Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1562 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (740 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (109 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (133 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Open     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Advances in Nursing Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Health Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Primary Health     Hybrid Journal  
Australian Journal of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BJR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMJ Leader     Hybrid Journal  
BMJ Quality & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
British Journal of Healthcare Assistants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Healthcare Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Hospital Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 298)
British Journal of School Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bruce R Hopkins' Nonprofit Counsel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building Better Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Medical Record English Edition     Hybrid Journal  
CIN : Computers Informatics Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Audit     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinics and Practice     Open Access  
Cognition, Technology & Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Based Medical Journal     Open Access  
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Nurse : A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Das Gesundheitswesen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dental Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
DoctorConsult - The Journal. Wissen für Klinik und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription  
Droit, Déontologie & Soin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
East and Central African Journal of Surgery     Open Access  
Éducation thérapeutique du patient     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
eGEMs     Open Access  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Enfermería Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Escola Anna Nery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Research in Telemedicine / La Recherche Européenne en Télémédecine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidence-Based Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family Practice Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Hospital Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gastrointestinal Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global & Regional Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Action     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Health Management Journal (GHMJ)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Hospital Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Public Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Handbook of Practice Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health and Interprofessional Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Care Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Health Expectations     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Health Facilities Management     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health Informatics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Health Information : Jurnal Penelitian     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health Information Science and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Reform Observer : Observatoire des Réformes de Santé     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Health Science Journal of Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Healthcare : The Journal of Delivery Science and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Management Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Policy / Politiques de Santé     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Healthcare Risk Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
HealthcarePapers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hospital a Domicilio     Open Access  
Hospital Medicine Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Peer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Hospital Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 18)
Hospital Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
ICU Director     Hybrid Journal  
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IISE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Independent Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Index de Enfermeria     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Informatics for Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INQUIRY : The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Care Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Computers in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Electronic Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Health Administration and Education Congress (Sanitas Magisterium)     Open Access  
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Health Economics and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Hospital Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Palliative Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Positive Behavioural Support     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Privacy and Health Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Public and Private Healthcare Management and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Reliable and Quality E-Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Clinical Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Telework and Telecommuting Technologies     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
International Journal of User-Driven Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Disability and Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Irish Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JAAPA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jaffna Medical Journal     Open Access  
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal for Healthcare Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Advanced Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aging and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Arts and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.37
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 39  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0018-7208 - ISSN (Online) 1547-8181
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1149 journals]
  • Detection of Hostile Intent by Spatial Movements
    • Authors: Colleen E. Patton, Christopher D. Wickens, C. A. P. Smith, Benjamin A. Clegg
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe ability of people to infer intentions from movement of other vessels was investigated. Across three levels of variability in movements in the path of computer-controlled ships, participants attempted to determine which entity was hostile.BackgroundDetection of hostile intentions through spatial movements of vessels is important in an array of real-world scenarios. This experiment sought to determine baseline abilities of humans to do so.MethodsParticipants selected a discrete movement direction of their ship. Six other ships’ locations then updated. A single entity displayed one of two hostile behaviors: shadowing, which involved mirroring the participant’s vessel’s movements; and hunting, which involved closing in on the participant’s vessel. Trials allowed up to 35 moves before identifying the hostile ship and its behavior. Uncertainty was introduced through adding variability to ships’ movements such that their path was 0%, 25%, or 50% random.ResultsEven with no variability in the ships’ movements, accurate detection was low, identifying the hostile entity about 60% of the time. Variability in the paths decreased detection. Detection of hunting was strongly degraded by distance between ownship and the hostile ship, but shadowing was not. Strategies employing different directions of movement across the trial, but also featuring some runs of consecutive movements, facilitated detection.ConclusionsEarly identification of threats based on movement characteristics alone is likely to be difficult, but particularly so when adversaries employ some level of uncertainty to mask their intentions. These findings highlight the need to develop decision aids to support human performance.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-05-07T04:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211015022
       
  • Effect of Handrail Height and Age on Trunk and Shoulder Kinematics
           Following Perturbation-Evoked Grasping Reactions During Gait
    • Authors: Vicki Komisar, Alison C. Novak
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo characterize the effect of handrail height and age on trunk and shoulder kinematics, and concomitant handrail forces, on balance recovery reactions during gait.BackgroundFalls are the leading cause of unintentional injury in adults in North America. Handrails can significantly enhance balance recovery and help individuals to avoid falls, provided that their design allows users across the lifespan to reach and grasp the rail after balance loss, and control their trunk by applying hand-contact forces to the rail. However, the effect of handrail height and age on trunk and shoulder kinematics when recovering from perturbations during gait is unknown.MethodFourteen younger and 13 older adults experienced balance loss (sudden platform translations) while walking beside a height-adjustable handrail. Handrail height was varied from 30 to 44 inches (76 to 112 cm). Trunk and shoulder kinematics were measured via 3D motion capture; applied handrail forces were collected from load cells mounted to the rail.ResultsAs handrail height increased (up to 42 inches/107 cm), peak trunk angular displacement and velocity generally decreased, while shoulder elevation angles during reaching and peak handrail forces did not differ significantly between 36 and 42 inches (91 and 107 cm). Age was associated with reduced peak trunk angular displacements, but did not affect applied handrail forces.ConclusionHigher handrails (up to 42 inches) may be advantageous for trunk control when recovering from destabilizations during gait.ApplicationOur results can inform building codes, workplace safety standards, and accessibility standards, for safer handrail design.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-05-04T04:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211013631
       
  • The Effects of Language Barriers and Time Constraints on Online Learning
           Performance: An Eye-Tracking Study
    • Authors: Auður Anna Jónsdóttir, Ziho Kang, Tianchen Sun, Saptarshi Mandal, Ji-Eun Kim
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe goal of this study is to model the effect of language use and time pressure on English as a first language (EFL) and English as a second language (ESL) students by measuring their eye movements in an on-screen, self-directed learning environment.BackgroundOnline learning is becoming integrated into learners’ daily lives due to the flexibility in scheduling and location that it offers. However, in many cases, the online learners often have no interaction with one another or their instructors, making it difficult to determine how the learners are reading the materials and whether they are learning effectively. Furthermore, online learning may pose challenges to those who face language barriers or are under time pressure.MethodThe effects of two factors, language use (EFL vs. ESL) and time constraints (high vs. low time pressure), were investigated during the presentation of online materials. The effects were analyzed based on eye movement measures (eye fixation rate—the total number of eye fixations divided by the task duration and gaze entropy) and behavioral measures (correct rate and task completion time).ResultsThe results show that the ESL students had higher eye fixation rates and longer task completion times than the EFL students. Moreover, high time pressure resulted in high fixation rates, short task completion time, low correct rates, and high gaze entropy.Conclusion and ApplicationThe results suggest the possibility of using unobtrusive eye movement measures to develop ways to better assist those who struggle with learning in the online environment.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-05-04T04:21:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211010949
       
  • How Perceptions of Caller Honesty Vary During Vishing Attacks That Include
           Highly Sensitive or Seemingly Innocuous Requests
    • Authors: Miriam E. Armstrong, Keith S. Jones, Akbar Siami Namin
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo understand how aspects of vishing calls (phishing phone calls) influence perceived visher honesty.BackgroundLittle is understood about how targeted individuals behave during vishing attacks. According to truth-default theory, people assume others are being honest until something triggers their suspicion. We investigated whether that was true during vishing attacks.MethodsTwenty-four participants read written descriptions of eight real-world vishing calls. Half included highly sensitive requests; the remainder included seemingly innocuous requests. Participants rated visher honesty at multiple points during conversations.ResultsParticipants initially perceived vishers to be honest. Honesty ratings decreased before requests occurred. Honesty ratings decreased further in response to highly sensitive requests, but not seemingly innocuous requests. Honesty ratings recovered somewhat, but only after highly sensitive requests.ConclusionsThe present results revealed five important insights: (1) people begin vishing conversations in the truth-default state, (2) certain aspects of vishing conversations serve as triggers, (3) other aspects of vishing conversations do not serve as triggers, (4) in certain situations, people’s perceptions of visher honesty improve, and, more generally, (5) truth-default theory may be a useful tool for understanding how targeted individuals behave during vishing attacks.ApplicationThose developing systems that help users deal with suspected vishing attacks or penetration testing plans should consider (1) targeted individuals’ truth-bias, (2) the influence of visher demeanor on the likelihood of deception detection, (3) the influence of fabricated situations surrounding vishing requests on the likelihood of deception detection, and (4) targeted individuals’ lack of concern about seemingly innocuous requests.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-05-03T03:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211012818
       
  • The Essence of Care: Versatility as an Adaptive Response to Challenges in
           the Delivery of Quality Aged Care by Personal Care Attendants
    • Authors: Anjum Naweed, Jana Stahlut, Valerie O’Keeffe
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe strategies adopted by personal care attendants (PCAs) to deliver quality care when faced with challenges potentially impacting clinical outcomes were assessed using phenomenological methods.BackgroundIn Australia, recent outcry of unsatisfactory standards of care in residential facilities has instigated a national public inquiry. This study investigated how PCAs adapted to challenges in stressful and ambiguous everyday work scenarios to deliver quality care.MethodA phenomenological approach was used to obtain insights into PCAs’ experiences, perceptions, opinions, and decision processes for enacting care. Ten PCAs working in rural-based residential aged care were interviewed using a novel scenario construction task with thematic and co-occurrence network mapping applied to derive insights.ResultsSeven themes were identified, revealing that participants formed close relationships with residents, influencing care provision but blurring personal boundaries. Key contextual factors in scenarios highlighted inadequate staffing and procedures, inadequate training, challenging residents, time poverty, and low support. Individually directed adaptive strategies were used to alleviate dissonance and maintain emotional resilience, including dynamic risk assessment involving rule breaking.ConclusionThe findings suggest that in negotiating care delivery, PCAs strive to optimize rule-based compliance with safety, efficiency, and individualized attention to provide “good enough” care with fluidity. Implications for policy and practice are considered.ApplicationFindings have implications for workforce development in the context of ever-increasing industry pressures. Findings identified challenging scenarios and role complexity, with decision-making occurring as a fluid and ongoing process across a flexible boundary of risk assessment influencing interactions between PCAs, registered nurses, and clients.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T12:57:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211010962
       
  • Distraction “Hangover”: Characterization of the Delayed Return to
           Baseline Driving Risk After Distracting Behaviors
    • Authors: Joseph Snider, Ryan J. Spence, Anne-Marie Engler, Ryan Moran, Sarah Hacker, Leanne Chukoskie, Jeanne Townsend, Linda Hill
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe measured how long distraction by a smartphone affects simulated driving behaviors after the tasks are completed (i.e., the distraction hangover).BackgroundMost drivers know that smartphones distract. Trying to limit distraction, drivers can use hands-free devices, where they only briefly glance at the smartphone. However, the cognitive cost of switching tasks from driving to communicating and back to driving adds an underappreciated, potentially long period to the total distraction time.MethodNinety-seven 21- to 78-year-old individuals who self-identified as active drivers and smartphone users engaged in a simulated driving scenario that included smartphone distractions. Peripheral-cue and car-following tasks were used to assess driving behavior, along with synchronized eye tracking.ResultsThe participants’ lateral speed was larger than baseline for 15 s after the end of a voice distraction and for up to 25 s after a text distraction. Correct identification of peripheral cues dropped about 5% per decade of age, and participants from the 71+ age group missed seeing about 50% of peripheral cues within 4 s of the distraction. During distraction, coherence with the lead car in a following task dropped from 0.54 to 0.045, and seven participants rear-ended the lead car. Breadth of scanning contracted by 50% after distraction.ConclusionSimulated driving performance drops dramatically after smartphone distraction for all ages and for both voice and texting.ApplicationPublic education should include the dangers of any smartphone use during driving, including hands-free.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T12:53:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211012218
       
