Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1562 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (740 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (109 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (133 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Open     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Advances in Nursing Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Health Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Primary Health     Hybrid Journal  
Australian Journal of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BJR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMJ Leader     Hybrid Journal  
BMJ Quality & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
British Journal of Healthcare Assistants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Healthcare Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Hospital Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 297)
British Journal of School Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bruce R Hopkins' Nonprofit Counsel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building Better Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Medical Record English Edition     Hybrid Journal  
CIN : Computers Informatics Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Audit     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinics and Practice     Open Access  
Cognition, Technology & Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Based Medical Journal     Open Access  
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Nurse : A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Das Gesundheitswesen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dental Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
DoctorConsult - The Journal. Wissen für Klinik und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription  
Droit, Déontologie & Soin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
East and Central African Journal of Surgery     Open Access  
Éducation thérapeutique du patient     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
eGEMs     Open Access  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Enfermería Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Escola Anna Nery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Research in Telemedicine / La Recherche Européenne en Télémédecine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidence-Based Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family Practice Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Hospital Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gastrointestinal Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global & Regional Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Action     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Health Management Journal (GHMJ)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Hospital Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Public Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Handbook of Practice Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health and Interprofessional Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Care Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Health Expectations     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Health Facilities Management     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health Informatics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Health Information : Jurnal Penelitian     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health Information Science and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Reform Observer : Observatoire des Réformes de Santé     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Health Science Journal of Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Healthcare : The Journal of Delivery Science and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Management Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Policy / Politiques de Santé     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Healthcare Risk Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
HealthcarePapers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hospital a Domicilio     Open Access  
Hospital Medicine Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Peer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Hospital Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 18)
Hospital Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
ICU Director     Hybrid Journal  
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IISE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Independent Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Index de Enfermeria     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Informatics for Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INQUIRY : The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Care Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Computers in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Electronic Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Health Administration and Education Congress (Sanitas Magisterium)     Open Access  
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Health Economics and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Hospital Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Palliative Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Positive Behavioural Support     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Privacy and Health Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Public and Private Healthcare Management and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Reliable and Quality E-Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Clinical Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Telework and Telecommuting Technologies     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
International Journal of User-Driven Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Disability and Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Irish Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JAAPA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jaffna Medical Journal     Open Access  
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal for Healthcare Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Advanced Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aging and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Arts and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Prisoner Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.303
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1744-9200 - ISSN (Online) 1744-9219
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Emerging issues related to the management of patients in custody during
           the COVID-19 outbreak in France
    • Authors: Laurène Dufayet, Cyrus Macaigne, Nicolas Soussy, Elizabeth Alcaraz, Charlotte Gorgiard
      Abstract: This paper aims to give an overview of emerging issues relating to the management of patients in custody during the COVID-19 outbreak in France. During custody in France, a medical consultation is provided for any patient who requests it. In the Paris area, this consultation is carried out by a practitioner in forensic medicine, based in a general hospital. Usually, most medical consultations for patients in custody take place directly in police stations. With the COVID-19 outbreak, the authors chose to suspend this activity, asking law enforcement to bring patients directly to their hospitals. Patients presenting with severe infections or indicative symptoms of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection and a comorbidity are tested for COVID-19. Such patients remain hospitalized until results of the test are received. If the result is positive, they are hospitalized for the length of their custody. If sent to prison, they are transferred to a medical facility in detention. From the onset of the outbreak, the authors observed increased pressure from law enforcement to obtain medical information. According to the French Code of Medical Ethics, no medical information should be disclosed regarding the authors’ patients’ medical situations. The authors are also concerned about sending a potentially infected patient back to a police station, to prison or to his/her home. This paper provides a snapshot of issues relating to the management of patients in custody during the COVID-19 outbreak in France. Unfortunately, the current situation in France does not permit a wider range of testing for the specified population in this paper.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-04-2020-0023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Management of the COVID-19 epidemic in a French immigration detention
