in terms of rank order; (2) the estimated fog density level was consistent with the corresponding label in the Cityscapes database and the accuracy reached as high as 0.9812; (3) the proposed index could be used to evaluate the performance of a video defogging algorithm in terms of residual fog.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050710
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 711: Understanding the Sources of Ambient Fine
           Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Shedrack R. Nayebare, Omar S. Aburizaiza, Azhar Siddique, Mirza M. Hussain, Jahan Zeb, Fida Khatib, David O. Carpenter, Donald R. Blake, Haider A. Khwaja
      First page: 711
      Abstract: Urban air pollution is rapidly becoming a major environmental problem of public concern in several developing countries of the world. Jeddah, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia, is subject to high air pollution that has severe implications for the health of the exposed population. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected for 24 h daily, during a 1-year campaign from 2013 to 2014. This study presents a detailed investigation of PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, and sources covering all four seasons of the year. Samples were analyzed for black carbon (BC), trace elements (TEs), and water-soluble ionic species (IS). The chemical compositions were statistically examined, and the temporal and seasonal patterns were characterized using descriptive analysis, correlation matrices, and elemental enrichment factor (EF). Source apportionment and source locations were performed on PM2.5 samples using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, elemental enrichment factor, and air-mass back trajectory analysis. The 24-h mean PM2.5 and BC concentrations ranged from 33.9 ± 9.1–58.8 ± 25 µg/m3 and 1.8 ± 0.4–2.4 ± 0.6 µg/m3, respectively. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24-h WHO guideline of 15 µg/m3, with overall results showing significant temporal and seasonal variability. EF defined two broad categories of TEs: anthropogenic (Ni, V, Cu, Zn, Cl, Pb, S, Lu, and Br), and earth-crust derived (Al, Si, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Sr). The five identified factors resulting from PMF were (1) fossil-fuels/oil combustion (45.3%), (2) vehicular emissions (19.1%), (3) soil/dust resuspension (15.6%), (4) industrial mixed dust (13.5%), and (5) sea-spray (6.5%). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies, not only on reducing PM concentration but also on the reduction of components of the PM as well, to effectively protect human health and the environment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050711
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 712: Atmospheric Deposition of Benzo[a]pyrene:
           Developing a Spatial Pattern at a National Scale

    • Authors: Iva Hůnová, Pavel Kurfürst, Leona Vlasáková, Markéta Schreiberová, Hana Škáchová
      First page: 712
      Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), an indicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere, is an important ambient air pollutant with significant human health and environmental effects. In the Czech Republic (CR), BaP, together with aerosol and ambient ozone, ranks (with respect to limit value exceedances and resulting population exposure) among the most problematic air pollutants. The aim of this study is to develop atmospheric deposition patterns of BaP in three years, namely 2012, 2015 and 2019, reflecting different BaP ambient levels. With respect to the available measurements, we accounted for dry deposition fluxes, neglecting wet contribution. We assumed, nevertheless, that the real atmospheric deposition is dominated by dry pathways in our conditions, which is supported by measurements from the rural site of Košetice. The dry deposition spatial pattern was constructed using an inferential approach, with two input layers, i.e., annual mean ambient air BaP concentrations, and deposition velocity of 0.89 cm·s−1. Though our results show an overall decrease in BaP loads over the years, the BaP deposition fluxes, in particular in the broader Ostrava region, remain very high. The presented maps can be considered an acceptable approximation of total BaP deposition and are useful for further detailed analysis of airborne BaP impacts on the environment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050712
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 713: Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data for Lake
           Change Detection in Xinjiang, China

    • Authors: Yuting Liu, Zhaoxia Ye, Qiaoyun Jia, Aynur Mamat, Hanxiao Guan
      First page: 713
      Abstract: Lake water resources in arid areas play an important role in regional resource and environmental management. Therefore, to master the dynamic changes in lake water resources in arid areas, the laser altimetry satellite and land resource satellite were used to interpret the changes in water level and the areas of alpine lakes and non-alpine lakes. The dynamic changes in the lake and their relationship with glacial meltwater, precipitation, and runoff of the lake basin were analyzed using the unary linear regression equation, the ratio of glacier area to lake area (G–L ratio), and the ratio of lake basin area to lake area (supply coefficient). The results were as follows: the changes in alpine lakes were closely related to the supply coefficient (basin/lake area ratio) but weakly related to the G–L ratio (glacier/lake area ratio). In addition, the spatial pattern of lake change was consistent with that of climate change. There was a strong correlation between the lake, precipitation, and temperature during the snowmelt period. Thus, it can be seen that the changes in the lake were caused by precipitation, glacial melt, snowmelt, and other multi-factors. Therefore, this study on the changes in water resources in different types of lakes and their influencing factors provides data support for water resources managers to evaluate the health and sustainable utilization of the ecological environment.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050713
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 714: Mortality Burden of Heatwaves in Sydney,
           Australia Is Exacerbated by the Urban Heat Island and Climate Change: Can
           Tree Cover Help Mitigate the Health Impacts'

    • Authors: Timothy B. Chaston, Richard A. Broome, Nathan Cooper, Gerard Duck, Christy Geromboux, Yuming Guo, Fei Ji, Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Ying Zhang, Gnanadarsha S. Dissanayake, Geoffrey G. Morgan, Ivan C. Hanigan
      First page: 714
      Abstract: Heatwaves are associated with increased mortality and are exacerbated by the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Thus, to inform climate change mitigation and adaptation, we quantified the mortality burden of historical heatwave days in Sydney, Australia, assessed the contribution of the UHI effect and used climate change projection data to estimate future health impacts. We also assessed the potential for tree cover to mitigate against the UHI effect. Mortality (2006–2018) records were linked with census population data, weather observations (1997–2016) and climate change projections to 2100. Heatwave-attributable excess deaths were calculated based on risk estimates from a published heatwave study of Sydney. High resolution satellite observations of UHI air temperature excesses and green cover were used to determine associated effects on heat-related mortality. These data show that >90% of heatwave days would not breach heatwave thresholds in Sydney if there were no UHI effect and that numbers of heatwave days could increase fourfold under the most extreme climate change scenario. We found that tree canopy reduces urban heat, and that widespread tree planting could offset the increases in heat-attributable deaths as climate warming progresses.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050714
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 715: Analysis of the Characteristics of Ozone
           Pollution in the North China Plain from 2016 to 2020

    • Authors: Xinyu Wang, Wenhui Zhao, Tianyue Zhang, Yun Qiu, Pengfei Ma, Lingjun Li, Lili Wang, Mi Wang, Dongyang Zheng, Wenji Zhao
      First page: 715
      Abstract: As a major gaseous pollutant, ozone (O3) adversely affects human health and ecosystems. In recent years, ozone pollution in China has gradually become a prominent issue, especially in the North China Plain (NCP). To study the long-term spatio-temporal variation patterns of O3 in the NCP, this study selected 230 monitoring stations in the NCP from 2016 to 2020 as research objects, used the Kriging interpolation method and global Moran’s index to discuss the spatial-temporal distribution of O3, combining meteorological and social statistical data to analyze the causes underlying regional differences. The temporal analysis demonstrated that the O3-8h average concentrations increased annually from 2016 to 2018 and decreased from 2019 to 2020. The O3 concentrations were higher in spring and summer (117.89–154.20 μg/m3) and lower in autumn and winter (53.81–92.95 μg/m3). The spatial analysis revealed that O3 concentrations were low in the north and south of the NCP but high in the central area. The spatial distribution of O3 exhibited considerable cross-seasonal variability. Both meteorological conditions of high temperature and low pressure increased O3 concentrations. The spatial distribution of O3 varied depending on the period. However, the central and western regions of the Shandong Province were constantly characterized by high O3 concentrations. This pattern has been likely formed by heavy industry in the Shandong Province, as large-scale industrial production and frequent traffic flows produce a large amount of precursors, thereby exacerbating regional O3 pollution. These characteristics were attributed to emission reduction policies, meteorological conditions, the emission intensity of anthropogenic sources, and regional transport in the NCP. Overall, for cities with heavy industrial facilities in the central NCP, a timely adjustment of the energy and industrial structure, effectively controlling the emission of precursors, promoting new clean energy, and strengthening regional joint prevention and control are effective ways to alleviate O3 pollution.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050715
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 716: Detailed Carbon Isotope Study of PM2.5
           Aerosols at Urban Background, Suburban Background and Regional Background
           Sites in Hungary

    • Authors: István Major, Mihály Molnár, István Futó, Virág Gergely, Sándor Bán, Attila Machon, Imre Salma, Tamás Varga
      First page: 716
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate and refine the potential sources of carbon in the atmospheric PM2.5 fraction aerosol at three sampling sites in Hungary. Quantification of total, organic and elemental carbon (TC, OC and EC, respectively), as well as radiocarbon (14C) and stable carbon isotope analyses were performed on exposed filters collected at an urban background site, a suburban background site of the capital of Hungary, Budapest from October 2017 to July 2018. Results were also collected from the rural regional background site of K-puszta. Compared to TC concentrations from other regions of Europe, the ratio of the lowest and highest values at all sites in Hungary are lower than these European locations, probably due to the specific meteorological conditions prevailing in the Carpathian Basin over the observation period. The concentration of OC was constantly higher than that of EC and a seasonal variation with higher values in the heating period (October–March) and lower values in the non-heating vegetation period (April–September) could be observed for both EC and OC fractions. Using 14C, the seasonal mean fraction of contemporary carbon (fC) within the TC varied between 0.50 and 0.78 at the sites, suggesting that modern sources were remarkable during the year, regardless of the heating or vegetation period. At the two urban sites, assuming constant industrial emission during the year, the fossil fuel combustion sources were responsible for the seasonal variation of EC, while modern carbon emissions from biomass-burning and biogenic sources influenced the OC concentration. The higher EC/TC ratios at these sites were associated with lower fC and δ13C values, which can be explained by soot emission from transportation. The notably high EC/TC ratios in the spring were likely caused by the reduced concentration of OC instead of increased EC concentrations. This could probably be caused by the ending of winter biomass burning, which emits a huge amount of OC into the atmosphere. On the contrary, the rural K-puszta site showed some differences relative to the sites in Budapest. No correlation could be revealed between the EC/TC ratio, fC and δ13C results, suggesting that the structure of sources was very stagnant and balanced in each season. In autumn, however, some less depleted values were observed, and agricultural corn-stalk burning after harvesting in the southern and eastern directions from Hungary can be suggested as the main source.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050716
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 717: Investigation of the Upper Respiratory
           Tract of a Male Smoker with Laryngeal Cancer by Inhaling Air Associated
           with Various Physical Activity Levels

    • Authors: Hamidreza Mortazavy Beni, Hamed Mortazavi, Ebrahim Tashvighi, Mohammad S. Islam
      First page: 717
      Abstract: Smokers are at a higher risk of laryngeal cancer, which is a type of head and neck cancer in which cancer cells proliferate and can metastasize to other tissues after a tumor has formed. Cigarette smoke greatly reduces the inhaled air quality and can also lead to laryngeal cancer. In this study, the upper airway of a 70-year-old smoker with laryngeal cancer was reconstructed by taking a CT scan using Mimics software. To solve the governing equations, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a pressure base approach was used with the help of Ansys 2021 R1 software. As a result, the maximum turbulence intensity occurred in the larynx. At 13 L/min, 55 L/min, and 100 L/min, the maximum turbulence intensity was 1.1, 3.5, and 6.1, respectively. The turbulence intensity in the respiratory system is crucial because it demonstrates the ability to transfer energy. The maximum wall shear stress (WSS) also occurred in the larynx. At 13 L/min, 55 L/min, and 100 L/min, the maximum WSS was 0.62 Pa, 5.4 Pa, and 12.4 Pa, respectively. The WSS index cannot be calculated in vivo and should be calculated in vitro. Excessive WSS in the epiglottis is inappropriate and can lead to an airway obstruction. Furthermore, real mathematical modeling outcomes provide an approach for future prevention, treatment, and management planning by forecasting the zones prone to an acceleration of disease progression. In this regard, accurate computational modeling leads to pre-visualization in surgical planning to define the best reformative techniques to determine the most probable patient condition consequences.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050717
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 718: Climatic Signals on Growth Ring Variation
           in Salix herbacea: Comparing Two Contrasting Sites in Iceland

    • Authors: Mohit Phulara, Magdalena Opała-Owczarek, Piotr Owczarek
      First page: 718
      Abstract: Salix herbacea, being such an adaptive species, has never been studied for its climatic response. The main purpose of this study is to examine the dendrochronological potential of S. herbacea. Furthermore, it aims to identify the main environmental factors that are influencing its growth. We selected two sampling sites that are different in terms of morphology and climate. Overall, 40 samples of dwarf willow were collected from two research sites and were analyzed by following the standard dendrochronological methods. The ring width chronology of the dwarf willow from the Afrétt site spans 1953–2017, i.e., 64 years. The correlations between air temperature and the ring width of dwarf willow indicate that this species responds positively to spring and summer temperatures for the Myrdal site. For the Afrétt site, this species responds positively to winter and summer precipitation. These effects may be related to tundra browning, a process that has appeared since the beginning of the 21st century. Our work is the first attempt to create a growth ring chronology of S. herbacea and to investigate its climate sensitivity. Despite the differences in local climate in both sites, this species shows its potentiality and a direct imprint of recent environmental changes in its ring width growth pattern.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050718
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 719: New Homogeneous Spatial Areas Identified
           Using Case-Crossover Spatial Lag Grid Differences between Aerosol Optical
           Depth-PM2.5 and Respiratory-Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits and
           Hospitalizations

    • Authors: John T. Braggio, Eric S. Hall, Stephanie A. Weber, Amy K. Huff
      First page: 719
      Abstract: Optimal use of Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM)-assembled aerosol optical depth (AOD)-PM2.5 fused surfaces in epidemiologic studies requires homogeneous temporal and spatial fused surfaces. No analytical method is available to evaluate spatial heterogeneity. The temporal case-crossover design was modified to assess the spatial association between four experimental AOD-PM2.5 fused surfaces and four respiratory–cardiovascular hospital events in 12 km2 grids. The maximum number of adjacent lag grids with significant odds ratios (ORs) identified homogeneous spatial areas (HOSAs). The largest HOSA included five grids (lag grids 04; 720 km2) and the smallest HOSA contained two grids (lag grids 01; 288 km2). Emergency department asthma and inpatient asthma, myocardial infarction, and heart failure ORs were significantly higher in rural grids without air monitors than in urban grids with air monitors at lag grids 0, 1, and 01. Rural grids had higher AOD-PM2.5 concentration levels, population density, and poverty percentages than urban grids. Warm season ORs were significantly higher than cold season ORs for all health outcomes at lag grids 0, 1, 01, and 04. The possibility of elevated fine and ultrafine PM and other demographic and environmental risk factors synergistically contributing to elevated respiratory–cardiovascular chronic diseases in persons residing in rural areas was discussed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050719
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 720: Changes in Precipitation Conditions in the
           Warm Half-Year in the Polish–Saxon Border Region in Relation to the
           Atmospheric Circulation

    • Authors: Bartłomiej Miszuk
      First page: 720
      Abstract: Precipitations are one of the most important factors affecting water resources in the transboundary Polish–Saxon region. The main goal of the research was to examine the multiannual changes in precipitations in the April–September period in 1971–2018, depending on circulation conditions, based on Ojrzyńska’s classification. The analysis was carried out based on meteorological data from Polish and German meteorological stations. The results showed that most of precipitation totals and intensive precipitations were observed under SW-A and SW-C circulation, whereas the anticyclonic types of NE-A, NW-A and SW-A were mainly responsible for dry days occurrence. In terms of multiannual changes, most of the stations were characterized by insignificant trends for the considered indices. Some positive trends were observed for intensive precipitations in the lower hypsometric zones. In the mountains, a decreasing tendency dominated for both precipitation totals and intensive precipitations, especially for the northern types of circulation. Furthermore, a significant increase was reported throughout the region for most of the indices for the SW-A type, including precipitation totals, strong precipitations and dry days. Considering the observed trends, floods related to heavy rains can intensify in the lowlands, while a potential increase in the anticyclonic circulation can significantly limit water resources in the region.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050720
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 721: Usefulness of Automatic Hyperparameter
           Optimization in Developing Radiation Emulator in a Numerical Weather
           Prediction Model

    • Authors: Park Sa Kim, Hwan-Jin Song
      First page: 721
      Abstract: To improve the forecasting accuracy of a radiation emulator in a weather prediction model over the Korean peninsula, the learning rate used in neural network training was automatically optimized using the Sherpa. The Sherpa experiment results were compared with two control simulation results using learning rates of 0.0001 and 1 for different batch sizes (full to 500). In the offline evaluation, the Sherpa results showed significant improvements in predicting longwave/shortwave heating rates and fluxes compared to the lowest learning rate results, whereas the improvements compared to the highest learning rate were relatively small because the optimized values by the Sherpa were 0.4756–0.6656. The online evaluation results over one month, which were linked with the weather prediction model, demonstrated the usefulness of Sherpa on a universal performance for the radiation emulator. In particular, at the full batch size, Sherpa contributed to reducing the one-week forecast errors for longwave/shortwave fluxes, skin temperature, and precipitation by 39–125%, 137–159%, and 24–26%, respectively, compared with the two control simulations. Considering the widespread use of parallel learning based on full batch, Sherpa can contribute to producing robust results regardless of batch sizes used in neural network training for developing radiation emulators.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050721
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 722: Use of Low-Cost Sensors to Characterize
           Occupational Exposure to PM2.5 Concentrations Inside an Industrial
           Facility in Santa Ana, CA: Results from a Worker- and Community-Led Pilot
           Study