  • A Bayesian Regression Analysis of the Effects of Alert Presence and
           Scenario Criticality on Automated Vehicle Takeover Performance
    • Authors: Hananeh Alambeigi, Anthony D. McDonald
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigates the impact of silent and alerted failures on driver performance across two levels of scenario criticality during automated vehicle transitions of control.BackgroundRecent analyses of automated vehicle crashes show that many crashes occur after a transition of control or a silent automation failure. A substantial amount of research has been dedicated to investigating the impact of various factors on drivers’ responses, but silent failures and their interactions with scenario criticality are understudied.MethodA driving simulator study was conducted comparing scenario criticality, alert presence, and two driving scenarios. Bayesian regression models and Fisher’s exact tests were used to investigate the impact of alert and scenario criticality on takeover performance.ResultsThe results show that silent failures increase takeover times and the intensity of posttakeover maximum accelerations and decrease the posttakeover minimum time-to-collision. While the predicted average impact of silent failures on takeover time was practically low, the effects on minimum time-to-collision and maximum accelerations were safety-significant. The analysis of posttakeover control interaction effects shows that the effect of alert presence differs by the scenario criticalityConclusionAlthough the impact of the absence of an alert on takeover performance was less than that of scenario criticality, silent failures seem to play a substantial role—by leading to an unsafe maneuver—in critical automated vehicle takeovers.ApplicationUnderstanding the implications of silent failure on driver’s takeover performance can benefit the assessment of automated vehicles’ safety and provide guidance for fail-safe system designs.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T12:43:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211010004
       
  • A Review of Occlusion as a Tool to Assess Attentional Demand in Driving
    • Authors: Tuomo Kujala, Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlström
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this review is to identify how visual occlusion contributes to our understanding of attentional demand and spare visual capacity in driving and the strengths and limitations of the method.BackgroundThe occlusion technique was developed by John W. Senders to evaluate the attentional demand of driving. Despite its utility, it has been used infrequently in driver attention/inattention research.MethodVisual occlusion studies in driving published between 1967 and 2020 were reviewed. The focus was on original studies in which the forward visual field was intermittently occluded while the participant was driving.ResultsOcclusion studies have shown that attentional demand varies across situations and drivers and have indicated environmental, situational, and inter-individual factors behind the variability. The occlusion technique complements eye tracking in being able to indicate the temporal requirements for and redundancy in visual information sampling. The proper selection of occlusion settings depends on the target of the research.ConclusionAlthough there are a number of occlusion studies looking at various aspects of attentional demand, we are still only beginning to understand how these demands vary, interact, and covary in naturalistic driving.ApplicationThe findings of this review have methodological and theoretical implications for human factors research and for the development of distraction monitoring and in-vehicle system testing. Distraction detection algorithms and testing guidelines should consider the variability in drivers’ situational and individual spare visual capacity.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T12:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211010953
       
  • Trusting Automation: Designing for Responsivity and Resilience
    • Authors: Erin K. Chiou, John D. Lee
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis paper reviews recent articles related to human trust in automation to guide research and design for increasingly capable automation in complex work environments.BackgroundTwo recent trends—the development of increasingly capable automation and the flattening of organizational hierarchies—suggest a reframing of trust in automation is needed.MethodMany publications related to human trust and human–automation interaction were integrated in this narrative literature review.ResultsMuch research has focused on calibrating human trust to promote appropriate reliance on automation. This approach neglects relational aspects of increasingly capable automation and system-level outcomes, such as cooperation and resilience. To address these limitations, we adopt a relational framing of trust based on the decision situation, semiotics, interaction sequence, and strategy. This relational framework stresses that the goal is not to maximize trust, or to even calibrate trust, but to support a process of trusting through automation responsivity.ConclusionThis framing clarifies why future work on trust in automation should consider not just individual characteristics and how automation influences people, but also how people can influence automation and how interdependent interactions affect trusting automation. In these new technological and organizational contexts that shift human operators to co-operators of automation, automation responsivity and the ability to resolve conflicting goals may be more relevant than reliability and reliance for advancing system design.ApplicationA conceptual model comprising four concepts—situation, semiotics, strategy, and sequence—can guide future trust research and design for automation responsivity and more resilient human–automation systems.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T01:11:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211009995
       
  • Performance, Hemodynamics, and Stress in a Two-Day Vigilance Task:
           Practical and Theoretical Implications
    • Authors: Samantha L. Smith, William S. Helton, Gerald Matthews, Gregory J. Funke
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo explore vigilance task performance, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), workload, and stress in a within-subjects, two-session experiment.BackgroundVigilance, or sustained attention, tasks are often characterized by a decline in operator performance and CBFV with time on task, and high workload and stress. Though performance is known to improve with practice, past research has not included measures of CBFV, stress, and workload in a within-subjects multi-session design, which may also provide insight into ongoing theoretical debate.MethodParticipants performed a vigilance task on two separate occasions. Performance, CBFV, workload, and self-reported stress were measured.ResultsWithin each session, results were consistent with the vigilance profile found in prior research. Across sessions, performance improved but the time on task decrement remained. Mean CBFV and workload ratings did not differ between sessions, but participants reported significantly less distress, worry, and engagement after session two compared to one.ConclusionThough practice may not disrupt the standard vigilance profile, it may serve to improve overall performance and reduce stress. However, repeated exposure may have negative implications for engagement and mind-wandering.ApplicationIt is important to better understand the relationship between experience, performance, physiological response, and self-reported stress and workload in vigilance because real-world environments often require operators to do the same task over many occasions. While performance improvement and reduced distress is an encouraging result, the decline in engagement requires further research. Results across sessions fail to provide support to the mind-wandering theory of vigilance.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-27T03:11:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211011333
       
  • Temporal Sensitivity and Latency During Teleoperation: Using Track
           Clearance to Understand Errors in Future Projection
    • Authors: Federico Scholcover, Douglas J. Gillan
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigates the role of individual differences in time perception on task performance during teleoperation with latency.BackgroundLong distance teleoperation induces latency, causing performance issues for the operator. Previous research demonstrated that individual differences in time perception predicted performance on a similar task, having participants navigate a radio controlled (RC) car around a track. This work extends the relationship into routes of varying course width to test whether differences in time perception predict movement over-/underestimation.MethodParticipants completed a time estimation task and a route navigation task while experiencing latency. In the time estimation task, participants estimated the duration of multiple visual stimuli (2 s or less). In the route navigation task, participants moved a virtual cube across a route. Each trial varied in the amount of latency and the amount of horizontal clearance in the track (4–10 m for a 1.2-m-long/wide cube).ResultsThe results showed fairly consistent latency by time estimation and latency by clearance interaction effects on a wide set of trial-level variables, such as completion time, and action-level performance variables, such as time spent moving per move event. However, the results were not consistently in the predicted direction.ConclusionResults suggest that clearance and timing affect performance across latency, at both the overall level (i.e., trial completion time) and at the action level (time spent moving). An open question remains as to how these contextual factors affect movement strategy selection.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T01:55:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211011842
       
  • A Case for Raising the Camera: A Driving Simulator Test of Camera-Monitor
           Systems
    • Authors: Christoph Bernhard, René Reinhard, Michael Kleer, Heiko Hecht
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis experiment provides a first-of-its-kind driving-simulator study to investigate the feasibility of camera-monitor systems (CMS) with displaced side-mounted cameras in sedans.BackgroundAmong the increasing number of studies investigating the replacement of side-mounted rearview mirrors with CMS, the placement of side-mounted cameras has been largely neglected. Moreover, user preferences with respect to camera placement have not been validated in a driving simulator. Past research merely has shown that the vertical camera position can affect distance perception.MethodIn a driving simulator experiment, we investigated the effects of rearward camera placement on driver acceptance and performance. Thirty-six participants performed multiple lane changes in a last safe-gap paradigm. The camera position, ego-velocity, and velocity of the approaching vehicle varied across the experiment.ResultsThe results suggest a clear preference for a high rearward perspective, whereas participants disliked the lower viewpoint. However, these stark differences were only marginally mirrored in lane change performance. Average safety margins tended to decrease and their variation tended to increase for the low camera position.ConclusionEven if the impact of the camera position on driving behavior seems to be small in sedans, driver expectations show clear-cut preferences. When designing CMS, this should be taken into account, as these preferences could promote the use of CMS and thus their positive impact on safety.ApplicationDesigners should place side-mounted cameras as high as possible to increase acceptance of CMS. Low camera positions are not recommended, as they might decrease safety margins and are not appreciated by drivers.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T01:49:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211010941
       
  • Effect of Secondary Tasks on Police Officer Cognitive Workload and
           Performance Under Normal and Pursuit Driving Situations
    • Authors: Maryam Zahabi, Vanessa Nasr, Ashiq Mohammed Abdul Razak, Ben Patranella, Logan McCanless, Azima Maredia
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to assess the effects of single and multiple secondary tasks on officers’ performance and cognitive workload under normal and pursuit driving conditions.BackgroundMotor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of police line of duty injuries and deaths. These crashes are mainly attributed to the use of in-vehicle technologies and multi-tasking while driving.MethodEighteen police officers participated in a driving simulation experiment. The experiment followed a within-subject design and assessed the effect of single or multiple secondary tasks (via the mobile computer terminal (MCT) and radio) and driving condition (normal vs. pursuit driving) on officers’ driving performance, cognitive workload, and secondary task accuracy and reaction time.ResultsFindings suggested that police officers are protective of their driving performance when performing secondary tasks. However, their workload and driving performance degraded in pursuit conditions as compared to normal driving situations. Officers experienced higher workload when they were engaged with secondary tasks irrespective of the task modality or type. However, they were faster but less accurate in responding to the radio as compared to the MCT.ConclusionPolice officers experience high mental workload in pursuit driving situations, which can reduce their driving performance and accuracy when they are engaged in some secondary tasks.ApplicationThe findings might be helpful for police agencies, trainers, and vehicle technology manufacturers to modify the existing policies, training protocols, and design of police in-vehicle technologies in order to improve police officer safety.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T02:33:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211010956
       
  • Task-Oriented and Imitation-Oriented Movements in Virtual Reality Exercise
           Performance and Design
    • Authors: Ken Chen, Karen B. Chen
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigated the influence of game features and practice type on human kinematic and muscular performance in a virtual reality exercise (VRE). Participants demonstrated changes in shoulder flexion angle and muscle activation under different virtual scenarios.BackgroundConventional VRE studies often compared the outcomes between an experimental group that underwent exercise in VR and a real-world exercise control group, whereas comparisons between VRE programs are lacking. Besides, the attributes of VREs received little attention.MethodThirteen able-bodied participants performed upper extremity exercise movements in immersive VR using a head-mounted display. Participants performed task-oriented and imitation-oriented movements with different game features. Shoulder muscle activity (the deltoid, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus) and shoulder motion were collected.ResultsPractice type (task-oriented, imitation-oriented) significantly influenced the flexion angle of the shoulder complex (F(1,11) = 9.53, p = .01), and the muscle activity of the supraspinatus (F(1,9) = 12.61, p = .006) and the infraspinatus (F(1,9) = 12.71, p = .006). Game features did not have a statistically significant effect on shoulder flexion angle or shoulder muscles’ activations.ConclusionsCompared to imitation-oriented practice, task-oriented practice elicited more intensive shoulder movements and muscular efforts but also induced greater movement variations. Substantial differences across game features levels should be further investigated to have significant effects.ApplicationsThis research may help guide the design of future VREs. For strength training or rehabilitation where intensive practice is required, task-oriented practice should be considered; for movement learning where movement consistency is required, imitation oriented practice should be adopted.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T02:30:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211010100
       
  • Ecological Interface Design and Head-Up Displays: The Contact-Analog
           Visualization Tradeoff
    • Authors: Frederik Schewe, Mark Vollrath
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigated how the visualization of an ecological interface affects its subjective and objective usefulness. Therefore, we compared a simple 2D visualization against a contact-analog 3D visualization.BackgroundRecently, head-up displays (HUDs) have become contact-analog and visualizations have been enabled to be merged with the real environment. In this regard, ecological interface design visualizing boundaries of acceptable performance might be a perfect match. Because the real-world environment already provides such boundaries (e.g., lane markings), the interface might directly use them. However, visual illusions and undesired interference with the environment might influence the overall usability.MethodTo allow for a comparison, 49 participants tested the same ecological interface in two configurations, contact-analog (3D) and two dimensional (2D). Both visualizations were shown in the car’s head-up display (HUD).ResultsThe driving simulator experiment reveals that 3D was rated as more demanding and more disturbing, but also more innovative and appealing. However, regarding driving performance, the 3D representation decreased the accuracy of speed control by 6% while significantly increasing lane stability by 20%.ConclusionWe conclude that, if we want environmental boundaries guiding our behavior, the indicator for the behavior should be visualized contact-analog. If we desire artificial boundaries (e.g., speed limits) to guide behavior, the behavioral indicator should be visualized in 2D. This is less prone to optical illusions and allows for a more precise control of behavior.ApplicationThese findings provide guidance to human factors engineers, how contact-analog visualizations might be used optimally.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T02:26:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211009656
       
