A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 106 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 26  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [340 journals]
  • Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Rainfall Variability and Trends for
           Improved Climate Risk Management in Kayonza District, Eastern Rwanda

    • Abstract: The variability, intensity, and distribution of rainfall have drawn a lot of interest globally and especially in nations where rainfed agriculture is the norm. This article uses rainfall data from the Rwanda Meteorology Agency for the years 1981 to 2021 to delineate and analyze rainfall variability and trends in the Kayonza District. The time series were grouped using the K-means clustering technique based on computed Euclidean distance, the total within-cluster sum of squares, and the elbow plot technique to determine the optimal number of clusters. The coefficient of variation measures was employed to analyze rainfall variability, while Sen’s slope and the Mann–Kendall (MK) test were used, respectively, to find trends and changes in magnitude. The results indicated four near homogeneous zones named region one to four. The dry seasons indicated higher variability compared to rainy seasons and annual rainfall total with a variability of 128–142% over the southeastern part during June to August (JJA) season, while a variability of 16–48% was observed over most of the district during both annual and rainy seasons. It was further noted that the areas in the central part of the Kayonza District indicated a significant increasing trend at a significance level of 95% and above during January to February (JF), September to December (SOND), and on annual basis, while March to May (MAM) and JJA season exhibited no significant trend. The findings of this study are essential for creating adequate mitigation strategies to lessen climate change’s effects on agriculture as well as other socioeconomic sectors.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Sep 2023 05:50:01 +000
  • Retracted: Evaluation Model of Eco-Environmental Economic Benefit Based on
           the Fuzzy Algorithm

    • PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:10:06 +000
  • Retracted: Interaction Design of Educational App Based on Collaborative
           Filtering Recommendation

    • PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:10:05 +000
  • Retracted: Research on the Design of Public Space in Urban Renewal Based
           on Multicriteria Cluster Decision-Making

    • PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:10:03 +000
  • Retracted: Detection Algorithm of Tennis Serve Mistakes Based on Feature
           Point Trajectory

    • PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:10:01 +000
  • Retracted: Nitrogen Inversion Model in a Wetland Environment Based on the
           Canopy Reflectance of Emergent Plants

    • PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:10:00 +000
  • Retracted: Research on Tourism Resource Evaluation Based on Artificial
           Intelligence Neural Network Model

    • PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:09:58 +000
  • Retracted: Automatic Capture Processing Method of Basketball Shooting
           Trajectory Based on Background Elimination Technology

    • PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2023 07:09:56 +000
  • Assessing the Return Periods and Hydroclimatic Parameters for Rainwater
           Drainage in the Coastal City of Cotonou in Benin under Climate Variability

    • Abstract: Cotonou, the economic capital of Benin, is suffering from the impacts of climate change, particularly evident through recurrent floods. To effectively manage these floods and address this issue, it is crucial to have a deep understanding of return periods and hydroclimatic parameters (such as intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves and related coefficients), which are essential for designing stormwater drainage structures. Determining return periods and these parameters requires statistical analysis of extreme events, and this analysis needs to be regularly updated in response to climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the necessary return periods and hydroclimatic parameters to improve stormwater drainage systems in the city and its surroundings areas. This required annual maximum precipitation series of 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h for 20 years length (1999–2018) as well as flood record data. The intensity series, derived by dividing the amount of rainfall by its duration, was adjusted using Gumbel’s law. IDF curves were constructed based on Montana and Talbot models, and their coefficients were determined according to the corresponding return periods. In 2010, which witnessed devastating floods in the country, the return period for the most intense rainfall events was 40 years, followed by 2013 with a return period of 13.4 years. Consequently, the commonly used 10-year return period for the design of stormwater drainage structures in Cotonou is insufficient. The Talbot model produced the lowest mean square errors for each quantile series and coefficients of determination closest to one, indicating that the parameters obtained from this model are well suited for designing hydraulic structures in Cotonou. The hydroclimatic parameters presented in this study will contribute to the improved design of hydraulic structures in the city of Cotonou.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Sep 2023 06:35:01 +000
  • Monitoring and Control of Particulate Matter in Urban Area in
           Douala-Cameroon Town

