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Advances in Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Hydrological and Meteorological Drought Monitoring and Trend Analysis in
           Abbay River Basin, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The definition of drought is very controversial due to its multi-dimensional impact and slow propagation in onset and end. Predicting the accurate occurrence of drought remains a challenging task for researchers. The study focused on hydrological and meteorological drought monitoring and trend analysis in the Abbay river basin, using the streamflow drought index (SDI), standardized precipitation index (SPI), and reconnaissance drought index (RDI), respectively, to fill this research gap. The study also looked into the interrelationships between the two drought indicators. The SDI, SPI, and RDI were calculated using long-term streamflow, precipitation, and temperature data collected from 1973 to 2014. The data were collected from eight streamflow stations and fifteen meteorological gauge stations. DrinC software (Drought Indices Calculator) was used to calculate the SDI, SPI, and RDI values. The result from meteorological drought using SPI12 and RDI12 shows that 1975, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1991, 1994, and 2010 were extreme drought years, whereas 1983, 1984, 2001, and 2010 were the most extreme hydrological drought years based on the SDI12 result. Except for Bahir Dar and Gondar, a severe drought occurs at least once a decade in all stations considered in this study. In general, the SPI, RDI, and SDI results indicated that the study area was exposed to the most prolonged severe and extreme drought from 1981 to 1991. The findings of this study also demonstrated that the occurrence of hydrometeorological droughts in the Abbay river basin has a positive correlation at long time scales of 6 and 12 months. The trend analysis using the Mann–Kendall test implied that there was a significant meteorological drought trend in two stations (Debre Berhan and Fiche) at SPI12 and RDI12 time scale, but for the remaining thirteen stations, there is no trend in all time scales. The hydrological drought trend analysis in the basin on a seasonal (SDI3) and yearly (SDI12) time scale also revealed that three streamflow stations have a positive trend (Kessie, Gummera, and Border). This implies that water resource management is still a vital tool for the sustainable development of the Abbay river basin in the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Nov 2022 13:05:01 +000
  • The Characteristics of Thunderstorms and Their Lightning Activity on the
           Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    • Abstract: This paper discusses the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) from 2009 to 2018 and their dependence on meteorological factors. It is found that (1) the number of CG flashes fluctuates, reaches a maximum in 2014, and then gradually decreases. The main active period of CG lightning is from June to September each year, after which it decreases rapidly. CG lightning is mainly distributed in the valley areas at around 4800 m above sea level at Lhasa, Nagqu, and Chamdo, and there are differences in the characteristics of CG activity in these three areas. The peak of daily CG lightning occurs at 1000 UTC, and the lowest value is at 0400 UTC. The distribution of CG lightning in all seasons has obvious differences in peak time and the proportion of positive CG (+CG) lightning, with the ratio of +CG lightning to total CG lightning flashes in spring and autumn exceeding 50%. (2) The ratio of +CG lightning to total CG lightning flashes over the QTP is influenced by a combination of thermodynamic and microphysical factors. Over the QTP, greater vertical wind shear leads to the movement of upper positive charges and promotes the occurrence of +CG lightning. Also, the higher total column liquid water content implies higher cloud water content in the warm-cloud region, and the higher cloud-base height implies a thicker warm-cloud region, which is not conducive to the occurrence of +CG lightning. (3) During high-value years (in this study, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016), the midlatitude (30°N–60°N) high pressure is strong and the plateau is situated at the intersection of the East Asian and South Asian monsoons and the cold air from the northwest, which strengthens the water vapor convergence and increases the frequency of thunderstorms. When the plateau is under the control of the southerly monsoon from June to September every year, its atmosphere is full of water vapor and lightning activity is accordingly high, with the proportion of +CG lightning being about 10%. Meanwhile, in the remaining months, when controlled by the westerly wind belt, the plateau’s water vapor condition is poor, the level of lightning activity weakens, and the proportion of +CG lightning gradually increases to more than 50%.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Oct 2022 14:20:01 +000
  • Modifying Covariance Localization to Mitigate Sampling Errors from the
           Ensemble Data Assimilation

    • Abstract: The ensemble-based Kalman filter requires at least a considerable ensemble (e.g., 10,000 members) to identify relevant error covariance at great distances for multidimensional geophysical systems. However, increasing numerous ensemble sizes will enlarge sampling errors. This study proposes a modified Cholesky decomposition based on the covariance localization (CL) scheme, namely a covariance localization scheme with modified Cholesky decomposition (CL-MC). Our main idea utilizes a modified Cholesky (MC) decomposition technique for estimating the background error covariance matrix; meanwhile, we employ the tunable singular value decomposition method on the background error covariance to improve the ensemble increment and avoid the imbalance of the system. To verify if the proposed method can effectively mitigate the sampling errors, numerical experiments are conducted on the Lorenz-96 model and large-scale model (SPEEDY model). The results show that the CL-MC method outperforms the CL method for different data assimilation parameters (ensemble sizes and localizations). Furthermore, by performing one year of assimilation experiments on the SPEEDY model, it is found that the 1-day forecast RMSEs obtained by the CL are approximately equal to the 5-day forecast RMSEs of CL-MC. So, the CL-MC method has potential advantages for long-term forecasting. Maybe the proposed CL-MC method achieves good prospects for widespread application in atmospheric general circulation models.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Oct 2022 12:05:02 +000
  • Study on the Precursor Signal Capturing of Unfavorable Weather:
           Months/Years in Advance to Ultra-Early Forecast for Hourly Transient
           Weather Changes during the Beijing Winter Olympics