    • Authors: Shahir Masri, Jose Rea, Jun Wu
      First page: 722
      Abstract: PM2.5 is an air contaminant that has been widely associated with adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health, leading to increased hospital admissions and mortality. Following concerns reported by workers at an industrial facility located in Santa Ana, California, workers and community leaders collaborated with experts in the development of an air monitoring pilot study to measure PM2.5 concentrations to which employees and local residents are exposed during factory operating hours. To detect PM2.5, participants wore government-validated AtmoTube Pro personal air monitoring devices during three separate workdays (5 AM–1:30 PM) in August 2021. Results demonstrated a mean PM2.5 level inside the facility of 112.3 µg/m3, nearly seven-times greater than outdoors (17.3 µg/m3). Of the eight workers who wore personal indoor sampling devices, five showed measurements over 100 μg/m3. Welding-related activity inside the facility resulted in the greatest PM2.5 concentrations. This study demonstrates the utility of using low-cost air quality sensors combined with employee knowledge and participation for the investigation of workplace air pollution exposure as well as facilitation of greater health-related awareness, education, and empowerment among workers and community members. Results also underscore the need for basic measures of indoor air pollution control paired with ongoing air monitoring within the Santa Ana facility, and the importance of future air monitoring studies aimed at industrial facilities.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050722
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 723: Investigation of Policy Relevant
           Background (PRB) Ozone in East Asia

    • Authors: Yun Fat Lam, Hung Ming Cheung
      First page: 723
      Abstract: The concept of Policy Relevant Background (PRB) ozone has emerged in recent years to address the air quality baseline on the theoretical limits of air pollution controls. In this study, the influence of Long-range Transport (LRT) of air pollutants from North America and the effect of Stratosphere-Troposphere Transport (STT) on PRB ozone was investigated using GEOS-Chem coupled WRF-CMAQ modelling system. Four distinct seasons in 2006 were simulated to understand better the seasonal and geographical impacts of these externalities on PRB ozone over East Asia (EA). Overall, the LRT impact from North America has been found to be ~0.54 ppbv, while the maximum impacts were found at the mountain stations with values of 2.3 ppbv, 3.3 ppbv, 2.3 ppbv, and 3.0 ppbv for January, April, July, and October, respectively. In terms of PRB ozone, the effect of STT has enhanced the surface background ozone by ~3.0 ppbv, with a maximum impact of 7.8 ppbv found in the northeastern part of East Asia (near Korea and Japan). Springtime (i.e., April) has the most vital STT signals caused by relatively cold weather and unstable atmospheric condition resulting from the transition of the monsoon season. The simulated PRB ozone based on the mean values of the maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) is 53 ppbv for spring (April) and 22 ppbv for summer (July). Up to ~1.0 ppbv and ~2.2 ppbv of MDA8 ozone were attributed to LRT and STT, respectively. Among the selected cities, Beijing and Guangzhou have received the most substantial anthropogenic enhancement in MDA8 ozone in summer, ranging from 40.0 ppbv to 56.0 ppbv.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050723
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 724: An Estimation of Precipitation Retention
           Time Using Depth Metres in the Northern Basin of Lake Biwa

    • Authors: Maho Iwaki, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Naoshige Goto
      First page: 724
      Abstract: To facilitate climate change adaptations and water management, estimates of precipitation retention time (time required for precipitation to reach a lake) can help to accurately determine a water body’s terrestrial water storage capacity and water cycle. Although estimating the precipitation retention time on land is difficult, estimating the lag between precipitation on land and a rise in lake water levels is possible. In this study, the delay times (using a depth metre installed in the mooring system in the northern basin of Lake Biwa from August 2017 to October 2018) were calculated using response functions, and it evaluated the precipitation retention time in the catchment. However, as several delays between the river surface flow (<1 d) and shallow subsurface flow (≈45 d) remained unidentified, the delay times resulting from direct precipitation on the lake as well as from internal seiches were determined. The results suggest that delay times of approximately 20 d correspond to the paddy–waterway system between the river inflow and the subsurface flow, and that this effect corresponds to that of large rivers such as the Ane River. These findings can enhance water management strategies regarding the regulation of river flows, adapting to climate change-induced fluctuations in precipitation.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050724
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 725: Effects of Greening Areas and Water Bodies
           on Urban Microclimate in Wuhan—A Simulation Study Considering
           Prospective Planning

    • Authors: Qinli Deng, Zeng Zhou, Xiaofang Shan, Chuancheng Li, Daoru Liu
      First page: 725
      Abstract: To alleviate the urban heat island effect and reduce the consumption of electricity and expenditure caused by active cooling devices on hot days, many cities in tropical and subtropical areas emphasize the utilization of urban greening areas in current and future urban planning. We utilized the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) to simulate and study the impact of different greening area rates on the urban microclimate in business, residential, and industrial areas in Wuhan city. Meanwhile, we proposed two efficiency coefficients to evaluate the variable cooling benefit of the improvement of the greening area. The results show that greening areas and water bodies are the cooling sources of cities and that industrial areas benefit the most from improvements in the greening rate, with the average temperature declining by 1.06 °C with a 20% increase in the greening rate, while the corresponding values of residential and industrial areas were 0.98 °C and 0.92 °C, respectively. This research provides a reference for the future planning of tropical and subtropical areas to help improve the urban microclimate, thermal environment, and environmental comfort on hot days.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050725
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 726: CFD Study of Dry Pulmonary Surfactant
           Aerosols Deposition in Upper 17 Generations of Human Respiratory Tract

    • Authors: Tevfik Gemci, Valery Ponyavin, Richard Collins, Timothy E. Corcoran, Suvash C. Saha, Mohammad S. Islam
      First page: 726
      Abstract: The efficient generation of high concentrations of fine-particle, pure surfactant aerosols provides the possibility of new, rapid, and effective treatment modalities for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). SUPRAER-CATM is a patented technology by Kaer BiotherapeuticsTM, which is a new class of efficient aerosol drug generation and delivery system using Compressor Air (CA). SUPRAER-CA is capable of aerosolizing relatively viscous solutions or suspensions of proteins and surfactants and of delivering them as pure fine particle dry aerosols. In this Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study, we select a number of sites within the upper 17 generations of the human respiratory tract for calculation of the deposition of dry pulmonary surfactant aerosol particles. We predict the percentage of inhaled dry pulmonary surfactant aerosol arriving from the respiratory bronchioles to the terminal alveolar sacs. The dry pulmonary surfactant aerosols, with a Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of 2.6 µm and standard deviation of 1.9 µm, are injected into the respiratory tract at a dry surfactant aerosol flow rate of 163 mg/min to be used in the CFD study at an air inhalation flow rate of 44 L/min. This CFD study in the upper 17th generation of a male adult lung has shown computationally that the penetration fraction (PF) is approximately 25% for the inhaled surfactant aerosols. In conclusion, an ARDS patient might receive approximately one gram of inspired dry surfactant aerosol during an administration period of one hour as a possible means of further inflating partly collapsed alveoli.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050726
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 727: Hydrological Impact of the New ECMWF
           Multi-Layer Snow Scheme

    • Authors: Ervin Zsoter, Gabriele Arduini, Christel Prudhomme, Elisabeth Stephens, Hannah Cloke
      First page: 727
      Abstract: The representation of snow is a crucial aspect of land-surface modelling, as it has a strong influence on energy and water balances. Snow schemes with multiple layers have been shown to better describe the snowpack evolution and bring improvements to soil freezing and some hydrological processes. In this paper, the wider hydrological impact of the multi-layer snow scheme, implemented in the ECLand model, was analyzed globally on hundreds of catchments. ERA5-forced reanalysis simulations of ECLand were coupled to CaMa-Flood, as the hydrodynamic model to produce river discharge. Different sensitivity experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the ECLand snow and soil freezing scheme changes on the terrestrial hydrological processes, with particular focus on permafrost. It was found that the default multi-layer snow scheme can generally improve the river discharge simulation, with the exception of permafrost catchments, where snowmelt-driven floods are largely underestimated, due to the lack of surface runoff. It was also found that appropriate changes in the snow vertical discretization, destructive metamorphism, snow-soil thermal conductivity and soil freeze temperature could lead to large river discharge improvements in permafrost by adjusting the evolution of soil temperature, infiltration and the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050727
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 728: Temperature Change Characteristics in
           Gansu Province of China

    • Authors: Peng Zhao, Zhibin He
      First page: 728
      Abstract: The applicability of reanalysis data has been widely addressed in climate and hydrology studies over the past two decades. In this study, we analyzed spatiotemporal variations in ERA-Interim temperature data from four climate zones within Gansu Province from 1979 to 2017 by using linear regression model and Mann-Kendall mutation test. Results showed that: (1) The highest temperature was found in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, and the lowest in the plateau mountain climate zone. Temperatures in high-elevation regions were lower than those in low-elevation regions; (2) The annual mean temperature increased across Gansu Province from 1979 to 2017. The lowest warming rates of annual mean, annual maximum, and annual minimum temperatures were found in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, and these were 0.334, 0.300, and 0.336 °C/10a, respectively. The highest warming rates of annual mean and annual minimum temperature were found in the temperate monsoon climate zone, and these were 0.420 and 0.464 °C/10a, respectively. The highest warming rate of annual maximum temperature was found in the temperate continental climate zone (0.471 °C/10a); (3) The Mann-Kendall analysis showed that the mutation times of annual mean temperature of the subtropical monsoon, temperate monsoon, and temperate continental climate zones in Gansu Province were all in 1997. The mutation times of annual maximum temperature were found in the subtropical monsoon climate zone (1997) and temperate monsoon climate zone (1997). The mutation times of annual minimum temperature were found in the temperate continental climate zone (1997) and plateau mountain climate zone (1994). ERA-Interim reanalysis data are reliable for capturing mutation time of temperature, especially in the high-elevation areas with rare meteorological station. This study can provide a reference when analyzing climate change at different climatic zones using reanalysis data.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050728
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 729: The Effects of Local Pollution and
           Transport Dust on Aerosol Properties in Typical Arid Regions of Central
           Asia during DAO-K Measurement

    • Authors: Yuanyuan Wei, Zhengqiang Li, Ying Zhang, Kaitao Li, Jie Chen, Zongren Peng, Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Yang Ou
      First page: 729
      Abstract: Dust aerosol has an impact on both the regional radiation balance and the global radiative forcing estimation. The Taklimakan Desert is the focus of the present research on the optical and micro-physical characteristics of the dust aerosol characteristics in Central Asia. However, our knowledge is still limited regarding this typical arid region. The DAO-K (Dust Aerosol Observation-Kashgar) campaign in April 2019 presented a great opportunity to understand further the effects of local pollution and transported dust on the optical and physical characteristics of the background aerosol in Kashgar. In the present study, the consistency of the simultaneous observations is tested, based on the optical closure method. Three periods dominated by the regional background dust (RBD), local polluted dust (LPD), and Taklimakan transported dust (TTD), are identified through the backward trajectories, combined with the dust scores from AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder). The variations of the optical and micro-physical properties of dust aerosols are then studied, while a direct comparison of the total column and near surface is conducted. Generally, the mineral dust is supposed to be primarily composed of silicate minerals, which are mostly very weakly absorbing in the visible spectrum. Although there is very clean air (with PM2.5 of 21 μg/m3), a strong absorption (with an SSA of 0.77, AAE of 1.62) is still observed during the period dominated by the regional background dust aerosol. The near-surface observations show that there is PM2.5 pollution of ~98 μg/m3, with strong absorption in the Kashgar site during the whole observation. Local pollution can obviously enhance the absorption (with an SSA of 0.72, AAE of 1.58) of dust aerosol at the visible spectrum. This is caused by the increase in submicron fine particles (such as soot) with effective radii of 0.14 μm, 0.17 μm, and 0.34 μm. The transported Taklimakan dust aerosol has a relatively stable composition and strong scattering characteristics (with an SSA of 0.86, AAE of ~2.0). In comparison to the total column aerosol, the near-surface aerosol has the smaller size and the stronger absorption. Moreover, there is a very strong scattering of the total column aerosol. Even the local emission with the strong absorption has a fairly minor effect on the total column SSA. The comparison also shows that the peak radii of the total column PVSD is nearly twice as high as that of the near-surface PVSD. This work contributes to building a relationship between the remote sensing (total column) observations and the near-surface aerosol properties, and has the potential to improve the accuracy of the radiative forcing estimation in Kashgar.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050729
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 730: Numerical Study on Thermal-Hydraulic
           Performance of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers during Natural Gas
           Trans-Critical Liquefaction

    • Authors: Lei Liu, Aihua Yan, Qiuxiang Shi, Xi Xiao, Chenbing Zhu, Xuelong Yang
      First page: 730
      Abstract: Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHEs) are considered an excellent alternative for the main cryogenic heat exchanger of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) facilities due to their compact structure and strong heat transfer performance. However, it is unclear how to configure the geometry of the PCHE channels to achieve its optimal performance in the trans-critical liquefaction process of natural gas (NG), which is critical for the main heat exchanger. In this paper, we numerically studied the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of PCHEs with different channel types under the specified condition. The results elucidate that all channels have an enhancement of heat transfer near the pseudo-critical point of NG. All the wavy channels could improve the heat transfer performance of PCHEs, where the trapezoidal channel achieves the largest promotion. Compared with the straight channel, the local heat transfer coefficient could be increased by up to 53% in the trapezoidal channel. Additionally, vortex appeared at the bends of the wavy channels, which greatly increase the local friction loss. Among several channels, the total pressure drop of zigzag, fillet and the sinusoidal channel was almost the same, while that of the trapezoidal channel was the largest. Furthermore, we compared the comprehensive performance of different types of channels and found that the benefit of heat transfer enhancement could not offset the penalty of flow deterioration. Our work provides important guidance for the design of PCHEs employed in FLNG.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050730
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 731: Application and Development of Selective
           Catalytic Reduction Technology for Marine Low-Speed Diesel Engine:
           Trade-Off among High Sulfur Fuel, High Thermal Efficiency, and Low
           Pollution Emission

    • Authors: Yuanqing Zhu, Weihao Zhou, Chong Xia, Qichen Hou
      First page: 731
      Abstract: In recent years, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), Europe, and the United States and other countries have set up different emission control areas (ECA) for ship exhaust pollutants to enforce more stringent pollutant emission regulations. In order to meet the current IMO Tier III emission regulations, an after-treatment device must be installed in the exhaust system of the ship power plant to reduce the ship NOx emissions. At present, selective catalytic reduction technology (SCR) is one of the main technical routes to resolve excess NOx emissions of marine diesel engines, and is the only NOx emission reduction technology recognized by the IMO that can be used for various ship engines. Compared with the conventional low-pressure SCR system, the high-pressure SCR system can be applied to low-speed marine diesel engines that burn inferior fuels, but its working conditions are relatively harsh, and it can be susceptible to operational problems such as sulfuric acid corrosion, salt blockage, and switching delay during the actual ship tests and ship applications. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the design method and matching strategy of the high-pressure SCR system to achieve a more efficient and reliable operation. This article summarizes the technical characteristics and application problems of marine diesel engine SCR systems in detail, tracks the development trend of the catalytic reaction mechanism, engine tuning, and control strategy under high sulfur exhaust gas conditions. Results showed that low temperature is an important reason for the formation of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and other deposits. Additionally, the formed deposits will directly affect the working performance of the SCR systems. The development of SCR technology for marine low-speed engines should be the compromise solution under the requirements of high sulfur fuel, high thermal efficiency, and low pollution emissions. Under the dual restrictions of high sulfur fuel and low exhaust temperature, the low-speed diesel engine SCR systems will inevitably sacrifice part of the engine economy to obtain higher denitrification efficiency and operational reliability.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050731
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 732: Characteristics and Impact of VOCs on
           Ozone Formation Potential in a Petrochemical Industrial Area, Thailand