           center
    • Authors: Nicolas Soussy, Laurène Dufayet, Etienne Ravault, Sophie Viron, Charlotte Gorgiard, Lionel Fournier
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of management of the COVID-19 epidemic in a French immigration detention center. During containment in France because of COVID-19, the judicial authorities had to deal with the risk of contamination within immigration detention centers (IDC). In the Paris IDC, which can usually receive up to 240 individuals, measures have been taken to limit the risk of contamination by releasing individuals without prior judicial conviction and testing the others by a nasal swab. The test was done for all the present individuals (48), except two who refused. Eight tests (17.4%) were positive and only one was symptomatic. Individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were transferred into COVID-centers specially created during this health crisis. Management of the COVID-19 epidemic in this French IDC illustrates the necessity of good cooperation between judicial authorities and medical teams in charge of those centers and the difficulty of balancing public health actions with state security.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-05-2020-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Locking out the virus: management of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in an Italian
           prison
    • Authors: Ferdinando Cerrato, Michele Esposito, Agnese Drusiani, Iuri Moi, Eugenia Franciosi, Nadialina Assueri, Raffaella Campalastri, Angelo Fioritti
      Abstract: In this paper, the authors present insights and findings drawn from the authors’ experiences of containing a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large prison in northern Italy.Within penitentiaries, close-quarter living is ripe terrain for outbreaks of disease among detainees and staff. If left unchecked, these outbreaks can easily spill over the prison walls to threaten the general public. Moreover, these risks are heightened by preexisting environmental conditions, especially overcrowding. It is thus paramount to establish effective protocols for prevention, early detection and outbreak management. The purpose of this article is to document a strategy that been at least partially successful in reducing the damage that could potentially be caused by a sustained SARS-CoV-2 outbreak within a correctional facility. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis on patients’ and health-care workers’ medical records to obtain demographic and clinical information. Descriptive data analysis was then carried out. In total, the authors tested 453 people with oropharyngeal swabs from March 15, 2020, to June 30, 2020. Of these people, 58 were positive and 395 were negative, with a prevalence of 12.8%.Of the 453 patients, 60 were health workers: 24 tested positive for SARS-CoV2 ribonucleic acid (RNA); 18 developed symptoms; and three needed hospitalization.Among patients in detention, 34 resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Two were hospitalized and later died. Both had severe preexisting conditions; they were aged 76 and 59 years old, respectively. In this study, the authors describe the design and effective implementation of prevention and containment measures against SARS-CoV-2 within the walls of a correctional facility. The authors describe how they rapidly created clean confinement sections to isolate cases in an environment designed for security at the expense of virus containment and how educational efforts have played a vital role in their strategy.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-12-2020-0100
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The “double punishment” of transgender prisoners: a human rights-based
           commentary on placement and conditions of detention
    • Authors: Marie-Claire Van Hout, Des Crowley
      Abstract: The incarceration of transgender people is described as a “double punishment” based on lack of gender recognition and ability to gender affirm, and with their experiences and conditions in prison tantamount to torture. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the continued “double punishment” of incarcerated transgender people (in particular trans-women) and identify and describe breaches in human and gender rights and minimum standards of care. There is limited global data on the numbers of incarcerated transgender people, an identified vulnerable prison group. There are inherent difficulties for prison authorities regarding placement, security aspects and management of transgender persons. While the concerns apply to all transgender prisoners, the current literature focusses mainly on transgender women and this commentary reflects this present bias. A socio-legal approach describes and evaluates international human rights’ conventions and human rights’ law, soft law instruments mandating non-discriminatory provisions in the prison setting and relevant European and domestic case law. Transgender prisoners experience an amplification of trauma underpinned by lack of legal gender recognition, inability to gender-affirm, discrimination, transphobia, gender maltreatment and violence by other prisoners and prison staff. Despite obligations and recommendations in international human rights’ instruments and standard operating procedures at the prison level, very few countries are able to fully uphold the human rights of and meet the needs of transgender people in prison. This study is important as it highlights the dearth of knowledge exploring human rights discourses and concerns related to the phenomenon of incarcerated transgender persons. It uniquely focusses on European and domestic law and illustrates the inherent tensions between human rights, sexual orientation and gender identity rights and security considerations regarding transgender issues in prisons. Rights assurances centre on the principles of equality, dignity, freedom of expression, dignified detention and the prohibition of inhumane treatment or punishment.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-03-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-10-2020-0083
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Incarcerated individuals’ experiences of COVID-19 in the United
           States
    • Authors: Carrie Pettus-Davis, Stephanie C. Kennedy, Christopher A. Veeh
      Abstract: This study aims to examine steps taken by correctional staff to prevent COVID-19 from spreading through correctional facilities and explores strategies used by incarcerated individuals to reduce their own risk of contracting COVID-19 during confinement. Data were drawn from interviews with 327 individuals incarcerated after March 16, 2020, in Midwest1, Midwest2 and Southeast state using a questionnaire developed for this purpose. All study participants were actively involved in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral health reentry intervention and the human subjects board approved the supplement of this study on COVID-19; interviews were conducted from April 15 to November 19, 2020. Overall, 9.89% of participants contracted COVID-19. Most (68.50%) individuals learned about COVID-19 from television compared to official correctional facility announcements (32.42%). Participants wore face masks (85.02%), washed hands (84.40%) and practiced physical distancing when possible (66.36%). Participants reported that facilities suspended visitation (89.60%) and volunteers (82.57%), provided face masks (83.18%), sanitized (68.20%), conducted temperature checks (55.35%) and released individuals early (7.34%). Longitudinal observational study on the implementation and effectiveness of public health guidelines in prisons and jails may identify best practices for containing the infectious disease. Maximizing transparent communications, as well as COVID-19 prevention and mitigation efforts, are critical to achieving universal best practices for virus containment and amplifying public health. Data presented indicate the early adoption of many Centers for Disease Control guidelines by individuals and correctional facilities, although broad variation existed. Data support the identification of containment strategies for feasible implementation in a range of correctional spaces.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-03-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-11-2020-0094
