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 Russian Meteorology and HydrologyJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.206 Number of Followers: 3      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1934-8096 - ISSN (Online) 1068-3739 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2467 journals]
• Modeling Solar Radiation Transmission by Aerosol Layers in the Lower
Stratosphere in Climatic Chambers

Abstract: The processes of formation and evolution of model stratospheric aerosol in simulation chambers to study the possibilities of climate stabilization using modern geoengineering methods are investigated. The possibility is shown of generating liquid-droplet stratospheric aerosol in the climatic chamber by the conversion of sulfur-containing gases (H2S), as well as solid-phase aerosol (sulfates) in interaction with ammonia gas impurities under conditions simulating real processes in the lower stratosphere. Data were obtained on the attenuation of radiation at a wavelength of 0.63  $$\mu$$ m close to the wavelength of the solar spectrum maximum (0.54  $$\mu$$ m) and on the microstructure of model stratospheric aerosol with different chemical and phase compositions (droplet sulfuric acid and solid-phase sulfate) under conditions close to stratospheric ones at the altitudes from 10 to 12 km: temperatures up to –50…–55°C and atmospheric pressure up to 0.2 atm.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Methane Variability in the Surface Atmospheric Layer at a Background
Forest Station in the Prioksko-Terrasny Reserve

Abstract: The paper presents the methodology, results, and analysis of routine methane measurements in the atmospheric surface layer at a remote integrated background monitoring station in the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve (PTBR). The analysis of seasonal variability in atmospheric methane over the background area, the quantification of its changes and a trend for the entire observation period (2006–2020) are provided. According to long-term data, there is a summer minimum of averaged methane concentrations in the annual cycle, while the maximum is observed in winter. The mean methane level at PTBR is 5–10% higher than global mean background methane concentrations. An evaluated linear trend toward the methane growth at the PTBR is  $$\sim$$ 2 ppb per year, which is lower than the global mean rate.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Spatial Patterns of Dense Water Runoff on the Antarctic Shelf and
Continental Slope

Abstract: Observational data from the submesoscale hydrological polygon confirm the presence of summer runoff of dense Antarctic shelf water (ASW) on the continental slope in the Commonwealth Sea. It is provided by a huge amount of ASW accumulated in shelf depressions during winter. The ASW overflows the shelf edge in the form of discrete meanders, which are formed as a result of baroclinic instability of a deep ( $$\sim$$  150–250 m) ASW front. The estimated instability scale along the dense water front $$Rd_{L}\approx 1.5{-}3.2$$  km coincides with the observed spatial discreteness of ASW. At the same time, the distribution of near-bottom density currents affected by the bottom irregularities, is noted on the shelf. The Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) is formed on the slope due to the interaction of ASW with warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Due to the continuity of motion in the near-slope area, 3D cascading is accompanied by compensatory upwelling of CDW, which complements its large-scale advection. These processes form the intrusive structure of water on the edge of the shelf and on the shelf. Depending on the bathymetric characteristics of the slope in different parts of the polygon, the cascading of ASW has a different regime.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Lidar-balloon Experiment on Studying Stratospheric Aerosol for Climate
Observations and Diagnostic Problems

Abstract: The results of synchronous remote (lidar) and direct (balloon) measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol parameters carried out in Tomsk on January 27–30, 2022 are presented. The objective of the experiment was to work off coupled lidar-balloon observations and to validate aerosol backscatter profiles in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere for developing an all-weather system for lidar-balloon monitoring of spatiotemporal and microphysical aerosol characteristics. A good consistency of the retrieved profiles of the backscatter ratio  $$R(H)$$  was demonstrated for the close wavelengths (528 and 532 nm for the aerosol backscatter sonde and the lidar, respectively). The possibility of expanding two-wave (353 and 532 nm) lidar observations with an additional wavelength set (470, 850, 940 nm) of the optical balloon aerosol sonde was shown for retrieving the microphysical aerosol parameters during coupled lidar-balloon experiments.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Analysis of Hydrochemical and Environmental Conditions of the Right-bank
Tributaries of the Mezen River