    • Authors: Nattaporn Pinthong, Sarawut Thepanondh, Vanitchaya Kultan, Jutarat Keawboonchu
      First page: 732
      Abstract: In this study, the ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were intensively measured from January 2012 to December 2016 using an evacuated canister and were analyzed using a gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS) based on the US EPA TO-15 in the community and industrial areas of the largest petroleum refinery and petrochemical industrial complex in Map Ta Phut Thailand. The ternary diagram was used to identify the source of VOCs. Reactivity of VOCs on their ozone formation potential (OFP) were quantified by the maximum incremental reactivity coefficient method (MIR) and propylene-equivalent concentration methods. Results from the study revealed that aromatic hydrocarbon was the dominant group of VOCs greatly contributing to the total concentration of measured VOCs. Among the measured VOCs species, toluene had the highest concentration and contributed as the major precursor to ozone formation. The ternary analysis of benzene:toluene:ethybenzene ratios indicated that VOCs mainly originated from mobile sources and industrial processes. Within the industrial area, measured VOC concentration was dominated by halogenated hydrocarbons, and alkene was the highest contributor to ozone formation. The propylene-equivalent concentration method was also used to evaluate the reactivity of VOCs and their role in ozone formation, and secondly to support findings from the MIR method.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050732
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 733: Dust Climatology of Turkey as a Part of
           the Eastern Mediterranean Basin via 9-Year CALIPSO-Derived Product

    • Authors: S. Yeşer Aslanoğlu, Emmanouil Proestakis, Antonis Gkikas, Gülen Güllü, Vassilis Amiridis
      First page: 733
      Abstract: Turkey is located in the heart of complex transition geography between Eurasia and the Middle East. In the grand scheme, the so-called eastern Mediterranean Basin is located almost in the middle of the dusty belt, and is a hot spot of climate change. The downstream location of dust-carrying winds from close desert sources reveals Turkey as an open plane to particulate matter exposure throughout the year. In order to clarify this phenomenon, this paper aims to determine the desert dust climatology of Turkey via CALIPSO onboard Lidar. This prominent instrument enables us to understand clouds, aerosols and their types, and related climatic systems, with its valuable products. In this study, a 9-year CALIPSO-derived pure dust product dataset was formed to explain horizontal and vertical distributions, transport heights and case incidences. The results indicated that the pure dust extinction coefficient increased as the location shifted from west to east. Moreover, in the same direction of west to east, the dominant spring months changed to summer and autumn. Mountain range systems surrounding Anatolia were the main obstacles against lofted and buoyant dust particles travelling to northern latitudes. Even if high ridges accumulated mass load on the southern slopes, they also enabled elevated particles to reach the ground level of the inner cities.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050733
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 734: Heatwaves in South Asia: Characterization,
           Consequences on Human Health, and Adaptation Strategies

    • Authors: Ayushi Sharma, Gerry Andhikaputra, Yu-Chun Wang
      First page: 734
      Abstract: South Asia, with more than one-fifth of the world’s population, is highly vulnerable to heatwaves and associated health consequences. The population experiences considerably higher residential vulnerability due to limited infrastructural capacities, economic resources, and health and environmental quality deficiencies. However, a limited number of studies are available from the region to account for the health effects of heatwaves. Therefore, this study has conducted a comprehensive review to characterize heatwaves across South Asian countries. The review explicitly identifies the population’s vulnerability to heatwaves during recent years and heatwave management policies in the region. The literature review suggests increased heat-related deaths in most South Asian countries, with few exceptions. In addition, the analysis of historical temperature records identified an upward trend in annual average temperature across the South Asian countries. The study highlights various heatwave definitions that have been used in the region to facilitate comparative evidence. The review of policies identified that only a few South Asian countries have functional heatwave management plans and majorly lack community and residential preparedness for heatwaves. Therefore, this study identifies potential community- and residential-based adaptation strategies to mitigate heat discomfort. As prospective solutions, the study recommends adaptation strategies such as blue–green spaces, indoor passive cooling, infrastructural adjustments, heat action plans, etc. However, such adaptation measures require a holistic amalgamation of different stakeholders to fabricate heatwave-resilient cities.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050734
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 735: Interannual Variations of Rainfall in Late
           Spring over Southwest China and Associated Sea Surface Temperature and
           Atmospheric Circulation Anomalies

    • Authors: Shuangli Mei, Shangfeng Chen, Yong Li, Hasi Aru
      First page: 735
      Abstract: Based on rainfall data for the period of 1960–2018 from 382 stations in southwest China and multiple reanalysis datasets, interannual variation of rainfall in late spring over Southwest China and associated sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation anomalies are examined. The first leading mode of late-spring rainfall anomalies displays a uniform-distribution pattern. The second leading mode shows a zonal dipole pattern. The leading mode is related to an atmospheric wave train over mid-high latitudes of Eurasia, with a center of action of atmospheric anomaly over Southwest China. The atmospheric anomalies over Southwest China modulate late-spring rainfall there via modulating vertical motion and water vapor transport. In addition, the leading mode of late-spring rainfall anomalies has a close relation with sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. SSTA in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific impacts late-spring rainfall anomalies over Southwest China via modulation of the tropical Walker and Hadley circulation. The second leading mode of late-spring rainfall variation over Southwest China is closely associated with SSTA in the tropical western Pacific and a mid-high latitude wave train. SSTA in the tropical western Pacific and the mid-high latitudes wave train together leads to out-of-phase variation of meridional wind anomalies between western and eastern parts of Southwest China, which further results in a zonal dipole rainfall anomaly over Southwest China.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050735
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 736: Interdecadal Variation of the Antarctic
           Circumpolar Wave Based on the 20CRV3 Dataset

    • Authors: Zhichao Lu, Tianbao Zhao, Weican Zhou, Haikun Zhao
      First page: 736
      Abstract: As a large-scale ocean–atmosphere coupling system in the Southern Hemisphere, the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) greatly impacts the global climate. However, the interdecadal variation of the ACW has rarely been studied due to the lack of long-term data. In this research, the latest 20th Century Reanalysis Version 3 dataset is used to analyze the interdecadal variations of sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature (SST) signals in the ACW during 1836–2015. The results indicate that the ACW has not always been present in the recent 180 years, and it has remarkable interdecadal variations. Specifically, the ACW was hard to distinguish before the 1870s. The SLP anomalies propagated eastwards over the South Pacific and South Atlantic during part of the 1880s–1940s. The SST anomalies also have an eastward propagation in the 1880s–1960s. The most active period of the SLP signal is in the 1950s–1990s, while that of the SST signal is in the 1980s–1990s. The ACW has not been significant since the 21st century. The interdecadal variation of the SLP may be related to the variations of the long-term Southern Annular Mode and Pacific-South American pattern, while the interdecadal variation of the SST is more associated with the ENSO.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050736
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 737: Long-Term (2017–2020) Aerosol
           Optical Depth Observations in Hohhot City in Mongolian Plateau and the
           Impacts from Different Types of Aerosol

    • Authors: Yongjing Ma, Yongli Tian, Yuanzhe Ren, Zifa Wang, Lin Wu, Xiaole Pan, Yining Ma, Jinyuan Xin
      First page: 737
      Abstract: Aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements for 2017–2020 in urban Hohhot of the Mongolian plateau, a transition zone between the depopulated zone and East Asian urban agglomeration, were analyzed for the first time. Results show that annual AOD500 and Ångström exponent α440-675 were 0.36 ± 0.09 and 1.11 ± 0.16 (2017), 0.41 ± 0.12 and 0.90 ± 0.28 (2018), 0.38 ± 0.09 and 1.13 ± 0.24 (2019), 0.38 ± 0.12 and 1.17 ± 0.22 (2020), respectively, representing a slightly polluted level with a mixed type of coarse dust aerosol and a fine urban/industrial aerosol. Throughout the year, depopulated-zone continental air flows predominated in Hohhot (i.e., NW-quadrant wind), accounting for 82.12% (spring), 74.54% (summer), 63.61% (autumn), and 100% (winter). The clean and strong NW-quadrant air flows induced by the south movement of a Siberian anticyclone resulted in a low 500-nm AOD of 0.30 ± 0.29, 0.20 ± 0.15, 0.24 ± 0.29, and 0.13 ± 0.08 from spring to winter. Meanwhile, the local emissions from Hohhot city, as well as anthropogenic urban/industrial aerosols transported by southern and western air masses, originating from southern urban agglomeration and western industrial cities (Baotou, Wuhai, etc.), contributed to the highest aerosol loading, with significant transformation rates of the secondary aerosols Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) of 47.45%, 57.39%, 49.88%, and 45.16–47.36% in PM2.5 for each season. The extinction fraction of fine aerosols under these anthropogenic trajectories can be as high as 80%, and the largest fine aerosol size was around 0.2–0.25 μm. Dust aerosols were suspending in urban Hohhot all year, although at different levels for different seasons, and the extinction fraction of dust aerosol during sandstorms was generally higher than 70%.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050737
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 738: Warm–Wet Climate Trend Enhances Net
           

    • Authors: Yuhe Ji, Guangsheng Zhou, Shudong Wang, Jun Zhao
      First page: 738
      Abstract: A significant greening trend has been reported globally in recent decades. The greening indicates the improvement in net primary production (NPP) in vegetation. Adopting statistics-based regression models, we investigated the dynamics of NPP and its climatic drivers in main ecosystems (forest land, grass land, and unused land) over China during the period 2000–2021. The results confirmed an increasing NPP covering approximately 86% area in the main ecosystems. NPP exhibited an increase rate of 6.11 g C m−2 yr−1 in forest land, 4.77 g C m−2 yr−1 in grass land, and 1.25 g C m−2 yr−1 in unused land, respectively. Over the same period, warm–wet climate trend was observed covering approximately 90% of the main ecosystems. The warm–wet climate has had a positive effect rather than negative effect on NPP in the main ecosystems, judging by their significant positive correlation. Our results suggested that the increase in annual precipitation exerted much more important effect on the increasing NPP. The warm–wet climate trend contributes to the upward trend in NPP, even if variability in NPP might involve the influence of solar radiation, atmospheric aerosols, CO2 fertilization, nitrogen deposition, human intervention, etc.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050738
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 739: Accessing the Heat Exposure Risk in
           Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region Based on Heat Island Footprint
           Analysis

    • Authors: Xuecheng Fu, Lei Yao, Shuo Sun
      First page: 739
      Abstract: The urbanization process leads to the enhancement of the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and the high temperature brought by it exacerbates the risk of heat exposure and seriously endangers human health. Analyzing the spatiotemporal characteristics and levels of heat exposure risk is important for formulating heat risk prevention and control measures. Therefore, this study analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics of heat exposure risk based on the UHI footprint (FP) and explores the relationship between it and urbanization factors in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region from 2000 to 2020, and obtains the following conclusions: (1) The BTH region suffers from severe UHI problems, with FP ranging from 6.05 km (Chengde) to 32.51 km (Beijing), and the majority of cities show significant trends of FP increase. (2) With the increase in FP, massive populations are exposed within the heat risk areas, with the average annual population at risk across cities ranging from 269,826 (Chengde) to 166,020,390 (Beijing), with a predominance of people exposed to high risk (more than 65% of the total) and generally showing increasing trends. (3) The population at risk of heat exposure is significantly correlated with urbanization factors, indicating that urbanization is an important reason for the increase in the risk population and the enhancement of the risk level. These results suggest that with the continuous urbanization process, the heat exposure risk problem faced by cities in the BTH region will persist and gradually worsen, which must be paid attention to and effective mitigation measures must be taken.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050739
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 740: Correlating Traffic Data, Spectral Noise
           and Air Pollution Measurements: Retrospective Analysis of Simultaneous
           Measurements near a Highway in The Netherlands

    • Authors: Luc Dekoninck, Marcel Severijnen
      First page: 740
      Abstract: Road traffic simultaneously emits noise and air pollution. This relation is primarily assessed by comparing A-weighted noise levels (LAeq) and various air pollutants. However, despite the common local traffic source, LAeq and the various sets of air pollution show a lower correlation than expected. Prior work, using simultaneous mobile noise and air pollution measurements, shows that the spectral content of the noise explains the complex and highly nonlinear relation between noise and air pollution significantly better. The spectral content distinguishes between traffic volume and traffic dynamics, two relevant modifiers explaining both the variability in noise and air pollution emissions of the local traffic flow. In May 2011, the environmental agency in the Netherlands performed noise and air pollutant measurements near a major highway and included spectral noise. In the resulting report, the analysis of the traffic, the noise and a wide set of air pollutants only showed a strong correlation between noise and NO. In this work, this dataset is re-evaluated using the noise-related covariates, engine noise and cruising noise, defined in prior work. The modeling approach proves valid for most of the measured air pollutants except for the large PM fractions. Conclusion: the prior established methodology explains the complex interaction between traffic dynamics, noise emission and air pollution emissions for a wide variety of air pollutants. The applicability of the ‘noise-as-a-traffic-proxy’ approach is extended.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050740
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 741: Projection of Extreme Temperature Events
           over the Mediterranean and Sahara Using Bias-Corrected CMIP6 Models

    • Authors: Hassen Babaousmail, Brian Ayugi, Adharsh Rajasekar, Huanhuan Zhu, Collins Oduro, Richard Mumo, Victor Ongoma
      First page: 741
      Abstract: Climate change continues to increase the intensity, frequency and impacts of weather and climate extremes. This work uses bias-adjusted Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase six (CMIP6) model datasets to investigate the future changes in temperature extremes over Mediterranean (MED) and Sahara (SAH) regions. The mid- (2041–2070) and far-future (2071–2100) are studied under two Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios. Quantile mapping function greatly improved the performance of CMIP6 by reducing the notable biases to match the distribution of observation data, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC). Results show persistent significant warming throughout the 21st century, increasing with the increase in radiative forcing. The MED will record a higher increase in temperature extremes as compared to SAH. The warming is supported by the projected reduction in cold days (TX10p) and cold nights (TN10p), with the reduction in the number of cold nights exceeding cold days. Notably, warm spell duration index (WSDI) and summer days (SU) have a positive trend in both timelines over the entire study area. There is a need to simulate how climate sensitive sectors, such as water and agriculture, are likely to be affected by projected changes under different scenarios for informed decision making in the choice and implementation of adaptation and mitigation effective measures.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050741
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 742: The Impact of Modifications in Forest
           Litter Inputs on Soil N2O Fluxes: A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Yuting Zhou, Delong Meng, Bruce Osborne, Yue Fan, Junliang Zou
      First page: 742
      Abstract: Although litter can regulate the global climate by influencing soil N2O fluxes, there is no consensus on the major drivers or their relative importance and how these impact at the global scale. In this paper, we conducted a meta-analysis of 21 global studies to quantify the impact of litter removal and litter doubling on soil N2O fluxes from forests. Overall, our results showed that litter removal significantly reduced soil N2O fluxes (−19.0%), while a doubling of the amount of litter significantly increased soil N2O fluxes (30.3%), based on the results of a small number of studies. Litter removal decreased the N2O fluxes from tropical forest and temperate forest. The warmer the climate, the greater the soil acidity, and the larger the soil C:N ratio, the greater the impact on N2O emissions, which was particularly evident in tropical forest ecosystems. The decreases in soil N2O fluxes associated with litter removal were greater in acid soils (pH < 6.5) or soils with a C:N > 15. Litter removal decreased soil N2O fluxes from coniferous forests (−21.8%) and broad-leaved forests (−17.2%) but had no significant effect in mixed forests. Soil N2O fluxes were significantly reduced in experiments where the duration of litter removal was <1 year. These results showed that modifications in ecosystem N2O fluxes due to changes in the ground litter vary with forest type and need to be considered when evaluating current and future greenhouse gas budgets.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050742
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 743: Assessment of Fine Particulate Matter for
           Port City of Eastern Peninsular India Using Gradient Boosting Machine
           Learning Model

    • Authors: Manoj Sharma, Naresh Kumar, Shallu Sharma, Vikas Jangra, Seema Mehandia, Sumit Kumar, Pawan Kumar
      First page: 743
      Abstract: An assessment and prediction of PM2.5 for a port city of eastern peninsular India is presented. Fifteen machine learning (ML) regression models were trained, tested and implemented to predict the PM2.5 concentration. The predicting ability of regression models was validated using air pollutants and meteorological parameters as input variables collected from sites located at Visakhapatnam, a port city on the eastern side of peninsular India, for the assessment period 2018–2019. Highly correlated air pollutants and meteorological parameters with PM2.5 concentration were evaluated and presented during the period under study. It was found that the CatBoost regression model outperformed all other employed regression models in predicting PM2.5 concentration with an R2 score (coefficient of determination) of 0.81, median absolute error (MedAE) of 6.95 µg/m3, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 0.29, root mean square error (RMSE) of 11.42 µg/m3 and mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.07 µg/m3. High PM2.5 concentration prediction results in contrast to Indian standards were also presented. In depth seasonal assessments of PM2.5 concentration were presented, to show variance in PM2.5 concentration during dominant seasons.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050743
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 744: Spatiotemporal Variations and
           