    • Abstract: Today, among the existing numerical weather prediction models, those detailing target classifications have been sufficiently explored; however, there are still many weather forecasting goals and needs, and research from theoretical to practical methods still needs additional study. For example, it is important to know as early as possible (months to years in advance) the forecast during a “specific large public event,” such as the hourly weather forecast for the Olympic Games. This study elaborates on the theory and methods for such ultra-early prediction of severe transient weather processes in the atmosphere. The main results of this study include (1) establishing the academic concept to capture precursor signals in modern meteorology and provide definitions; (2) establishing methods for capturing precursory signal quantification of unfavorable weather and proposing quantitative measurable thresholds; and (3) proposing the “ultra-early prediction” target task. A typical case is discussed: the meteorological conditions of the Beijing Winter Olympics, which serves as an example of social demand for weather forecasting of “special large-scale public activities,” as the case results show that the real-time observations during the Beijing Winter Olympics are consistent with the forecast and followed the precursor signal developed using the theoretical and methodological approaches in this study. The numerical quantization indicators for precursor signals include: (1) for a decrease in the height of the mixed layer hidden in the diurnal change; the precursor signal threshold is defined as a drop of more than 100 m for 3 consecutive days; (2) the signal of the δΘe displayed as a change by “negative ⟶ positive” of more than seven days in a continuous period. (3) the supersaturation (S) with thresholds reaching 6–7%, as well as the threshold
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2022 07:05:01 +000
  • Local-Scale Weather Forecasts over a Complex Terrain in an Early Warning
           Framework: Performance Analysis for the Val d’Agri (Southern Italy) Case

    • Abstract: Forecasting applications based on hourly meteorological predictions for weather variables are nowadays used in energy market operations, planning of gas and power supply, and renewable energy, among others. Available meteorological and climatological data, as well as critical thresholds of rainfall, may also have a key role in the hazard classification, related to slope instabilities of pipelines and critical infrastructures along routes. The present study concerns the performance of a weather forecast model in the framework of an early warning system (EWS) application, which supports the integrity management of oil and gas pipelines. This EWS has been applied on to a specific area: the Val d’Agri basin in the Basilicata region of Southern Italy, which is extensively affected by several landslides and floods. The hourly precipitation forecasts are provided by a dedicated meteorological model, the KALM-HD, using two different horizontal resolutions, 1.25 and 5 km, to analyze possible influences of the mesh grid size as well. On this area, several weather stations were specifically deployed to obtain observed data in a region where hydrogeological hazards are relevant for asset management. A comparison among observations and the KALM-HD scaled forecasts on six of these weather stations is presented to assess the model performance. Besides, precipitation, temperature, and wind speed are evaluated as well. The forecasting analysis is performed considering two years of data both on an overall and seasonal basis. Results show that the KALM-HD performs well with the 1.25 km grid, particularly on temperature and wind speed variables. Since weather stations can be gathered in two main sets depending on their positions, differences arise in the forecast quality of these two groups, related to orography and thermal effects, whose detection is difficult in the typical narrow valleys characterizing the area of study. This issue prevalently influences temperatures and local winds, which, these latter, are generally underestimated, while precipitation is mainly driven by synoptic circulation and its interaction with mesoscale meteorological features.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Oct 2022 05:50:01 +000
  • Improving Wind Speed Forecasting for Urban Air Mobility Using Coupled

    • Abstract: Hazardous weather, turbulence, wind, and thermals pose a ubiquitous challenge to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and electric-Vertical Take-Off and Landing (e-VTOL) aircrafts, and the safe integration of UAS into urban area requires accurate high-granularity wind data especially during landing and takeoff phases. Two models, namely, Open-Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) software package and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are used in the present study to simulate airflow over Downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States. Results show that computational fluid dynamics wind simulation driven by the atmospheric simulation significantly improves the simulated wind speed because the accurate modeling of the buildings affects wind patterns. The evaluation of different simulations against six Micronet stations shows that WRF-CFD numerical evaluation is a reliable method to understand the complicated wind flow within built-up areas. The comparison of wind distributions of simulations at different resolutions shows better description of wind variability and gusts generated by the urban flows. Simulations assuming anisotropy and isotropy of turbulence show small differences in the predicted wind speeds over Downtown Oklahoma City given the stable atmospheric stratification showing that turbulent eddy scales at the evaluation locations are within the inertial subrange and confirming that turbulence is locally isotropic.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Oct 2022 11:50:01 +000
  • Comparison of the Applicability of Two Reanalysis Products in Estimating
           Tall Tower Wind Based on Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural
           Network in South China