  • Factors That Affect Drivers’ Perception of Closing and an Immediate
           Hazard
    • Authors: Bradley W. Weaver, Patricia R. DeLucia, Jason Jupe
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo measure the looming threshold for when drivers perceive closing and an immediate hazard and determine what factors affect these thresholds.BackgroundRear-end collisions are a common type of crash. One key issue is determining when drivers first perceive they need to react. The looming threshold for closing and an immediate hazard are critical perceptual thresholds that reflect when drivers perceive they need to react.MethodTwo driving simulator experiments examined whether engaging in a cell phone conversation and whether the complexity of the roadway environment affect these thresholds for the perception of closing and immediate hazard. Half of the participants engaged in a cognitive task, the last letter task, to emulate a cell phone conversation, and all participants experienced both simple and complex roadway environments.ResultsDrivers perceived an immediate hazard later when engaged in a cell phone conversation than when not engaged in a conversation but only when the driving task was relatively less demanding (e.g., simple roadway, slow closing velocity). Compared to simple scenes, drivers perceived closing and an immediate hazard later for complex scenes but only when closing velocity was 30 mph (48.28 km/h) or greater.ConclusionCell phone conversation can affect when drivers perceive an immediate hazard when the roadway is less demanding. Roadway complexity can affect when drivers perceive closing and an immediate hazard when closing velocity is high.ApplicationResults can aid accident analysis cases and the design of driving automation systems by suggesting when a typical driver would respond.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T02:23:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211009028
       
  • The Visually Induced Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire
           (VIMSSQ): Estimating Individual Susceptibility to Motion Sickness-Like
           Symptoms When Using Visual Devices
    • Authors: Behrang Keshavarz, Brandy Murovec, Niroshica Mohanathas, John F. Golding
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTwo studies were conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire to estimate individual susceptibility to visually induced motion sickness (VIMS).BackgroundVIMS is a common side-effect when watching dynamic visual content from various sources, such as virtual reality, movie theaters, or smartphones. A reliable questionnaire predicting individual susceptibility to VIMS is currently missing. The aim was to fill this gap by introducing the Visually Induced Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (VIMSSQ).MethodsA survey and an experimental study were conducted. Survey: The VIMSSQ investigated the frequency of nausea, headache, dizziness, fatigue, and eyestrain when using different visual devices. Data were collected from a survey of 322 participants for the VIMSSQ and other related phenomena such as migraine. Experimental study: 23 participants were exposed to a VIMS-inducing visual stimulus. Participants filled out the VIMSSQ together with other questionnaires and rated their level of VIMS using the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ).Results Survey: The most prominent symptom when using visual devices was eyestrain, and females reported more VIMS than males. A one-factor solution with good scale reliability was found for the VIMSSQ. Experimental study: Regression analyses suggested that the VIMSSQ can be useful in predicting VIMS (R2 = .34) as measured by the SSQ, particularly when combined with questions pertaining to the tendency to avoid visual displays and experience syncope (R2 = .59).ConclusionWe generated normative data for the VIMSSQ and demonstrated its validity.ApplicationThe VIMSSQ can become a valuable tool to estimate one’s susceptibility to VIMS based on self-reports.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T02:20:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211008687
       
  • What I Say Means What I Do: Risk Concerns and Mobile Application-Selection
           Behaviors
    • Authors: Jing Chen, Huangyi Ge, Ninghui Li, Robert W. Proctor
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to examine the relation between users’ reported risk concerns and their choice behaviors in a mobile application (app) selection task.BackgroundHuman users are typically regarded as the weakest link in cybersecurity and privacy protection; however, it is possible to leverage the users’ predilections to increase security. There have been mixed results on the relation between users’ self-reported privacy concerns and their behaviors.MethodIn three experiments, the timing of self-reported risk concerns was either a few weeks before the app-selection task (pre-screen), immediately before it (pre-task), or immediately after it (post-task). We also varied the availability and placement of clear definitions and quizzes to ensure users’ understanding of the risk categories.ResultsThe post-task report significantly predicted the app-selection behaviors, consistent with prior findings. The pre-screen report was largely inconsistent with the reports implemented around the time of the task, indicating that participants’ risk concerns may not be stable over time and across contexts. Moreover, the pre-task report strongly predicted the app-selection behaviors only when elaborated definitions and quizzes were placed before the pre-task question, indicating the importance of clear understanding of the risk categories.ConclusionSelf-reported risk concerns may be unstable over time and across contexts. When explained with clear definitions, self-reported risk concerns obtained immediately before or after the app-selection task significantly predicted app-selection behaviors.ApplicationWe discuss implications for including personalized risk concerns during app selection that enable comparison of alternative mobile apps.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T03:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211004288
       
  • Neuroergonomics on the Go: An Evaluation of the Potential of Mobile EEG
           for Workplace Assessment and Design
    • Authors: Edmund Wascher, Julian Reiser, Gerhard Rinkenauer, Mauro Larrá, Felix A. Dreger, Daniel Schneider, Melanie Karthaus, Stephan Getzmann, Marie Gutberlet, Stefan Arnau
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe demonstrate and discuss the use of mobile electroencephalogram (EEG) for neuroergonomics. Both technical state of the art as well as measures and cognitive concepts are systematically addressed.BackgroundModern work is increasingly characterized by information processing. Therefore, the examination of mental states, mental load, or cognitive processing during work is becoming increasingly important for ergonomics.ResultsMobile EEG allows to measure mental states and processes under real live conditions. It can be used for various research questions in cognitive neuroergonomics. Besides measures in the frequency domain that have a long tradition in the investigation of mental fatigue, task load, and task engagement, new approaches—like blink-evoked potentials—render event-related analyses of the EEG possible also during unrestricted behavior.ConclusionMobile EEG has become a valuable tool for evaluating mental states and mental processes on a highly objective level during work. The main advantage of this technique is that working environments don’t have to be changed while systematically measuring brain functions at work. Moreover, the workflow is unaffected by such neuroergonomic approaches.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T03:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211007707
       
  • Heat Stress Management in the Military: Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature Offsets
           for Modern Body Armor Systems
    • Authors: Andrew P. Hunt, Adam W. Potter, Denise M. Linnane, Xiaojiang Xu, Mark J. Patterson, Ian B. Stewart
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to model the effect of body armor coverage on body core temperature elevation and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) offset.BackgroundHeat stress is a critical factor influencing the health and safety of military populations. Work duration limits can be imposed to mitigate the risk of exertional heat illness and are derived based on the environmental conditions (WBGT). Traditionally a 3°C offset to WBGT is recommended when wearing body armor; however, modern body armor systems provide a range of coverage options, which may influence thermal strain imposed on the wearer.MethodThe biophysical properties of four military clothing ensembles of increasing ballistic protection coverage were measured on a heated sweating manikin in accordance with standard international criteria. Body core temperature elevation during light, moderate, and heavy work was modeled in environmental conditions from 16°C to 34°C WBGT using the heat strain decision aid.ResultsIncreasing ballistic protection resulted in shorter work durations to reach a critical core temperature limit of 38.5°C. Environmental conditions, armor coverage, and work intensity had a significant influence on WBGT offset.ConclusionContrary to the traditional recommendation, the required WBGT offset was>3°C in temperate conditions (
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T03:04:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211005220
       
  • Examining the Effect of Interruptions at Different Breakpoints and
           Frequencies Within a Task
    • Authors: Sarah A. Powers, Mark W. Scerbo
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose was to explore how event segmentation theory (EST) can be used to determine optimal moments for an interruption relying on hierarchical task analysis (HTA) to identify coarse and fine event boundaries.BackgroundResearch on the effects of interruptions shows that they can be either disruptive or beneficial, depending on which aspects of an interruption are manipulated. Two important aspects that contribute to these conflicting results concern when and how often interruptions occur.MethodUndergraduates completed a trip planning task divided into three subtasks. The within-subjects factor was interruption timing with three levels: none, coarse breakpoints, and fine breakpoints. The between-subjects factor was interruption frequency with two levels: one and three. The dependent measures included resumption lag, number of errors, mental workload, and frustration.ResultsParticipants took longer to resume the primary task and reported higher mental workload when interruptions occurred at fine breakpoints. The effect of interruptions at coarse breakpoints was similar to completing the task without interruption. Interruption frequency had no effect on performance; however, participants spent significantly longer attending to interruptions in the initial task, and within a task, the first and second interruptions were attended to significantly longer than the third interruption.ConclusionThe disruptiveness of an interruption is tied to the point within the task hierarchy where it occurs.ApplicationThe performance cost associated with interruptions must be considered within the task structure. Interruptions occurring at coarse breakpoints may not be disruptive or have a negative effect on mental workload.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T03:02:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211009010
       
  • Using a Back Exoskeleton During Industrial and Functional Tasks—Effects
           on Muscle Activity, Posture, Performance, Usability, and Wearer Discomfort
           in a Laboratory Trial
    • Authors: Tessy Luger, Mona Bär, Robert Seibt, Monika A. Rieger, Benjamin Steinhilber
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of using a passive back-support exoskeleton (Laevo V2.56) on muscle activity, posture, heart rate, performance, usability, and wearer comfort during a course of three industrial tasks (COU; exoskeleton worn, turned-on), stair climbing test (SCT; exoskeleton worn, turned-off), timed-up-and-go test (TUG; exoskeleton worn, turned-off) compared to no exoskeleton.BackgroundBack-support exoskeletons have the potential to reduce work-related physical demands.MethodsThirty-six men participated. Activity of erector spinae (ES), biceps femoris (BF), rectus abdominis (RA), vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), trapezius descendens (TD) was recorded by electromyography; posture by trunk, hip, knee flexion angles; heart rate by electrocardiography; performance by time-to-task accomplishment (s) and perceived task difficulty (100-mm visual analogue scale; VAS); usability by the System Usability Scale (SUS) and all items belonging to domains skepticism and user-friendliness of the Technology Usage Inventory; wearer comfort by the 100-mm VAS.ResultsDuring parts of COU, using the exoskeleton decreased ES and BF activity and trunk flexion, and increased RA, GM, and TD activity, knee and hip flexion. Wearing the exoskeleton increased time-to-task accomplishment of SCT, TUG, and COU and perceived difficulty of SCT and TUG. Average SUS was 75.4, skepticism 11.5/28.0, user-friendliness 18.0/21.0, wearer comfort 31.1 mm.ConclusionUsing the exoskeleton modified muscle activity and posture depending on the task applied, slightly impaired performance, and was evaluated mildly uncomfortable.ApplicationThese outcomes require investigating the effects of this passive back-supporting exoskeleton in longitudinal studies with longer operating times, providing better insights for guiding their application in real work settings.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T02:45:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211007267
       
  • Gait Adaptations to Physical Fatigue During the Negotiation of Variable
           and Unexpected Obstacles
    • Authors: Jacob W. Hinkel-Lipsker, Nicole M. Stoehr, Isaiah J. Lachica, Sean M. Rogers
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate how physical fatigue impacts one’s ability to negotiate unexpected and randomly located obstacles during locomotion.BackgroundPhysically demanding occupations place workers at risk of trips and falls—a major health and financial burden. How worker physical fatigue and fitness impacts their ability to navigate through unpredictable environments is not thoroughly explored in current literature. In this exploratory study, we further examine these relationships.MethodsTwenty-one young, physically fit participants completed a series of obstacle negotiation trials in the dark, where an obstacle would suddenly be illuminated as they reached it. Participants then engaged in a fatigue protocol, before repeating a series of the same negotiation trials.ResultsWhen fatigued, participants exhibited a significant decrease in leading toe and trailing toe clearance, as well as a significant increase in leading heel clearance. Moreover, participants stepped closer to the obstacle with their both feet on the step prior to negotiation. Participants also walked at a faster velocity. Regression analyses revealed that participants’ VO2max and height were significant predictors of foot placement metrics.ConclusionResults indicate that physical fatigue negatively impacts crossing mechanics of young, healthy individuals, and that a higher level of VO2 capacity may reduce the occurrences of altered crossing behavior that coincide with physical fatigue.ApplicationThese results highlight the effect of fatigue on worker safety during performance of job-related duties and are of interest to professionals seeking to reduce the incidence of slips, trips, and falls in the workplace.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-14T02:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211007588
       