    • Authors: Shuangtao Wang, Zhe Cao, Pingping Luo, Wei Zhu
      First page: 744
      Abstract: Precipitation, as an important part of the hydrological cycle, is often related to flood and drought. In this study, we collected daily rainfall data from 21 rainfall stations in Shaanxi Province from 1961 to 2017, and calculated eight extreme climate indices. Annual and seasonal concentration indices (CI) were also calculated. The trends in the changes in precipitation were calculated using the M–K test and Sen’s slope. The results show that the precipitation correlation index and CI (concentration index) in Shaanxi Province are higher in the south and lower in the north. For the annual scale, the CI value ranges from 0.6369 to 0.6820, indicating that Shaanxi Province has a high precipitation concentration and an uneven distribution of annual precipitation. The eight extreme precipitation indices of most rainfall stations showed a downward trend during the study period, and more than half of the stations passed the 0.05 confidence interval test. Among them, the Z value of PRCPTOT (annual total precipitation in wet days) at Huashan station reached −6.5270. The lowest slope of PRCPTOT reached −14.3395. This shows that annual rainfall in Shaanxi Province has been decreasing in recent decades. These findings could be used to make decisions about water resources and drought risk management in Shaanxi Province, China.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050744
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 745: Evidence for Intensification in
           Meteorological Drought Since the 1950s and Recent Dryness–Wetness
           Forecasting in China

    • Authors: Ruting Yang, Bing Xing
      First page: 745
      Abstract: Drought is one of the major environmental stressors; drought is increasingly threatening the living environment of mankind. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) with a 12-month timescale was adopted to monitor dry–wet status over China from 1951 to 2021. The modified Mann–Kendall (MMK) and Pettitt tests were used to assess the temporal trend and nonlinear behavior of annual drought variability. The analysis focuses on the spatio-temporal structure of the dry–wet transition and its general connections with climate change processes. In addition, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was applied to forecast the dry–wet behavior in the next year (2022) at 160 stations, and the hotspot areas for extreme dryness–wetness in China were identified in the near term. The results indicate that the dry–wet climate in China overall exhibits interannual variability characterized by intensified drought. The climate in the Northeast China (NEC), North China (NC), Northwest China (NWC), and Southwest China (SWC) has experienced a significant (p < 0.05) drying trend; however, the dry–wet changes in the East China (EC) and South Central China (SCC) are highly spatially heterogeneous. The significant uptrend in precipitation is mainly concentrated to the west of 100° E; the rising magnitude of precipitation is higher in Eastern China near 30° N, with a changing rate of 20–40 mm/decade. Each of the sub-regions has experienced significant (p < 0.01) warming over the past 71 years. Geographically, the increase in temperature north of 30° N is noticeably higher than that south of 30° N, with trend magnitudes of 0.30–0.50 °C/decade and 0.15–0.30 °C/decade, respectively. The response of the northern part of Eastern China to the warming trend had already emerged as early as the 1980s; these responses were earlier and more intense than those south of 40° N latitude (1990s). The drying trends are statistically significant in the northern and southern regions, bounded by 30° N, with trend magnitudes of −0.30–−0.20/decade and −0.20–−0.10/decade, respectively. The northern and southwestern parts of China have experienced a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the drought level since the 1950s, which is closely related to significant warming in recent decades. This study reveals the consistency of the spatial distribution of variations in precipitation and the SPEI along 30° N latitude. A weak uptrend in the SPEI, i.e., an increase in wetness, is shown in Eastern China surrounding 30° N, with a changing rate of 0.003–0.10/decade; this is closely associated with increasing precipitation in the area. Drought forecasting indicates that recent drying areas are located in NWC, the western part of NC, the western part of SWC, and the southern part of SCC. The climate is expected to show wetting characteristics in NEC, the southeastern part of NC, and the eastern part of EC. The dry–wet conditions spanning the area between 30–40° N and 100–110° E exhibit a greater spatial variability. The region between 20–50° N and 80–105° E will continue to face intense challenges from drought in the near future. This study provides compelling evidence for the temporal variability of meteorological drought in different sub-regions of China. The findings may contribute to understanding the spatio-temporal effect of historical climate change on dry–wet variation in the region since the 1950s, particularly in the context of global warming.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050745
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 746: Kolmogorov Complexity Analysis and
           Prediction Horizon of the Daily Erythemal Dose Time Series

    • Authors: Slavica Malinović-Milićević, Anja Mihailović, Dragutin T. Mihailović
      First page: 746
      Abstract: Influenced by stratospheric total ozone column (TOC), cloud cover, aerosols, albedo, and other factors, levels of daily erythemal dose (Her) in a specific geographic region show significant variability in time and space. To investigate the degree of randomness and predictability of Her time series from ground-based observations in Novi Sad, Serbia, during the 2003–2012 time period, we used a set of information measures: Kolmogorov complexity, Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, running Kolmogorov complexity, the largest Lyapunov exponent, Lyapunov time, and Kolmogorov time. The result reveals that fluctuations in daily Her are moderately random and exhibit low levels of chaotic behavior. We found a larger number of occurrences of deviation from the mean in the time series during the years with lower values of Her (2007–2009, 2011–2012), which explains the higher complexity. Our analysis indicated that the time series of daily values of Her show a tendency to increase the randomness when the randomness of cloud cover and TOC increases, which affects the short-term predictability. The prediction horizon of daily Her values in Novi Sad given by the Lyapunov time corrected for randomness by Kolmogorov is between 1.5 and 3.5 days.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050746
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 747: Differentiating Semi-Volatile and Solid
           Particle Events Using Low-Cost Lung-Deposited Surface Area and Black
           Carbon Sensors

    • Authors: Molly J. Haugen, Ajit Singh, Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, Adam M. Boies
      First page: 747
      Abstract: Low-cost particle sensors have proven useful in applications such as source apportionment, health, and reactivity studies. The benefits of these instruments increase when used in parallel, as exemplified with a 3-month long deployment in an urban background site. Using two lung-deposited surface area (LDSA) instruments, a low-cost method was developed to assess the solid component of an aerosol by applying a catalytic stripper to the inlet stream of one LDSA instrument, resulting in only the solid fraction of the sample being measured (LDSAc). To determine the semi-volatile fraction of the sample, the LDSAC was compared to the LDSA without a catalytic stripper, thus measuring all particles (LDSAN). The ratio of LDSA (LDSAC/LDSAN) was used to assess the fraction of solid and semi-volatile particles within a sample. Here, a low ratio represents a high fraction of semi-volatile particles, with a high ratio indicating a high fraction of solid particles. During the 3-month urban background study in Birmingham, UK, it is shown that the LDSA ratios ranged from 0.2–0.95 indicating a wide variation in sources and subsequent semi-volatile fraction of particles. A black carbon (BC) instrument was used to provide a low-cost measure of LDSA to BC ratio. Comparatively, the LDSA to BC ratios obtained using low-cost sensors showed similar results to high-cost analyses for urban environments. During a high LDSAC/LDSAN ratio sampling period, representing high solid particle concentrations, an LDSA to BC probability distribution was shown to be multimodal, reflecting urban LDSA to BC ratio distributions measured with laboratory-grade instrumentation. Here, a low-cost approach for data analyses presents insight on particle characteristics and insight into PM composition and size, useful in source apportionment, health, and atmospheric studies.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050747
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 748: Dendroclimatology in Latin America: A
           Review of the State of the Art

    • Authors: Oscar David Sánchez-Calderón, Teodoro Carlón-Allende, Manuel E. Mendoza, José Villanueva-Díaz
      First page: 748
      Abstract: The application of dendrochronology for understanding climatic variations has been of great interest to climatologists, ecologists, geographers, archeologists, among other sciences, particularly in recent decades when more dendrochronological studies have been developed. We analyzed and identified the current state and recent advances in dendroclimatology in Latin America for the period 1990 to 2020. We carried out reviews in ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus databases with the keywords “dendrochronology”, “dendroclimatology”, “dendrochronology and climatic variability”, “dendroclimatology and climatic variability”, “dendrochronology and trend”, and “dendroclimatology and trend” for each Latin American country. Results show that dendroclimatological research in the last 11 years has increased and has been mainly developed in temperate climate zones (83%) and tropical or subtropical areas (17%), where conifer species have been the most used with over 59% of the studies. However, broadleaf species for dendrochronological studies have also increased in the last decade. Dendroclimatological research in Latin America has provided important advances in the study of climatic variability by defining the response functions of tree-rings to climate and developing climatic reconstructions. Our research identified areas where it is necessary to increase dendroclimatic studies (e.g., dry and tropical forests), in addition to applying new techniques such as isotope analysis, blue intensity, dendrochemistry, among other tree-ring applications.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050748
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 749: Climatic Trends of Variable Temperate
           Environment: A Complete Time Series Analysis during 1980–2020

    • Authors: Bilal Ahmad Lone, Sameera Qayoom, Aijaz Nazir, Shafat Ahmad Ahanger, Umer Basu, Tauseef Ahmad Bhat, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Muntazir Mushtaq, Ayman El Sabagh, Walid Soufan, Muhammad Habib ur Rahman, Rasha Fathallah El-Agamy
      First page: 749
      Abstract: The western Himalayan region is susceptible to minor climate changes because of its fragile ecology, which might threaten the valley’s prestigious ecosystems and socio-economic components. The Himalayas’s local climate and weather are vulnerable to and interlinked with world-scale climatic changes since the region’s hydrology is predominantly dominated by snow and glaciers. The Himalayas, notably the Jammu and Kashmir region in the western Himalayas, has clearly shown distinct and robust evidence of climate change. This study used observed data to examine the climatic variability and trends of change in precipitation and temperature for the Kashmir valley between 1980 and 2020. Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Kokernag, Qazigund, Kupwara, and Srinagar (Shalimar) meteorological stations in the Kashmir valley were studied in detail for long- and short-term as well as localized fluctuations in temperature and precipitation. The annual temperature and precipitation fluctuations were calculated using Sen’s slope approach, and the sloping trend was determined using linear regression. The research showed statistically insignificant growing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the Kashmir valley. The average annual temperature in the Kashmir valley increased by 1.55 °C during the last 41 years (from 1980 to 2020), with a higher rise in maximum and minimum temperature by 2.00 and 1.10 °C, respectively. However, precipitation showed a non-significant decreasing trend concerning time series analysis over 1980 to 2020 in Kashmir valley. Results of annual average maximum temperature at all the stations revealed that Pahalgam (2.2 °C), Kokernag (1.8 °C), and Kupwara (1.8 °C) displayed a steep upsurge and statistically significant trends; however, annual average minimum temperature followed an increasing trend from 1980 to 2020 at all the stations except Shalimar. However, non-significant declining trends in precipitation were recorded at all the locations in Kashmir valley. This changing pattern of temperature and precipitation could have significant environmental consequences, affecting the western Himalayan region’s food security and ecological sustainability.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050749
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 750: Convection Initiation Associated with the
           Merger of an Immature Sea-Breeze Front and a Gust Front in Bohai Bay
           Region, North China: A Case Study

    • Authors: Jingjing Zheng, Abuduwaili Abulikemu, Yan Wang, Meini Kong, Yiwei Liu
      First page: 750
      Abstract: The mechanism for convection initiation (CI) associated with the merger of an immature sea-breeze front (SBF) and gust front (GF) that occurred in North China on 31 July 2010 was investigated based on both observations and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulation. The results show that many CIs occurred continuously in the merging area, and eventually resulted in an intense mesoscale convective system (MCS). The WRF simulation captured the general features of the SBF, GF, their merger processes and associated CIs, as well as the resulting MCS. Quantitative Lagrangian vertical momentum budgets, in which the vertical acceleration was decomposed into dynamic and buoyant components, were conducted along the backward trajectories of air parcels within a convective cell initiated in the merger processes. It was found that both of the dynamic and buoyant accelerations played important roles for the CI. The buoyant acceleration was dominated by the warming due to the latent heat release within the convective cell. Further decomposition of the dynamic acceleration showed the vertical twisting and extension contributed significantly to the dynamic acceleration, while the horizontal curvature was rather small. The vertical twisting was generated due to the vertical shear of horizontal wind, while the extension indicated convergences owing to a mid-level blocking convergence effect and squeezing, and (or) merging of the convergent leading edges of both fronts during their merger processes. The weak convergent leading edge of the immature SBF played an important role for the formation of the convergences.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050750
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 751: Two Large Earthquakes Registered by the
           CSES Satellite during Its Earthquake Prediction Practice in China

    • Authors: Mei Li, Haitao Wang, Jie Liu, Xuhui Shen
      First page: 751
      Abstract: Two large earthquakes, the Maduo MS 7.4 earthquake and the Menyuan MS 6.9 earthquake, have been successfully recorded on the Chinese mainland, since the data of the CSES satellite were put into service for earthquake prediction work on the Chinese mainland at the end of April 2020. Obvious variations in O+ density and electron density were found during our weekly data processing work during 5–11 May 2021 and 28 December 2021–2 January 2022, respectively. Two warnings of impending events around the anomalous areas within two weeks had been reported immediately after the anomaly appearance. The Maduo MS 7.4 earthquake occurred on 22 May 2021 and the Menyuan MS 6.9 earthquake on 8 January 2022, during these two warning periods. More details were revealed after these two large shocks occurred. Ionospheric enhancement took place on 8 May 2021, with a magnitude of 41.6% for O+ density and 22.2% for electron density, a distance of 680 km from the Maduo epicenter, 14 days prior to the event. Before the Menyuan earthquake, ionospheric enhancement took place on 28 December 2021, as well as during its revisiting orbit on 2 January 2022, with a magnitude of 47.3% for O+ density and 38.4% for electron density, an epicentral distance of 120 km, 11 and 6 days prior to this event. The Kp index was also examined to avoid the influence from solar activities. Despite this, accurate earthquake prediction is not possible due to much uncertainty, such as the correct location and magnitude of an impending event. Thus, long-term practice and comprehensive investigation of the seismo-ionospheric influence are necessary in the future.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050751
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 752: An Investigation of Near Real-Time Water
           Vapor Tomography Modeling Using Multi-Source Data

    • Authors: Laga Tong, Kefei Zhang, Haobo Li, Xiaoming Wang, Nan Ding, Jiaqi Shi, Dantong Zhu, Suqin Wu
      First page: 752
      Abstract: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tomography is a well-recognized modeling technique for reconstruction, which can be used to investigate the spatial structure of water vapor with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In this study, a refined near real-time tomographic model is developed based on multi-source data including GNSS observations, Global Forecast System (GFS) products and surface meteorological data. The refined tomographic model is studied using data from Hong Kong from 2 to 11 October 2021. The result is compared with the traditional model with physical constraints and is validated by the radiosonde data. It is shown that the root mean square error (RMSE) values of the proposed model and traditional model are 0.950 and 1.763 g/m3, respectively. The refined model can decrease the RMSE by about 46%, indicating a better performance than the traditional one. In addition, the accuracy of the refined tomographic model is assessed under both rainy and non-rainy conditions. The assessment shows that the RMSE in the rainy period is 0.817 g/m3, which outperforms the non-rainy period with the RMSE of 1.007 g/m3.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050752
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 753: One Saddle Point and Two Types of
           Sensitivities within the Lorenz 1963 and 1969 Models

    • Authors: Bo-Wen Shen, Roger A. Pielke, Xubin Zeng
      First page: 753
      Abstract: The fact that both the Lorenz 1963 and 1969 models suggest finite predictability is well known. However, less well known is the fact that the mechanisms (i.e., sensitivities) within both models, which lead to finite predictability, are different. Additionally, the mathematical and physical relationship between these two models has not been fully documented. New analyses, along with a literature review, are performed here to provide insights regarding similarities and differences for these two models. The models represent different physical systems, one for convection and the other for barotropic vorticity. From the perspective of mathematical complexities, the Lorenz 1963 model is limited-scale and nonlinear; and the Lorenz 1969 model is closure-based, physically multiscale, mathematically linear, and numerically ill-conditioned. The former possesses a sensitive dependence of solutions on initial conditions, known as the butterfly effect, and the latter contains numerical sensitivities due to an ill-conditioned matrix with a large condition number (i.e., a large variance of growth rates). Here, we illustrate that the existence of a saddle point at the origin is a common feature that produces instability in both systems. Within the chaotic regime of the L63 nonlinear model, unstable growth is constrained by nonlinearity, as well as dissipation, yielding time varying growth rates along an orbit, and, thus, a dependence of (finite) predictability on initial conditions. Within the L69 linear model, multiple unstable modes at various growth rates appear, and the growth of a specific unstable mode (i.e., the most unstable mode during a finite time interval) is constrained by imposing a saturation assumption, thereby yielding a time varying system growth rate. Both models were interchangeably applied for qualitatively revealing the nature of finite predictability in weather and climate. However, only single type solutions were examined (i.e., chaotic and linearly unstable solutions for the L63 and L69 models, respectively), and the L69 system is ill-conditioned and easily captures numerical instability. Thus, an estimate of the predictability limit using either of the above models, with or without additional assumptions (e.g., saturation), should be interpreted with caution and should not be generalized as an upper limit for atmospheric predictability.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050753
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 754: Crop Yield, Nitrogen Recovery, and Soil
           Mineral Nitrogen Accumulation in Extremely Arid Oasis Cropland under
           Long-Term Fertilization Management