    • Abstract: This study focused on the content of fine particle air pollution in the city of Douala. Several studies have analyzed pollution problems due to road traffic in Douala, Cameroon. Particle concentration levels are higher in heavy traffic than in light traffic. The population’s exposure to air pollution in cities is higher near roads. Several studies have analyzed pollution problems due to road traffic in Douala, Cameroon. In this city, the traffic density at the intersections is indeed higher. Thus, the question is as follows: Are these traffic areas hotspots of increased PM exposure levels' To determine it, four particle size fractions (PM10, PM2.5, PM5, and PM1) were collected using an “OC300 Gas and Dust Particle Laser Detector” for three months at different traffic locations (roundabouts or/and crossroads). Statistical analysis of the data shows very high concentrations at most measurement sites. PM concentrations at the different measurement sites are around 35.69-68.08 µg m−3 for PM1, 50.72-99.13 µg m−3 for PM2.5, 54.11-111.22 µg m−3 for PM5, and 57.97-119.25 µg m−3 for PM10. Exceedances of WHO daily guidelines for PM2.5 (45 µg m−3) and PM10 (15 µg m−3) were found during the measurement campaign, indicating that crossroads are the pollution hotspots in urban areas. Occupation of the roadsides for various economic activities (painting, restaurants, donut shops, etc.) is common in Cameroon, increasing health risks for people working around the roadside. Thus, crossroad locations are areas where the level of exposure to PMx is the highest on road traffics.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Sep 2023 05:05:01 +000
  • Copula-Based Joint Flood Frequency Analysis: The Case of Guder River,
           Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The univariate analysis of hydrological extremes is a well-established practice in developing countries such as Ethiopia. However, for the design of hydrological and hydraulic systems, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of flood event characteristics, including volumes, peaks, time of occurrence, and duration. This study utilizes copula functions for bivariate modeling of flood peak and volume characteristics, examining the performance of four Archimedean copulas in the Guder basin located in Ethiopia from 1987 to 2017. Flood peak and volume were extracted using the theory of runs for analysis of their joint characteristics with the truncation level chosen as equal to the lowest annual maximum event. Univariate distributions with the best fitness on both variables were determined, and results showed that gamma and GEV-fitted flood peaks and lognormal-fitted flood volumes are the most suitable. Four Archimedean copulas were evaluated, and the Gumbel-Hougaard copula was found to be the best fit for the data based on graphical and measurable tests. Bivariate probability and return period were computed in “AND” and “OR” states. The joint return period for flood peak (97.49 m3/s) and volume (77.35 m3/s) was found to be 15 years in the “AND” state and approximately 4 years in the “OR” state. The study also evaluates univariate and conditional return periods, comparing them with the primary one. The copula method was an effective method for distributing marginal variables, highlighting its potential as a valuable tool in flood management.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2023 07:05:01 +000
  • Modes of Atmospheric Energetics Based on HadGEM3-GC3.1-LL Simulations in
           the Framework of CMIP6

    • Abstract: In this study, the focus is on investigating how different climate scenarios, as they have been adopted in Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), can lead to different regimes in the energetics components in Lorenz’s energy cycle, hence impacting the “working rate” of the climate system, which is considered as a “heat engine.” The four energy forms on which this investigation is based on are the zonal and eddy components of the available potential and kinetic energies. The permissible correspondingly considered transformations between these forms of energy are also studied. Generation of available potential energy and dissipation of kinetic energy complete the Lorenz energy cycle that is adopted here. In the CMIP6 approach, the results of different climate change analyses were collected in a matrix defined by two dimensions: climate exposure as characterized by a radiative forcing or temperature level and socioeconomic development as classified by the pathways, known as Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). The basis of the calculations in this study is the climatic projection produced by the HadGEM3-GC3.1-LL climatic model in the period from 2015 to 2100. In this respect, the results are presented in terms of time projections of the energetics components under different SSPs. The results have shown that the different SSPs yield diverse energetics regimes, consequently impacting on Lorenz energy cycle and, hence, a “working rate” of the climate system based on the components of this cycle. In this respect, Lorenz energy cycle projections are presented, under different SSPs. The results are also contrasted to the calculations for the historical period 1929 to 2014 as this is simulated by the same climatic model.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Sep 2023 05:20:01 +000
  • Assessing Variability and Trends of Rainfall and Temperature for the
           District of Musanze in Rwanda