    • Abstract: Climate reanalysis products have been widely used to overcome the absence of high-quality and long-term observational records for wind energy users. In this study, the applicability of two popular reanalysis datasets (ERA5 and MERRA2) in estimating wind characteristics for four tall tower observatories (TTOs) in South China was assessed. For each TTO, linear and nonlinear downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and an artificial neural network (ANN), respectively, were adopted for the downscaling of the scalar wind speed and the corresponding U/V components. The downscaled wind speed and U/V components were subsequently compared with the TTO observations by correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r), the root mean square error (RMSE), the uncertainty analysis (U95), and the reliability analysis (RE). According to the results, ERA5 had a better applicability (higher Pearson’s r and RE, but lower RMSE and U95) in estimating TTO wind speed than MERRA2 when using both the MLR and ANN downscaling method. The average Pearson’s r, RE, RMSE, and U95 of the downscaled wind from ERA5 by the MLR (ANN) method were 0.66 (0.69), 40.8% (41.8%), 2.20 m/s (2.11 m/s), 0.181 m/s (0.179 m/s), respectively, and 0.60 (0.63), 38.0% (39.7%), 2.32 m/s (2.25 m/s), 0.189 m/s (0.187 m/s), respectively, for MERRA2. The wind components analysis showed that the better performance of ERA5 was attributed to its smaller error in estimating V component than MERRA2. For the wind direction, the two reanalysis datasets did not display distinct differences. Additionally, the misalignment of the wind direction between the reanalysis products and the TTOs was higher for the secondary predominant wind direction (SPWD) than for the predominant wind direction (PWD). Furthermore, we found that the reanalysis U wind had a higher RMSE but a lower RE and Pearson’s r than the V wind, which indicates that the misalignment in the wind direction was mainly associated with the deviation in the U component.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2022 14:05:01 +000
  • Variation of Leaf Area Index (LAI) under Changing Climate: Kadolkele
           Mangrove Forest, Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Mangroves are an essential plant community in coastal ecosystems. While the importance of mangrove ecosystems is well acknowledged, climate change is expected to have a considerable negative impact on them, especially in terms of temperature, precipitation, sea level rise (SLR), ocean currents, and increasing storminess. Sri Lanka ranks near the bottom of the list of countries researching this problem, even though the scientific community's interest in examining the variation in mangrove health in response to climate change has gained significant attention. Consequently, this study illustrates how the leaf area index, a measure of mangrove health, fluctuates in response to varying precipitation, particularly during droughts in Sri Lanka's Kadolkele mangrove forest. The measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were used to produce the leaf area index (LAI), which was then combined with the standard precipitation index (SPI) to estimate the health of the mangroves. The climate scenario, RCP8.5, was used to forecast future SPI (2021–2100), and LAI was modeled under the observed (1991–2019) and expected (2021–2100) drought events. The study reveals that the forecasted drought intensities modeled using the RCP8.5 scenario have no significant variations on LAI, even though some severe and extreme drought conditions exist. Nevertheless, the health of the mangrove ecosystem is predicted to deteriorate under drought conditions and rebound when drought intensity decreases. The extreme drought state (-2.05) was identified in 2064; therefore, LAI has showcased its lowest (0.04). LAI and SPI are projected to gradually increase from 2064 to 2100, while high fluctuations are observed from 2021 to 2064. Limited availability of LAI values with required details (measured date, time, and sample locations) and cloud-free Landsat images have affected the study results. This research presents a comprehensive understanding of Kadolkele mangrove forest under future droughts; thus, alarming relevant authorities to develop management plans to safeguard these critical ecosystems.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2022 15:50:02 +000
  • Characterization of Local Climate and Its Impact on Faba Bean (Vicia faba
           L.) Yield in Central Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Climate change is a major threat to agricultural production and undermines the efforts to achieve sustainable development goals in poor countries such as Ethiopia that have climate-sensitive economies. The objective of this study was to assess characterization of local climate and its impact on productivity faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties (Gora and Tumsa) productivity in Welmera watershed area, central Ethiopia. Historical climate (1988–2017) and eight years of crop yield data were obtained from National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia and Holeta Agricultural Research Center. Trend, variability, correlation, and regression analyses were carried out to characterize the climate of the area and establish association between faba bean productivity and climate change. The area received mean annual rainfall of 970 mm with SD of 145.6 and coefficient of variation (CV %) of 15%. The earliest and latest onset of rainfall were April 1 (92 DOY) and July 5 (187 DOY), whereas, the end date of rainy season was on September 2 (246 DOY) and October 31 (305 DOY), respectively. The average length of the growing period was 119 days, with a CV% of 35.2%. The probability of dry spell less than 7 days was high (>80%) until the last decade of May (151 DOY); however, the probability sharply declined and reached 0% on the first decade of July (192 DOY). Kiremt (long rainy season that occurs from June to September) and belg (short rainy season that falls from February to April/May) rainfall had increasing trends at a rate of 4.7 mm and 2.32 mm/year, respectively. The annual maximum temperature showed increasing trend at a rate of 0.06°C per year and by a factor of 0.34°C, which is not statistically significant. The year 2014 was exceptionally drought year while 1988 was wettest year. Kiremt (JJAS) start of rain and rainy day had strong correlation and negative impact on Gora yield with (r = −0.407 and −0.369), respectively. The findings suggests large variation in rainfall and temperature in the study area which constraints faba bean production. Investment on agricultural sector to enhance farmer’s adaptation capacity is essential to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change and variability on faba bean yield. More research that combines household panel data with long-term climate data is necessary to better understand climate and its impact on faba bean yield.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Oct 2022 17:35:01 +000
  • Interannual Variations of Water and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes over a Semiarid
           Alpine Steppe on the Tibetan Plateau

    • Abstract: Water and carbon exchanges between grassland and the atmosphere are important processes for water balance and carbon balance. Based on eddy covariance observations over a semiarid alpine steppe ecosystem in Bange on the Tibetan Plateau during the growing season from 2014 to 2017, the variations in evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and their components and the associated driving factors were analyzed. Linear and nonlinear models were applied to investigate the relationships between fluxes and their controlling factors over different timescales. The results show that the average ET for the growing season ranged from 1.1 to 2.4 mm/d with an average of 2.0 mm/d for the four consecutive years. Drought conditions reduced the surface conductance and hence the Priestley–Taylor coefficient. Mean T/ET was low (0.34) due to low vegetation cover. Plant growth increased the T/ET ratio during the growing season, whereas soil water content (SWC) explained most of the variation of ET and E on daily and monthly scales. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was the most important controlling factor for temperature. Transpiration increased with SWC in dry conditions. For the growing season in 2014, 2016, and 2017, Bange was a carbon sink, while it was a carbon source in 2015. The largest CO2 flux was higher and the temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q10) was lower for 2015 than for the other three years. SWC affected these photosynthesis and respiration parameters. The ratio of respiration (Re) to gross primary production (GPP) was the highest during the 2015 growing season. Both on daily and monthly scales, Re was positively and linearly correlated with GPP. The most important controlling factor for the CO2 flux was EVI on daily and monthly scales.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Oct 2022 06:35:01 +000
  • The Influence of Data Length on the Performance of Artificial Intelligence
           Models in Predicting Air Pollution