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Trust, efficacy and ethicacy when testing prisoners for COVID-19
    • Authors: Steve Lambert, Dean Wilkinson
      Abstract: The outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus and subsequent COVID-19 illness has had a major impact on all levels of society internationally. The extent of the impact of COVID-19 on prison staff and prisoners in England and Wales is unknown. Testing for COVID-19 both asymptomatic and symptomatic, as well as for antibodies, to date, has been minimal. The purpose of this paper is to explore the widespread testing of COVID-19 in prisons poses philosophical and ethical questions around trust, efficacy and ethicacy. This paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the widespread testing of COVID-19 in prisoners in England and Wales, and conceptual in that it discusses and argues the issues associated with large-scale testing. This paper provides a discussion, using comparative studies, of the issues associated with large-scale testing of prisoners across the prison estate in England and Wales (120 prisons). The issues identified in this paper are contextualised through the lens of COVID-19, but they are equally transferrable to epidemiological studies of any pandemic. Given the prevalence of COVID-19 globally and the lack of information about its spread in prisons, at the time of writing this paper, there is a programme of asymptomatic testing of prisoners. However, there remains a paucity of data on the spread of COVID-19 in prisons because of the progress with the ongoing testing programme. The authors argue that the widespread testing of prisoners requires careful consideration of the details regarding who is included in testing, how consent is gained and how tests are administered. This paper outlines and argues the importance of considering the complex nuance of power relationships within the prison system, among prisoner officers, medical staff and prisoners and the detrimental consequences. The widespread testing of COVID-19 presents ethical and practical challenges. Careful planning is required when considering the ethics of who should be included in COVID-19 testing, how consent will be gained, who and how tests will be administered and very practical challenges around the recording and assigning of COVID-19 test kits inside the prison. The current system for the general population requires scanning of barcodes and registration using a mobile number; these facilities are not permitted inside a prison. This paper looks at the issues associated with mass testing of prisoners for COVID-19. According to the authors’ knowledge, there has not been any research that looks at the issues of testing either in the UK or internationally. The literature available details countries’ responses to the pandemic rather and scientific papers on the development of vaccines. Therefore, this paper is an original review of some of the practicalities that need to be addressed to ensure that testing can be as successful as possible.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-10-2020-0084
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Lessons learned from keeping NSW’s prisons COVID-free
    • Authors: James Blogg, Colette McGrath, Jennifer Galouzis, Luke Grant, Wendy Hoey
      Abstract: New South Wales (NSW) correctional system houses 30% of prisoners in Australia and at this time has only had a single documented case of COVID-19 amongst its prisoner population. The coordinated response by Justice Health and Forensic Mental Health Network (The Network) undertaken with the support of NSW Ministry of Health, in partnership with Corrective Services NSW (CSNSW), Youth Justice and private jails has ensured that the NSW correctional system has remained otherwise COVID-free. A research study of how a range of partners which support the operations of NSW Correctional System developed an effective approach for the prevention a COVID-19 epidemic amongst its inmates. Establishment of effective partnerships, early coordination of representatives from all aspects of the NSW correctional system, limited access to the correctional environment, reduced prison population and strict isolation of all new receptions have all contributed to maintaining this COVID-free status despite other NSW settings with similar risk profiles, such as aged care facilities and cruise ship arrivals, experiencing serious outbreaks. Although Australia/New Zealand context of suppressed community infection rates for COVID-19 (which are approaching elimination in some jurisdictions) is in contrast to the situation in other parts of the world, the principles described in this paper will be useful to most other correctional systems. Modelling was used to underline our approach and reinforced the veracity of following this approach. The Network and CSNSW has been able to mount an effective, integrated response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has been sustainable through the first peak of COVID-19 cases. This case study catalogues the process of developing this response and details each intervention implemented with inventive use of tables to demonstrate the impact of the range of interventions used.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-09-2020-0073
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Supporting people leaving prisons during COVID-19: perspectives from peer
           health mentors

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Katherine E. McLeod, Kelsey Timler, Mo Korchinski, Pamela Young, Tammy Milkovich, Cheri McBride, Glenn Young, William Wardell, Lara-Lisa Condello, Jane A. Buxton, Patricia A. Janssen, Ruth Elwood Martin
      Abstract: Currently, people leaving prisons face concurrent risks from the COVID-19 pandemic and the overdose public health emergency. The closure or reduction of community services people rely on after release such as treatment centres and shelters has exacerbated the risks of poor health outcomes and harms. This paper aims to learn from peer health mentors (PHM) about changes to their work during overlapping health emergencies, as well as barriers and opportunities to support people leaving prison in this context. The Unlocking the Gates (UTG) Peer Health Mentoring Program supports people leaving prison in British Columbia during the first three days after release. The authors conducted two focus groups with PHM over video conference in May 2020. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed, and themes were iteratively developed using narrative thematic analysis. The findings highlighted the importance of peer health mentorship for people leaving prisons. PHM discussed increased opportunities for collaboration, ways the pandemic has changed how they are able to provide support, and how PHM are able to remain responsive and flexible to meet client needs. Additionally, PHM illuminated ways that COVID-19 has exacerbated existing barriers and identified specific actions needed to support client health, including increased housing and recovery beds, and tools for social and emotional well-being. This study contributes to our understanding of peer health mentorship during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of mentors. PHM expertise can support release planning, improved health and well-being of people leaving prison and facilitate policy-supported pandemic responses.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-09-2020-0069
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Coping with prisons' COVID-19 and the functioning of the Polish prison
           system
    • Authors: Maria Niełaczna