    • Authors: Shimin Li, Xihe Wang, Changlin Kou, Jinling Lv, Jianhua Gao
      First page: 754
      Abstract: Crop yield stability and soil mineral nitrogen (Nmin) have rarely been evaluated from a long-term perspective in the extremely arid cropland regions of China. Therefore, a nationwide experiment aimed to optimize fertilizer application and increase productivity and nitrogen use efficiency in gray desert soils was initiated in 1990. Eight combinations of chemical fertilizers (CK, N, NK, NP, and NPK), straw return (NPKS), and manure amendments (NPKM and NPKM+) were tested for 24 years on spring wheat, winter wheat, and maize. The results displayed that the yield of three crops from balanced fertilizer treatments (NPK, NPKS, NPKM, and NPKM+) did not differ significantly after 24 years; however, reliable yield stability due to lower coefficient of variation (CV) and higher nitrogen harvest index (NHI) were recorded for manure amendment treatments. Compared to NPKM, NHI was lower for the NPKM+ treatment, but crop yield and stability did not improve, suggesting that the appropriate choice for manure amendment is important for guaranteeing food security in extremely arid regions. Balanced fertilizer treatments resulted in lower Nmin residual in the 300 cm soil profile, compared to unbalanced fertilizer treatments. The NPKS treatment gave the lowest value. In the 0–100 cm soil profile, Nmin was higher in NPKM than in the NPK treatment, suggesting that straw or manure amendment can effectively maintain Nmin in the topsoil undercurrent cropland management in arid areas. The NPKM treatment had the highest crop nitrogen recovery rate and the lowest nitrogen losses, further illustrating that manure amendment has higher N retention potential. Overall, although Nmin residues are relatively high in these regions, balanced fertilizer treatments, especially NPKM and NPKS, are the optimum strategies in extremely arid regions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050754
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 755: Comparison of Wildfire Meteorology and
           Climate at the Adriatic Coast and Southeast Australia

    • Authors: Ivana Čavlina Tomašević, Kevin K. W. Cheung, Višnjica Vučetić, Paul Fox-Hughes
      First page: 755
      Abstract: Wildfire is one of the most complex natural hazards. Its origin is a combination of anthropogenic factors, urban development and weather plus climate factors. In particular, weather and climate factors possess many spatiotemporal scales and various degrees of predictability. Due to the complex synergy of the human and natural factors behind the events, every wildfire is unique. However, there are indeed common meteorological and climate factors leading to the high fire risk before certain ignition mechanismfigures occur. From a scientific point of view, a better understanding of the meteorological and climate drivers of wildfire in every region would enable more effective seasonal to annual outlook of fire risk, and in the long term, better applications of climate projections to estimate future scenarios of wildfire. This review has performed a comparison study of two fire-prone regions: southeast Australia including Tasmania, and the Adriatic coast in Europe, especially events in Croatia. The former is well known as part of the ‘fire continent’, and major resources have been put into wildfire research and forecasting. The Adriatic coast is a region where some of the highest surface wind speeds, under strong topographic effect, have been recorded and, over the years, have coincided with wildfire ignitions. Similar synoptic background and dynamic origins of the meso-micro-scale meteorological conditions of these high wind events as well as the accompanied dryness have been identified between some of the events in the two regions. We have also reviewed how the researchers from these two regions have applied different weather indices and numerical models. The status of estimating fire potential under climate change for both regions has been evaluated. This review aims to promote a global network of information exchange to study the changing anthropogenic and natural factors we have to confront in order to mitigate and adapt the impacts and consequences from wildfire.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050755
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 756: Retrieval of High-Resolution Aerosol
           Optical Depth for Urban Air Pollution Monitoring

    • Authors: Rui Bai, Yong Xue, Xingxing Jiang, Chunlin Jin, Yuxin Sun
      First page: 756
      Abstract: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is one of the most important parameters of aerosol and a key physical quantity to characterize atmospheric turbidity and air pollution. Accurate retrieval of AOD is of great significance for air quality assessment. However, the spatial resolution of the currently widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD products is too low to meet the application research of atmospheric environment at the regional scale. In 2013, China launched the Gaofen-1 (GF-1) satellite, which provides a new idea for AOD retrieval. In this paper, we apply the synergetic use of TERRA and AQUA satellite MODIS data to calculate the high-resolution AOD over Beijing based on the Synergetic Retrieval of Aerosol Properties algorithm (SRAP) and discussed scale conversion problems between AODs with different resolutions. To obtain the 100 m MODIS data, we use GF-1 wide-field-of-view data to downscale 1 km MODIS data based on mutual information method. The retrieved AOD has a spatial resolution of 100 m and can cover many land surface types. Preliminary validation was carried out with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation data. The correlation coefficient is about 0.88, and the root-mean-square error is about 0.15. Due to the high resolution of retrieved results, more detailed features can be provided in the spatial distribution. The experimental results show that the method has high precision, and further verification work is continuing.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050756
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 757: Knowledge-Enhanced Deep Learning for
           Simulation of Extratropical Cyclone Wind Risk

    • Authors: Reda Snaiki, Teng Wu
      First page: 757
      Abstract: Boundary-layer wind associated with extratropical cyclones (ETCs) is an essential element for posing serious threats to the urban centers of eastern North America. Using a similar methodology for tropical cyclone (TC) wind risk (i.e., hurricane tracking approach), the ETC wind risk can be accordingly simulated. However, accurate and efficient assessment of the wind field inside the ETC is currently not available. To this end, a knowledge-enhanced deep learning (KEDL) is developed in this study to estimate the ETC boundary-layer winds over eastern North America. Both physics-based equations and semi-empirical formulas are integrated as part of the system loss function to regularize the neural network. More specifically, the scale-analysis-based reduced-order Navier–Stokes equations that govern the ETC wind field and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA) ERA-interim data-based two-dimensional (2D) parametric formula (with respect to radial and azimuthal coordinates) that prescribes an asymmetric ETC pressure field are respectively employed as rationalism-based and empiricism-based knowledge to enhance the deep neural network. The developed KEDL, using the standard storm parameters (i.e., spatial coordinates, central pressure difference, translational speed, approach angle, latitude of ETC center, and surface roughness) as the network inputs, can provide the three-dimensional (3D) boundary-layer wind field of an arbitrary ETC with high computational efficiency and accuracy. Finally, the KEDL-based wind model is coupled with a large ETC synthetic track database (SynthETC), where 6-hourly ETC center location and pressure deficit are included to effectively assess the wind risk along the US northeast coast in terms of annual exceedance probability.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050757
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 758: A Novel Framework Based on the Stacking
           Ensemble Machine Learning (SEML) Method: Application in Wind Speed
           Modeling

    • Authors: Amirreza Morshed-Bozorgdel, Mojtaba Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi Valikhan Valikhan Anaraki, Saeed Farzin
      First page: 758
      Abstract: Wind speed (WS) is an important factor in wind power generation. Because of this, drastic changes in the WS make it challenging to analyze accurately. Therefore, this study proposed a novel framework based on the stacking ensemble machine learning (SEML) method. The application of a novel framework for WS modeling was developed at sixteen stations in Iran. The SEML method consists of two levels. In particular, eleven machine learning (ML) algorithms in six categories neuron based (artificial neural network (ANN), general regression neural network (GRNN), and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN)), kernel based (least squares support vector machine-grid search (LSSVM-GS)), tree based (M5 model tree (M5), gradient boosted regression (GBR), and least squares boost (LSBoost)), curve based (multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS)), regression based (multiple linear regression (MLR) and multiple nonlinear regression (MNLR)), and hybrid algorithm based (LSSVM-Harris hawks optimization (LSSVM-HHO)) were selected as the base algorithms in level 1 of the SEML method. In addition, LSBoost was used as a meta-algorithm in level 2 of the SEML method. For this purpose, the output of the base algorithms was used as the input for the LSBoost. A comparison of the results showed that using the SEML method in WS modeling greatly affected the performance of the base algorithms. The highest correlation coefficient (R) in the WS modeling at the sixteen stations using the SEML method was 0.89. The SEML method increased the WS modeling accuracy by >43%.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050758
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 759: The Effect of Metro Construction on the
           Air Quality in the Railway Transport System of Sydney, Australia

    • Authors: Puchanee Larpruenrudee, Nic C. Surawski, Mohammad S. Islam
      First page: 759
      Abstract: Sydney Metro is the biggest project of Australia’s public transport, which was designed to provide passengers with more trains and faster services. This project was first implemented in 2017 and is planned to be completed in 2024. As presented, the project is currently in the construction stage located on the ground stations of the Sydney Trains Bankstown line (T3). Based on this stage, several construction activities will generate air pollutants, which will affect the air quality around construction areas. Moreover, it might cause health problems to people around there and also the passengers who usually take the train on the T3 line. However, there is no specific data for air quality inside the train that may be affected by the construction from each area. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the air quality inside the train carriage of all related stations from the T3 line. A sampling campaign was conducted over 3 months to analyze particulate matter (PM) concentration, the main indoor pollutants including formaldehyde (HCHO) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). The results of the T3 line were analyzed and compared to Airport & South line (T8) that were not affected by the project’s construction. The results of this study indicate that Sydney Metro construction activities insignificantly affected the air quality inside the train. Average PM2.5 and PM10 inside the train of T3 line in the daytime were slightly higher than in the nighttime. The differences in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations from these periods were around 6.8 μg/m3 and 12.1 μg/m3, respectively. The PM concentrations inside the train from the T3 line were slightly higher than the T8 line. However, these concentrations were still lower than those recommended by the national air quality standards. For HCHO and TVOC, the average HCHO and TVOC concentrations were less than the recommendation criteria.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050759
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 760: Sr1-xKxFeO3 Perovskite Catalysts with
           Enhanced RWGS Reactivity for CO2 Hydrogenation to Light Olefins

    • Authors: Yuanhao Hou, Xinyu Wang, Ming Chen, Xiangyu Gao, Yongzhuo Liu, Qingjie Guo
      First page: 760
      Abstract: The catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to light olefins (C2–C4) is among the most practical approaches to CO2 utilization as an essential industrial feedstock. To achieve a highly dispersed active site and enhance the reactivity of the reverse water–gas shift (RWGS) reaction, ABO3-type perovskite catalysts Sr1-xKxFeO3 with favorable thermal stability and redox activity are reported in this work. The role of K-substitution in the structure–performance relationship of the catalysts was investigated. It indicated that K-substitution expedited the oxygen-releasing process of the SrFeO3 and facilitated the synchronous formation of active-phase Fe3O4 for the reverse water–gas shift (RWGS) reaction and Fe5C2 for the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS). At the optimal substitution amount, the conversion of CO2 and the selectivity of light olefins achieved 30.82% and 29.61%, respectively. Moreover, the selectivity of CO was up to 45.57% even when H2/CO2=4 due to CO2-splitting reactions over the reduced Sr2Fe2O5. In addition, the reversibility of perovskite catalysts ensured the high dispersion of the active-phase Fe3O4 and Fe5C2 in the SrCO3 phase. As the rate-determining step of the CO2 hydrogenation reaction to light olefins over Sr1-xKxFeO3 perovskite catalysts, FTS should be further tailored by partial substitution of the B site. In sum, the perovskite-derived catalyst investigated in this work provided a new idea for the rational design of a catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation to produce light olefins.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050760
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 761: Atmospheric Carbonyl Compounds in the
           Central Taklimakan Desert in Summertime: Ambient Levels, Composition and
           Sources

    • Authors: Chunmei Geng, Shijie Li, Baohui Yin, Chao Gu, Yingying Liu, Liming Li, Kangwei Li, Yujie Zhang, Merched Azzi, Hong Li, Xinhua Wang, Wen Yang, Zhipeng Bai
      First page: 761
      Abstract: Although carbonyl compounds are a key species with atmospheric oxidation capacity, their concentrations and sources have not been sufficiently characterized in various atmospheres, especially in desert areas. In this study, atmospheric carbonyl compounds were measured from 16 May to 15 June 2018 in Tazhong in the central Taklimakan Desert, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Concentrations, chemical compositions, and sources of carbonyl compounds were investigated and compared with those of different environments worldwide. The average concentration of total carbonyls during the sampling period was 11.79 ± 4.03 ppbv. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were the most abundant carbonyls, with average concentrations of 6.08 ± 2.37, 1.68 ± 0.78, and 2.52 ± 0.68 ppbv, respectively. Strong correlations between formaldehyde and other carbonyls were found, indicating same or similar sources and sinks. A hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory was used to analyze 72 h back trajectories. The values of C1/C2 (formaldehyde to acetaldehyde, 3.22–4.59) and C2/C3 (acetaldehyde to propionaldehyde, 15.00–17.03) from different directions and distances of the trajectories were consistent with the characteristics of a remote area. Relative to various environments, the carbonyl concentration in the Tazhong desert site was lower than that in urban areas and higher than that in suburban and remote areas, implying contributions from local primary and secondary sources. The obtained data can be used to improve the source and sink estimation of carbonyls at the regional scale.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050761
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 762: Correction: Elnumin et al. Evaluating the
           Performance of IRI-2016 Using GPS-TEC Measurements over the Equatorial
           Region. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 1243

    • Authors: Nouf Abd Elmunim, Mardina Abdullah, Siti Aminah Bahari
      First page: 762
      Abstract: In the original publication [...]
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050762
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 763: Using Objective Analysis for the
           Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Aerosol Products to Improve PM2.5
           Predictions over Europe

    • Authors: Mounir Chrit, Marwa Majdi
      First page: 763
      Abstract: We used the objective analysis method in conjunction with the successive correction method to assimilate MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data into the Chimère model in order to improve the modeling of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and AOD field over Europe. A data assimilation module was developed to adjust the daily initial total column aerosol concentrations based on a forecast-analysis cycling scheme. The model is then evaluated during one-month winter period to examine how such a data assimilation technique pushes the model results closer to surface observations. This comparison showed that the mean biases of both surface PM2.5 concentrations and the AOD field could be reduced from −34 to −15% and from −45 to −27%. The assimilation, however, leads to false alarms because of the difficulty in distributing AOD550 over different particle sizes. The impact of the influence radius is found to be small and depends on the density of satellite data. This work, although preliminary, is important in terms of near-real time air quality forecasting using the Chimère model and can be further developed to improve modeled PM2.5 and ozone concentrations.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050763
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 764: Innovative Trend Analysis of High-Altitude
           Climatology of Kashmir Valley, North-West Himalayas

    • Authors: Ishfaq Gujree, Ijaz Ahmad, Fan Zhang, Arfan Arshad
      First page: 764
      Abstract: This paper investigates the annual and seasonal variations in the minimum and maximum air temperature (Tmin and Tmax) and precipitation over Kashmir valley, Northwestern Himalayas from 1980–2019 by using the innovative trend analysis (ITA), Mann-Kendall (MK), and Sen’s slope estimator methods. The results indicated that the annual and seasonal Tmin and Tmax are increasing for all the six climatic stations, whereas four of them exhibit significant increasing trends at (α = 0.05). Moreover, this increase in Tmin and Tmax was found more pronounced at higher altitude stations, i.e., Pahalgam (2650 m asl) and Gulmarg (2740 m asl). The annual and seasonal precipitation patterns for all climatic stations showed downward trends. For instance, Gulmarg station exhibited a significant downward trend for the annual, spring, and winter seasons (α = 0.05). Whereas, Qazigund showed a significant downward trend for the annual and spring seasons (α = 0.05). The overall analysis revealed that the increased Tmin and Tmax trends during the winter season are one of the reasons behind the early onset of melting of snow and the corresponding spring season. Furthermore, the observed decreased precipitation trends could result in making the region vulnerable towards drier climatic extremes. Such changes in the region’s hydro-meteorological processes shall have severe implications on the delicate ecological balance of the fragile environment of the Kashmir valley.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050764
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 765: The December 2021 Marshall Fire:
           Predictability and Gust Forecasts from Operational Models

    • Authors: Robert G. Fovell, Matthew J. Brewer, Richard J. Garmong
      First page: 765
      Abstract: We analyzed meteorological conditions that occurred during the December 2021 Boulder, Colorado, downslope windstorm. This event is of particular interest due to the ignition and spread of the Marshall Fire, which quickly became the most destructive wildfire in Colorado history. Observations indicated a rapid onset of fast winds with gusts as high as 51 m/s that generally remained confined to the east-facing slopes and foothills of the Rockies, similar to previous Boulder windstorms. After about 12 h, the windstorm shifted into a second, less intense phase. Midtropospheric winds above northwestern Colorado weakened prior to the onset of strong surface winds and the event strength started waning as stronger winds moved back into the area. Forecasts from NOAA high-resolution operational models initialized more than a few hours prior to windstorm onset did not simulate the start time, development rate and/or maximum strength of the windstorm correctly, and day-ahead runs even failed to develop strong downslope windstorms at all. Idealized modeling confirmed that predictability was limited by errors on the synoptic scale affecting the midtropospheric wind conditions representing the Boulder windstorm’s inflow environment. Gust forecasts for this event were critically evaluated.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050765
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 766: Characterizing Real-World Particle-Bound
           Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions from Diesel-Fueled Construction
           Machines