    • Abstract: Variability in rainfall and temperature results in different impacts on agricultural practices. Assessesment of variability and trend of rainfall and temperature for the district of Musanze in Rwanda was conducted using six meteorological stations for a period of 37 years, ranging from 1981 to 2018, and data were obtained from Rwanda Meteorology Agency. Musanze district is located in highland areas of Rwanda, understanding the variability and trend in rainfall and temperature is paramount to increase the uptake of climate information and support strategic orientation. The Mann–Kendall nonparametric test and modified Mann–Kendall were used to assess the trend in rainfall and temperature, whereas Sen’s slope estimator was used to assess the magnitude of change. The results from both methods showed much similarity and consistency. The assessment of variability and trend in rainfall and temperature in Musanza district indicated that increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall trends gave an indication of changes in variability and trend in rainfall and temperature. The annual pattern revealed a substantial downward tendency of −25.7% for Nyange, the only station with constant decreasing trend over all seasons, DJF, −61.4%, SON, −12.2%, JJA, −40.3%, and MAM, −4.35. Temperature analysis for both maximum and minimum indicated increasing trend which was signal for constant warming up in the area. The results from coefficient of variation indicated a high disparity in rainfall variation from June to August which ranged between 51 and 74%, and other seasons changes were moderate.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2023 11:50:00 +000
  • Retracted: Study on Meteorological Disaster Monitoring of Field Fruit
           Industry by Remote Sensing Data

    • PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2023 07:07:34 +000
  • Retracted: Research on the Optimization of Agricultural Industry Structure
           Based on Genetic Algorithm

    • PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2023 07:07:33 +000
  • Retracted: A Personalized Recommendation Method for Short Drama Videos
           Based on External Index Features

    • PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2023 07:07:31 +000
  • Application of K-Nearest Neighbor Classification for Static Webcams
           Visibility Observation

    • Abstract: Visibility observations and accurate forecasts are essential in meteorology, requiring a dense network of observation stations. This paper investigates image processing techniques for object detection and visibility determination using static cameras. It proposes a comprehensive method that includes image preprocessing, landmark identification, and visibility estimation, mirroring the observation process of professional meteorological observers. This study validates the visibility observation procedure using the k-nearest neighbors machine learning method across six locations, including four in the Czech Republic, one in the USA, and one in Germany. By comparing our results with professional observations, the paper demonstrates the suitability of the proposed method for operational application, particularly in foggy and low visibility conditions. This versatile method holds potential for adoption by meteorological services worldwide.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2023 11:05:00 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Variability of Hot Days in Association with the Large-Scale
           Atmospheric Drivers over Vietnam

    • Abstract: The severe heatwaves and hot spells in Vietnam were observed more frequently in intensity and duration due to global warming and climate change impacts. The hot days and extreme summer events make the weather harsh and significantly affect human health and the environment. This study presents the spatiotemporal distribution of the number of hot days (NHDs) in Vietnam. The variability of NHD in seven climate subregions is also examined in association with the large-scale drivers. The European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis version 5 (ERA5) data for the period 1981–2020 are used. Principal component analysis is also applied to the observed monthly NHD to obtain spatial patterns and time series. The results show that the NHD in the Highland and South subregions from March to May is linked with the subtropical high associated with decreased 500hPa-level vertical velocity (VV500). From May to June, the North and Central subregions seem related to deepening the Asiatic low and enhancement of southwest flows across the Indochina Peninsula. Finally, both increased southwest flows and decreased VV500 can partly contribute to the intensification of NHD in the North and Central subregions during July and August. The long trends of NHD are also examined. The results reveal that the increasing trends in NHD occur in most subregions, except for the Central Highland, and changing trends of NHD in June greatly contribute to the annual trend of NHD. Finally, the examinations with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation events show that NHD is significantly higher in El Niño events than in La Niña events in March and April for the Northwest, South Central, Central Highlands, and South, in May and June for all subregions, and in July and August for only the Red River Delta subregion. This suggests that ENSO can provide the potential for improving seasonal climate forecasts and mitigating natural disaster risks for the community.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2023 04:50:00 +000
  • Missed Approach, a Safety-Critical Go-Around Procedure in Aviation:
           Prediction Based on Machine Learning-Ensemble Imbalance Learning