      Abstract: This paper aims to explain the phenomenon of low incidence of COVID-19 in Polish prisons. This paper addresses three questions: was the Polish prison system ready to respond to the threats posed by COVID-19; what action has it taken in this regard; and with what effect' An analysis of the current condition of the Polish prison system was undertaken focusing on items that were the focus of prisoners’ complaints, the interventions of the Ombudsman and the bulletins of the Central Board of the Prison Service. This analysis has been juxtaposed with the opinions of experts in epidemiology and medicine and changes introduced in the law relating to prisoners. During the COVID-19 epidemic – despite serious chronic problems in the Polish penitentiary system – the statistics indicated that 24 individuals were infected and no deaths occurred. When compared to the statistics of non-prison cases, this result is extremely low. Given the newness of the problem, the conflicts of different interests, the “double” isolation of prisons (penal and epidemiological) and the reluctance of the prison administration to provide information about what is happening behind prison walls, researchers must rely on statistics and subjective contacts with prisoners, for example, by investigating their complaints. As a result of the research, the author believes that the transparency of institutions such as prisons should be ensured, primarily expressed in the provision of information to both prisoners and the public relating to methods adopted to prevent epidemics in the context of prison and prisoners. The value of this paper is to show how prisons have managed in a new, exceptional situation to balance the right to health and personal safety of prisoners and warders, with the right to contact with the outside world and humane living conditions in a closed and doubly isolated space. The findings presented will add value to the knowledge and effectiveness of the prison administration’s reaction and response to an emergency such as an epidemic.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-09-2020-0066
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Analysing the views of people in custody about the management of the
           COVID-19 pandemic in the Scottish Prison Estate
    • Authors: Matthew Maycock, Graeme Dickson
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to foreground and analyse the views of people in custody about the management of the COVID-19 pandemic within the Scottish Prison Estate. The project is unique in using a correspondence participatory action methodology to engage with a group of people in custody at one Scottish prison. At the time of ethical approval (early April 2020), all face-to-face research projects facilitated by the Scottish Prison Service were paused. In response to these methodological challenges, a participatory correspondence methodology was designed to allow people in custody to influence the direction of this project by suggesting research questions and themes. Eight participants were selected due to previous participation in research projects at one Scottish prison. All participants were adult males and serving long-term sentences. After consent was given via post, eight letters were distributed to participants with questions about their COVID-19 experiences. Methodologically, this project illustrates the potential for correspondence methods to facilitate insights into life in custody during what emerges as a particularly challenging time. Participant suggested questions were used across six subsequent letters to elicit unique insights into the COVID-19 pandemic, of lockdown and subsequent easing of lockdown conditions in custody. The main project findings relate to challenges that the participants faced in relation to communication, feelings of heightened isolation and detachment from family, friends and the normal rhythms of life in prison. Analysis of letters provides unique insights into the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic in custody enhanced the pains of imprisonment, increasing the “tightness”, “depth” and “weight” of participants’ time in custody. This paper is methodologically, epistemologically and theoretically original in foregrounding the views of people in custody about the management of COVID-19 in prison and using a correspondence participatory action research method. The conclusion considers the extent to which views from what might be considered the bottom of hierarchies of power within prison settings are able to influence the direction of prison policy around the management of COVID-19 and future pandemics.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-09-2020-0065
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Engaged scholarship at the Brown University School of Public Health:
           designing education for better prisoner and community health
    • Authors: Alexandria Macmadu, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Ian Gonsher, Jennifer G. Clarke, Bradley W. Brockmann
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to describe the course, “Designing Education for Better Prisoner and Community Health,” which provided students with the knowledge, skills and resources needed to build real-world health education materials for persons who are criminal justice involved. A multiphase engaged scholarship course was designed and implemented through the Brown University School of Public Health in Rhode Island, USA. Students collaborated closely with instructors, subject matter experts and affected community members to develop highly tailored health education projects across six topic areas. The structure and outcomes of the paper are described with the hope that other instructors and institutions might replicate components of the model. Engaged scholarship in public health can provide students with rich, collaborative learning experiences, and when executed effectively, these endeavors can provide underserved communities with robust and informed health education interventions and programs.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-04-2020-0025
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Guest editorial
    • Guest editorial
      Michael Brookes
      International Journal of Prisoner Health, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp.1-5International Journal of Prisoner Health2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-03-2021-076
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Time out of cell and time in purposeful activity and adverse mental health
           outcomes amongst people in prison: a literature review
    • Authors: Thomas Stephenson, Jane Leaman, Éamonn O’Moore, Anh Tran, Emma Plugge
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to synthesise the available peer-reviewed literature on the impact of time out of cell (TOOC) and time in purposeful activity (TIPA) on adverse mental outcomes amongst people in prison. The outcomes of interest of this literature review were mental health, suicide, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and violence. Exposures of interest were TOOC, TIPA or a partial or indirect measure of either. In total, 14 studies were included. An abbreviated review methodology was used because of time constraints. There was consistent evidence of an association between lower TOOC and TIPA and worse mental health and higher suicide risk. Limited evidence suggests a link between TOOC and DSH. No evidence was identified regarding the relationship between TOOC/TIPA and violence. A lack of longitudinal studies prevents conclusions regarding causality. Significant heterogeneity of mental health outcomes limits the comparability of studies. These findings highlight the importance of considering the impact of TOOC and TIPA on adverse mental outcomes for prisoners when designing prison regimes, including during urgent adaptation of such regimes in response to Covid-19. They are likely to be of interest to practitioners and policymakers concerned with prison regime design. This paper is the first to synthesise the existing literature on the impact of TOOC and TIPA on mental health outcomes.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-06-2020-0037
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Mental health interventions in an Italian prison: the Parma integrated