    • Abstract: Air pollution is one of humanity's most critical environmental issues and is considered contentious in several countries worldwide. As a result, accurate prediction is critical in human health management and government decision-making for environmental management. In this study, three artificial intelligence (AI) approaches, namely group method of data handling neural network (GMDHNN), extreme learning machine (ELM), and gradient boosting regression (GBR) tree, are used to predict the hourly concentration of PM2.5 over a Dorset station located in Canada. The investigation has been performed to quantify the effect of data length on the AI modeling performance. Accordingly, nine different ratios (50/50, 55/45, 60/40, 65/35, 70/30, 75/25, 80/20, 85/15, and 90/10) are employed to split the data into training and testing datasets for assessing the performance of applied models. The results showed that the data division significantly impacted the model's capacity, and the 60/40 ratio was found more suitable for developing predictive models. Furthermore, the results showed that the ELM model provides more precise predictions of PM2.5 concentrations than the other models. Also, a vital feature of the ELM model is its ability to adapt to the potential changes in training and testing data ratio. To summarize, the results reported in this study demonstrated an efficient method for selecting the optimal dataset ratios and the best AI model to predict properly which would be helpful in the design of an accurate model for solving different environmental issues.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 11:05:02 +000
  • Spatio-Temporal Rainfall Variability and Concentration over Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Changes in precipitation patterns significantly affect flood and drought hazard management and water resources at local to regional scales. Therefore, the main motivation behind this paper is to examine the spatial and temporal rainfall variability over Sri Lanka by Standardized Rainfall Anomaly Index (SRAI) and Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) from 1990 to 2019. The Mann–Kendall (MK) trend test and Sen’s slope (SS) were utilized to assess the trend in the precipitation concentration based on PCI. The Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation method was incorporated to measure spatial distribution. Precipitation variability analysis showed that seasonal variations are more than those of annual variations. In addition, wet, normal, and dry years were identified over Sri Lanka using SRAI. The maximum SRAI (2.27) was observed for the year 2014 for the last 30 years (1990–2019), which shows the extremely wet year of Sri Lanka. The annual and seasonal PCI analysis showed moderate to irregular rainfall distribution except for the Jaffna and Ratnapura areas (annual scale-positive changes in Katugastota for 21.39% and Wellawaya for 17.6%; seasonal scale-Vavuniya for 33.64%, Trincomalee for 31.26%, and Batticaloa for 18.79% in SWMS). The MK test, SS-test, and percent change analyses reveal that rainfall distribution and concentration change do not show a significant positive or negative change in rainfall pattern in Sri Lanka, despite a few areas which experienced significant positive changes. Therefore, this study suggests that the rainfall in Sri Lanka follows the normal trend of precipitation with variations observed both annually and seasonally.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Sep 2022 11:05:03 +000
  • Blue-Green Space Changes of Baiyangdian Wetland in Xiong’an New
           Area, China

    • Abstract: As a regulator of ecological environment, Baiyangdian Wetland is in a pivotal position in constructing the blue-green space (BGS) of Xiong’an New Area in China. This study aims to reveal the spatiotemporal changes of the BGS in Baiyangdian Wetland from 2016 to 2021. It uses Google Earth Engine (GEE) to calculate NDVI and NDWI based on Sentinel-2 Satellite remote sensing data and extracts the blue-green space by a classification model driven by NDVI and NDWI. Moreover, the land-use transfer matrix and landscape pattern indices are applied for evaluating the BGS changes in the wetland. According to the results, vegetation in the wetland shows no obvious spatial transfer. From 2016 to 2020, the BGS proportion in the wetland showed a stable increase, with the blue space getting larger by 10.8%. The indicators of the Number of Patches (NP), Patch Density (PD), Largest Patch Index (LPI), Contagion, and Landscape Shape Index (LSI) of the wetland decreased, suggesting a better ecological environment since the establishment of Xiong’an New Area in 2017. Based on the results, the author makes the following conclusion: the construction of BGS in Baiyangdian Wetland results in a well-organized ecological environment. The study provides a reference for building Xiong’an New Area and monitoring BGS changes in other regions.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2022 12:35:03 +000
  • The Space Conceptual Models and Water Vapor Characteristics of Typical
           Rainstorms during Plum Rain Season

    • Abstract: Based on conventional observation data from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and reanalysis data from the American National Centers for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) between 2012 and 2021, combined with the meteorological analysis, composite synthesis, and water vapor trajectory analysis, the weather circulations of typical rainstorms during the 10 years can be divided into 4 categories: Static Front Pattern (SFP), Subtropical High Edge Pattern (SHEP), Northeast Cold Vortex Pattern (NCVP), and Low-Level Vortex and Shear Pattern (LLVSP). The SHEP and SFP rainstorms have the characteristics of long duration and wide range, while the NCVP rainstorms are characterized by mobility and disaster weather accompaniment. The daily precipitation of LLVSP cases has extremity feature. The occurrence and development of rainstorms are well coordinated with the systems on lower levels. The main water vapor channel in lower layers of the SFP cases is from the South China Sea, while it is from Bohai for the NCVP cases and the Bay of Bengal for the SHEP and LLVSP cases. The main water vapor channel in middle layers is from the Bay of Bengal because of the affection of the southwest air flow. The south boundary of the MLYRB is the most important water vapor input boundary, followed by the west boundary, while the East and North boundaries are the outflow boundaries. During the rainstorms, the low-level water vapor is exuberant with low-level water vapor convergence much stronger than the high-level divergence. Among the four types of rainstorms, the NCVP cases provide the most abundant low-level water vapor convergence, resulting in the strongest short-term precipitation among the four types. Combined with water vapor transportation and convergence, the refined spatial conceptual models of the four types of rainstorms can better judge the process intensity and falling area and provide reference for disastrous weather forecast and early warning.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2022 15:05:03 +000
  • Frost Forecasting considering Geographical Characteristics