    • Abstract: The final approach phase of an aircraft accounts for nearly half of all aviation incidents worldwide due to low-level wind shear, heavy downpours, runway excursions, and unsteady approaches. Adopting the missed approach (MAP) procedures may prevent a risky landing, which is usually executed in those situations, but it is safety-critical and a rare occurrence. This study employed machine learning-ensemble imbalance learning to predict MAPs under low-level wind shear conditions based on environmental and situational parameters. The models were developed using the 2017–2021 Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) Pilot Reports (PIREPs). Initially, imbalance data were applied to machine learning models such as the random forest (RF), light gradient boosting machine (LGBM), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), but these were unable to accurately predict the occurrence of MAPs. Then, these models were used as base estimators for ensemble imbalance learning methods, including the self-paced ensemble (SPE) framework, the balance cascade model, and the easy ensemble model. The SPE framework utilizing XGboost as the base estimator performed better than other frameworks in terms of recall, F1-score, balanced accuracy, and geometric mean. Afterwards, SHAP was utilized to interpret the SPE framework with XGboost as the base estimator. Results showed that low-level wind shear magnitude, runway orientation, and vertical location of low-level wind shear contributed most to MAPs. Runways 07C and 07R had the most MAPs. Most MAPs were initiated when low-level wind shear was within 500 feet of the ground. Strong tailwind triggered MAPs more than headwind. For aviation safety researchers and airport authorities, the framework proposed in this study is a valuable tool.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2023 07:17:01 +000
  • Estimation of the Total Amount of Enhanced Rainfall for a Cloud Seeding
           Experiment: Case Studies of Preventing Forest Fire, Drought, and Dust

    • Abstract: In this study, a method for verifying the effect of cloud seeding in the case of a mixture of natural and artificial rainfall bands was proposed, and its applicability to each experimental case was evaluated. Water resources that could be secured through cloud seeding were also quantified for the experiments on forest fire prevention, drought mitigation, and dust reduction in 2020. Data on numerical simulations, radar-derived rainfall, rain gauge-derived rainfall, and weather conditions were applied. Areas with seeding and nonseeding effects were classified according to the numerical simulation results and wind system, and enhanced rainfall was determined by comparing the changes in rainfall between the two areas. The amount of water resources was determined by considering the area of the seeding effect and rainfall density. As a result, 1.74 mm (4.75 million tons) of rainfall increased from the experiment on forest fire prevention, 0.84 mm (1.30 million tons) on drought mitigation, and 2.78 mm (24.44 million tons) on dust reduction. Thus, an average rainfall of 1.0 mm could be achieved through the experiment. These results helped verify the pure seeding effect and achieve the experimental purpose.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Jul 2023 11:50:01 +000
  • Modelling the Impacts of the Changing Climate on Streamflow in Didesa
           Catchment, Abay Basin, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The Didesa catchment, which is the second largest subbasin of the Abay basin, significantly contributes to the Blue Nile’s outflow. Understanding the dynamics of water availability under the changing climate in such a basin assists in the proper planning of land use and other development activities. This study presents changes in climatic elements such as rainfall, temperature, and evapotranspiration using observation data and regional climate models (RCMs) under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for three future periods. We use a calibrated hydrological model to further assess climate change’s effects on streamflow. We select three RCMs and their ensemble’s mean by evaluating their performance with respect to observations. We apply the modified Mann–Kendall test to detect trends in each dataset. The result shows that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures increase in the catchment for the 2021–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100 periods as compared to baseline (1989–2018) under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Annual mean maximum temperature and potential evapotranspiration experienced a significant decreasing trend during the year from 1989 to 2018. Furthermore, there was an increasing trend in annual rainfall from 1989 to 2018, which could be related to the cooling of sea surface temperature over the equatorial Pacific. We detect an increasing trend in temperature in both scenarios and all periods; however, no clear trend pattern is found in rainfall. The result from hydrological model simulations reveals that the mean monthly streamflow slightly increases in the winter season while it decreases during the main rainy season. Further study of detailed weather systems, which affect the subbasin’s climate, is recommended.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2023 13:05:00 +000
  • Interdecadal Variation of Spring Extreme High-Temperature Events in the
           Western Tianshan Mountains and Its Relationship with the Tropical SST