Abstract: The results of a comprehensive study of the Kyma and Sula, the northern right-bank tributaries of the Mezen River are presented for the first time. The paper provides the characteristics of hydrological and hydrochemical parameters based on the results of observations in September 2021. Changes in pH, mineralization, dissolved oxygen, biogenic elements, as well as petroleum hydrocarbons in water and bottom sediments are shown. The compliance of the obtained parameters with the regulatory requirements for the quality of river water was assessed. According to the chemical composition, the water of the Kyma and Sula rivers belongs to the hydrocarbonate class with low mineralization (39.8–76.1 mg/L) and neutral type (pH = 7.14–7.43). The results allow concluding the absence of noticeable anthropogenic impacts on the analyzed watercourses: the concentration of oil hydrocarbons varied from 0.010 to 0.025 mg/L in river water and from 2.05 to 4.60 mg/kg in bottom sediments, which did not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). In both rivers, the distribution of oil hydrocarbons in the water along the longitudinal profile had a similar pattern, in which their concentrations increased from the upper reaches to the mouth of the river. The maximum content of hydrocarbons in the soil of the Kyma River was recorded in the lower reaches, where bottom sediments are represented by coarse-grained sand. The maximum concentration of hydrocarbons in the Sula River was registered in the middle reaches at the right-bank station, where the soil is represented by clay. In addition, the paper establishes relationships between various environmental parameters.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Monitoring of the Essential Climate Variables of the Atmosphere from
Satellite-based Infrared Sounder IKFS-2

Abstract: The paper discusses the use of measurements of the IKFS-2 hyperspectral infrared sounder installed on Meteor-M polar-orbiting weather satellites for remote derivation of the atmospheric parameters related to so called essential climate variables (ECV) of the atmosphere, whose monitoring is necessary to characterize the climate system and its changes. The ECVs include the concentrations of the main atmosphere greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone), characteristics of clouds and aerosols, as well as vertical temperature profiles, near-surface temperature, etc. A brief description of the IKFS-2 instrument and the results of its operation on board the Meteor-M spacecraft No. 2 during the period from the autumn of 2014 till now is given. The possibility of forming multiyear homogeneous series containing IKFS-2 measurements and satellite-based estimates of the aforementioned atmospheric ECVs is analyzed. An advanced method for deriving the total content of atmospheric carbon dioxide from IKFS-2 measurements is presented. The information on the errors of satellite-based ECV estimates obtained from their comparison with independent observations is provided.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Comparison of Spectral Features of Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic
Emission Excited by an Extraordinary Pump Wave in the High-latitude
Ionospheric F Region at Frequencies below and above the F2 Layer
X-component Critical Frequency

Abstract: The paper presents the results of investigating generation conditions and features of the narrowband stimulated electromagnetic emission (NSEE) induced by an extraordinary (X-mode) high-frequency (HF) pumping into the high-latitude ionosphere F region. It was shown that NSEE spectral features were recorded at a distance of more than 1100 km from the heating facility. Distinctive features of NSEE discrete spectral lines at the pump frequencies  $$f_\mathrm{H}$$  below and above the F2 layer X-component critical frequency ( $$f_\mathrm{H} < f_\mathrm{X}\mathrm{F2}$$  and  $$f_\mathrm{H} \ge f_\mathrm{X}\mathrm{F2}$$ ) were analyzed. It was found that the NSEE spectrum contains the strongly pronounced discrete lines ordered by the electrostatic ion cyclotron frequency for the atomic oxygen ions (O $$^{ + }$$ ). When  $$f_\mathrm{H} <f_\mathrm{X}\mathrm{F2}$$ , the multiple downshifted and upshifted spectral components (Stokes and anti-Stokes modes, respectively) were excited in the NSEE spectra. When $$f_\mathrm{H}\ge f_\mathrm{X}\mathrm{F2}$$ , the Stokes modes were only generated. Plausible mechanisms for the NSEE excitation by X-mode HF pump waves are discussed
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Multi-frequency Microwave Radiometric Studies of the Inhomogeneous
Atmosphere