    • Authors: Narayan Babu Dhital, Lin-Chi Wang, Hsi-Hsien Yang, Nicholas Kiprotich Cheruiyot, Che-Hsuan Lee
      First page: 766
      Abstract: This study employed an onboard emission measurement system to measure the real-world emission factors of particulate matter (PM), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and gaseous air pollutants for different types of diesel-fueled non-road construction machines operated inside confined spaces within a brick manufacturing factory located in Taiwan. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study that reports real-world PM, PAH, and gaseous pollutant emission factors for non-road engines in Taiwan. The mean real-world fuel-specific emission factors of PM, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide were 0.712–1.17, 8.27–17.9, 3.04–5.77, and 38.1–96.8 g/kg-fuel, respectively, for the test machines. Likewise, mean ΣPAHs emission factors ranged from 157 to 230 μg/kg-fuel for three types of test machines. Further, the average emission of particle-bound PAH per unit PM emission ranged from 213 to 384 μg-PAH/g-PM. Among the analyzed PAHs, the medium-molecular weight (3- and 4-ring) compounds contributed to the largest share of particle-bound PAH emissions. However, in terms of Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity, the high-molecular weight (5- and 6-ring) PAHs were more important, as they had the highest BaPeq toxic emission factors. This study provides detailed composition and emission factors of particle-bound PAHs in non-road diesel construction machine emissions, which may be useful as a chemical fingerprint for source apportionment studies.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050766
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 767: Impact of Environmental Regulation on
           Efficiency of Green Innovation in China

    • Authors: Tongtong Shen, Dongju Li, Yuanyuan Jin, Jie Li
      First page: 767
      Abstract: The implementation of a reasonable and effective environmental regulation policy can compensate for the dual externalities of green technology innovation and improve green innovation efficiency. Therefore, environmental regulation policy has gradually become an effective means of solving ecological environment problems and achieving green industrial transformation. This paper measures the green innovation efficiency of 30 provinces in China from 2009 to 2019 using the SBM (slacks-based measure) of super-efficiency based on the undesirable output. The dynamic panel regression model is established to explore the impact of different environmental regulations on green innovation efficiency and regional differences. The results reveal that the green innovation efficiency of the 30 provinces shows a fluctuating upward trend, but that differences among provinces are relatively significant. There is a nonlinear relationship between environmental regulation and green innovation efficiency. The impact of command-control and market incentive environmental regulations on green innovation efficiency shows inverted N-shaped and U-shaped patterns, respectively. In different regions, the impact of environmental regulation on green innovation efficiency is also different. In order to ensure that environmental regulation promotes green innovation efficiency, some recommendations are proposed for the government, enterprises, and three regions, respectively.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050767
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 768: Application of Affinity Propagation
           Clustering Method in Medium and Extended Range Forecasting of Heavy
           Rainfall Processes in China

    • Authors: Wei Huang, Yong Li
      First page: 768
      Abstract: Based on the precipitation data of an ensemble forecast from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, we establish a clustering model named EOF_AP by using the empirical orthogonal function decomposition and the affinity propagation clustering method. Then, using EOF_AP, we conducted research on the identification and classification of the characteristics of medium and extended range forecasts on 11 heavy rainfall events in the middle–lower reaches of the Yangtze River, North China, and the Huanghuai region, from June to September in 2021. We then selected two representative cases to analyze the common characteristics in detail to evaluate the effect of the model. The results show that the EOF_AP clustering model can better identify and classify the main rainfall pattern characteristics, and their corresponding occurrence probability of heavy rainfall processes, on the basis of comprehensively retaining the main forecast information of ensemble members with a few representative types. The rainfall pattern characteristics of some types with low occurrence probability can be identified, such as the extreme type. The distributions of rainfall patterns of the same type are basically consistent, whereas those among different types are distinct. Moreover, through the comparison of the forecast results with different starting times, we analyze the forecast performance of ensemble members and the variation trend of forecast results. We hope this study can provide a reference for the probability forecast of medium and extended range heavy rainfall process.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050768
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 769: Sources and Variability of Plutonium in
           Chinese Soils: A Statistical Perspective with Moving Average

    • Authors: Sixuan Li, Youyi Ni, Qiuju Guo
      First page: 769
      Abstract: We investigated the different sources and their corresponding impact areas of Pu in Chinese surface soils to illustrate the state-of-the-art of the sources, levels and distributions of 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios as well as 239+240Pu activity concentrations in China. For the first time a moving average strategy in combination with statistical analysis was employed to partition geographic areas in China based on the reported 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio and 239+240Pu concentration data from public literature. During the partitioning, the median (MED) of the dataset was basically employed as a criteria in place of the commonly used arithmetic average (AM). Concisely, three areas were partitioned according to the different influences of Pu from the Lop Nor (LNTS) and Semipalatinsk (STS) test sites and the global fallout. The partitioned Ternary area (80° E–105° E, 35° N–50° N) was supposed to have multiple sources of Pu including the STS and LNTS besides the global fallout, which was characterized with slightly lower 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios (MED = 0.174) as well as elevated 239+240Pu concentrations (MED = 0.416 mBq/g). Meanwhile, the Binary area (35° N–45° N, 100° E–115° E) was considered to have received the extra contribution from the high-yield nuclear tests at the LNTS besides the global fallout, resulting in the highest 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios (MED = 0.200) across China. The remaining area was marked as the Unitary area, where it only received the exclusive contribution of global fallout. Furthermore, through the statistical analysis of the 240Pu/239Pu data in the Unitary area, we recommended a value of 0.186 ± 0.021 (AM ± SD) as a representative or area-specific 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio baseline to characterize the global fallout derived Pu in Chinese soils.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050769
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 770: Influence of Relative Humidity on the
           Characteristics of Filter Cake Using Particle Flow Code Simulation

    • Authors: Dinglian Shi, Jianlong Li, Yongnan Du, Quanquan Wu, Shan Huang, Hong Huang, Daishe Wu
      First page: 770
      Abstract: To study the effect of air humidity on particle filtration performance, the Particle Flow Code (PFC) calculation program was used to numerically simulate the formation process of filter cake. The effects of relative air humidity on the deposition morphology, porosity and filtration resistance characteristics of the filter cake were revealed. The results show that relative humidity (RH) is mainly reflected in the density and surface viscosity of the particles. It was found that the higher the relative humidity, the higher the particle moisture content, the greater the density, and the greater the surface viscosity. With an increase in the particle density or with a decrease in the viscosity, the bridging phenomenon of particle deposition became more obvious; the dendritic deposition phenomenon became weaker; and, therefore, the filter cake structure became denser; the porosity decreased; and the total filtration resistance increased. As the humidity changed, the actual density and viscosity of the particles changed simultaneously with different degrees, which caused different variation trends of the filter cake characteristics. Three different types of particles, DM828 (Starch), PVA1788 (Polyvinyl Alcohol) and Polyacrylamide (Polyacrylic acid), were selected for comparison. For the studied PVA1788 and Polyacrylamide particles, with an increase in relative humidity, the porosity of the filter cake increased monotonously, while the total filtration resistance decreased monotonously. For DM828 particles, the cake porosity first decreased and then increased, and the total filtration resistance first increased and then decreased, with an inflection point at 30% RH. By combining these results with existing reports, three kinds of variations of the filtration performance with humidity could be determined: (1) as the humidity increased, the filtration resistance first increased and then decreased; (2) the filtration resistance decreased; and (3) the filtration resistance increased.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050770
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 771: Sensitivity to Different Reanalysis Data
           on WRF Dynamic Downscaling for South China Sea Wind Resource Estimations

    • Authors: Anandh Thankaswamy, Tao Xian, Yong-Feng Ma, Lian-Ping Wang
      First page: 771
      Abstract: As the world is moving toward greener forms of energy, to mitigate the effects of global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions, wind energy has risen as the most invested-in renewable energy. China, as the largest consumer of world energy, has started investing heavily in wind energy resources. Most of the wind farms in China are located in Northern China, and they possess the disadvantage of being far away from the energy load. To mitigate this, recently, offshore wind farms are being proposed and invested in. As an initial step in the wind farm setting, a thorough knowledge of the wind energy potential of the candidate region is required. Here, we conduct numerical experiments with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model forced by analysis (NCEP-FNL) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim and NCEP-CFSv2) to find the best choice in terms of initial and boundary data for downscale in the South China Sea. The simulations are validated by observation and several analyses. Specific locations along China’s coast are analyzed and validated for their wind speed, surface temperature, and energy production. The analysis shows that the model forced with ERA-Interim data provides the best simulation of surface wind speed characteristics in the South China Sea, yet the other models are not too far behind. Moreover, the analysis indicates that the Taiwan Strait along the coastal regions of China is an excellent region to set up wind farms due to possessing the highest wind speeds along the coast.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050771
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 772: European Grid Dataset of Actual
           Evapotranspiration, Water Availability and Effective Precipitation

    • Authors: Mărgărit-Mircea Nistor, Alfrendo Satyanaga, Ştefan Dezsi, Ionel Haidu
      First page: 772
      Abstract: The sustainability of a territory is closely related to its resources. Due to climate change, the most precious natural resource, water, has been negatively affected by climatic conditions in terms of quantity and quality. CLIMAT datasets of 1 km2 spatial resolution were used and processed in the ArcGIS environment to generate maps of actual evapotranspiration, water availability, and effective precipitation for the periods of 1961–1990 (1990s), 2011–2040 (2020s), and 2041–2070 (2050s). The product is of paramount importance for the analysis of the actual situation in Europe indicating high water availability in the Alps Range, the Carpathians Mountains, Northern European countries, and the British Islands. On the other hand, low water availability has been evidenced in the Southern and Eastern European areas. For the future period (2050s), the monthly potential evapotranspiration is expected to increase by 30%. The climate models also show an increase in the actual evapotranspiration between past and future periods by 40%. The changes in water availability and effective precipitation between the past (1990s) and future (2050s) indicate decreases of 10%. The most affected areas by climate change are located within the Mediterranean areas, the Iberian Peninsula, and Eastern Europe.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050772
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 773: Intercomparison of Vaisala RS92 and RS41
           Radiosonde Temperature Sensors under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    • Authors: Marco Rosoldi, Graziano Coppa, Andrea Merlone, Chiara Musacchio, Fabio Madonna
      First page: 773
      Abstract: Radiosoundings are essential for weather and climate applications, as well as for calibration and validation of remote sensing observations. Vaisala RS92 radiosondes have been widely used on a global scale until 2016; although in the fall of 2013, Vaisala introduced the RS41 model to progressively replace the RS92. To ensure the highest quality and homogeneity of measurements following the transition from RS92 to RS41, intercomparisons of the two radiosonde models are needed. A methodology was introduced to simultaneously test and compare the two radiosonde models inside climatic chambers, in terms of noise, calibration accuracy, and bias in temperature measurements. A pair of RS41 and RS92 radiosondes has been tested at ambient pressure under very different temperature and humidity conditions, reproducing the atmospheric conditions that a radiosonde can meet at the ground before launch. The radiosondes have also been tested before and after fast (within ≈ 10 s) temperature changes of about ±20 °C, simulating a scenario similar to steep thermal changes that radiosondes can meet when passing from indoor to outdoor environment during the pre-launch phase. The results show that the temperature sensor of RS41 is less affected by noise and more accurate than that of RS92, with noise values less than 0.06 °C for RS41 and less than 0.1 °C for RS92. The deviation from the reference value, referred to as calibration error, is within ±0.1 °C for RS41 and the related uncertainty (hereafter with coverage factor k = 1) is less than 0.06 °C, while RS92 is affected by a cold bias in the calibration, which ranges from 0.1 °C up to a few tenths of a degree, with a calibration uncertainty less than 0.1 °C. The temperature bias between RS41 and RS92 is within ±0.1 °C, while its uncertainty is less than 0.1 °C. The fast and steep thermal changes that radiosondes can meet during the pre-launch phase might lead to a noise increase in temperature sensors during radiosoundings, up to 0.1 °C for RS41 and up to 0.3 °C for RS92, with a similar increase in their calibration uncertainty, as well as an increase in the uncertainty of their bias up to 0.3 °C.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050773
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 774: Influence of the Grid Resolutions on the
           Computer-Simulated Surface Air Pollution Concentrations in Bulgaria

    • Authors: Georgi Gadzhev, Kostadin Ganev, Plamen Mukhtarov
      First page: 774
      Abstract: The present study aims to demonstrate the effects of horizontal grid resolution on the simulated pollution concentration fields over Bulgaria. The computer simulations are performed with a set of models used worldwide—the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF)—the meteorological preprocessor, the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)—chemical transport model, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)—emission model. The large-scale (background) meteorological data used in the study were taken from the ‘NCEP Global Analysis Data’ with a horizontal resolution of 1° × 1°. Using the ‘nesting’ capabilities of the WRF and CMAQ models, a resolution of 9 km was achieved for the territory of Bulgaria by sequentially solving the task in several consecutive nested areas. Three cases are considered in this paper: Case 1: The computer simulations result from the domain with a horizontal resolution (both of the emission source description and the grid) of 27 km.; Case 2: The computer simulations result from the domain with a horizontal resolution (both of the emission source description and the grid) of 9 km.; Case 3: A hybrid case with the computer simulations performed with a grid resolution of 9 km, but with emissions such as in the 27 km × 27 km domain. The simulations were performed, for all the three cases, for the period 2007–2014 year, thus creating an ensemble large and comprehensive enough to reflect the most typical atmospheric conditions with their typical recurrence. The numerical experiments showed the significant impact of the grid resolution not only in the pollution concentration pattern but also in the demonstrated generalized characteristics. Averaged over a large territory (Bulgaria); however, the performances for cases one and two are quite similar. Bulgaria is a country with a complex topography and with several considerably large point sources. Thus, some of the conclusions made, though based on Bulgarian-specific experiments, may be of general interest.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050774
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 775: In Situ Observations of Wind Turbines
           Wakes with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle BOREAL within the MOMEMTA Project

    • Authors: Sara Alaoui-Sosse, Pierre Durand, Patrice Médina
      First page: 775
      Abstract: The MOMENTA project combines in situ and remote sensing observations, wind tunnel experiments, and numerical modeling to improve the knowledge of wake structure in wind farms in order to model its impact on the wind turbines and to optimize wind farm layout. In this context, we present the results of a first campaign conducted with a BOREAL unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) designed to measure the three wind components with a horizontal resolution as fine as 3 m. The observations were performed at a wind farm where six turbines were installed. Despite the strong restrictions imposed by air traffic control authorities, we were able to document the wake area of two turbines during two flights in April 2021. The flight patterns consisted of horizontal racetracks with various orientations performed at different distances from the wind turbines; thus, horizontal wind speed fields were built in which the wind reduction area in the wake is clearly displayed. On a specific day, we observed an overspeed area between the individual wakes of two wind turbines, likely resulting from the cumulative effect of the wakes generated behind two successive rows of turbines. This study demonstrates the potential of BOREAL to document turbine wakes.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050775
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 776: Prediction of Emission Reduction Potential
           from Road Diesel Vehicles in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH)
           Region, China

    • Authors: Xiurui Guo, Yao Liu, Dongsheng Chen, Xiaoqian Gong
      First page: 776
      Abstract: China has started to focus on the reduction in pollutants from diesel vehicles with high emission intensities in recent years. Therefore, it is essential and valuable to conduct a deep and detailed exploration of the reduction potential from diesel vehicles and compare the abatement effect from different control measures in upcoming decades. This study attempted to estimate the present emissions of four conventional pollutants from diesel vehicles by applying the Computer Program to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model, and to predict the future emission trends under different scenarios during 2019–2030, taking the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region as the case study area. In addition, we analyzed the emission reduction potential of diesel vehicles and compared the reduction effects from different control measures. The results showed that the CO and NOx emissions from diesel vehicles in this region could increase by 104.8% and 83.9%, respectively, given no any additional control measures adopted over the next decade. The largest emission reduction effect could be achieved under the comprehensive scenario, which means that vehicular diesel emissions in 2030 could decrease by 74.8–94.0% compared to values in 2018. The effect of emission reduction under the emission standards’ upgrade scenario could cause a gradual increase and achieve a 19.8–82.6% reduction for the four pollutants in 2030. Furthermore, the new energy vehicle promotion scenario could achieve a considerable reduction effect. It could also offer better emission reduction effects under the highway to railway scenario for Tianjin and Hebei provinces. The old vehicle elimination scenario could have a considerable reduction effect, but only in the short term. Furthermore, emission reductions could be mainly influenced by heavy diesel trucks. These results can provide scientific support to formulate effective reduction measures to diesel vehicles for policy makers.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050776
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 777: Soil Enzyme Activity Regulates the
           Response of Soil C Fluxes to N Fertilization in a Temperate Cultivated
           Grassland