    • Abstract: This study performed an observational analysis to examine the interdecadal variation in the frequency of extreme high-temperature events (EHEs) during spring over the western Tianshan mountain, China, which were characterized by relatively fewer (more) EHEs during 1983–1996 (2000–2015). A composite analysis indicated that the interdecadal increase in EHEs is closely related to a deep dynamic anomalous Iranian high. Under the control of this high system, the water vapor content decreased over the western Tianshan mountains, and atmospheric circulation was dominated by a descending motion. Both were attributed to the decreased cloud cover, inducing a cloud-forced net solar radiation increase. The short-wave radiation flux and sensible heat flux reaching the surface increased, and the net surface heat flux increased cumulatively, which was conducive to the surface temperature increase and EHE occurrence. The anomalous Iranian high responsible for ECEs occurrence was related to the air-sea interaction over the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. The latitudinal sea surface temperature (SST) difference between the tropical western Pacific and the western Indian Ocean directly strengthens the Walker circulation and thus enhances the Iranian high. In addition, the anomalous Iranian high was affected by the atmospheric wave trains at middle latitude, which was triggered by the warm anomaly of the Atlantic SST.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2023 06:35:01 +000
  • Analysis of Climate Variability and Trends for Climate-Resilient Maize
           Farming System in Major Agroecology Zones of Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Maize is one of the most important cereal food crops, and it can be grown all year in various agroecological zones. However, its vegetative growth and yield are susceptible to rainfall and temperature variability. As a result, the analysis of rainfall and temperature variability and trend was urgently needed in maize-growing agroecology zones to restructure the production system. The aim of the study was to examine rainfall and temperature variability and trends for developing a climate-resilient maize farming system in major agroecology zones in northwest Ethiopia. The study was implemented in low productive agroecology zones (LPZ), medium productive agroecology zones (MPZ), and high productive agroecology zones (HPZ) of northwest Ethiopia using daily time series climate data during the period 1987–2018. The coefficient of variation (CV), precipitation concentration index (PCI), rainfall anomaly index (RAI), and standardized precipitation (SPI) were applied to examine rainfall variability. Mann–Kendall’s and Sen’s slope estimator trend tests were used to detecting the statistical significance of changes in rainfall and temperature. Statistically significant increasing trends for annual maximum and minimum temperatures were recorded for all maize-producing agroecology zones. The mean annual temperature has exhibited a significant warming trend of 0.12 to 0.54°C per decade. The average annual rainfall has decreased by 38 to 67 mm per decade in all maize agroecology zones. Our research also showed that droughts now happen every one to three years; even consecutive droughts were seen in 2009, 2010, and 2011. For this reason, it could be required to develop a system of climate-resilient maize farming to address the issues of both global warming and the sub-Saharan countries that make up our study area. Climate-resilient maize agronomic activities have been determined by analyzing the onset, length of the growth period (LGP), and cessation date. Accordingly, the lower and upper quartiles of the date of onset of rainfall were in a range of May 9 to June 2, respectively; the length of the growth period (LGP) during the rainy season ranges from 97 to 232 days, and the cessation date of rainfall was November 1. Therefore, the short- to long-maturing maize varieties can be planted from May 9 to June 2 and can begin to be harvested in the first week of November under the current climatic circumstances.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2023 09:05:00 +000
  • The Interannual Relationship between the Diabatic Heating over the South
           Asia and the Snow Depth over the Southern Tibetan Plateau in Late Spring
           to Early Summer: Roles of the Air Temperature

    • Abstract: The southern Tibetan Plateau (TP) is snow covered during cold season but exhibits faster snow melting in early summer. Using in situ observations and improved satellite-derived data, the present study indicates that the snow depth (SD) over the southern TP exhibits distinction characteristics between late spring (i.e., P1: April 16th–May 15th) and early summer (i.e., P2: May 16th–June 14th). In terms of climate states, the snow melting rate over the southern TP in P2 is faster than that in P1. The acceleration of snow melting during P2 is mainly found over high elevation areas caused by the increase of local air temperature. Diagnoses of the thermodynamic equation further demonstrate that the warming over the southern TP during the two periods is mainly attributed to the meridional temperature advection and diabatic heating in situ. On the interannual time scale, the SD over the southern TP is closely related to diabatic heating over South Asia. During P1, the diabatic cooling from the southern Bay of Bengal eastward to the western South China Sea suppresses convection over the Bay of Bengal and southern TP and has resulted in an upper-level anomalous cyclone and cold temperature anomalies from the surface to 200 hPa over the southern TP, favoring the above-normal SD over the southern TP. On the other hand, SD over the southern TP in P2 is closely related to diabatic cooling over the northern Indochina Peninsula and diabatic heating over the southern China. But we could not prove that these diabatic heating anomalies can affect the SD over the southern TP by modulating local surface air temperature. This may be limited by the quality of the data and the simulation capability of the simple model.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jun 2023 15:35:01 +000
  • Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Products for Estimation of Floods in
           Data-Scarce Environment