  • So Many Phish, So Little Time: Exploring Email Task Factors and Phishing
           Susceptibility
    • Authors: Dawn M. Sarno, Mark B. Neider
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present studies examine how task factors (e.g., email load, phishing prevalence) influence email performance.BackgroundPhishing emails are a paramount cybersecurity threat for the modern email user. Research attempting to understand how users are susceptible to phishing attacks has been limited and has not fully explored how task factors (e.g., prevalence, email load) influence accurate detection.MethodIn three experiments, participants classified emails as either legitimate or not legitimate and reported on a variety of other categorizations. The first two experiments examined how email load and phishing prevalence influence phishing detection independently. The third experiment examined the interaction of these two factors to determine whether they have compounding effects. All three experiments utilized individual difference variables to examine how cognitive, behavioral, and personality factors may influence classifications.ResultsExperiment 1 suggests that high email load can make the task appear more challenging. Experiment 2 indicates that low phishing prevalence can decrease sensitivity for phishing emails. Experiment 3 demonstrates that high levels of email load can decrease classification accuracy under 50/50 prevalence rates. Notably, performance was poor across all experiments, with phishing detection near chance levels and low discriminability for emails. Participants demonstrated poor metacognition with over confidence, low self-reported difficulty, and low perceived threat for the emails.ConclusionOverall, the present studies suggest that high email load and low phishing prevalence can influence email classifications.ApplicationOrganizations and researchers should consider the influences of both email load and phishing prevalence when implementing phishing interventions.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T04:18:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821999174
       
  • Prevalence of Effective Audit-and-Feedback Practices in Primary Care
           
    • Authors: Sylvia J. Hysong, Richard SoRelle, Ashley M. Hughes
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to uncover and catalog the various practices for delivering and disseminating clinical performance in various Veterans Affairs (VA) locations and to evaluate their quality against evidence-based models of effective feedback as reported in the literature.BackgroundFeedback can enhance clinical performance in subsequent performance episodes. However, evidence is clear that the way in which feedback is delivered determines whether performance is harmed or improved.MethodWe purposively sampled 16 geographically dispersed VA hospitals based on high, low, consistently moderate, and moderately average highly variable performance on a set of 17 outpatient clinical performance measures. We excluded four sites due to insufficient interview data. We interviewed four key personnel from each location (n = 48) to uncover effective and ineffective audit and feedback strategies. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using a framework-based content analysis approach to identify emergent themes.ResultsWe identified 102 unique strategies used to deliver feedback. Of these strategies, 64 (62.74%) have been found to be ineffective according to the audit-and-feedback research literature. Comparing features common to effective (e.g., individually tailored, computerized feedback reports) versus ineffective (e.g., large staff meetings) strategies, most ineffective strategies delivered feedback in meetings, whereas strategies receiving the highest effectiveness scores delivered feedback via visually understood reports that did not occur in a group setting.ConclusionsFindings show that current practices are leveraging largely ineffective feedback strategies. Future research should seek to identify the longitudinal impact of current feedback and audit practices on clinical performance.ApplicationFeedback in primary care has little standardization and does not follow available evidence for effective feedback design. Future research in this area is warranted.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T06:29:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211005620
       
  • John Senders, Human Error, and System Safety
    • Authors: Barry Strauch
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveI examine John Senders’ work and discuss his influence on the study of error causation,error mitigation, and sociotechnical system safety.BackgroundJohn Senders’ passing calls for an evaluation of the impact of his work.MethodI review literature and accident investigation findings to discuss themes in Senders’ work and potential associations between that work and error causation and system safety.ResultsSenders consistently emphasized empirical rigor and theoretical exploration in his research, with the desire to apply that work to enhance human performance. He has contributed to changing the way error has been viewed, and to developing and implementing programs and techniques to mitigate error. While a causal relationship between Senders’ work and safety cannot be established, an association can be drawn between his research and efforts to mitigate error.ConclusionBecause of Senders’ work, we have a better understanding of error causation and enhanced ways of mitigating system errors. However, new sources of error, involving advanced systems and operators’ knowledge and understanding of their functionalities can, if not addressed, degrade system safety.ApplicationModifications to advanced automation and operator training are suggested, and research to improve operator expertise in interacting with automated systems proposed.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T06:01:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211001982
       
  • The Effect of Cognitive Load on Auditory Susceptibility During Automated
           Driving
    • Authors: Remo M. A. Van der Heiden, J. Leon Kenemans, Stella F. Donker, Christian P. Janssen
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe experimentally test the effect of cognitive load on auditory susceptibility during automated driving.BackgroundIn automated vehicles, auditory alerts are frequently used to request human intervention. To ensure safe operation, human drivers need to be susceptible to auditory information. Previous work found reduced susceptibility during manual driving and in a lesser amount during automated driving. However, in practice, drivers also perform nondriving tasks during automated driving, of which the associated cognitive load may further reduce susceptibility to auditory information. We therefore study the effect of cognitive load during automated driving on auditory susceptibility.MethodTwenty-four participants were driven in a simulated automated car. Concurrently, they performed a task with two levels of cognitive load: repeat a noun or generate a verb that expresses the use of this noun. Every noun was followed by a probe stimulus to elicit a neurophysiological response: the frontal P3 (fP3), which is a known indicator for the level of auditory susceptibility.ResultsThe fP3 was significantly lower during automated driving with cognitive load compared with without. The difficulty level of the cognitive task (repeat or generate) showed no effect.ConclusionEngaging in other tasks during automated driving decreases auditory susceptibility as indicated by a reduced fP3.ApplicationNondriving task can create additional cognitive load. Our study shows that performing such tasks during automated driving reduces the susceptibility for auditory alerts. This can inform designers of semi-automated vehicles (SAE levels 3 and 4), where human intervention might be needed.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T05:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821998850
       
  • Identifying Constraints on Everyday Clinical Practice: Applying Work
           Domain Analysis to Emergency Department Care
    • Authors: Elizabeth Austin, Brette Blakely, Paul Salmon, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Robyn Clay-Williams
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundEmergency departments (EDs) are complex socio-technical work systems that require staff to manage patients in an environment of fluctuating resources and demands. To better understand the purpose, and pressures and constraints for designing new ED facilities, we developed an abstraction hierarchy model as part of a work domain analysis (WDA) from the cognitive work analysis (CWA) framework. The abstraction hierarchy provides a model of the structure of the ED, encompassing the core objects, processes, and functions relating to key values and the ED’s overall purpose.MethodsReviews of relevant national and state policy, guidelines, and protocol documents applicable to care delivery in the ED were used to construct a WDA. The model was validated through focus groups with ED clinicians and subsequently validated using a series of WDA prompts.ResultsThe model shows that the ED system exhibits extremely interconnected and complex features. Heavily connected functions introduce vulnerability into the system with function performance determined by resource availability and prioritization, leading to a trade-off between time and safety priorities.ConclusionsWhile system processes (e.g., triage, fast-track) support care delivery in ED, this delivery manifests in complex ways due to the personal and disease characteristics of patients and the dynamic state of the ED system. The model identifies system constraints that create tension in care delivery processes (e.g., electronic data entry, computer availability) potentially compromising patient safety.ApplicationThe model identified aspects of the ED system that could be leveraged to improve ED performance through innovative ED system design.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T04:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821995668
       
  • Impact Mapping for Geospatial Reasoning and Decision Making
    • Authors: David A. Illingworth, Karen M. Feigh
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe reported study evaluated a novel approach to aiding geospatial reasoning and decision making.BackgroundImpact mapping aims to alleviate the cognitive demands of geospatial tasks in part by externalizing data in the form of an integrated decision surface. This is achieved by aggregating data across multiple sources of information and visualizing their combined utility rather than objective measurements or individual utility. Previous research has shown that geospatial decisions improve when aided in this manner, but it remains unknown if dynamic decision making, often plagued by fatigue and anchoring bias, would benefit similarly.MethodThe experiment implemented a systematic manipulation of the presence of a composite impact map and the number of attributes present in a two-stage disaster relief, resource allocation task to investigate when and how impact mapping is beneficial or deleterious to decision makers.ResultsThe presence of the composite impact map increased the utility of selected sites, increased re-planning decisions, reduced information display views, and reduced workload. Generally, the effect of the composite impact map was greater when participants were asked to evaluate more attributes.ConclusionComposite impact maps appear to improve repeated geospatial reasoning and minimize anchoring bias because they alleviate the cognitive demands otherwise necessary to interpret and maintain information from multiple attributes.ApplicationData visualization techniques, such as impact mapping, can improve repeated geospatial decision making in environments that include high cognitive demand.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T03:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821999021
       
  • Investigating Popular Mental Health Mobile Application Downloads and
           Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    • Authors: Xiaomei Wang, Carl Markert, Farzan Sasangohar
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis article analyzes the changes in downloads and activity of users of select popular mental health mobile applications (mHealth apps) during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).BackgroundThe outbreak of the COVID-19 crisis has shown a negative impact on public mental health. Mobile health has the potential to help address the psychological needs of existing and new patients during the pandemic and beyond.MethodDownloads data of 16 widely used apps were analyzed. The quality of apps was reviewed using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) framework. Correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between app quality and app popularity.ResultsAmong the 16 apps, 10 were meditational in nature, 13 showed increased downloads, with 11 apps showing above 10% increase in the downloads after the pandemic started. The popular apps were satisfactory in terms of functionality and esthetics but lacked clinical grounding and evidence base. There exists a gap between app quality and app popularity.ConclusionThis study provided evidence for increased downloads of mental mHealth apps (primarily meditation apps) during the COVID-19 pandemic but revealed several gaps and opportunities to address deficiencies in evidence-based design, usability and effective assessment, and integration into current workflows.ApplicationThe COVID-19 pandemic is a potential turning point for mHealth applications for mental health care. Whereas the evidence suggests a need for alternative delivery of care, human factors and ergonomics methods should be utilized to ensure these tools are user-centered, easy to use, evidence-based, well-integrated with professional care, and used sustainably.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-07T10:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821998110
       
  • Objective Measures of Surgeon Nontechnical Skills in Surgery: A Scoping
           Review
    • Authors: Jackie S. Cha, Denny Yu
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to identify, synthesize, and discuss objective behavioral or physiological metrics of surgeons’ nontechnical skills (NTS) in the literature.BackgroundNTS, or interpersonal or cognitive skills, have been identified to contribute to safe and efficient surgical performance; however, current assessments are subjective, checklist-based tools. Intraoperative skill evaluation, such as technical skills, has been previously utilized as an objective measure to address such limitations.MethodsFive databases in engineering, behavioral science, and medicine were searched following PRISMA reporting guidelines. Eligibility criteria included studies with NTS objective measurements, surgeons, and took place within simulated or live operations.ResultsTwenty-three articles were included in this review. Objective metrics included communication metrics and measures from physiological responses such as changes in brain activation and motion of the eye. Frequencies of content-coded communication in surgery were utilized in 16 studies and were associated with not only the communication construct but also cognitive constructs of situation awareness and decision making. This indicates the underlying importance of communication in evaluating the NTS constructs. To synthesize the scoped literature, a framework based on the one-way communication model was used to map the objective measures to NTS constructs.ConclusionObjective NTS measurement of surgeons is still preliminary, and future work on leveraging objective metrics in parallel with current assessment tools is needed.ApplicationFindings from this work identify objective NTS metrics for measurement applications in a surgical environment.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-07T06:13:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821995319
       
  • Crossing Academic Boundaries for Diagnostic Safety: 10 Complex Challenges
           and Potential Solutions From Clinical Perspectives and High-Reliability
           Organizing Principles
    • Authors: Elham A. Yousef, Kathleen M. Sutcliffe, Kathryn M. McDonald, David E. Newman-Toker
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe apply the high-reliability organization (HRO) paradigm to the diagnostic process, outlining challenges to enacting HRO principles in diagnosis and offering solutions for how diagnostic process stakeholders can overcome these barriers.BackgroundEvidence shows that healthcare is starting to organize for higher reliability by employing various principles and practices of HRO. These hold promise for enhancing safer care, but there has been little consideration of the challenges that clinicians and healthcare systems face while enacting HRO principles in the diagnostic process. To effectively deploy the HRO perspective, these barriers must be seriously considered.MethodWe review key principles of the HRO paradigm, the diagnostic errors and harms that potentially can be prevented by its enactment, the challenges that clinicians and healthcare systems face in executing various principles and practices, and possible solutions that clinicians and organizational leaders can take to overcome these challenges and barriers.ResultsOur analyses reveal multiple challenges including the inherent diagnostic uncertainty; the lack of diagnosis-focused performance feedback; the fact that diagnosis is often a solo, rather than team, activity; the tendency to simplify the diagnostic process; and professional and institutional status hierarchies. But these challenges are not insurmountable—there are strategies and solutions available to overcome them.ConclusionThe HRO lens offers some important ideas for how the safety of the diagnostic process can be improved.ApplicationThe ideas proposed here can be enacted by both individual clinicians and healthcare leaders; both are necessary for making systematic progress in enhancing diagnostic performance.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T03:04:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821996187
       