Abstract: The features of multi-band microwave radiometric studies of the atmosphere are considered. The description of meteorological conditions in the study area is given. Methodological provisions of the spatial correlation analysis of microwave radiometric measurements and meteorological parameters of the atmospheric surface layer are determined. The results of the correlation analysis are presented, the conclusions on the influence of atmospheric inhomogeneity on the data of multi-frequency microwave radiometric measurements are formulated. The potential of the operational detection and estimation of the parameters of local inhomogeneity of the atmosphere during the formation of severe weather events is analyzed.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Measuring the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Parameters with a Coherent
Doppler Lidar

Abstract: Coherent Doppler lidars are traditionally used to measure wind speed in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, in addition to wind speed data, coherent Doppler lidars are a source of information on the distribution of the aerosol particle concentration in the atmosphere, which makes it possible to measure the height of the planetary boundary layer, to determine the cloud base and the number of cloud layers, as well as information on the distribution of aerosols along the path or in the scanning sector. The paper considers algorithms for processing data from coherent Doppler lidars to obtain comprehensive information about the parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer. The results of experimental studies and their analysis are presented.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Trends toward Improving Passive Radio Engineering Facilities for
Thunderstorm Activity Monitoring

Abstract: Options for the development of passive radio engineering facilities for monitoring thunderstorm activity are presented. They allow reducing errors in determining the coordinates of lightning discharges by large-base systems by taking into account the transformation of atmospheric forms during the propagation in the Earth–ionosphere waveguide channel and improving the visual representation of lightning activity data using clustering algorithms for more detailed analysis. The analysis is aimed at improving reliability of determination of a current stage of the thundercloud development, with probabilistic assessment of a degree of its thunderstorm hazard and short-range forecast of subsequent propagation.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Microwave Monitoring of Middle Atmosphere Ozone in Apatity and Peterhof in
the Winter of 2021/2022

Abstract: Results of synchronous microwave monitoring of middle atmosphere ozone in Apatity (67° N, 33° E) and Peterhof (60° N, 30° E) during the winter and spring of 2021/2022 are presented. Identical mobile microwave spectrometers with an observation frequency of 110.8 GHz were used for ozone measurements. These instruments have identical techniques for observations and estimation of ozone profiles at the altitudes of 22–60 km. The main attention was given to changes in ozone (daily variations) in the mesosphere during the polar night and dynamic disturbances. To interpret the mesospheric ozone (60 km) behavior, MLS/Aura satellite data on the vertical distribution of temperature in the middle atmosphere over Apatity were used.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Properties and Structure of Mesoscale Convective Systems over Western
Siberia According to Remote Observations

Abstract: Many natural hazards are associated with deep convective clouds. Among them, mesoscale convective systems characterized by a large size and a long duration are the most dangerous. The estimates of their area, cloud top height, moisture content, duration, and intensity of related thunderstorm activity for Western Siberia were obtained using the data of radio and optical (passive and active) satellite sounding (for the summer months in 2010–2019) and World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, 2016–2020).
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Identification of Wind Field Inhomogeneities with a Weather Radar

Abstract: The capabilities of modern weather radars in identifying wind-related weather hazards are analyzed. New methods for radar signal processing based on estimating the spectrum width of signals reflected from meteorological targets are described. The most promising method is that for calculating the signal base, which is the product of the width of the signal spectrum by its correlation interval. The applicability of simplified procedures for estimating these parameters based on the paired-pulse method and the intersection method is investigated. The results of numerical experiments are presented.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Studying Characteristics of the Cloudy Atmosphere Based on Measuring Its
Downwelling Microwave Radiation Spectra in the 18.0–27.2 GHz Water Vapor
Resonant Absorption Band

PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Prospects for Application of Ground-based Microwave Radiometry for
Analysis of Atmospheric Fronts and Early Prediction of Severe Weather
Events

Abstract: A brief description of the method of ground-based microwave radiometry for retrieving the characteristics of atmospheric moisture content is given. The results are reported of experimental studies of the integrated water vapor and cloud liquid water content using ground-based microwave radiometers, in particular, during the development of severe weather events associated with the development of convective clouds and thunderstorms. The capabilities are discussed of microwave radiometry in improving the diagnosis of the synoptic and mesoscale structure of atmospheric fronts. The prospects are considered for using radiophysical facilities of the Mozhaisky Military Space Academy Geophysical Observatory for experimental studies of the atmosphere, clouds, and precipitation in the Leningrad region, which are aimed at improving methods for forecasting severe weather events associated with the development of convective clouds, thunderstorms, and precipitation.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Studying the Features of Radar Sounding of the Russian Arctic Troposphere