    • Abstract: Regional accuracy was examined using extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) to improve frost prediction accuracy, and accuracy differences by region were found. When the points were divided into two groups with weather variables, Group 1 had a coastal climate with a high minimum temperature, humidity, and wind speed and Group 2 exhibited relatively inland climate characteristics. We calculated the accuracy in the two groups and found that the precision and recall scores in coastal areas (Group 1) were significantly lower than those in the inland areas (Group 2). Geographic elements (distance from the nearest coast and height) were added as variables to improve accuracy. In addition, considering the continuity of frost occurrence, the method of reflecting the frost occurrence of the previous day as a variable and the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) pretreatment were used to increase the learning ability.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Sep 2022 17:35:02 +000
  • Variation in Surface Solar Radiation and the Influencing Factors in
           Xinjiang, Northwestern China

    • Abstract: The variation of solar radiation has a profound effect on the surface energy balance and hydrological cycle. Although the relationship between solar radiation variation and its influencing factors has been extensively studied, they are seldom used in Xinjiang, the largest province in China. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution and temporal variation in global radiation (Eg), water vapor content (WVC), aerosol optical depth (AOD), total cloud cover (TCC), and low-level cloud cover (LCC) in Xinjiang, northwestern China, between 1961 and 2015. The annual average Eg reported at all stations was 5126.3–6252.8 MJ·m−2 with a mean of 5672 MJ·m−2. The highest annual mean Eg of 6252.8 MJ·m−2 occurred in Hami, eastern Xinjiang, whereas the lowest annual mean Eg of 5126.3 MJ·m−2 occurred in Urumqi, northern Xinjiang. The annual Eg variation was mainly affected by WVC, AOD, TCC, and LCC. Decreases in annual, spring, summer, autumn, and winter Eg trends were recorded in Xinjiang at rates of −33.88 × 10−2, −1.92 × 10−2, −1.89 × 10−2, −3.47 × 10−2, and −3.56 × 10−2 MJ·m−2·decade−1, respectively, with decreasing ratios of 9.43%, 5.85%, 0.14%, 8%, and 20.55%, respectively. Increasing trends in annual WVC, AOD, TCC, and LCC were noted in Xinjiang at rates of 7.12 × 10−5 mm·decade−1, 2.74 × 10−6 decade−1, 8.77 × 10−5 % decade−1, and 5.73 × 10−5% decade−1, respectively. In addition, increasing trends in the annual Eg at Yining and Yanqi stations were observed. The Eg spatial distribution was complex in Xinjiang at the stations observed in this study, which were divided into six groups. Eg at group 1 showed an increasing trend associated with decreases in the WVC and TCC, whereas decreases in Eg were observed at groups 2–6, which could have been influenced by increases in AOD, TCC, and LCC.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 12:05:00 +000
  • Wavelet Analysis of the Interconnection between Atmospheric Aerosol Types
           and Direct Irradiation over Cameroon

    • Abstract: The comparative analysis of the intra- and interannual dynamics between the Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) under clear sky conditions and five aerosol types (Dust, Sea Salt, Black Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Sulfate) is the purpose of this study. To achieve this aim, we used fifteen-year DNI and aerosols data downloaded at 3-hour time intervals in nine defined zones throughout Cameroon. The wavelet transform is a powerful tool for studying local variability of amplitudes in a temporal dataset and constitutes our principal tool. The results show unequal distribution of aerosol types according to zones, but the Desert Dusts (DU) and Organic Carbon (OM) aerosols have been found as dominant particles in the studied region. The wavelet coherence analysis between DNI and each aerosol type reveals three bands of periodicity: 4-month band, 8–16-month band, and sometimes after-32-month band, with the most important frequency at 8–16-month band period. However, the intensity of coherence across bands varies with respect to aerosol type as well as each of the nine climate zones. A significant anticorrelation relationship was obtained between DNI and each type of aerosol, emphasizing that the presence of such atmospheric particles could dampen the renewable energy utilized by power systems. Also, the analysis shows that scattering aerosols such as Sulfate and Sea Salt (SU and SS, respectively) lead DNI in phase while absorbing aerosols such as Organic Carbon, Black Carbon, and Dust (OM, BC, and DU, respectively) give phase lag with DNI.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Sep 2022 23:50:01 +000
  • Data-Driven versus Köppen–Geiger Systems of Climate

    • Abstract: Climate zone classification promotes our understanding of the climate and provides a framework for analyzing a range of environmental and socioeconomic data and phenomena. The Köppen–Geiger classification system is the most widely used climate classification scheme. In this study, we compared the climate zones objectively defined using data-driven methods with Köppen–Geiger rule-based classification. Cluster analysis was used to objectively delineate the world’s climatic regions. We applied three clustering algorithms—k-means, ISODATA, and unsupervised random forest classification—to a dataset comprising 10 climatic variables and elevation; we then compared the obtained results with those from the Köppen–Geiger classification system. Results from both the systems were similar for some climatic regions, especially extreme temperature ones such as the tropics, deserts, and polar regions. Data-driven classification identified novel climatic regions that the Köppen–Geiger classification could not. Refinements to the Köppen–Geiger classification, such as precipitation-based subdivisions to existing Köppen–Geiger climate classes like tropical rainforest (Af) and warm summer continental (Dfb), have been suggested based on clustering results. Climatic regions objectively defined by data-driven methods can further the current understanding of climate divisions. On the other hand, rule-based systems, such as the Köppen–Geiger classification, have an advantage in characterizing individual climates. In conclusion, these two approaches can complement each other to form a more objective climate classification system, wherein finer details can be provided by data-driven classification and supported by the intuitive structure of rule-based classification.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 05:50:00 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Climate Variation and Analysis of Dry-Wet Trends for
           1960–2019 in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China