    • Authors: Yan Yang, Huajun Fang, Shulan Cheng, Lijun Xu, Mingzhu Lu, Yifan Guo, Yuna Li, Yi Zhou
      First page: 777
      Abstract: Exogenous nitrogen (N) inputs greatly change the emission and uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from temperate grassland soils, thereby affecting the carbon (C) budget of regional terrestrial ecosystems. Relevant research focused on natural grassland, but the effects of N fertilization on C exchange fluxes from different forage soils and the driving mechanisms were poorly understood. Here, a three-year N addition experiment was conducted on cultivated grassland planted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis) in Inner Mongolia. The fluxes of soil-atmospheric CO2 and CH4; the content of the total dissolved N (TDN); the dissolved organic N (DON); the dissolved organic C (DOC); NH4+–N and NO3−–N in soil; enzyme activity; and auxiliary variables (soil temperature and moisture) were simultaneously measured. The results showed that N fertilization (>75 kg N ha−1 year−1) caused more serious soil acidification for alfalfa planting than for brome planting. N fertilization stimulated P-acquiring hydrolase (AP) in soil for growing Bromus inermis but did not affect C- and N-acquiring hydrolases (AG, BG, CBH, BX, LAP, and NAG). The oxidase activities (PHO and PER) of soil for planting Bromus inermis were higher than soil for planting Medicago sativa, regardless of N, whether fertilization was applied or not. Forage species and N fertilization did not affect soil CO2 flux, whereas a high rate of N fertilization (150 kg N ha−1 year−1) significantly inhibited CH4 uptake in soil for planting Medicago sativa. A synergistic effect between CO2 emission and CH4 uptake in soil was found over the short term. Our findings highlight that forage species affect soil enzyme activity in response to N fertilization. Soil enzyme activity may be an important regulatory factor for C exchange from temperate artificial grassland soil in response to N fertilization.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050777
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 778: Rapid Sampling Protocol of Isoprene
           Emission Rate of Palm (Arecaceae) Species Using Excised Leaves

    • Authors: Ting-Wei Chang, Hiroshi Okamoto, Akira Tani
      First page: 778
      Abstract: The high isoprene emission capacity of palm species can decrease regional air quality and enhance the greenhouse effect when land is converted to palm plantations. Propagation of low-emitting individuals can be a strategy for reducing isoprene emission from palms. However, the identification of low-emitting individuals requires large-scale sampling. Thus, we aimed to develop a rapid method in which the isoprene emission rate of leaf segments is observed. We examined the temperature response and effect of incubation length on the isoprene emission rate of palm leaf and found that leaf temperatures at 25 to 30 °C and an incubation length of 40 min are suitable parameters. To further examine the validity of the method, we applied both the enclosure method and this method to the same sections of leaves. High coefficient of determinations (0.993 and 0.982) between the results of the two methods were detected regardless of seasonal temperature. This result proves that the method is capable of measuring the isoprene emission rate under any growth conditions if the incubation temperature is controlled. By using a water bath tank and a tested light source, we can simply implement a unified environmental control of multiple samples at once, which achieves a higher time efficiency than conventional enclosure measurements.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050778
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 779: An Observing System Simulation Experiment
           (OSSE) to Study the Impact of Ocean Surface Observation from the Micro
           Unmanned Robot Observation Network (MURON) on Tropical Cyclone Forecast

    • Authors: Junkyung Kay, Xuguang Wang, Masaya Yamamoto
      First page: 779
      Abstract: The Micro Unmanned Robot Observation Network (MURON) is a planned in-situ observation network over the surface of West Pacific Ocean, and it is designed to sample high spatial and temporal resolution observations of wind and mass fields over the ocean surface. The impacts of MURON observations for Tropical Cyclone (TC) intensity forecast are investigated using Observation System Simulation Experiments. The regional Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) system of Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation is used with the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model to conduct OSSEs for typhoon Haiyan (2013) while Haiyan goes through rapid intensification. Assimilating MURON observations improves the TC structure and intensity analysis and forecast. The intensity forecast is improved largely due to the correction of initial vorticity and vertical transport of mass flux. The improvement of intensity forecast is attributed largely to the assimilated MURON wind observations when Haiyan is at the tropical disturbance stage, and then by the MURON mass observations when Haiyan enters the tropical storm stage. In addition, our results show that the quality of moisture analysis is sensitive to the choice of the moisture control variable (CV) in the EnKF system. Using the default pseudo relative humidity (PRH) as the moisture CV degrades the accuracy of the moisture analysis. This is likely due to the neglect of updated temperature field during the nonlinear conversion from the PRH CV to the mixing ratio variable and due to the larger deviation of the PRH from Gaussian distribution. The use of mixing ratio moisture CV mitigates these problems.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050779
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 780: Parameter Optimization of Catering Oil
           Droplet Electrostatic Coalescence under Coupling Field with COMSOL
           Software

    • Authors: Danyun Xu, Ling Zhu, Ziyu Yang, Jiale Gao, Man Jin
      First page: 780
      Abstract: At present, the common cooking fume purification devices are mostly based on electrostatic technology. There are few researches on the microscopic process of coalescence and electric field parameters’ optimization. In this paper, COMSOL MultiphysicsTM was used to simulate the electrostatic coalescence of oil droplets in the coupling field of an electric field and flow field. The degree of deformation of oil droplets (D) and the starting coalescence time (tsc) were used to evaluate the coalescence process. The feasibility of the model was verified through experimental results. The effects of voltage, flow speed and oil droplet radius on tsc were investigated, and the parameters were optimized by the response surface method and Matrix correlation analysis. It can be concluded that increasing the voltage, flow speed and oil droplet radius appropriately would be conducive to the coalescence of oil droplets. When the oil droplet radius was in the range of 0–1.5 mm, it promoted the coalescence of oil droplets. The influence of various factors on oil droplet coalescence was flow speed > voltage > oil droplet radius. The optimal result obtained by simulation was that when the radius of the oil droplet was 1.56 mm, the voltage 12 kV and the flow speed 180 mm/ms, the shortest coalescence time of oil droplets was 16.8253 ms.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050780
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 781: Temporal Distribution and Source
           

    • Authors: Kejun Li, Dilinuer Talifu, Bo Gao, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Wei Wang, Abulikemu Abulizi, Xinming Wang, Xiang Ding, Huibin Liu, Yuanyu Zhang
      First page: 781
      Abstract: In order to identify the pollution characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in Urumqi, fine particulate matter samples were collected from September 2017 to August 2018, and the water-soluble ions (WSIs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and metal elements were analyzed. The results indicate that the annual mass concentration of PM2.5 in Urumqi was 158.85 ± 15.11 μg/m3, with the highest seasonal average in autumn (180.49 ± 87.22 μg/m3) and the lowest in summer (148.41 ± 52.60 μg/m3). SO42− (13.58 ± 16.4 μg/m3), NO3− (13.46 ± 17.5 μg/m3), and NH4+ (10.88 ± 12.2 μg/m3) were the most abundant WSIs, and the secondary inorganic ions (SNA = SO42− + NO3− + NH4+) accounted for 87.23% of the WSIs. The NO3−/SO42− ratio indicates that the contribution of stationary sources was dominant. The annual concentrations of OC and EC were 12.00 ± 4.4 µg/m3 and 5.00 ± 3.5 µg/m3, respectively, the OC/EC ratios in winter (2.55 ± 0.7), spring (3.43 ± 1.3), and summer (3.22 ± 1.1) were greater than 2, and there was the formation of secondary organic carbon (SOC). The correlation between OC and EC in spring in Urumqi (R2 = 0.53) was low. In the PM2.5, Al and Fe were the most abundant elements. The highest mass concentration season occurred in autumn, with mass concentrations of 15.11 ± 10.1 µg/m3 and 8.33 ± 6.9 µg/m3, respectively. The enrichment factor (EF) shows that most of the metal elements come from natural sources, and the Cd element mainly comes from anthropogenic sources. PAHs with a middle molecular weight were the main ones, and the annual average annual mass concentration of the PAHs was 451.35 ng/m3. The positive matrix factor model (PMF) source analysis shows that there are five main sources of PM2.5 in Urumqi, including crustal minerals, biomass combustion, coal combustion, vehicular transport, and secondary aerosols. The distribution percentages of these different sources were 19.2%, 10.2%, 12.1%, 8.2%, and 50.3%, respectively.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050781
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 782: Predicting Daily PM2.5 Exposure with
           Spatially Invariant Accuracy Using Co-Existing Pollutant Concentrations as
           Predictors

    • Authors: Shin Araki, Hikari Shimadera, Hideki Hasunuma, Yoshiko Yoda, Masayuki Shima
      First page: 782
      Abstract: The spatiotemporal variation of PM2.5 should be accurately estimated for epidemiological studies. However, the accuracy of prediction models may change over geographical space, which is not conducive for proper exposure assessment. In this study, we developed a prediction model to estimate daily PM2.5 concentrations from 2010 to 2017 in the Kansai region of Japan with co-existing pollutant concentrations as predictors. The overall objective was to obtain daily estimates over the study domain with spatially homogeneous accuracy. We used random forest algorithm to model the relationship between the daily PM2.5 concentrations and various predictors. The model performance was evaluated via spatial and temporal cross-validation and the daily PM2.5 surface was estimated from 2010 to 2017 at a 1 km × 1 km resolution. We achieved R2 values of 0.91 and 0.92 for spatial and temporal cross-validation, respectively. The prediction accuracy for each monitoring site was found to be consistently high, regardless of the distance to the nearest monitoring location, up to 10 km. Even for distances greater than 10 km, the mean R2 value was 0.88. Our approach yielded spatially homogeneous prediction accuracy, which is beneficial for epidemiological studies. The daily PM2.5 estimates will be used in a related birth cohort study to evaluate the potential impact on human health.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050782
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 783: Tropical Cyclone Intensity Prediction
           Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network

    • Authors: Xiao-Yan Xu, Min Shao, Pu-Long Chen, Qin-Geng Wang
      First page: 783
      Abstract: In this study, deep convolutional neural network (CNN) models of stimulated tropical cyclone intensity (TCI), minimum central pressure (MCP), and maximum 2 min mean wind speed at near center (MWS) were constructed based on ocean and atmospheric reanalysis, as well Best Track of tropical hurricane data over 2014–2018. In order to explore the interpretability of the model structure, sensitivity experiments were designed with various combinations of predictors. The model test results show that simplified VGG-16 (VGG-16 s) outperforms the other two general models (LeNet-5 and AlexNet). The results of the sensitivity experiments display good consistency with the hypothesis and perceptions, which verifies the validity and reliability of the model. Furthermore, the results also suggest that the importance of predictors varies in different targets. The top three factors that are highly related to TCI are sea surface temperature (SST), temperature at 500 hPa (TEM_500), and the differences in wind speed between 850 hPa and 500 hPa (vertical wind shear speed, VWSS). VWSS, relative humidity (RH), and SST are more significant than MCP. For MWS and SST, TEM_500, and temperature at 850 hPa (TEM_850) outweigh the other variables. This conclusion also implies that deep learning could be an alternative way to conduct intensive and quantitative research.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050783
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 784: Particle Sedimentation in Numerical
           Modelling: A Case Study from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle 2011
           Eruption with the PLUME-MoM/HYSPLIT Models

    • Authors: Alessandro Tadini, Mathieu Gouhier, Franck Donnadieu, Mattia de’ Michieli Vitturi, Federica Pardini
      First page: 784
      Abstract: Numerical modelling of tephra fallout is a fast-developing research area in volcanology. Several models are currently available both to forecast the dispersion of volcanic particles in the atmosphere and to calculate the particles deposited at different locations on the ground. Data from these simulations can then be used both to manage volcanic crises (e.g., protect air traffic) or perform long-term hazard assessment studies (e.g., through hazard maps). Given the importance of these tasks, it is important that each model is thoroughly tested in order to assess advantages and limitations, and to provide useful information for quantifying the model uncertainty. In this study we tested the coupled PLUME-MoM/HYSPLIT models by applying them to the Puyehue–Cordon Caulle 2011 sub-Plinian eruption. More specifically, we tested new features recently introduced in these well-established models (ash aggregation, external water addition, and settling velocity models), we implemented a new inversion procedure, and we performed a parametric analysis. Our main results reaffirm the pivotal role played by mass eruption rate on the final deposit and show that some choices for the input parameters of the model can lead to the large overestimation in total deposited mass (which can be reduced with our inversion procedure). The parametric analysis suggests a most likely value of the mass eruption rate in the range 2.0–6.3 × 106 kg/s. More studies with a similar approach would be advisable in order to provide final users with useful indications about the parameters that should be carefully evaluated before being used as input for this kind of model.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050784
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 785: Effects of Urbanization on Extreme Climate
           Indices in the Valley of Mexico Basin

    • Authors: Martín José Montero-Martínez, Mercedes Andrade-Velázquez
      First page: 785
      Abstract: This study analyzes 50 annual climate change indices related to temperature and precipitation in the Valley of Mexico basin for the period 1951–2010. First, a quality and homogenization analysis of 90 weather stations (categorized as urban, suburban, and rural) in the basin was performed using the Climatol algorithm. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall test and the Sen’s slope method were applied to determine the existence of a trend and to estimate the magnitude of the change in extreme climate indices, respectively. To eliminate the serial correlation problem, the lag-1 method and the Patakamuri tests were used. Statistically significant positive trends were found for SU, TMm, TNm, TNn, TX90p, and WSDI, as well as negative ones for FD, TX10p, TN10p, CSDI, and HDDheat18. The results seem to support an influence of anthropogenic global warming on the study region, rather than local effects of urbanization. However, it is likely that some significant differences in the urban change rate of some indices could be due to local effects, such as the difference in land cover that occurs between urban and rural stations. Not enough statistically significant results were found for the climate change indices related to precipitation in most of the stations. Compared to other studies in the Mexico City area, the main contribution of this study is the analysis of 50 climate indices in a 60-year period working with a quality-controlled and homogenized database.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050785
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 786: Transformation and Migrant Mechanism of
           Sulfur and Nitrogen during Chemical Looping Combustion with CuFe2O4

    • Authors: Haichuan Li, Ziheng Han, Chenye Hu, Jingjing Ma, Qingjie Guo
      First page: 786
      Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a key technology for capturing CO2. Different types of oxygen carrier (OC) particles are used in coal CLC. The migration and transformation behaviors of sulfur and nitrogen are basically the same when CaFe2O4 and Fe2O3/Al2O3 are used as OC. CLC can be divided into two reaction stages: coal pyrolysis and char gasification; SO2 and NO show bimodal release characteristics, both of which show a basic trend of rising first and then falling down. The contents of H2S and NO2 increased rapidly at the beginning of the reaction and then decreased slowly at the stage of char gasification. H2S is released rapidly during coal pyrolysis and discharged from the reactor with flue gas, and then part of H2S is converted to SO2 during the char gasification stage by OC particles. NO can be oxidized by OC particles and form NO2. The increase in the reaction temperature and oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) contributes to the release of sulfur and nitrogen and higher reaction temperature and O/C can inhibit the formation of metal sulfide. O2 released by CuFe2O4 significantly increases the contents of SO2, H2S, NO and NO2 in flue gas. This work is helpful for improving control strategies for pollutants.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050786
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 787: Correction: Han et al. Interpolation-Based
           Fusion of Sentinel-5P, SRTM, and Regulatory-Grade Ground Stations Data for
           Producing Spatially Continuous Maps of PM2.5 Concentrations Nationwide
           over Thailand. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 161

    • Authors: Shinhye Han, Worasom Kundhikanjana, Peeranan Towashiraporn, Dimitris Stratoulias
      First page: 787
      Abstract: In the original publication [...]
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050787
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 788: Time Series Forecasting of Air Quality: A
           Case Study of Sofia City

    • Authors: Evgeniy Marinov, Dessislava Petrova-Antonova, Simeon Malinov
      First page: 788
      Abstract: Air pollution has a significant impact on human health and the environment, causing cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, lung cancer and other diseases. Understanding the behavior of air pollutants is essential for adequate decisions that can lead to a better quality of life for citizens. Air quality forecasting is a reliable method for taking preventive and regulatory actions. Time series analysis produces forecasting models, which study the characteristics of the data points over time to extrapolate them in the future. This study explores the trends of air pollution at five air quality stations in Sofia, Bulgaria. The data collected between 2015 and 2019 is analyzed applying time series forecasting. Since the time series analysis works on complete data, imputation techniques are used to deal with missing values of pollutants. The data is aggregated by granularity periods of 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h (1 day). The AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method is employed to create statistical analysis models for the prediction of pollutants’ levels at each air quality station and for each granularity, including carbon oxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and fine particles (PM2.5). In addition, the method allows us to find out whether the pollutants’ levels exceed the limits prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as to investigate the correlation between levels of a given pollutant measured in different air quality stations.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050788
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 789: Self-Rated Health, Life Balance and
           Feeling of Empowerment When Facing Impacts of Permafrost Thaw—A Case
           Study from Northern Canada