  • Communication and Teamwork During Telemedicine-Enabled Stroke Care in an
           Ambulance
    • Authors: Anjali Joseph, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Roxana Jafarifiroozabadi, Hunter Rogers, Sahar Mihandoust, Amro Khasawneh, Nathan McNeese, Christine Holmstedt, James T. McElligott
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to understand the communication among care teams during telemedicine-enabled stroke consults in an ambulance.BackgroundTelemedicine can have a significant impact on acute stroke care by enabling timely intervention in an ambulance before a patient reaches the hospital. However, limited research has been conducted on understanding and supporting team communication during the care delivery process for telemedicine-enabled stroke care in an ambulance.MethodVideo recordings of 13 simulated stroke telemedicine consults conducted in an ambulance were coded to document the tasks, communication events, and flow disruptions during the telemedicine-enabled stroke care delivery process.ResultsThe majority (82%) of all team interactions in telemedicine-enabled stroke care involved verbal interactions among team members. The neurologist, patient, and paramedic were almost equally involved in team interactions during stroke care, though the neurologist initiated 48% of all verbal interactions. Disruptions were observed in 8% of interactions, and communication-related issues contributed to 44%, with interruptions and environmental hazards being other reasons for disruptions in interactions during telemedicine-enabled stroke care.ConclusionSuccessful telemedicine-enabled stroke care involves supporting both verbal and nonverbal communication among all team members using video and audio systems to provide effective coverage of the patient for the clinicians as well as vice versa.ApplicationThis study provides a deeper understanding of team interactions during telemedicine-enabled stroke care that is essential for designing effective systems to support teamwork.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T02:58:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821995687
       
  • Exploring the Peak-End Effects in Air Traffic Controllers’ Mental
           Workload Ratings
    • Authors: Han Qiao, Jingyu Zhang, Liang Zhang, Yazhe Li, Shayne Loft
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study examined whether professional air traffic controllers (ATCos) were subject to peak-end effects in reporting their mental workload after performing an air traffic control task, and in predicting their mental workload in future scenarios.BackgroundIn affective experience studies, people’s evaluation of a period of experience is strongly influenced by the most intense (peak) point and the endpoint. However, whether the effects exist in mental workload evaluations made by professional operators is still not known.MethodIn Study 1, 20 ATCos performed air traffic control scenarios on high-fidelity radar simulators and reported their mental workload. We used a 2 (high peak, low peak) × 2 (high end, low end) within-subject design. In Study 2, another group of 43 ATCos completed a survey asking them to predict their mental workload given the same air traffic control scenarios.ResultsIn Study 1, ATCos reported higher mental workload after completing the high-peak and the high-end scenarios. In contrast, in Study 2, ATCos predicted the peak workload effect but not the end workload effect when asked to predict their experience in dealing with the same scenarios.ConclusionPeak and end effects exist in subjective mental workload evaluation, but experts only had meta-cognitive awareness of the peak effect, and not the end effect.ApplicationResearchers and practitioners that use subjective workload estimates for work design decisions need to be aware of the potential impact of peak and end task demand effects on subjective mental workload ratings provided by expert operators.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T02:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821994355
       
  • Evaluating Effective Connectivity of Trust in Human–Automation
           Interaction: A Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) Study
    • Authors: Jiali Huang, Sanghyun Choo, Zachary H. Pugh, Chang S. Nam
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveUsing dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we examined how credibility and reliability affected the way brain regions exert causal influence over each other—effective connectivity (EC)—in the context of trust in automation.BackgroundMultiple brain regions of the central executive network (CEN) and default mode network (DMN) have been implicated in trust judgment. However, the neural correlates of trust judgment are still relatively unexplored in terms of the directed information flow between brain regions.MethodSixteen participants observed the performance of four computer algorithms, which differed in credibility and reliability, of the system monitoring subtask of the Air Force Multi-Attribute Task Battery (AF-MATB). Using six brain regions of the CEN and DMN commonly identified to be activated in human trust, a total of 30 (forward, backward, and lateral) connection models were developed. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) was used to quantify the connectivity strength among the brain regions.ResultsRelative to the high trust condition, low trust showed unique presence of specific connections, greater connectivity strengths from the prefrontal cortex, and greater network complexity. High trust condition showed no backward connections.ConclusionResults indicated that trust and distrust can be two distinctive neural processes in human–automation interaction—distrust being a more complex network than trust, possibly due to the increased cognitive load.ApplicationThe causal architecture of distributed brain regions inferred using DCM can help not only in the design of a balanced human–automation interface design but also in the proper use of automation in real-life situations.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T02:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820987443
       
  • Real-Time Driving Distraction Recognition Through a Wrist-Mounted
           Accelerometer
    • Authors: Ziyang Xie, Li Li, Xu Xu
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe propose a method for recognizing driver distraction in real time using a wrist-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU).BackgroundDistracted driving results in thousands of fatal vehicle accidents every year. Recognizing distraction using body-worn sensors may help mitigate driver distraction and consequently improve road safety.MethodsTwenty participants performed common behaviors associated with distracted driving while operating a driving simulator. Acceleration data collected from an IMU secured to each driver’s right wrist were used to detect potential manual distractions based on 2-s long streaming data. Three deep neural network-based classifiers were compared for their ability to recognize the type of distractive behavior using F1-scores, a measure of accuracy considering both recall and precision.ResultsThe results indicated that a convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM) deep neural network outperformed a convolutional neural network (CNN) and recursive neural network with long short-term memory (LSTM) for recognizing distracted driving behaviors. The within-participant F1-scores for the ConvLSTM, CNN, and LSTM were 0.87, 0.82, and 0.82, respectively. The between-participant F1-scores for the ConvLSTM, CNN, and LSTM were 0.87, 0.76, and 0.85, respectively.ConclusionThe results of this pilot study indicate that the proposed driving distraction mitigation system that uses a wrist-worn IMU and ConvLSTM deep neural network classifier may have potential for improving transportation safety.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-24T05:13:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821995000
       
  • Characterizing the Effects of Explosive Ordnance Disposal Operations on
           the Human Body While Wearing Heavy Personal Protective Equipment
    • Authors: Yi-Ning Wu, Adam Norton, Michael R. Zielinski, Pei-Chun Kao, Andrew Stanwicks, Patrick Pang, Charles H. Cring, Brian Flynn, Holly A. Yanco
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo provide a comprehensive characterization of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personal protective equipment (PPE) by evaluating its effects on the human body, specifically the poses, tasks, and conditions under which EOD operations are performed.BackgroundEOD PPE is designed to protect technicians from a blast. The required features of protection make EOD PPE heavy, bulky, poorly ventilated, and difficult to maneuver in. It is not clear how the EOD PPE wearer physiologically adapts to maintain physical and cognitive performance during EOD operations.MethodFourteen participants performed EOD operations including mobility and inspection tasks with and without EOD PPE. Physiological measurement and kinematic data recording were used to record human physiological responses and performance.ResultsAll physiological measures were significantly higher during the mobility and the inspection tasks when EOD PPE was worn. Participants spent significantly more time to complete the mobility tasks, whereas mixed results were found in the inspection tasks. Higher back muscle activations were seen in participants who performed object manipulation while wearing EOD PPE.ConclusionEOD operations while wearing EOD PPE pose significant physical stress on the human body. The wearer’s mobility is impacted by EOD PPE, resulting in decreased speed and higher muscle activations.ApplicationThe testing and evaluation methodology in this study can be used to benchmark future EOD PPE designs. Identifying hazards posed by EOD PPE lays the groundwork for developing mitigation plans, such as exoskeletons, to reduce physical and cognitive stress caused by EOD PPE on the wearers without compromising their operational performance.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T08:58:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821992623
       
  • Insights From the Virtual Team Science: Rapid Deployment During COVID-19
    • Authors: Molly Kilcullen, Jennifer Feitosa, Eduardo Salas
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo provide insights for organizations that must rapidly deploy teams to remote work.BackgroundModern situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are rapidly accelerating the need for organizations to move employee teams to virtual environments, sometimes with little to no opportunities to prepare for the transition. It is likely that organizations will continually have to adapt to evolving conditions in the future.MethodThis review synthesizes the literature from several sources on best practices, lessons learned, and strategies for virtual teams. Information from each article deemed relevant was then extracted and de-identified. Over 64 best practices were independently and blindly coded for relevancy for the swift deployment of virtual teams.ResultsAs a result of this review, tips for virtual teams undergoing rapid transition to remote work were developed. These tips are organized at the organization, team, and individual levels. They are further categorized under six overarching themes: norm setting, performance monitoring, leadership, supportive mechanisms, communication, and flexibility.ConclusionThere is a significant deficit in the literature for best practices for virtual teams for the purposes of rapid deployment, leaving it to organizations to subjectively determine what advice to adhere to. This manuscript synthesizes relevant practices and provides insights into effective virtual team rapid deployment.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T04:30:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821991678
       
  • Effect of Hearing and Head Protection on the Localization of Tonal and
           Broadband Reverse Alarms
    • Authors: Chantal Laroche, Christian Giguère, Véronique Vaillancourt, Claudia Marleau, Marie-France Cadieux, Karina Laprise-Girard, Emily Gula, Véronique Carroll, Manuelle Bibeau, Hugues Nélisse
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study explored the effects of hearing protection devices (HPDs) and head protection on the ability of normal-hearing individuals to localize reverse alarms in background noise.BackgroundAmong factors potentially contributing to accidents involving heavy vehicles, reverse alarms can be difficult to localize in space, leading to errors in identifying the source of danger. Previous studies have shown that traditional tonal alarms are more difficult to localize than broadband alarms. In addition, HPDs and safety helmets may further impair localization.MethodStanding in the middle of an array of eight loudspeakers, participants with and without HPDs (passive and level-dependent) had to identify the loudspeaker emitting a single cycle of the alarm while performing a task on a tablet computer.ResultsThe broadband alarm was easier to localize than the tonal alarm. Passive HPDs had a significant impact on sound localization (earmuffs generally more so than earplugs), particularly double hearing protection, and level-dependent HPDs did not fully restore sound localization abilities. The safety helmet had a much lesser impact on performance than HPDs.ConclusionWhere good sound localization abilities are essential in noisy workplaces, the broadband alarm should be used, double hearing protection should be avoided, and earplug-style passive or level-dependent devices may be a better choice than earmuff-style devices. Construction safety helmets, however, seem to have only a minimal effect on sound localization.ApplicationResults of this study will help stakeholders make decisions that are more informed in promoting safer workplaces.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T01:55:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821992223
       
  • The Validity of the SEEV Model as a Process Measure of Situation
           Awareness: The Example of a Simulated Endotracheal Intubation
    • Authors: Tobias Grundgeiger, Anna Hohm, Annabell Michalek, Timo Egenolf, Christian Markus, Oliver Happel
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveIn the context of anesthesiology, we investigated whether the salience effort expectancy value (SEEV) model fit is associated with situation awareness and perception scores.BackgroundThe distribution of visual attention is important for situation awareness—that is, understanding what is going on—in safety-critical domains. Although the SEEV model has been suggested as a process situation awareness measure, the validity of the model as a predictor of situation awareness has not been tested.MethodIn a medical simulation, 31 senior and 30 junior anesthesiologists wore a mobile eye tracker and induced general anesthesia into a simulated patient. When inserting a breathing tube into the mannequin’s trachea (endotracheal intubation), the scenario included several clinically relevant events for situation awareness and general events in the environment. Both were assessed using direct awareness measures.ResultsThe overall SEEV model fit was good with no difference between junior and senior anesthesiologists. Overall, the situation awareness scores were low. As expected, the SEEV model fits showed significant positive correlations with situation awareness level 1 scores.ConclusionThe SEEV model seems to be suitable as a process situation awareness measure to predict and investigate the perception of changes in the environment (situation awareness level 1). The situation awareness scores indicated that anesthesiologists seem not to perceive the environment well during endotracheal intubation.ApplicationThe SEEV model fit can be used to capture and assess situation awareness level 1. During endotracheal intubation, anesthesiologists should be supported by technology or staff to notice changes in the environment.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T01:41:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821991651
       