           approach
    • Authors: Lorenzo Pelizza, Ursula Zambelli, Enrico Rossi, Germana Verdoliva, Davide Maestri, Ilaria De Amicis, Cecilia Paraggio, Amir Zaimovic, Bruno Veneri, Beatrice Urbani, Diana Gran Dall'Olio, Adriana Adriani, Stefania Cutrino, Silvia Bertoli, Giuseppina Paulillo, Pietro Pellegrini
      Abstract: Mental health interventions for Italian prisoners with mental disorders remain a problematic issue, despite radical changes in general psychiatric care and a 2008 major government reform transferring mental health care in prison to the National Health Service. The aim of this study is to describe the mental health intervention model implemented since January 2020 for prisoners allocated in the Parma Penitentiary Institutes (PPI). This approach is specifically based on specialized, “person-centered” and “person-tailored” therapeutic-rehabilitation plans in line with psychiatric treatments usually provided in community mental health-care centers of the Parma Department of Mental Health. All the processes and procedures included in the PPI intervention model were first carefully illustrated, paying special attention to the service for newly admitted prisoners and each typology of specialized therapeutic-rehabilitation treatment potentially provided. Additionally, a preliminary descriptive process analysis of the first six months of clinical activity was also performed. Since January 2020, 178 individuals entered the PPI service for newly admitted prisoners. In total, 83 (46.7%) of them were engaged in the services of the PPI mental health-care team (35 with pathological addiction and 48 with mental disorders): 56 prisoners were offered an integrated mental health intervention and 27 exclusively an individual psychological or psychiatric treatment. The results support the potential applicability of an integrated mental health intervention in prison, planning a person-tailored rehabilitation in close collaboration with the prisoners, their families and the local mental health/social services.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-12-28
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-07-2020-0046
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • A randomised controlled trial of motivational interview for relapse
           prevention after release from smoke-free prisons in Australia
    • Authors: Xingzhong Jin, Stuart Alistair Kinner, Robyn Hopkins, Emily Stockings, Ryan James Courtney, Anthony Shakeshaft, Dennis Petrie, Timothy Dobbins, Cheneal Puljevic, Shuai Chang, Kate Dolan
      Abstract: This paper aims to determine whether a single session of a motivational interview (MI) reduces smoking relapse amongst people released from smoke-free prisons. This study sought to recruit 824 ex-smokers from 2 smoke-free prisons in the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants were randomised to receive either one session (45–60 min) face-to-face MI intervention 4–6 weeks prior to release or usual care (UC) without smoking advice. The primary outcome was continuous smoking abstinence verified by exhaled carbon monoxide test (
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-01-2020-0003
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Provision of health care for prisoners during the COVID-19 pandemic: an
           ethical analysis of challenges and summary of select best practices
    • Authors: Andrea Berkemeier Brelje, Debra A. Pinals
      Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the COVID-19 pandemic response in prisons, focusing on the USA, which imprisons a higher percentage of its population than any other country in the world. This paper evaluates the current pandemic response in prisons based on legal and ethical imperatives for providing health care to prisoners. Themes of best practices identified include increasing rapid detection of new cases, reducing transmission and advocating for both short- and long-term ethical health care policies. Halting progress now could risk dire consequences and is unacceptable on legal, ethical and public health grounds. This paper does not involve primary research with prisoners; rather it focuses on reviewing the pandemic response in prisons. Although it may be possible to translate findings in this study to similar environments (e.g. jails and detainment centers), there are unique characteristics pertaining to each that deserve separate, focused analyses. Outbreaks that occur within prisons are likely to spread to the community and vice versa. Analyses based on ethics, law and public health point to the same conclusion: preventing significant outbreaks within prisons will benefit not only prisoners but also the general public. Furthermore, even though the scientific understanding of the pandemic may change with future research, the ethical and legal principles highlighted in this paper will continue to be foundational when considering just care for prisoners.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-12-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-07-2020-0042
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Understanding the complexity of neurodevelopmental profiles of females in
           prison
    • Authors: Amanda Kirby, W. Huw Williams, Betony Clasby, Nathan Hughes, Mary Ann Megan Cleaton
      Abstract: This paper aims to examine the relationship between patterns of functioning in four domains (attention and concentration; social and communication; coordination and organisation; and literacy and numeracy) in women in prison. Also, to consider potential associations between functioning and previous Neurodevelopmental Disorder (NDD) diagnoses, previous mental health diagnoses and history of head injury, self-harm and attempted suicide. Women in one Scottish prison were invited to participate; 87 consented. Women were screened for functional difficulties and asked about their relevant educational and medical history. Half of participants reported difficulties in one or more domains. All possible combinations of functional difficulties were found. Only eight women reported previous NDD diagnoses. Functional difficulties were significantly associated with history of self-harm, history of attempted suicide and mental health diagnoses. In total, 32% of women reported at least one head injury, but this was not significantly associated with functional difficulties. The sample was comparatively small and questions were self-report. Analyses were based on within-cohort comparisons due to a lack of appropriate general population data. There is a clear need for timely, practical and comprehensive profiling of females in the Justice System. Current systems do not appear to adequately identify women with functional difficulties or other adversity. Greater use of interdisciplinary working and shared training is indicated, as is a move from categorical diagnostic systems towards dimensional approaches. This study is the first to investigate associations between difficulties associated with NDDs, mental health difficulties and head injury in women in prison.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-12-18
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-12-2019-0067
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Invisible women: correctional facilities for women across Canada and
           proximity to maternity services
    • Authors: Martha Jane Paynter, M. Leslie Bagg, Clare Heggie
      Abstract: This paper aims to describe the process to create an inventory of the facilities in Canada designated to incarcerate women and girls, health service responsibility by facility, facility proximity to hospitals with maternity services and residential programmes for mothers and children to stay together. This paper creates the inventory to support health researchers, prison rights advocates and policymakers to identify, analyse and respond to sex and gender differences in health and access to health services in prisons. In spring 2019, this study conducted an environmental scan to create an inventory of every facility in Canada designated for the incarceration of girls and women, including remand/pretrial custody, immigration detention, youth facilities and for provincial and federal sentences. There are 72 facilities in the inventory. In most, women are co-located with men. Responsibility for health varies by jurisdiction. Few sites have mother-child programmes. Distance to maternity services varies from 1 to 132 km. This paper did not include police lock-up, courthouse cells or involuntary psychiatric units in the inventory. Information is unavailable regarding trans and non-binary persons, a priority for future work. Access to maternity hospital services is but one critical question regarding reproductive care. Maintenance of the database is challenging. Incarcerated women are an invisible population. The inventory is the first of its kind and is a useful tool to support sex and gender and health research across jurisdictions.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-06-2020-0039