    • Abstract: The spatiotemporal characteristics of dry-wet trends were identified and assessed, and the dominant meteorological factors were identified for the climate of Jiangsu province in humid southeastern China for the period 1960–2019. We conducted the research using data for the entire Jiangsu province as well as three major regions in Jiangsu (Huaibei, Jianghuai, and Sunan) with different regional climates. The results showed that decreased precipitation and relative humidity in spring and autumn over the study period were mainly responsible for the dry trends of the climates of all three regions and the entire province. Precipitation had a greater influence in spring and relative humidity in autumn. Decreases in sunshine hours and wind speed were responsible for the summer wet trends of the climates of Huaibei and Jianghuai and the entire province. However, precipitation increased significantly in the summer and was responsible for the increasing wet trend in Sunan. Significantly increased precipitation in winter was primarily responsible for the increasing wetness in Jianghuai and Sunan and the entire province in that season. However, the wet trend in northern Huaibei in winter was mainly caused by the decrease in wind speed over the study period. For the growing season and annually, the positive effects of changes in wind speed, sunshine hours, and precipitation led to increased humidity index in Jianghuai, Sunan, and the entire province. Precipitation showed a decreasing trend that countered the positive effects of decreases in wind speed and sunshine hours, which resulted in a slight decrease in the humidity index in Huaibei for both the growing season and annually. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the humidity index was positively sensitive to precipitation and relative humidity and negatively sensitive to air temperature, wind speed, and sunshine hours in Jiangsu province during 1960–2019. Overall, the humidity index in this region of southeastern China was most sensitive to changes in precipitation followed, in order of sensitivity, by sunshine hours, air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for adjusting irrigation programs and efficient utilization of water resources at the regional scale in humid southeastern China.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Aug 2022 16:05:01 +000
  • Trend Analysis of Hydrometeorological Data of Gilgel Gibe Catchment,

    • Abstract: Trend analysis of hydrometeorological data is vital for proper water resources planning and management. This paper examines the trends of the hydrometeorological data in Gilgel Gibe catchment and whether the trends are significant. Daily rainfall, temperature, and streamflow data of the stations in/around (nearby) the catchment (7 stations for rainfall, 4 stations for temperatures, and 6 stations for streamflow) for a period longer than 25 years were collected and then analyzed to detect the variability and the changes in trend. Prior to conducting trend tests, the missed data were filled, and their inconsistencies were also adjusted. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test along with Sen’s slope technique was employed to detect monotonic trends in the data series. The results showed that, on average, the rainfall exhibits an insignificant increasing tendency. It was also observed that there is, in general, an increasing trend in temperature (both maximum and minimum) in the study area. The analysis of the stream flows indicated that only one station (Bulbul Nr. Serbo) showed a positive slope at a 5% significance level. Two stations (Aweitu Nr. Babu and Gibe Nr. Seka) showed a slightly increasing trend, whereas the remaining 3 stations (Gibe Nr. Assendabo, Aweitu at Jimma, and Kitto Nr. Jimma) indicated an insignificant decreasing trend. The streamflow of the catchment generally shows a tiny decreasing tendency (0.007% per year) at its outlet. However, the results in general specified statistically insignificant trend changes of the hydrometrological data of the study catchment.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 15:35:04 +000
  • Hydroclimatic Variability, Characterization, and Long Term Spacio-Temporal
           Trend Analysis of the Ghba River Subbasin, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Understanding hydroclimatic variability and trend for the past four decades in the Upper Tekeze River basin is significant for future sustainable water resource management as it indicates regime shifts in hydrology. Despite its importance for improved and sustainable water allocation for water supply-demand and food security, varying patterns of streamflow and their association with climate change are not well understood in the basin. The main objective of this study was to characterize, quantify, and validate the variability and trends of hydroclimatic variables in the Upper Tekeze River basin at Ghba subbasin using graphical and statistical methods for homogeneous stations for the time period from 1953 to 2017, not uniform at all stations. The rainfall, temperature, and streamflow trends and their relationships were evaluated using the regression method, Mann–Kendall (MK) test, Spearman’s rho (SR) test, Sen’s slope, and correlation analysis. The analysis focused on rainfall, temperature, and streamflow collected from 11 climate and six hydrostations. For simplicity to discuss the interannual and temporal variability the stations were categorized into two clusters according to their record length, category 1 (1983–2017) and category 2 (1953–2017). About 73% and 27% of the rainfall stations exhibited normal to moderate annual rainfall variability. The MK and SR test showed that most of the significant trends in annual rainfall were no change except in one station decreasing and the test also showed no significant change in temperature except in three stations showed an increasing trend. Overall, streamflow trends and change point timings were found to be consistent among the stations and all have shown a decreasing trend. Changes in streamflow without significant change in rainfall suggest factors other than rainfall drive the change. Most likely the observed changes in streamflow regimes could be due to changes in catchment characteristics of the subbasin. These research results offer critical signals on the characteristics, variability and trend of rainfall, temperature, and streamflow necessary to design improved and sustainable water allocation strategies.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Aug 2022 10:20:03 +000
  • The Dew Particle Interception Abilities of Typical Plants in Northeast
           China Plant Leaves Capture Particles in Dew