    • Abstract: Utilization of satellite precipitation products (SPPs) for reliable flood modeling has become a necessity due to the scarcity of conventional gauging systems. Three high-resolution SPPs, i.e., Integrated Multi-satellite Retrieval for GPM (IMERG), Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS), data were assessed statistically and hydrologically in the sparsely gauged Chenab River basin of Pakistan. The consistency of rain gauge data was assessed by the double mass curve (DMC). The statistical metrics applied were probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI), false alarm ratio (FAR), correlation coefficient (CC), root mean square error (RMSE), and bias (B). The hydrologic evaluation was conducted with calibration and validation scenarios for the monsoon flooding season using the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) and flow duration curve (FDC). Sensitivity analysis was conducted using ±20% calibrating parameters. The rain gauge data have been found to be consistent with the higher coefficient of determination (R2). The mean skill scores of GSMaP were superior to those of CHIRPS and IMERG. More bias was observed during the monsoon than during western disturbances. The most sensitive parameter was the base flow coefficient (AGD), with a high mean absolute sensitivity index value. During model calibration, good values of performance indicators, i.e., R2, Nash−Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percentage bias (PBIAS), were found for the used SPPs. For validation, GSMaP performed better with comparatively higher values of R2 and NSE and a lower value of PBIAS. The FDC exhibited SPPs’ excellent performance during 20% to 40% exceedance time.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 May 2023 15:05:00 +000
  • Accuracy Evaluation of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) Estimation
           under Conventional Assumption in Yeşilırmak, Kızılırmak, and Konya
           Closed Basins, Turkey

    • Abstract: The doubt in the calculation algorithm of the standardized precipitation index (SPI), which is widely preferred in the evaluation and monitoring of drought, still remains up-to-date because its calculation process is performed in the form of standardization or normalization with a default probability distribution. Therefore, the success of this index is directly affected by the choice of the probability distribution model. This study is based on the effect of three different parameter estimation methods on the calculation process, as well as the comparison of the SPI results calculated based on the default Gamma distribution and the distribution with the best ability to represent the 3-and 12-month consecutive summed rainfall data among the 15 candidate distributions namely Gamma (GAM), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), Pearson Type III (P III), Log Pearson Type III (LP III), two-parameter Lognormal (LN2), three-parameter Lognormal (LN3), Generalized Logistic (GLOG), Extreme Value Type I (EVI), Generalized Pareto (GPAR), Weilbul (W), Normal (N), Exponential (EXP), Logistic (LOG), four-parameter Wakeby (WK4), and five-parameter Wakeby (WK5) distributions. Approximately 68.4% and 18.4% of the 3-month data considered had the best fit to the Weibull and Pearson III distribution, while approximately 24% and 18% of the 12-month data had the best fit to the Weibull and Logistic distribution. On the other hand, it was found that the default Gamma distribution calculated the extreme drought categories significantly more than the best-fit distribution model. In terms of parameter estimation methods, L-moments for 3-month series and maximum likelihood approaches for 12-month series were most dominant.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Apr 2023 11:05:01 +000
  • Orographic Effect and the Opposite Trend of Rainfall in Central Vietnam

    • Abstract: Central Vietnam is characterized by severe flooding associated with heavy rainfall events caused by interactions between multiscale atmospheric circulations and the complex local terrain. Previous studies believed rainfall in central Vietnam is closely related to the cold surge; however, it fails to explain the cause of the early rainfall occurrence in August in the subregion. For the first time, this study investigates the detailed atmospheric mechanisms associated with rainfall variations in central Vietnam using the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) applied to the recently developed high-resolution Vietnam gridded precipitation (VnGP) dataset. Reanalysis data NCEP/NCAR is used to associate the rainfall changes with respective atmospheric mechanisms. EOF analysis detected two dominant rainfall modes. The primary mode explains the rainfall variation from October to November over the central and is directly related to the interaction of cold surges and tropical disturbances. The second mode accounts for rainfall occurring in north central from September to mid-October, which is attributed to the westerly summer monsoon activities. Also, we revealed that, while the first mode exhibits a significant correlation with El Niño-southern oscillation, the second depends highly on the contrast of sea surface temperature in the northern and southern Hemispheres. This different oceanic forcing and the local topological effect of Truong Son mountain range reasonably explain the opposite rainfall pattern in central Vietnam in early fall.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Mar 2023 06:35:01 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Variability of Extreme Rainfall in Southern Benin in the
           Context of Global Warming