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Incarcerated population in India: how many are dying' How are they
           dying'
    • Authors: Usha Ram, Prakash Kumar
      Abstract: This study aims to examine sociodemographic characteristics, levels and patterns of mortality experiences amongst Indian prisoners over the past two decades (1998–2018). This study used prison statistics in India to analyze occupancy rate, percentage distribution, annual/decadal change, male–to–female ratios, prison mortality rate and causes of natural/unnatural deaths. During 1998–2018, prisons in India grew by 18% and prisoners by 69%, leading to overcrowded jails. Males outnumbered female prisoners. Seventy percent of prisoners had an educational attainment level lower than 10th grade. In 2018, over 14 per 1,000 prisoners suffered from a mental illness and 384 per 100,000 died. Unnatural deaths accounted for 8%–11% of all prisoner deaths; 84% were by suicide. Illness accounted for 95% of all natural deaths in 2018; one–quarter was due to heart diseases. The study did not establish an association between sociodemographic characteristics with mental illness and mortality due to the non-availability of data. The pattern of a deteriorating living environment, rise in mental illnesses and mortality among Indian prisoners calls for immediate action from the authorities to protect them. Almost all unnatural deaths were by suicide (mostly by hanging). This detailed study would help authorities to take corrective measures for prisoner safety and well-being. There is also a need to develop a scientific database for this population. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine morbidity and mortality experiences of the prisoner population using national statistics.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-07-2020-0045
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Effect of group-based logotherapy on imprisoned women’s level of hope: a
           randomized controlled trial (RCT)
    • Authors: Zakiye Ghelbash, Shahrzad Yektatalab, Marzieh Momennasab, Zohre Foruhi
      Abstract: Female prisoners are a vulnerable group in society, often exposed to emotional deprivation and violent experiences and in need of support and attention due to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to find out whether logotherapy, as an existential approach that emphasizes finding the true meaning in life, can affect imprisoned women’s level of hope, as well as investigating the relationship between participants’ criminological and demographic factors. This study comprised a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test, carried out in two groups of intervention and control. The research environment for the study was the Prison Training Center of Shiraz. In total, 90 imprisoned women participated in the study, with the intervention group attending 10 sessions of group logotherapy. Two questionnaires, the Miller Hope scale and demographic and criminological information questionnaires were used for assessment. Participants were evaluated in three periods before, immediately after and one month after the intervention. The results showed that logotherapy had a significant effect on increasing the feeling of hopefulness (p = 0.001). Therefore, using the logotherapy approach in other vulnerable groups is recommended. This study can be a basis for further research due to limited studies on the mental health of women prisoners in the country.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-11-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-05-2020-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Adverse childhood experiences in relation to drug and alcohol use in 30
           days prior to incarceration in a county jail
    • Authors: Emery R. Eaves, Ricky L. Camplain, Monica R. Lininger, Robert T. Trotter II
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance use among people incarcerated in a county jail. A questionnaire was administered to 199 individuals incarcerated in a Southwest county jail as part of a social-epidemiological exploration of converging comorbidities in incarcerated populations. Among 96 participants with complete ACEs data, the authors determined associations between individual ACEs items and a summative score with methamphetamine (meth), heroin, other opiates and cocaine use and binge drinking in the 30 days prior to incarceration using logistic regression. People who self-reported use of methamphetamine, heroin, other opiates or cocaine in the 30 days prior to incarceration had higher average ACEs scores. Methamphetamine use was significantly associated with living with anyone who served time in a correctional facility and with someone trying to make them touch sexually. Opiate use was significantly associated with living with anyone who was depressed, mentally ill or suicidal; living with anyone who used illegal street drugs or misused prescription medications; and if an adult touched them sexually. Binge drinking was significantly associated with having lived with someone who was a problem drinker or alcoholic. The findings point to a need for research to understand differences between methamphetamine use and opiate use in relation to particular adverse experiences during childhood and a need for tailored intervention for people incarcerated in jail. Significant associations between methamphetamine use and opiate use and specific ACEs suggest important entry points for improving jail and community programming.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-11-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-06-2020-0038
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Multiple burdens of stigma for prisoners participating in opioid
           antagonist treatment (OAT) programmes in Indonesian prisons: a qualitative
           study
    • Authors: Rita Komalasari, Sarah Wilson, Sudirman Nasir, Sally Haw
      Abstract: In spite of the effectiveness of opioid antagonist treatment (OAT) in reducing injecting drug use and needle sharing, programmes in prison continue to be largely stigmatised. This affects programme participation and the quality of programmes delivered. This study aims to explore how Indonesian prison staff and prisoners perceived and experienced stigma relating to prison OAT programmes and identify potential strategies to alleviate this stigma. Three prisons in Indonesia were selected as part of a qualitative case study. Two of the prisons provided OAT, in the form of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit study participants. In total, 57 semi-structured interviews were conducted with prison governors, health-care staff, prison officers and prisoners. Prisoners included both participants and non-participants in methadone programmes. The data were analysed thematically. MMT programme participants were perceived by both prison staff and other prisoners to be engaged in illicit drug use, and as lazy, poor, dirty and unproductive people. They were also presumed to be HIV-positive. These multi-layered, intersectional sources of (inter-personal) stigma amplified the effects on prisoners affecting not only their quality of life and mental health but also their access to prison parole programmes, and therefore the possibility of early release. In addition, organisational factors – notably non-confidential programme delivery and lack of both family and institutional supports for methadone prisoners – exacerbated the stigmatisation of MMT programme participants. Effective strategies to alleviate stigma surrounding OAT programmes such as MMT programmes are urgently needed to ensure participation in and the quality of programmes in prisons. Many prisoners reported experiencing stigma relating to their participation in MMT programmes in both the methadone prisons studied. They often emphasised the ways that this stigmatisation was amplified by the ways that MMT programme participation was associated with drug use and HIV infection. However, these intersecting experiences and concerns were not recognised by health-care staff or other prison staff. Effective strategies to alleviate stigma surrounding OAT programmes such as MMT programmes are urgently needed to ensure participation in and the quality of programmes in prisons.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-11-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-03-2020-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Weight gain and chronic disease progression among individuals incarcerated