    • Abstract: The dew condensation frequency is high, and the dew amount is heavy in urban ecosystems. During the condensation process, particulate matter acts as a condensation core, playing an important role in purifying the air. At night, dew mainly condenses on plant leaf surfaces, the plant leaves settle the particles in the dew, and some of the particles are resuspended into the atmosphere in the process of dew evaporation after sunrise. This paper monitored the condensation and evaporation processes of dew on four common plants in Changchun city from June to September 2020. By analyzing the mass and size of particles on different leaves after dew condensation and evaporation, the ability of different plants to retain particles in dew was analyzed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the TSP capture ability during dew condensation between Buxus sinica (Rehd. et Wils.) Cheng subsp. sinica var. parvifolia M. Cheng, Syringa oblata Lindl., Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch., and Pinus tabuliformis Carrière, with a TSP content of 0.21 ± 0.06 μg/cm2. Coarse particulate matter is the main type of deposit in the dew condensation stage. Particulate deposition varied according to species, leaf shape, and microstructure. The proportion of TSP remaining on leaves after dew evaporation from Pinus tabuliformis Carrière, Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch., Buxus sinica (Rehd. et Wils.) Cheng subsp. sinica var. parvifolia M. Cheng, and Syringa oblata Lindl. tree was 89.7 ± 3.9%, 80.6 ± 3.6%, 75.9 ± 4.5%, and 71.4 ± 3.7%, respectively. The ability of the leaves to trap fine particles was significantly higher than that for coarse particles () after dew evaporation. The highest amount of particle captured by Syringa oblata Lindl. individual was 15.17 g/y during dew condensation, and the amount of remaining particles after dew evaporation was 10.83 g/y. This paper provides a theoretical basis for the selection of tree species for urban greening.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Aug 2022 16:05:00 +000
  • Land-Atmosphere Energy Exchange Characteristics in Ali of Tibetan

    • Abstract: Based on the comprehensive data from the land-atmosphere interaction observation station in Ali of Tibetan in 2019, the characteristics of land-atmosphere energy exchange processes in Ali were analyzed. The results indicated that the timing of the mean intraday net radiation peak in Ali over the past 20 years has been delayed, and the month when the maximum monthly mean net radiation occurred has been delayed by about 2 months; the maximum daily mean, maximum monthly mean, minimum monthly mean, and annual mean sensible heat were 99.63 w/m2, 76.53 w/m2, 17.47 w/m2, and 46.74 w/m2, respectively, and the maximum daily mean, maximum monthly mean, minimum monthly mean, and annual mean latent heat flux were 73.27 w/m2, 36.13 w/m2, 0.67 w/m2, and 8.32 w/m2, respectively; and the monthly mean sensible heat was greater than the latent heat in all months.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2022 06:35:01 +000
  • Deep Learning-Based English-Chinese Translation Research

    • Abstract: Neural machine translation (NMT) has been bringing exciting news in the field of machine translation since its emergence. However, because NMT only employs single neural networks to convert natural languages, it suffers from two drawbacks in terms of reducing translation time: NMT is more sensitive to sentence length than statistical machine translation and the end-to-end implementation process fails to make explicit use of linguistic knowledge to improve translation performance. The network model performance of various deep learning machine translation tasks was constructed and compared in English-Chinese bilingual direction, and the defects of each network were solved by using an attention mechanism. The problems of gradient disappearance and gradient explosion are easy to occur in the recurrent neural network in the long-distance sequence. The short and long-term memory networks cannot reflect the information weight problems in long-distance sequences. In this study, through the comparison of examples, it is concluded that the introduction of an attention mechanism can improve the attention of context information in the process of model generation of the target language sequence, thus translating restore degree and fluency higher. This study proposes a neural machine translation method based on the divide-and-conquer strategy. Based on the idea of divide-and-conquer, this method identifies and extracts the longest noun phrase in a sentence and retains special identifiers or core words to form a sentence frame with the rest of the sentence. This method of translating the longest noun phrase and sentence frame separately by the neural machine translation system, and then recombining the translation, alleviates the poor performance of neural machine translation in long sentences. Experimental results show that the BLEU score of translation obtained by the proposed method has improved by 0.89 compared with the baseline method.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 06:50:01 +000
  • Nitrogen Inversion Model in a Wetland Environment Based on the Canopy
           Reflectance of Emergent Plants

    • Abstract: Reuse of reclaimed water in constructed wetlands is a promising way to conserve water resources and improve water quality, and it is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstruction. This study utilized reflectance spectra of wetland vegetation to estimate nitrogen content in water in the Beijing Bai River constructed wetland, a typically constructed wetland that uses reclaimed water. Canopy reflectance spectra of two dominant plants in the wetland, including reed and cattail, were acquired using a spectrometer (350–2500 nm). Simultaneously, water samples were collected to measure water quality. To establish the appreciate relationship between total nitrogen content (TN) and reflectance spectra, both simple and multiple regression models, including simple ration spectral index (SR), normalized difference spectral index (ND), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model, and partial least squares regression (PLSR), were adopted in this study. The results showed that (1) compared with simple regression models (SR and ND), multiple regressions models (SMLR and PLSR) could provide a more accurate estimation of TN concentration in the wetland environment. Among these models, the PLSR model had the highest accuracy and was proven to be the most useful tool to reveal the relationship between the spectral reflectance of wetland plants and the total nitrogen consistency of wetland at the canopy scale. (2) The inversion effect of TN concentration in water is slightly better than that of wetland vegetation, and the reflection spectrum of the reed can predict TN concentration more accurately than that of cattail. The finding not only provides solid evidence for the potential application of remote sensing to detect water eutrophication but also enhances our understanding of the monitoring and management of water quality in urban wetlands using recycled water.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 06:35:01 +000
  • The Influence of Rainfall and Evaporization Wetting-Drying Cycles on the
           Slope Stability