    • Abstract: Changes in the frequency and timing of extreme precipitation in southern Benin are assessed in the context of global warming. The peak-over-threshold (POT) is used for this purpose, with the six (06) year return period daily rainfall as the threshold over seventeen (17) weather stations between 1960 and 2018. The results show that the South Benin experienced extreme rainfall on many occasions between 1960 and 2018 with a nonuniform spatiotemporal distribution of this category of rainfall. No statistically significant trend in the frequency and variation of extreme rainfall intensities is revealed over the study period. Despite the low rate of extreme rainfall, the monthly trend is consistent with the bimodal rainfall regime in southern Benin. The global warming highlighted in its last decades in southern Benin is accompanied by a slightly upward trend in extreme rainfall compared to the period before 1990.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2023 14:35:01 +000
  • Study on the Impact of Future Climate Change on Extreme Meteorological and
           Hydrological Elements in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River

    • Abstract: Global warming increases global average precipitation and evaporation, causing extreme climate and hydrological events to occur frequently. Future changes in temperature, precipitation, and runoff from 2021 to 2050 in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River were analyzed using a distributed hydrological model, the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), under a future climate scenario. Simultaneously, future variation characteristics of extreme climate hydrological elements in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River were analyzed using extreme climate and runoff indicators. The research shows that the frequency and intensity of the extreme temperature warming index will increase, while those of the extreme temperature cooling index will increase and then weaken in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River under a future climate scenario. The duration of precipitation, the intensity of continuous heavy precipitation, and the frequency of heavy precipitation will increase, whereas the intensity of short-term heavy precipitation and the frequency of heavy precipitation will decrease. However, spatial distribution of flood in the upper reaches is different, and thus flood risk in the upstream source area will still tend to increase. Particular attention should be given to the increase in autumn flood risk in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Feb 2023 15:50:01 +000
  • Climatology Definition of the Myanmar Southwest Monsoon (MSwM): Change
           Point Index (CPI)

    • Abstract: Myanmar’s climate is heavily influenced by its geographic location and relief. Located between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), Myanmar’s climate is distinguished by the alternation of seasons known as the monsoon. The north-south direction of peaks and valleys creates a pattern of alternate zones of heavy and scanty precipitation during both the northeast and southwest monsoons. The majority of the rainfall has come from Myanmar’s southwest monsoon (MSwM), which is Myanmar’s rainy season (summer in global terms, June–September). This study explained both threshold-based and nonthreshold-based objective definitions of the onset and withdrawal of large-scale MSwM. The seasonal transitions in MSwM circulation and precipitation are convincingly represented by the new index, which is based on change point detection of the atmospheric moisture flow converging in the MSwM region (10–28 N, 92–102 E). A transition in vertically integrated moisture transport (VIMT), the reversal of surface winds, and an increase in precipitation may also be considered when defining MSwM onset objectively. We also define a change point of the MSwM (CPI) index for MSwM onset and withdrawal dates. The climatological mean onset of MSwM is day 135 (May 14), withdrawal is day 278 (October 4), and the total season length is 144 days. We are investigating spatial patterns of rainfall progression at and after the start of the monsoon, rather than transitions within a single region of the MSwM. The local southwest monsoon duration is well correlated with the CPI duration on interannual timescales, particularly in the peak rainfall regions, with a delay (advance) in large-scale onset or withdrawal associated with a delay (advance) of onset or withdrawal by local index. Hence, the next phase of this research is to study the maintenance and break of the monsoon to understand the underlying physical processes governing the monsoon circulation. The results of this study provide a possibility to reconstruct Myanmar’s monsoon climate dynamics, and the findings of this study can help unravel many remaining questions regarding the greater Asian monsoon system’s variability.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Jan 2023 12:05:00 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-