           in Canadian federal penitentiaries: a retrospective cohort study
    • Authors: Claire Johnson, Iva Bien-Aimé, Lise Dubois
      Abstract: Very little is known about how weight gain during incarceration influences the health of people living in Canadian federal penitentiaries. To fill this knowledge gap, this study aims to determine how the observed weight gain influenced the development of obesity-related chronic diseases during incarceration. This retrospective cohort study examined the association between weight gain and obesity-related chronic diseases for 1,420 participants incarcerated in federal penitentiaries in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. To participate, individuals had to be incarcerated for at least six months at the time of the study (2016–2017). Current anthropometric data were measured or taken from medical records, then compared to anthropometric data at the beginning of incarceration (mean follow-up of 5.0 years) to determine weight change (kg) and body mass index change (kg/m2) during incarceration. Then, information about obesity-related chronic diseases was drawn from the participants’ medical records. Chi-square and nonparametric median comparison tests were performed to detect statistically significant changes in anthropometric data, to determine if a relationship was present. This study observed a significant association between weight gain and disease development for many types of obesity-related chronic diseases (e.g. cancer, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and sleep apnea). This confirmed an association between weight gain and chronic disease development in the prison population. Participants who gained a significant amount of weight, during incarceration, were also more frequently diagnosed with obesity-related chronic diseases. These findings suggest that weight gain may contribute to the deterioration of peoples’ health during incarceration.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-11-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-05-2020-0031
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Cognitive dysfunction in older prisoners in Germany: a cross-sectional
           pilot study
    • Authors: Sandra Verhülsdonk, Ann-Kristin Folkerts, Barbara Höft, Tillmann Supprian, Josef Kessler, Elke Kalbe
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to collect the first empirical data on the cognitive state of elderly prisoners in Germany and to examine associations between cognitive function and sociodemographic, clinical and incarceration characteristics. All prisoners aged 60 years and older of five prisons in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were asked to participate. The cognitive screening instruments mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the DemTect were used to assess global cognition. Executive functions were tested with the trail making test and the frontal-assessment-battery. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess participants’ affective state. The sample of this study consisted of 58 prisoners with a mean age of 65.52 years (standard deviation = 6.03); 82.8% are male. Using the MMSE with age- and education-corrected z-scores, 36.9% of the prisoners showed marginal or impaired global cognition scores. Using the DemTect, 41.4% of the prisoners were classified as being cognitively impaired. Up to 40% of the prisoners showed deficits in executive functioning and around 60% of the prisoners showed depressive symptoms. The correlation analysis revealed significant associations between cognitive scores and age (rho = –0.335, p = 0.014), education (rho = 0.309, p = 0.020), sentence duration (rho = 0.409, p = 0.007) and duration of current incarceration (rho = 0.302, p = 0.043). The DemTect total score was significantly associated with the PHQ-9 (rho = –0.335, p = 0.016). A large group of the prisoners showed a higher prevalence of cognitive dysfunction than that observed in same-age people who are not incarcerated. Taken together, there is an urgent need for an adequate management of older cognitively impaired prisoners including routine cognitive testing and guidelines-oriented treatment of cognitive symptoms. This study has several strengths. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study examining the cognitive and affective state in a German prison population. The authors considered female and male prisoners, as well as different prison settings, representing a realistic prison sample. The authors used several neuropsychological instruments to get a more detailed insight into the older prisoners’ cognitive status while trying to consider the economy of time and possible attention deficits to prevent dropouts during testing.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-10-26
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-03-2020-0019
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • 41-bis prison regime (Italy): leave no one behind during COVID-19
    • Authors: Silvia Logar, Maggie Leese
      Abstract: This paper aims to provide an overview of the Italian Ministry of Justice response to COVID-19 in Italian prisons, with particular focus on the conditions of super-maximum security (supermax) prisoners. The paper is presented in the form of viewpoint and involves the reconciliation of peer-reviewed publications, technical documents and experts’ opinions. The paper poses critical challenges on the risk of social inequalities and substandard of care for supermax prisoners. Because the COVID-19 emergency represents an evolving situation, the research describes an instantaneous scenario of the problem, possibly subjected to further dynamics. The paper rises relevant challenges in terms of equalities and human rights, which should be considered by policymakers. The research highlights the importance of the health protection for supermax prisoners during COVID-19 as it is a State responsibility. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the paper contributes to the development of subsequent studies on the topic owing to its unique knowledge that was so far not available from previous research.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-08-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-05-2020-0033
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Exploration of older prisoner’s social needs, who attended one of two
           prison initiatives for older people: an inductive phenomenological study
    • Authors: Joanne Brooke, Monika Rybacka
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the social needs and experiences of older prisoners who were attending one of two social initiatives in a prison in England. This paper is based on an interpretative phenomenological study, conducted in a prison in the South West of England. Older prisoners attending an initiative implemented for those over 55, a purposive activity or a social task group, participated in focus groups, which were audio recorded and thematically analysed. Two overarching themes were identified. Firstly, the need to feel safe: prisoners felt attending an initiative provided them with a safe haven away from noisy and boisterous younger prisoners, who they perceived as different from them and who received preferential treatment. Secondly, being provided with a purpose: prisoners felt they belonged among their peers, which motivated them to attend and support group activities. This study was completed in one prison. However, both initiatives supported the social needs of older prisoners and enabled them to leave their cells, although they felt unsafe when not attending an initiative. There remains a need to support the process of integrating younger and older prisoners, by the provision of both integrated and separate initiatives, with the aim of developing cross-generational and bi-directional peer support.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-08-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-03-2020-0016