    • Abstract: The decay of soil strength and the change of soil infiltration characteristics caused by the dry and wet cycle effect generated by the rainfall-evaporation process are important factors that induce slope instability. How to consider the effect of soil strength decay and water-soil characteristic curve hysteresis effect on transient stability change of slope is the key to solve this problem. In this paper, transient stability analysis of slopes considering soil strength decay and water-soil characteristic curve hysteresis is carried out based on Geo-Studio. The results of the study showed that the change of transient safety factor of the slope caused by rainfall-evaporation dry and wet cycle process has an overall decreasing trend and the safety factor decreased by 43% compared to the initial state. The seepage characteristics of the rainfall-evaporation dry-wet cycle have certain regularity. The location of slope measurement points has a greater influence on the magnitude of the pore pressure change: foot of slope > middle of slope > top of slope. Also, there is a significant response hysteresis in the change of pore pressure with increasing depth at the same location. The rainfall intensity has a certain influence on the change of slope safety factor, but its influence is not obvious when the rainfall intensity exceeds a certain amount.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Jul 2022 05:20:03 +000
  • Analysis of Observed Trends in Daily Temperature and Precipitation
           Extremes in Different Agroecologies of Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Ethiopian climate-sensitive economy is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate-related extreme events. Thus, examining extreme daily precipitation and temperature in the context of climate change is a critical factor in advocating climate change adaptation at the local scales. Spatial changes of climate indices for extreme precipitation and temperatures were conducted for the period 1986–2016 in three different agroecologies of the Gurage zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study used the Mann–Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s slope estimator to estimate the trend and magnitude of changes in precipitation and temperature. The analysis from the observation indicates that there had been a consistent warming trend and inconsistent changes in precipitation extremes in the study agroecologies. A statistically significant increase in the numbers of warm days and nights and a statistically significant reduction in the numbers of cold days and nights were observed in most of the agroecologies. The duration of extreme trend showed inconsistency; however, a drier condition is observed in lowland agroecology. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, appropriate climate adaptation efforts are needed at the local scale.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jul 2022 08:20:03 +000
  • A Review of the Impacts of Climate Change on Tourism in the Arid Areas: A
           Case Study of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China

    • Abstract: Tourism is more sensitive and susceptible in global arid regions to climate change than other sectors, and climate change mainly affects the behavior of tourists, selection of tourist destinations, tourism resources, and tourism safety. China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is a representative area of the global arid region. To review its comprehensive impacts of climate change on tourism has indicative significance for the global arid region tourism industry to cope with climate change impacts. On the whole, the impacts of climate change on tourism in the XUAR will coexist with opportunities and challenges both at present and in the future. The XUAR is experiencing or will experience climatic process of warming and wetting. For the tourism climate comfort and extension of suitable travel period, the opportunities far outweigh the risks (high reliability). However, future climate change is expected to have great negative effects on cultural heritages, glacier and snow resources, and agricultural landscapes in arid areas of northwest China (high reliability). The above impacts are potential and long-term, and the measures should be taken as soon as possible to mitigate and adapt to climate change challenges to tourism.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Jul 2022 05:35:01 +000
  • Meteorological Drought Monitoring Based on Satellite CHIRPS Product over
           Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Drought is a frequent occurrence in semidesert areas of southern Ethiopia that significantly affect regional, social, economic, and environmental conditions. Lack of rainfall monitoring network, instrument measurement, and failure are major bottlenecks for agro-and hydroclimate research in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of CHIRPS rainfall product and to assess meteorological drought using SPI for the period 2000 to 2020 over Gamo Zone, southern Ethiopia. The performance of CHIRPS v2 was assessed and compared to station observations (2000–2020) in the study domain to derive SPI on a three-month timescale. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R), bias, probability of bias (PBias), mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and Nash simulation efficiency (NSE) values across the zone for CHIRPS v2 were found to be 0.88, 1.02, 2.56, 0.25, 22.41, 33.14, and 0.77, respectively. The results indicate that CHIRPS performed good ability to analyze the drought characteristics in the Gamo Zone. The spatial and temporal distribution method of meteorological drought has been evaluated using the Climate Data Tool (CDT). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was computed using the gamma distribution method. The magnitude of (SPI-3) of monthly and seasonal (MAM) meteorological drought in the zone from 2000 to 2020. The result shows that the known historic drought years (2014, 2015, 2010, 2009, and 2008) were indicated very well. Furthermore, sever and extreme droughts were observed in 2008 and 2009 with drought duration of 6.7 and 6.3, respectively, in most areas of the zone. Hence, this study revealed that CHIRPS can be a useful supplement for measuring rainfall data to estimate rainfall and drought monitoring in this region.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 13:20:02 +000
  • Performance of MODIS Deep Blue Collection 6.1 Aerosol Optical Depth
           Products Over Indonesia: Spatiotemporal Variations and Aerosol Types

    • Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the performance of the long-term Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue (DB) Collection 6.1 (C6.1) in determining the spatiotemporal variation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol types over Indonesia. For this purpose, monthly MODIS DB AOD datasets are directly compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Version 3 Level 2.0 (cloud-screened and quality-assured) monthly measurements at 8 sites throughout Indonesia. The results indicate that MODIS DB AOD retrievals and AERONET AOD measurements have a high correlation in Sumatra Island (i.e., Kototabang (r = 0.88) and Jambi (r = 0.9)) and Kalimantan Island (i.e., Palangkaraya (r = 0.89) and Pontianak (r = 0.92)). However, the correlations are low in Bandung, Palu, and Sorong. In general, MODIS DB AOD tends to overestimate AERONET AOD at all sites by 16 to 61% and can detect extreme fire events in Sumatra and Kalimantan Islands quite well. Aerosol types in Indonesia mostly consist of clean continental, followed by biomass burning/urban industrial and mixed aerosols. Palu and Sorong had the highest clean continental aerosol contribution (90%), while Bandung had the highest biomass burning/urban-industrial aerosol contribution to atmospheric composition (93.7%). For mixed aerosols, the highest contribution was found in Pontianak, with a proportion of 48.4%. Spatially, the annual mean AOD in the western part of Indonesia is higher than in the eastern part. Seasonally, the highest AOD is observed during the period of September–November, which is associated with the emergence of fire events.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 07:05:01 +000
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