Abstract: Using the dataset of aerological sounding carried out at five Arctic stations, the profiles of the main characteristics that determine radio refraction of the weather radar sounding beam were calculated and analyzed. These characteristics are the refractive index and its gradient. Seasonal parameters of the exponential model of tropospheric refraction were obtained over Naryan-Mar, Salekhard, Norilsk, Tiksi, and Chokurdakh stations. The frequency of occurrence of various refraction types with account of seasonal variability was investigated. The obtained data can be used for software processing of atmospheric radar sounding data over the Arctic region.
PubDate: 2022-11-01

• Erratum to: "Seasonal Variability of Carbon Dioxide, Sensible and
Latent Heat Fluxes in a Northern Taiga Larch Forest of Central Siberia for
Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements" [Russian Meteorology and Hydrology
47(10), 804–811, 2022]

Abstract: An Erratum to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.3103/S1068373922110103
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• Spatial and Temporal Trends of Particulate Matters (Fine PM2.5 and Coarse
PM10) in Zonguldak, Turkey: Monthly, Seasonal, and Annual Data Analysis

Abstract: This study aims to perform the spatial-temporal analysis of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particulate matters (PM) pollution in Zonguldak Province and its adjacent regions due to active mining and industrial activities. Samples for the year 2020 were collected at nine air quality monitoring stations located in the study area. Monthly, seasonal, and yearly PM variations were examined using statistical and geostatistical methods of data analysis. The results showed that (1) both PM concentrations, PM2.5 and PM10, varied monthly and seasonally. Monthly box plots revealed the U-shaped patterns with the peaks in winter months and valleys in summer months; (2) geospatial analysis of seasonal variations enabled to set the boundaries between high and low pollution values in the region and allowed to identify the most polluted sites; mean PM2.5 concentrations were found as 38, 22, 15, and 27 mg/m3 for winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, while corresponding PM10 were 69, 46, 35, and 57 mg/m3; (3) histogram plots for yearly PM2.5 and PM10 values showed that concentrations were the most frequent between 15–20 mg/m3 and 40–50 mg/m3; (4) comparative review between annual mean concentrations of PM and limit values showed that almost all stations exceed the thresholds.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• Precisious Observations of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane Mole
Fractions in the Polar Belt of Near-Yenisei Siberia

Abstract: The paper presents a new monitoring station DIAMIS for continuous precisious observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions over the Yenisei Gulf, on the southwestern coast of the Taimyr Peninsula at the edge of the Dikson settlement. Here, we summarize technical details of the instrumental setup, give an overview of calibration and data processing algorithms, describe local environments of the study area, and analyze the seasonal footprint of the measurement station. Based on the observations in September 2018–February 2020, a comparative analysis of the atmospheric CO2 and CH4 annual variations in the polar belt (DIAMIS) and middle-taiga subzone (ZOTTO observatory) of near-Yenisei Siberia is presented.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

• Squalls and Tornadoes over the European Territory of Russia on May 15,
2021: Diagnosis and Modeling

Abstract: Peculiarities were studied of formation of severe convective events, including a long-lived squall and several tornadoes observed over the European territory of Russia on May 15, 2021. The event became one of the most destructive in the forest zone of the region over the past 35 years, with the total area of stand-replacing windthrows exceeding 152 km2. The event was formed at a relatively low moisture content, but other conditions were exceptionally favorable for the formation of strong squalls and tornadoes characterized by a combination of high convective instability and strong wind shear. This resulted in the formation of several supercells and a mesoscale convective complex. The characteristics of cloud systems that caused squalls and tornadoes were analyzed based on satellite and radar data. Several characteristic signatures were identified at the cloud top, including long-lived overshooting tops that coincide with the area of destruction. The maximum reflectivity in some clusters exceeded 60 dBZ, the presence of a mesocyclone was noted in the radial velocity field during the tornado generation. Numerical experiments were performed to reproduce the event using the WRF regional atmospheric model with different initial conditions, which, however, cannot be considered successful.
PubDate: 2022-10-01

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