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Are prison-based therapeutic communities effective' Challenges and
           considerations
    • Authors: Jade Richardson, Valentina Zini
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to detail the impact and efficacy of Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service ((HMPPS) Therapeutic Communities (TCs) (both democratic and hierarchical). This paper outlines recent developments in the TC literature, to provide readers with an up-to-date overview of the outcomes of prison-based TC treatment, while highlighting the strengths and challenges of this treatment approach. Trends within the research are discussed, and the authors draw attention to any gaps in the current knowledge. This paper uses a narrative literature review approach to review the most current literature around the effectiveness of prison-based TCs in HMPPS. Academic literature published predominantly from 2010 onwards is discussed because of limited literature review publications on this topic post-2010. To obtain literature, searches of relevant databases were conducted, and/or clinical leads at prison sites were contacted for relevant publications. There is a body of research which demonstrates that TCs are an effective form of treatment for people with an offending history and personality difficulties. Evidence indicates that Democratic TC treatment plays a part in reducing reoffending rates, as well as improving psychological features. Further research is needed in a number of areas, specifically with female offenders and individuals who undertake treatment in hierarchical TCs in the UK. It is also suggested that TC treatment aftercare may help to further the positive outcomes identified. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no up-to-date review of the impact and efficacy of HMPPS TC treatment. This paper reflects on available research within the current context of TC treatment and provides an original overview of the current UK TC practice. It has value in recommending areas for further research and consideration.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-12-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-07-2020-0048
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Prisoners’ experiences of prison drug treatment – what
           matters'
    • Authors: Per-Åke Nylander, Claes Holm, Odd Lindberg
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze prisoners’ experiences of prison drug-treatment programs in Sweden. How do they describe their personal relationships with the prison staff and with other prisoners in the wings' How do they describe the social climate and the control in drug-treatment wings' How could differences between these wings be understood' The data consist of observations and face-to-face interviews with male and female prisoners in three Swedish prison drug-treatment wings. Analytical concepts used are roles, relationships and rituals. The prisoners’ relationships with prison officers seemed connected to what kinds of rituals the prisoners and staff engaged in. In all three treatment wings, the staff and prisoners were involved in natural rituals. This was most frequent in the women’s prison with a 12-step program. The prisoners were frustrated with control measures but were mainly positive to the measures as preventing drugs from coming into the wing. Only three prison wings, however in varying prisons, have been studied. These results gives a useful prisoners’ perspective on the development of drug-prevention and treatment in different kinds of prisons.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-08-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-08-2019-0039
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • A failed success: the Barlinnie Special Unit
    • Authors: David Wilson, Michael Brookes
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the reasons for and the subsequent longer-term impact of the closure of the Barlinnie Special Unit (BSU). The paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the work of the BSU, and conceptual in that it argues that the limits of “prisoner rehabilitation” are observed in the closure of the BSU, which sounds a warning for other penal therapeutic communities and what it means to operate effectively. The BSU which assisted long-term, difficult and violent prisoners moderate their prison behaviour and then to live non-offending lives, lost the confidence of government ministers and officials, as well as senior prison managers and, seemingly, the public, so closed after being in operation for 21 years. The impact of this has been that the Scottish Prison Service has not introduced, or attempted to introduce, a similar regime for managing and treating violent and disruptive prisoners. There are important lessons to be learned from the BSU experience for all who manage and work in specialist, prison therapeutic units or within prison therapeutic regimes. This includes balancing the therapeutic elements of the regime, which may involve engaging in practices which are outside the norm for custodial establishments, with those establishments’ security and operational requirements, so as to not to create a disconnect between addressing offending behaviour and maintaining expected standards of wider prison conduct. While there have been previous evaluations of the BSU, the longer-term impact has neither been previously considered and nor has the unit’s closure been considered from a penal philosophical perspective.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-08-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-12-2019-0070
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Linkage and continuity of care after release from prison: an evaluation of
           central registration points for drug users in Belgium
    • Authors: Stijn Vandevelde, Freya Vander Laenen, Benjamin Mine, Eric Maes, Lana De Clercq, Lies Deckers, Wouter Vanderplasschen
      Abstract: This paper aims to report the findings of an evaluation study concerning the Central Registration Points (CRPs) for drug users in Belgian prisons. CRPs support drug users to link with community-based services. The study applied a multi-method approach that involved an exploratory literature review; a secondary analysis of the CRPs’ databases; a qualitative study of the perceptions of a diverse sample of stakeholders with regard to the functioning of CRPs; and a prospective registration study. One-third of the clients never attended an outpatient or residential substance abuse service before prison entry. This illustrates that the CRPs managed to reach clients who were not previously reached by (substance abuse) treatment services. All interviewed actors emphasized the added value of the CRPs in terms of informing, contacting, motivating and referring prisoners with a substance abuse problem. Based on the research findings, two issues seem to be of paramount importance in the successful practice of CRPs: the confidentiality and specific expertise on (substance abuse) treatment. Given the complex situation of drug users in prison, an independent positioning and categorical assistance with drug-specific expertise seem to be essential. CRPs can be considered to be one of the “building blocks” that contribute to high-quality care and continuity of care for drugs users in detention.
      Citation: International Journal of Prisoner Health
      PubDate: 2020-06-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-01-2019-0008
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • International Journal of Prisoner Health
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