  • The Role of Cue-Based Strategies in Skilled Diagnosis Among Pathologists
    • Authors: Ann J. Carrigan, Amanda Charlton, Elliott Foucar, Mark W. Wiggins, Andrew Georgiou, Thomas J. Palmeri, Kim M. Curby
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis research was designed to test whether behavioral indicators of pathology-related cue utilization were associated with performance on a diagnostic task.BackgroundAcross many domains, including pathology, successful diagnosis depends on pattern recognition that is supported by associations in memory in the form of cues. Previous studies have focused on the specific information or knowledge on which medical image expertise relies. The target in this study is the more general ability to identify and interpret relevant information.MethodData were collected from 54 histopathologists in both conference and online settings. The participants completed a pathology edition of the Expert Intensive Skills Evaluation 2.0 (EXPERTise 2.0) to establish behavioral indicators of context-related cue utilization. They also completed a separate diagnostic task designed to examine related diagnostic skills.ResultsBehavioral indicators of higher or lower cue utilization were based on the participants’ performance across five tasks. Accounting for the number of cases reported per year, higher cue utilization was associated with greater accuracy on the diagnostic task. A post hoc analysis suggested that higher cue utilization may be associated with a greater capacity to recognize low prevalence cases.ConclusionThis study provides support for the role of cue utilization in the development and maintenance of skilled diagnosis amongst pathologists.ApplicationPathologist training needs to be structured to ensure that learners have the opportunity to form cue-based strategies and associations in memory, especially for less commonly seen diseases.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-13T02:58:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821990160
       
  • Why Are Older Adults More at Risk as Pedestrians' A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Kate Wilmut, Catherine Purcell
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo explore factors that could explain why older adults are more at risk at the roadside.BackgroundThe physical and psychological health benefits of walking have been well-established, leading to the widespread promotion of walking amongst older adults. However, walking can result in an increased risk of injury as a pedestrian at the roadside, which is a greater risk for older adults who are overrepresented in pedestrian casualty figures.MethodRelevant databases were searched up to January 2020. All peer-reviewed journals that presented data on healthy older adults and some aspect of road crossing or roadside behavior were included. A total of 142 papers were assessed and 60 met the inclusion criteria.ResultsIdentified papers could be grouped into three areas: crossing at a designated crossing place; crossing with no designated crossing place; perceptions or behaviors.ConclusionMultiple individual (attitudes, perceived behavioral control, walking time, time-to-arrival judgments, waiting endurance, cognitive ability), task (vehicle size, vehicle speed, traffic volume), and environmental (road layout, time of day, weather) constraints influence road crossing in older adulthood.ApplicationAccessibility of designated crossing areas needs to be addressed by ensuring sufficient time to cross and nonrestrictive waiting times. Signalized crossings need to be simplified and visibility increased. Where there is no designated crossing place, a reduction in speed limit alongside the provision of pedestrian islands to provide “pause” places are needed. Educational-based programs may also help ensure safety of older adults where there is no designated crossing place.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T06:27:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821989511
       
  • Should We Just Let the Machines Do It' The Benefit and Cost of Action
           Recommendation and Action Implementation Automation
    • Authors: Monica Tatasciore, Vanessa K. Bowden, Troy A. W. Visser, Shayne Loft
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo examine the effects of action recommendation and action implementation automation on performance, workload, situation awareness (SA), detection of automation failure, and return-to-manual performance in a submarine track management task.BackgroundTheory and meta-analytic evidence suggest that with increasing degrees of automation (DOA), operator performance improves and workload decreases, but SA and return-to-manual performance declines.MethodParticipants monitored the location and heading of contacts in order to classify them, mark their closest point of approach (CPA), and dive when necessary. Participants were assigned either no automation, action recommendation automation, or action implementation automation. An automation failure occurred late in the task, whereby the automation provided incorrect classification advice or implemented incorrect classification actions.ResultsCompared to no automation, action recommendation automation benefited automated task performance and lowered workload, but cost nonautomated task performance. Action implementation automation resulted in perfect automated task performance (by default) and lowered workload, with no costs to nonautomated task performance, SA, or return-to-manual performance compared to no automation. However, participants provided action implementation automation were less likely to detect the automation failure compared to those provided action recommendations, and made less accurate classifications immediately after the automation failure, compared to those provided no automation.ConclusionAction implementation automation produced the anticipated benefits but also caused poorer automation failure detection.ApplicationWhile action implementation automation may be effective for some task contexts, system designers should be aware that operators may be less likely to detect automation failures and that performance may suffer until such failures are detected.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T06:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821989148
       
  • Eye Tracking to Evaluate the Effects of Interruptions and Workload in a
           Complex Task
    • Authors: Dina Kanaan, Nadine Marie Moacdieh
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo use eye tracking to understand the effects of interruptions in different workload conditions as part of a monitoring and change detection task.BackgroundInterruptions are detrimental to performance in complex, multitasking domains. There is a need for better display design techniques that help users overcome interruptions regardless of their workload level. This requires understanding a user’s attentional state immediately after an interruption in order to determine what type of display adjustments are most suitable.MethodAn emergency dispatching simulator was developed with a visual primary task and auditory interruptive task. Two levels of workload were induced by varying the number of emergency vehicles to monitor for changes and the rate of changes to monitor. Eye tracking, performance, and subjective measures (NASA-Task Load Index) were collected and analyzed for 41 participants.ResultsAs expected, high workload interacted with interruptions to further degrade primary task performance and alter participants’ attention allocation immediately after the interruption. Participants in the high workload condition had more narrowed, slower scan patterns immediately after the interruption as compared to before the interruption, as evidenced by lower scanpath length per second and mean saccade amplitude. However, this change was not observed in low workload.ConclusionHigh workload modulates the effects of interruptions on performance and eye movements. Users in the high workload condition struggle to quickly scan the display in the seconds following an interruption.ApplicationThe results can provide insight into the type of display adjustments needed right after an interruption in a high-workload environment.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T06:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821990487
       
  • The Impacts of Temporal Variation and Individual Differences in Driver
           Cognitive Workload on ECG-Based Detection
    • Authors: Shiyan Yang, Jonny Kuo, Michael G. Lenné, Michael Fitzharris, Timothy Horbery, Kyle Blay, Darren Wood, Christine Mulvihill, Carine Truche
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis paper aimed to investigate the robustness of driver cognitive workload detection based on electrocardiogram (ECG) when considering temporal variation and individual differences in cognitive workload.BackgroundCognitive workload is a critical component to be monitored for error prevention in human–machine systems. It may fluctuate instantaneously over time even in the same tasks and differ across individuals.MethodA driving simulation study was conducted to classify driver cognitive workload underlying four experimental conditions (baseline, N-back, texting, and N-back + texting distraction) in two repeated 1-hr blocks. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were compared among the experimental conditions and between the blocks. Random forests were built on HR and HRV to classify cognitive workload in different blocks and for different individuals.ResultsHR and HRV were significantly different between repeated blocks in the study, demonstrating the time-induced variation in cognitive workload. The performance of cognitive workload classification across blocks and across individuals was significantly improved after normalizing HR and HRV in each block by the corresponding baseline.ConclusionThe temporal variation and individual differences in cognitive workload affects ECG-based cognitive workload detection. But normalization approaches relying on the choice of appropriate baselines help compensate for the effects of temporal variation and individual differences.ApplicationThe findings provide insight into the value and limitations of ECG-based driver cognitive workload monitoring during prolonged driving for individual drivers.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-04T03:18:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821990484
       
  • Pedestrian Crossing Decisions in Virtual Environments: Behavioral Validity
           in CAVEs and Head-Mounted Displays
    • Authors: Sonja Schneider, Philipp Maruhn, Nguyen-Thong Dang, Prashant Pala, Viola Cavallo, Klaus Bengler
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo contribute to the validation of virtual reality (VR) as a tool for analyzing pedestrian behavior, we compared two types of high-fidelity pedestrian simulators to a test track.BackgroundWhile VR has become a popular tool in pedestrian research, it is uncertain to what extent simulator studies evoke the same behavior as nonvirtual environments.MethodAn identical experimental procedure was replicated in a CAVE automatic virtual environment (CAVE), a head-mounted display (HMD), and on a test track. In each group, 30 participants were instructed to step forward whenever they felt the gap between two approaching vehicles was adequate for crossing.ResultsOur analyses revealed distinct effects for the three environments. Overall acceptance was highest on the test track. In both simulators, crossings were initiated later, but a relationship between gap size and crossing initiation was apparent only in the CAVE. In contrast to the test track, vehicle speed significantly affected acceptance rates and safety margins in both simulators.ConclusionFor a common decision task, the results obtained in virtual environments deviate from those in a nonvirtual test bed. The consistency of differences indicates that restrictions apply when predicting real-world behavior based on VR studies. In particular, the higher susceptibility to speed effects warrants further investigation, since it implies that differences in perceptual processing alter experimental outcomes.ApplicationOur observations should inform the conclusions drawn from future research in pedestrian simulators, for example by accounting for a higher sensitivity to speed variations and a greater uncertainty associated with crossing decisions.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T06:15:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820987446
       
  • Effects of COVID-19 on Sense of Smell: Human Factors/Ergonomics
           Considerations
    • Authors: E. Leslie Cameron, Per Møller, Keith S. Karn
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe review the effects of COVID-19 on the human sense of smell (olfaction) and discuss implications for human-system interactions. We emphasize how critical smell is and how the widespread loss of smell due to COVID-19 will impact human-system interaction.BackgroundCOVID-19 reduces the sense of smell in people who contract the disease. Thus far, olfaction has received relatively little attention from human factors/ergonomics professionals. While smell is not a primary means of human-system communication, humans rely on smell in many important ways related to both quality of life and safety.MethodWe briefly review and synthesize the rapidly expanding literature through September 2020 on the topic of smell loss caused by COVID-19. We interpret findings in terms of their relevance to human factors/ergonomics researchers and practitioners.ResultsSince March 2020 dozens of articles have been published that report smell loss in COVID-19 patients. The prevalence and duration of COVID-19-related smell loss is still under investigation, but the available data suggest that it may leave many people with long-term deficits and distortions in sense of smell.ConclusionWe suggest that the human factors/ergonomics community could become more aware of the importance of the sense of smell and focus on accommodating the increasing number of people with reduced olfactory performance.ApplicationWe present examples of how olfaction can augment human-system communication and how human factors/ergonomics professionals might accommodate people with olfactory dysfunction. While seemingly at odds, both of these goals can be achieved.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T08:39:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720821990162
       
  • Measuring the Efficiency of Automation-Aided Performance in a Simulated
           Baggage Screening Task
    • Authors: Melanie M. Boskemper, Megan L. Bartlett, Jason S. McCarley
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study replicated and extended prior findings of suboptimal automation use in a signal detection task, benchmarking automation-aided performance to the predictions of several statistical models of collaborative decision making.BackgroundThough automated decision aids can assist human operators to perform complex tasks, operators often use the aids suboptimally, achieving performance lower than statistically ideal.MethodParticipants performed a simulated security screening task requiring them to judge whether a target (a knife) was present or absent in a series of colored X-ray images of passenger baggage. They completed the task both with and without assistance from a 93%-reliable automated decision aid that provided a binary text diagnosis. A series of three experiments varied task characteristics including the timing of the aid’s judgment relative to the raw stimuli, target certainty, and target prevalence.Results and ConclusionAutomation-aided performance fell closest to the predictions of the most suboptimal model under consideration, one which assumes the participant defers to the aid’s diagnosis with a probability of 50%. Performance was similar across experiments.ApplicationResults suggest that human operators’ performance when undertaking a naturalistic search task falls far short of optimal and far lower than prior findings using an abstract signal detection task.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-01-29T03:50:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820983632
       
  • Neck Strength and Endurance and Associated Personal and Work-Related
           Factors
    • Authors: Suman K. Chowdhury, Yu Zhou, Bocheng Wan, Curran Reddy, Xudong Zhang
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study aimed to establish a normative database of neck strength and endurance while exploring personal and work-related factors that can significantly influence neck strength and endurance.BackgroundA normative database combining both neck strength and endurance and delineating how they are affected by personal and work-related factors is currently lacking. It is needed for the development of tools and guidelines for designing work requiring head-neck exertions to contain the risk of occupational neck pain.MethodsForty healthy participants (20 males and 20 females) performed sustained-till-exhaustion head-neck exertions, while seated, at 50% and 100% of their maximal efforts in anterior, anterior-superior, and posterior-superior directions in neutral, 40° extended, and 40° flexed neck postures. Exertion force and endurance time data from 38 participants were recorded and analyzed using regression models.ResultsOverall, multiple regression analyses of the neck strength and endurance database revealed that head-neck posture is the most significant determinant of both neck strength and endurance. The time of day significantly influenced neck endurance. Among the personal factors, a significant sex effect on neck strength and significant age and body mass index (BMI) effects on neck endurance were identified.ConclusionThe work-related factors play a more significant role in shaping both neck strength and endurance than personal factors and therefore are more important modifiable factors in meeting the physical demands of work.ApplicationThe study findings can aid in work design as well as in pre-employment screening to reduce the incidence of neck pain in the workplace.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T04:57:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820983635
       