    • Authors: Ulla Timlin, Justine Ramage, Susanna Gartler, Tanja Nordström, Arja Rautio
      First page: 789
      Abstract: Climate warming in Arctic Canada, e.g., permafrost thaw, comprehensively impacts biota and the environment, which then affects the lives of people. This study aimed to investigate which perceived environmental and adaptation factors relate to self-rated well-being, quality of life, satisfaction with life (sum variable = life balance), self-rated health, and feeling of empowerment to face the changes related to permafrost thaw. The study sample was collected from one community using a questionnaire (n = 53) and analyzed by cross-tabulation. Results indicated that most participants had at least good well-being, quality of life, satisfaction with life, and a medium level of health, and over 40% assessed being empowered to face the changes related to permafrost thaw. Problems and challenges associated with permafrost thaw, e.g., health, traditional lifeways, and infrastructure, were recognized; these had impacts on life balance, feeling of empowerment, and self-rated health. Traditional knowledge regarding adaptation to face changes was seen as important. More adaptation actions from the individual to global level seemed to be needed. This study provides an overview of the situation in one area, but more research, with a larger study sample, should be conducted to achieve a deeper understanding of climate-related impacts on life and holistic well-being.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050789
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 790: Comparison of COSMIC and COSMIC-2 Radio
           Occultation Refractivity and Bending Angle Uncertainties in August 2006
           and 2021

    • Authors: Richard Anthes, Jeremiah Sjoberg, Xuelei Feng, Stig Syndergaard
      First page: 790
      Abstract: We compare the random error statistics (uncertainties) of COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate, C1) and COSMIC-2 (C2) radio occultation (RO) bending angles and refractivities for the months of August 2006 and 2021 over the tropics and subtropics using the three-cornered hat method. The uncertainty profiles are similar for the two RO missions in the troposphere. However, a higher percentage of C2 profiles reach close to the surface in the moisture-rich tropics, an advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in C2. C2 uses signals from both GPS (Global Positioning System) and GLONASS Global Navigation System Satellites (GNSS). The GPS occultations show smaller uncertainties in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere (30–60 km) than the GLONASS occultations, a result of more accurate GPS clocks. Therefore, C2 (GPS) uncertainties are smaller than C1 uncertainties between 30–60 km while the C2 (GLONASS) uncertainties are larger than those of C1. The uncertainty profiles vary with latitude at all levels. We find that horizontal gradients in temperature and water vapor, and therefore refractivity, are the major cause of uncertainties in the tropopause region and troposphere through the violation of the assumption of spherical symmetry in the retrieval of bending angles and refractivity.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050790
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 791: Analysing the Main Standards for
           Climate-Induced Mechanical Risk in Heritage Wooden Structures: The Case of
           the Ringebu and Heddal Stave Churches (Norway)

    • Authors: America Califano, Marco Baiesi, Chiara Bertolin
      First page: 791
      Abstract: Studying, controlling and extrapolating the indoor microclimate of historical buildings have always been at the forefront among numerous preventive conservation strategies, especially in case of buildings made of organic hygroscopic materials, e.g., wood. The variations and fluctuations of the microclimatic variables, namely temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), could have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of wooden objects, works of art and structures. For this reason, through the years, several guidelines have been provided by standards and protocols about the optimal microclimatic conditions that should be ensured to avoid the decay and the eventual catastrophic failure of heritage objects and buildings. In this work, two historical buildings entirely made of Scots pine wood have been analysed: the Ringebu and Heddal stave churches (Norway). These churches store several wooden medieval statues and paintings that are also susceptible to the effects of the microclimate. For this reason, the timeseries of the indoor relative humidity of the two churches have been analysed, in the framework of the indications provided by the standards. The criticalities of the existing protocols have been pointed out, emphasizing the need for systematically and periodically updated specifications, tailorable to a given case study of concern, without forgetting the ever-present needs of energy- and money-saving approaches.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050791
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 792: Inventory of Commercial Cooking Activities
           and Emissions in a Typical Urban Area in Greece

    • Authors: Kyriaki-Maria Fameli, Aggelos Kladakis, Vasiliki D. Assimakopoulos
      First page: 792
      Abstract: The pollutants emitted during meal preparation in restaurants deteriorate the air quality. Thus, it is an environmental issue that needs to be addressed, especially in areas where these activities are densely located. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact on air quality from commercial cooking activities by performing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the related parameters. The area of interest is located in the southeastern Mediterranean (Greater Athens area in Greece). Due to the lack of the necessary activity information, a survey was conducted. Emissions from the fuel burnt during the cooking procedures were calculated and it was found that, overall, 940.1 tonnes are attributed to commercial cooking activities annually (generated by classical pollutants, heavy metals, particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions). Comparing the contribution of different sources to the pollutants emitted, it was found that commercial cooking is responsible for about 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% of the total CO, NOx and PM10 values. Cooking organic aerosol (COA) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from grilled meat were also calculated, accounting for 724.9 tonnes and 37.1 tonnes, respectively. Monthly, daily and hourly profiles of the cooking activities were developed and emissions were spatially disaggregated, indicating the city center as the area with higher values. Numerical simulations were performed with the WRF/CAMx modeling system and the results revealed a contribution of about 6% to the total PM10 concentrations in the urban center, where the majority of restaurants are located.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050792
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 793: Progress in Metal-Organic Framework
           Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx: A Mini-Review

    • Authors: Yuan Gao, Si-Yan Gong, Baixiao Chen, Wen-Hao Xing, Yan-Fei Fei, Zhong-Ting Hu, Zhiyan Pan
      First page: 793
      Abstract: Nitrogen oxides released from the combustion of fossil fuels are one of the main air pollutants. Selective catalytic reduction technology is the most widely used nitrogen oxide removal technology in the industry. With the development of nanomaterials science, more and more novel nanomaterials are being used as catalysts for the selective reduction of nitrogen oxides. In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with large specific surface areas and abundant acid and metal sites, have been extensively studied in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides. This review summarizes recent progress in monometallic MOFs, bimetallic MOFs, and MOF-derived catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides and compares the reaction mechanisms of different catalysts. This article also suggests the advantages and disadvantages of MOF-based catalysts compared with traditional catalysts and points out promising research directions in this field.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050793
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 794: Comparison of the on Board Measured and
           Simulated Exhaust Gas Emissions on the Ro-Pax Vessels

    • Authors: Josip Orović, Marko Valčić, Vlatko Knežević, Zoran Pavin
      First page: 794
      Abstract: Increasingly stringent environmental requirements for marine engines imposed by the International Maritime Organisation and the European Union require that marine engines have the lowest possible emissions of greenhouse and harmful exhaust gases into the atmosphere. In this research, exhaust gas emissions were measured on three Ro-Pax vessels sailing in the Adriatic Sea. Testo 350 Maritime exhaust gas analyser was used for monitoring the dry exhaust gas concentrations of CO2 and O2 in percentage, concentrations of CO and NOx in ppm and exhaust gas temperature in °C after the turbocharger at different engine loads. In order to compare and validate measured values, exhaust gas measurement data were also obtained from a Wartsila-Transas simulator model of a similar Ro-Pax vessel during the joint operation of the engine room and navigational simulators. All analysed main engines on three vessels had complete combustion processes in the cylinders with small differences which should be further investigated. Comparison of on board measured parameters with simulated parameters showed that significant fuel oil reduction per voyage could be accomplished by voyage and/or engine operation optimization procedures. Results of this analysis could be used for creating additional emission database and data-driven models for further analysis and improved estimation of exhaust gasses under various marine engine conditions. Additionally, the results could be useful to all interested parties in reducing the fuel oil consumption and emissions of greenhouse and harmful exhaust gases from vessels into the atmosphere.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050794
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 795: Effects of Environmental Relative
           Vorticity and Seasonal Variation on Tropical Cyclones over the Western
           North Pacific

    • Authors: Yusi Wu, Shumin Chen, Mingsen Zhou, Yilun Chen, Aoqi Zhang, Chaoyong Tu, Weibiao Li
      First page: 795
      Abstract: An improved understanding of the environmental factors influencing tropical cyclones (TCs) is vital to enhance the accuracy of forecasting TC intensity. More than half of TCs that were substantially affected by environmental factors were predominantly affected by low-level environmental relative vorticity (hereafter, VOR TCs). In this study, the seasonal variation and related physical features of VOR TCs from 2003–2017 during TC seasons in summer and autumn over the western North Pacific were analyzed. Autumn VOR TCs exhibited the strongest intensity among all TCs over the western North Pacific. The enhanced environmental relative vorticity during the TC intensification period was larger and more favorably distributed for VOR TC development in autumn. The vorticity diagnostic analysis showed that the convergence was the positive source of environmental relative vorticity of VOR TCs, while the contribution of convergence was larger in autumn than in summer. The increased convergence was related to seasonal variation in larger-scale systems, especially the higher environmental pressure gradient, which reflected the larger subtropical high and the compressed East Asian summer monsoon trough in autumn. In addition, the East Asian summer monsoon trough was also somewhat stronger during the intensification period of VOR TCs, especially in autumn.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050795
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 796: A Quality Control Method and
           Implementation Process of Wind Profiler Radar Data

    • Authors: Yang Qi, Yong Guo
      First page: 796
      Abstract: Wind profiler radar (WPR) is used for all-weather atmospheric wind-field monitoring. However, the reliability of these observations reduces significantly when there is electromagnetic interference echo, generally caused by ground objects, birds, or rain. Therefore, to optimize the data reliability of WPR, we proposed a synthetic data quality control process. The process included the application of a minimum connection method, judgment rule, and median test optimization algorithm for optimizing clutter suppression, spectral peak symmetry detection, and radial speed, respectively. We collected the base data from a radiosonde and multiple radars and conducted an experiment using these data and algorithms. The results indicated that the quality control method: (1) had good adaptability to multiple WPRs both in clear sky and precipitation; (2) was useful for suppressing ground clutter and (3) was superior to those of the manufacturer as a whole. Thus, the data quality control method proposed in this study can improve the accuracy and reliability of WPR products and multiple types of WPR, even when they function under vastly different weather conditions.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050796
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 797: Dual-Polarization Radar Observations of
           the Evolution of a Supercell Tornado and Analysis of the Echo Mechanisms

    • Authors: Bin Wu, Ming Wei, Yanfang Li
      First page: 797
      Abstract: To gain a deeper understanding of the structural and evolutionary characteristics of supercell tornadoes that occurred in eastern China on 14 May 2021, observations from the S-band dual-polarization radars, soundings and other instruments are used to investigate the evolutionary process of the tornado formation by the mergering and strengthening of supercell storms. The results are described as follows. The updraft by upper divergence and vertical thermal instability induced by the cold source at the tropopause provided the environmental conditions suitable for tornado formation. The tornado event involved three storm merger processes, each of which was associated with an increase in the echo intensity, vertical rising speed, and vertical vorticity of the supercell. Furthermore, during the last merger, the merging of the two vortices resulted in the reduction of the rotation radius of the new vortex, which also provided a favorable condition for tornadogenesis. A schematic was proposed to describe storm mergers. The characteristics of the velocity spectrum width were indicative of the occurrence and evolution of the tornado in this case. During the tornado stage, distinct polarimetric variable signatures (e.g., a tornado debris signature and a differential reflectivity arc) and radial velocity signatures (i.e., a tornadic vortex signature) were observed.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050797
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 798: Odors Emitted from Biological Waste and
           Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Mini-Review

    • Authors: Daniel González, David Gabriel, Antoni Sánchez
      First page: 798
      Abstract: In recent decades, a new generation of waste treatment plants based on biological treatments (mainly anaerobic digestion and/or composting) has arisen all over the world. These plants have been progressively substituted for incineration facilities and landfills. Although these plants have evident benefits in terms of their environmental impact and higher recovery of material and energy, the release into atmosphere of malodorous compounds and its mitigation is one of the main challenges that these plants face. In this review, the methodology to determine odors, the main causes of having undesirable gaseous emissions, and the characterization of odors are reviewed. Finally, another important topic of odor abatement technologies is treated, especially those related to biological low-impact processes. In conclusion, odor control is the main challenge for a sustainable implementation of modern waste treatment plants.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050798
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 799: Impact of Climate Change on Water
           Resources in the Western Route Areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion
           Project

    • Authors: Zhongrui Ning, Jianyun Zhang, Shanshui Yuan, Guoqing Wang
      First page: 799
      Abstract: The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is a national strategic project for water shortages in northern China. Climate change will affect the availability of water resources in both source and receiving areas. A grid-based RCCC-WBM model based on climate projections from nine Global Climate Models under SSP2-4.5 was used for analyzing the changes in temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the near future (2025–2045, NF) and far future (2040–2060, FF) relative to the baseline (1956–2000). The results showed that: (1) the temperature of the western route will increase significantly in the NF and FF with an extent of 1.6 °C and 2.0 °C, respectively, (2) precipitation will very likely increase even though Global Climate Model (GCM) projections are quite dispersed and uncertain, and (3) over half of the GCMs projected that streamflow of receiving area will slightly increase with a rate of 1.68% [−8.67%, 12.3%] and 2.78% [−3.30%, 11.0%] in the NF and FF, respectively. Climate change will support the planning of the western route to a certain extent. However, water supply risk induced by the extreme situation of climate change should be paid adequate consideration when the project operates in practice due to the large dispersion and uncertainty of GCM projections.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050799
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 800: A Review of Selected Types of Indoor Air
           Purifiers in Terms of Microbial Air Contamination Reduction

    • Authors: Maciej Szczotko, Izabela Orych, Łukasz Mąka, Jolanta Solecka
      First page: 800
      Abstract: Aims: With the ongoing pandemic and increased interest in measures to improve indoor air quality, various indoor air purifiers have become very popular and are widely used. This review presents the advantages and disadvantages of various types of technologies used in air purifiers in terms of reducing microbial contamination. Methods: A literature search was performed using Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, as well as technical organizations dealing with indoor air-quality to identify research articles and documents within our defined scope of interest. Relevant sections: The available literature data focus mainly on the efficiency of devices based on tests conducted in laboratory conditions with test chambers, which does not reflect the real dimensions and conditions observed in residential areas. According to a wide range of articles on the topic, the actual effectiveness of air purifiers is significantly lower in real conditions than the values declared by the manufacturers in their marketing materials as well as technical specifications. Conclusions: According to current findings, using indoor air purifiers should not be the only measure to improve indoor air-quality; however, these can play a supporting role if their application is preceded by an appropriate technical and environmental analysis considering the real conditions of its use.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050800
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 801: Impact of Vehicle Soot Agglomerates on
           Snow Albedo

    • Authors: Sofía González-Correa, Diego Gómez-Doménech, Rosario Ballesteros, Magín Lapuerta, Diego Pacheco-Ferrada, Raúl P. Flores, Lina Castro, Ximena Fadic-Ruiz, Francisco Cereceda-Balic
      First page: 801
      Abstract: Snow covers are very sensitive to contamination from soot agglomerates derived from vehicles. A spectroradiometric system covering a wavelength from 300 to 2500 nm with variable resolution (from 2.2 to 7.0 nm) was used to characterize the effect of soot derived from a diesel vehicle whose exhaust stream was oriented towards a limited snowed area. The vehicle was previously tested in a rolling test bench where particle number emissions and size distributions were measured, and fractal analysis of particle microscopic images was made after collecting individual agglomerates by means of an electrostatizing sampler. Finally, the experimental results were compared to modelled results of contaminated snow spectral albedo obtained with a snow radiative transfer model developed by our research group (OptiPar) and with other models. Both experimental and modelled results show that increasingly accumulated soot mass reduces the snow albedo with a constant rate of around 0.03 units per mg/kg, with a predominant effect on the UV-VIS range. Based on the small size of the primary particles (around 25 nm), the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation, further corrected to account for the effect of multiple scattering within the agglomerates, was revealed as an appropriate technique in the model.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050801
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Atmosphere, Vol. 13, Pages 802: Enhanced Methane Oxidation Potential of
           Landfill Cover Soil Modified with Aged Refuse

    • Authors: Haijie He, Tao Wu, Zhanhong Qiu, Chenxi Zhao, Shifang Wang, Jun Yao, Jie Hong
      First page: 802
      Abstract: Aged refuse with a landfill age of 1.5 years was collected from a municipal solid waste landfill with high kitchen waste content and mixed with soil as biocover material for landfill. A series of laboratory batch tests was performed to determine the methane oxidation potential and optimal mixing ratio of landfill cover soil modified with aged refuse, and the effects of water content, temperature, CO2/CH4, and O2/CH4 ratios on its methane oxidation capacity were analyzed. The microbial community analysis of aged refuse showed that the proportions of type I and type II methane-oxidizing bacteria were 56.27% and 43.73%, respectively. Aged refuse could significantly enhance the methane oxidation potential of cover soil, and the optimal mixing ratio was approximately 1:1. The optimal temperature and water content were about 25 °C and 30%, respectively. Under the conditions of an initial methane concentration of 15% and an O2/CH4 ratio of 0.8–1.2, the measured methane oxidation rate was negatively correlated with the O2/CH4 ratio. The maximum methane oxidation capacity measured in the test reached 308.5 (μg CH4/g)/h, indicating that the low-age refuse in the landfill with high kitchen waste content is a biocover material with great application potential.
      Citation: Atmosphere
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/atmos13050802
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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