  • A Comprehensive Evaluation of Spine Kinematics, Kinetics, and Trunk Muscle
           Activities During Fatigue-Induced Repetitive Lifting
    • Authors: Zeinab Kazemi, Adel Mazloumi, Navid Arjmand, Ahmadreza Keihani, Zanyar Karimi, Mohamad Sadegh Ghasemi, Ramin Kordi
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveSpine kinematics, kinetics, and trunk muscle activities were evaluated during different stages of a fatigue-induced symmetric lifting task over time.BackgroundDue to neuromuscular adaptations, postural behaviors of workers during lifting tasks are affected by fatigue. Comprehensive aspects of these adaptations remain to be investigated.MethodEighteen volunteers repeatedly lifted a box until perceived exhaustion. Body center of mass (CoM), trunk and box kinematics, and feet center of pressure (CoP) were estimated by a motion capture system and force-plate. Electromyographic (EMG) signals of trunk/abdominal muscles were assessed using linear and nonlinear approaches. The L5-S1 compressive force (Fc) was predicted via a biomechanical model. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to examine the effects of five blocks of lifting cycle (C1 to C5) and lifting trial (T1 to T5), as independent variables, on kinematic, kinetic, and EMG-related measures.ResultsSignificant effects of lifting trial blocks were found for CoM and CoP shift in the anterior–posterior direction (respectively p < .001 and p = .014), trunk angle (p = .004), vertical box displacement (p < .001), and Fc (p = .005). EMG parameters indicated muscular fatigue with the extent of changes being muscle-specific.ConclusionResults emphasized variations in most kinematics/kinetics, and EMG-based indices, which further provided insight into the lifting behavior adaptations under dynamic fatiguing conditions.ApplicationMovement and muscle-related variables, to a large extent, determine the magnitude of spinal loading, which is associated with low back pain.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-01-26T05:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820983621
       
  • Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving Occupational Safety and Health
           Among Teleworkers During and After the Coronavirus Pandemic
    • Authors: Mark C. Schall, Peter Chen
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo review practical, evidence-based strategies that may be implemented to promote teleworker safety, health, and well-being during and after the coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19).BackgroundThe prevalence of telework has increased due to COVID-19. The upsurge brings with it challenges, including limited face-to-face interaction with colleagues and supervisors, reduced access to ergonomics information and resources, increased social isolation, and blurred role definitions, which may adversely affect teleworker safety, health, and well-being.MethodEvidence-based strategies for improving occupational safety, health, and well-being among teleworkers were synthesized in a narrative-based review to address common challenges associated with telework considering circumstances unique to the COVID-19 pandemic.ResultsInterventions aimed at increasing worker motivation to engage in safe and healthy behaviors via enhanced safety leadership, managing role boundaries to reduce occupational safety and health risks, and redesigning work to strengthen interpersonal interactions, interdependence, as well as workers’ initiation have been supported in the literature.ApplicationThis review provides practical guidance for group-level supervisors, occupational safety and health managers, and organizational leaders responsible for promoting health and safety among employees despite challenges associated with an increase in telework.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-01-08T01:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820984583
       
  • Applying Restorative Environments in the Home Office While
           Sheltering-in-Place
    • Authors: Curtis M. Craig, Brittany N. Neilson, George C. Altman, Alexandra T. Travis, Joseph A. Vance
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective of this review was to spotlight specific methods for people working from home to apply restorative environment research to improve productivity and mental health during shelter-in-place.BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has led to sheltering-in-place and telework. While necessary, these strategies may lead to negative consequences such as social isolation and worse performance. However, nature environments have been shown to have a variety of positive effects in several different settings, including improved attention, positive affect, and increased job satisfaction, and these may be translated to the home workspace setting.MethodThis provides a narrative review of the environmental psychology literature, describing articles involving nature in a task performance or stress context and how it has been applied. It then moves on to discuss how these findings could possibly be applied in the context of workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.ResultsAlthough beneficial results are mixed, the review found a variety of relatively simple and cost-effective methods that could assist workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, including taking a break in nature and implementing nature in the workspace.ApplicationThe application of restorative environment research could be an efficient way of mitigating the negative psychological effects due to at-home sheltering and telework in order to combat COVID-19.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T11:55:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820984286
       
  • Masking Between Reserved Alarm Sounds of the IEC 60601-1-8 International
           Medical Alarm Standard: A Systematic, Formal Analysis
    • Authors: Matthew L. Bolton, Judy R. Edworthy, Andrew D. Boyd
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveIn this work, we systematically evaluated the reserved alarm sounds of the IEC 60601-1-8 international medical alarm standard to determine when and how they can be totally and partially masked.BackgroundIEC 60601-1-8 gives engineers instruction for creating human-perceivable auditory medical alarms. This includes reserved alarm sounds: common types of alarms where each is a tonal melody. Even when this standard is honored, practitioners still fail to hear alarms, causing practitioner nonresponse and, thus, potential patient harm. Simultaneous masking, a condition where one or more alarms is imperceptible in the presence of other concurrently sounding alarms due to limitations of the human sensory system, is partially responsible for this.MethodsIn this research, we use automated proof techniques to determine if masking can occur in a modeled configuration of medical alarms. This allows us to determine when and how reserved alarm sound can mask other reserved alarms and to explore parameters to address discovered problems.ResultsWe report the minimum number of other alarm sounds it takes to both totally and partially mask each of the high-, medium-, and low-priority alarm sounds from the standard.ConclusionsSignificant masking problems were found for both the total and partial masking of high-, medium-, and low-priority reserved alarm sounds.ApplicationWe show that discovered problems can be mitigated by setting alarm volumes to standard values based on priority level and by randomizing the timing of alarm tones.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-12-22T03:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820967596
       
  • Analysis of Dynamic Changes in Cognitive Workload During Cardiac Surgery
           Perfusionists′ Interactions With the Cardiopulmonary Bypass Pump
    • Authors: Lauren R. Kennedy-Metz, Roger D. Dias, Rithy Srey, Geoffrey C. Rance, Heather M. Conboy, Miguel E. Haime, Jacquelyn A. Quin, Steven J. Yule, Marco A. Zenati
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis novel preliminary study sought to capture dynamic changes in heart rate variability (HRV) as a proxy for cognitive workload among perfusionists while operating the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) pump during real-life cardiac surgery.BackgroundEstimations of operators’ cognitive workload states in naturalistic settings have been derived using noninvasive psychophysiological measures. Effective CPB pump operation by perfusionists is critical in maintaining the patient’s homeostasis during open-heart surgery. Investigation into dynamic cognitive workload fluctuations, and their relationship with performance, is lacking in the literature.MethodHRV and self-reported cognitive workload were collected from three Board-certified cardiac perfusionists (N = 23 cases). Five HRV components were analyzed in consecutive nonoverlapping 1-min windows from skin incision through sternal closure. Cases were annotated according to predetermined phases: prebypass, three phases during bypass, and postbypass. Values from all 1min time windows within each phase were averaged.ResultsCognitive workload was at its highest during the time between initiating bypass and clamping the aorta (preclamp phase during bypass), and decreased over the course of the bypass period.ConclusionWe identified dynamic, temporal fluctuations in HRV among perfusionists during cardiac surgery corresponding to subjective reports of cognitive workload. Not only does cognitive workload differ for perfusionists during bypass compared with pre- and postbypass phases, but differences in HRV were also detected within the three bypass phases.ApplicationThese preliminary findings suggest the preclamp phase of CPB pump interaction corresponds to higher cognitive workload, which may point to an area warranting further exploration using passive measurement.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-12-17T04:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820976297
       
  • A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Takeover Performance During
           Conditionally Automated Driving
    • Authors: Bradley W. Weaver, Patricia R. DeLucia
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this paper was to synthesize the experimental research on factors that affect takeover performance during conditionally automated driving.BackgroundFor conditionally automated driving, the automated driving system (ADS) can handle the entire dynamic driving task but only for limited domains. When the system reaches a limit, the driver is responsible for taking over vehicle control, which may be affected by how much time they are provided to take over, what they were doing prior to the takeover, or the type of information provided to them during the takeover.MethodOut of 8446 articles identified by a systematic literature search, 48 articles containing 51 experiments were included in the meta-analysis. Coded independent variables were time budget, non-driving related task engagement and resource demands, and information support during the takeover. Coded dependent variables were takeover timing and quality measures.ResultsEngaging in non-driving related tasks results in degraded takeover performance, particularly if it has overlapping resource demands with the driving task. Weak evidence suggests takeover performance is impaired with shorter time budgets. Current implementations of information support did not affect takeover performance.ConclusionFuture research and implementation should focus on providing the driver more time to take over while automation is active and should further explore information support.ApplicationThe results of the current paper indicate the need for the development and deployment of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) services and driver monitoring.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T01:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820976476
       
  • Evaluating Different Measures of Low Back Pain Among U.S. Manual Materials
           Handling Workers: Comparisons of Demographic, Psychosocial, and Job
           Physical Exposure
    • Authors: Ruoliang Tang, Jay M. Kapellusch, Kurt T. Hegmann, Matthew S. Thiese, Inga Wang, Andrew S. Merryweather
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo examine differences in demographic, psychosocial, and job physical exposure risk factors between multiple low back pain (LBP) outcomes in a prospective cohort of industrial workers.BackgroundLBP remains a leading cause of lost industrial productivity. Different case definitions involving pain (general LBP), medication use (M-LBP), seeking healthcare (H-LBP), and lost time (L-LBP) are often used to study LBP outcomes. However, the relationship between these outcomes remains unclear.MethodDemographic, health status, psychosocial, and job physical exposure risk factors were quantified for 635 incident-eligible industrial workers. Incident cases of LBP outcomes and pain symptoms were quantified and compared across the four outcomes.ResultsDifferences in age, gender, medical history, and LBP history were found between the four outcomes. Most incident-eligible workers (67%) suffered an LBP outcome during follow-up. Cases decreased from 420 for LBP (25.4 cases/100 person-years) to 303 for M-LBP (22.0 cases/100 person-years), to 151 for H-LBP (15.6 cases/100 person-years), and finally to 56 for L-LBP (8.7 cases/100 person-years). Conversely, pain intensity and duration increased from LBP to H-LBP. However, pain duration was relatively lower for L-LBP than for H-LBP.ConclusionPatterns of cases, pain intensity, and pain duration suggest the influence of the four outcomes. However, few differences in apparent risk factors were observed between the outcomes. Further research is needed to establish consistent case definitions.ApplicationKnowledge of patterns between different LBP outcomes can improve interpretation of research and guide future research and intervention studies in industry.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-12-10T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820971101
       
  • The Effects of Vehicle Automation on Driver Engagement: The Case of
           Adaptive Cruise Control and Mind Wandering
    • Authors: Starla M. Weaver, Stephanie M. Roldan, Tracy B. Gonzalez, Stacy A. Balk, Brian H. Philips
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis field study examined the effects of adaptive cruise control (ACC) on mind wandering prevalence.BackgroundACC relieves the driver of the need to regulate vehicle speed and following distance, which may result in safety benefits. However, if ACC reduces the amount of attentional resources drivers must devote to driving, then drivers who use ACC may experience increased periods of mind wandering, which could reduce safety.MethodsParticipants drove a prescribed route on a public road twice, once using ACC and once driving manually. Mind wandering rates were assessed throughout the drive using auditory probes, which occurred at random intervals and required the participant to indicate whether or not they were mind wandering. Measures of physiological arousal and driving performance were also recorded.ResultsNo evidence of increased mind wandering was found when drivers used ACC. In fact, female drivers reported reduced rates of mind wandering when driving with ACC relative to manual driving. Driving with ACC also tended to be associated with increased physiological arousal and improved driving behavior.ConclusionUse of ACC did not encourage increased mind wandering or negatively affect driving performance. In fact, the results indicate that ACC may have positive effects on driver safety among drivers who have limited experience with the technology.ApplicationDriver characteristics, such as level of experience with in-vehicle technology and gender, should be considered when investigating driver engagement during ACC use. Field research on vehicle automation may provide valuable insights over and above studies conducted in driving simulators.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-12-09T05:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820974856
       
  • Leans Illusion in Hexapod Simulator Facilitates Erroneous Responses to
           Artificial Horizon in Airline Pilots
    • Authors: Annemarie van den Hoed, Annemarie Landman, Dirk Van Baelen, Olaf Stroosma, M. M. (René) van Paassen, Eric L. Groen, Max Mulder
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe tested whether a procedure in a hexapod simulator can cause incorrect assumptions of the bank angle (i.e., the “leans”) in airline pilots as well as incorrect interpretations of the attitude indicator (AI).BackgroundThe effect of the leans on interpretation errors has previously been demonstrated in nonpilots. In-flight, incorrect assumptions can arise due to misleading roll cues (spatial disorientation).MethodPilots (n = 18) performed 36 runs, in which they were asked to roll to wings level using only the AI. They received roll cues before the AI was shown, which matched with the AI bank angle direction in most runs, but which were toward the opposite direction in a leans-opposite condition (four runs). In a baseline condition (four runs), they received no roll cues. To test whether pilots responded to the AI, the AI sometimes showed wings level following roll cues in a leans-level condition (four runs).ResultsOverall, pilots made significantly more errors in the leans-opposite (19.4%) compared to the baseline (6.9%) or leans-level condition (0.0%). There was a pronounced learning effect in the leans-opposite condition, as 38.9% of pilots made an error in the first exposure to this condition. Experience (i.e., flight hours) had no significant effects.ConclusionThe leans procedure was effective in inducing AI misinterpretations and control input errors in pilots.ApplicationThe procedure can be used in spatial disorientation demonstrations. The results underline the importance of unambiguous displays that should be able to quickly correct incorrect assumptions due to spatial disorientation.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T02:03:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820975248
       
  • External Human–Machine Interfaces Can Be Misleading: An Examination of
           Trust Development and Misuse in a CAVE-Based Pedestrian Simulation
           Environment
    • Authors: Anees Ahamed Kaleefathullah, Natasha Merat, Yee Mun Lee, Yke Bauke Eisma, Ruth Madigan, Jorge Garcia, Joost de Winter
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo investigate pedestrians’ misuse of an automated vehicle (AV) equipped with an external human–machine interface (eHMI). Misuse occurs when a pedestrian enters the road because of uncritically following the eHMI’s message.BackgroundHuman factors research indicates that automation misuse is a concern. However, there is no consensus regarding misuse of eHMIs.MethodsSixty participants each experienced 50 crossing trials in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) simulator. The three independent variables were as follows: (1) behavior of the approaching AV (within-subject: yielding at 33 or 43 m distance, no yielding), (2) eHMI presence (within-subject: eHMI on upon yielding, off), and (3) eHMI onset timing (between-subjects: eHMI turned on 1 s before or 1 s after the vehicle started to decelerate). Two failure trials were included where the eHMI turned on, yet the AV did not yield. Dependent measures were the moment of entering the road and perceived risk, comprehension, and trust.ResultsTrust was higher with eHMI than without, and the −1 Group crossed earlier than the +1 Group. In the failure trials, perceived risk increased to high levels, whereas trust and comprehension decreased. Thirty-five percent of the participants in the −1 and +1 Groups walked onto the road when the eHMI failed for the first time, but there were no significant differences between the two groups.ConclusioneHMIs that provide anticipatory information stimulate early crossing. eHMIs may cause people to over-rely on the eHMI and under-rely on the vehicle-intrinsic cues.ApplicationeHMI have adverse consequences, and education of eHMI capability is required.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820970751
       
  • Physiological Measurements of Situation Awareness: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Ting Zhang, Jing Yang, Nade Liang, Brandon J. Pitts, Kwaku O. Prakah-Asante, Reates Curry, Bradley S. Duerstock, Juan P. Wachs, Denny Yu
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe goal of this review is to investigate the relationship between indirect physiological measurements and direct measures of situation awareness (SA).BackgroundAssessments of SA are often performed using techniques designed specifically to directly measure SA, such as SA global assessment technique (SAGAT), situation present assessment method (SPAM), and/or SA rating technique (SART). However, research suggests that physiological sensing methods may also be capable of inferring SA.MethodSeven databases were searched. Eligibility criteria included human–subject experiments that used at least one direct SA assessment technique as well as at least one physiological measurement. Information extracted from each article were the physiological metric(s), direct SA measurement(s), correlation between these two metrics, and experimental task(s).ResultsTwenty-five articles were included in this review. Eye tracking techniques were the most commonly used physiological measures, and correlations between conscious aspects of eye movement measures and direct SA scores were observed. Evidence for cardiovascular predictors of SA was mixed. Only three electroencephalography (EEG) studies were identified, and their results suggest that EEG was sensitive to changes in SA. Overall, medium correlations were observed among the studies that reported a correlation coefficient between physiological and direct SA measures.ConclusionReviewed studies observed relationships between a wide range of physiological measurements and direct assessments of SA. However, further investigations are needed to methodically collect more evidence.ApplicationThis review provides researchers and practitioners a summary of observed methods to indirectly assess SA with sensors and highlights research gaps to be addressed in future work.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-11-26T04:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820969071
       
  • Effect of Expertise on Shoulder and Upper Limb Kinematics,
           Electromyography, and Estimated Muscle Forces During a Lifting Task
    • Authors: Etienne Goubault, Romain Martinez, Najoua Assila, Élodie Monga-Dubreuil, Jennifer Dowling-Medley, Fabien Dal Maso, Mickael Begon
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo highlight the working strategies used by expert manual handlers compared with novice manual handlers, based on recordings of shoulder and upper limb kinematics, electromyography (EMG), and estimated muscle forces during a lifting task.BackgroundNovice workers involved in assembly, manual handling, and personal assistance tasks are at a higher risk of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). However, few studies have investigated the effect of expertise on upper limb exposure during workplace tasks.MethodSixteen experts in manual handling and sixteen novices were equipped with 10 electromyographic electrodes to record shoulder muscle activity during a manual handling task consisting of lifting a box (8 or 12 kg), instrumented with three six-axis force sensors, from hip to eye level. Three-dimensional trunk and upper limb kinematics, hand-to-box contact forces, and EMG were recorded. Then, joint contributions, activation levels, and muscle forces were calculated and compared between groups.ResultsSternoclavicular–acromioclavicular joint contributions were higher in experts at the beginning of the movement, and in novices at the end, whereas the opposite was observed for the glenohumeral joint. EMG activation levels were 37% higher for novices but predicted muscle forces were higher in experts.ConclusionThis study highlights significant differences between experts and novices in shoulder kinematics, EMG, and muscle forces; hence, providing effective work guidelines to ensure the development of a safe handling strategy is important.ApplicationShoulder kinematics, EMG, and muscle forces could be used as ergonomic tools to identify inappropriate techniques that could increase the prevalence of shoulder injuries.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-11-25T02:29:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820965021
       
  • Exoskeleton Application to Military Manual Handling Tasks
    • Authors: Jasmine K. Proud, Daniel T. H. Lai, Kurt L. Mudie, Greg L. Carstairs, Daniel C. Billing, Alessandro Garofolini, Rezaul K. Begg
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this review was to determine how exoskeletons could assist Australian Defence Force personnel with manual handling tasks.BackgroundMusculoskeletal injuries due to manual handling are physically damaging to personnel and financially costly to the Australian Defence Force. Exoskeletons may minimize injury risk by supporting, augmenting, and/or amplifying the user’s physical abilities. Exoskeletons are therefore of interest in determining how they could support the unique needs of military manual handling personnel.MethodIndustrial and military exoskeleton studies from 1990 to 2019 were identified in the literature. This included 67 unique exoskeletons, for which Information about their current state of development was tabulated.ResultsExoskeleton support of manual handling tasks is largely through squat/deadlift (lower limb) systems (64%), with the proposed use case for these being load carrying (42%) and 78% of exoskeletons being active. Human–exoskeleton analysis was the most prevalent form of evaluation (68%) with reported reductions in back muscle activation of 15%–54%.ConclusionThe high frequency of citations of exoskeletons targeting load carrying reflects the need for devices that can support manual handling workers. Exoskeleton evaluation procedures varied across studies making comparisons difficult. The unique considerations for military applications, such as heavy external loads and load asymmetry, suggest that a significant adaptation to current technology or customized military-specific devices would be required for the introduction of exoskeletons into a military setting.ApplicationExoskeletons in the literature and their potential to be adapted for application to military manual handling tasks are presented.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-11-18T08:07:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820957467
       
  • Let’s Work Together: A Meta-Analysis on Robot Design Features That
           Enable Successful Human–Robot Interaction at Work
    • Authors: Sonja K. Ötting, Lisa Masjutin, Jochen J. Steil, Günter W. Maier
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis meta-analysis reviews robot design features of interface, controller, and appearance and statistically summarizes their effect on successful human–robot interaction (HRI) at work (that is, task performance, cooperation, satisfaction, acceptance, trust, mental workload, and situation awareness).BackgroundRobots are becoming an integral part of many workplaces. As interactions with employees increase, ensuring success becomes ever more vital. Even though many studies investigated robot design features, an overview on general and specific effects is missing.MethodSystematic selection of literature and structured coding led to 81 included experimental studies containing 380 effect sizes. Mean effects were calculated using a three-level meta-analysis to handle dependencies of multiple effect sizes in one study.ResultsSufficient feedback through the interface, clear visibility of affordances, and adaptability and autonomy of the controller significantly affect successful HRI, whereas appearance does not. The features of the interface and controller affect performance and satisfaction but do not affect situation awareness and trust. Specific effects of adaptability on cooperation and acceptance, as well as autonomy on mental workload, could be shown.ConclusionRobot design at work needs to cover multiple features of interface and controller to achieve successful HRI that covers not only performance and satisfaction, but also cooperation, acceptance, and mental workload. More empirical research is needed to investigate mediating mechanisms and underrepresented design features’ effects.ApplicationRobot designers should carefully choose design features to balance specific effects and implementation costs with regard to tasks, work design aims, and employee needs in the specific work context.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-11-12T06:58:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820966433
       
  • Evaluating Lumbar Shape Deformation With Fabric Strain Sensors
    • Authors: Linh Q. Vu, Han Kim, Lawrence J. H. Schulze, Sudhakar L. Rajulu
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo better study human motion inside the space suit and suit-related contact, a multifactor statistical model was developed to predict torso body shape changes and lumbar motion during suited movement by using fabric strain sensors that are placed on the body.BackgroundPhysical interactions within pressurized space suits can pose an injury risk for astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). In particular, poor suit fit can result in an injury due to reduced performance capabilities and excessive body contact within the suit during movement. A wearable solution is needed to measure body motion inside the space suit.MethodsAn array of flexible strain sensors was attached to the body of 12 male study participants. The participants performed specific static lumbar postures while 3D body scans and sensor measurements were collected. A model was created to predict the body shape as a function of sensor signal and the accuracy was evaluated using holdout cross-validation.ResultsPredictions from the torso shape model had an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.02 cm. Subtle soft tissue deformations such as skin folding and bulges were accurately replicated in the shape prediction. Differences in posture type did not affect the prediction error.ConclusionThis method provides a useful tool for suited testing and the information gained will drive the development of injury countermeasures and improve suit fit assessments.ApplicationIn addition to space suit design applications, this technique can provide a lightweight and wearable system to perform ergonomic evaluations in field assessments.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-30T01:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820965302
       
  • An Evaluation of an Innovative Exercise to Relieve Chronic Low Back Pain
           in Sedentary Workers
    • Authors: Pongsatorn Saiklang, Rungthip Puntumetakul, James Selfe, Gillian Yeowell
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a novel supported dynamic lumbar extension with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) technique on stature change, deep abdominal muscle activity, trunk muscle fatigue, and pain intensity during prolonged sitting in chronic low back pain (CLBP) participants.BackgroundProlonged sitting can cause trunk muscle fatigue from continuous contraction of deep trunk muscles in seated postures. Deficiency of activity of deep muscles can reduce muscular support of the spine, causing stress on spinal structures, which could result in pain.MethodThirty participants with CLBP were randomly allocated: (a) control—sitting without exercise, and (b) intervention—supported dynamic lumbar extension with the ADIM technique.ResultsCompared to the intervention condition, the control condition demonstrated significantly greater deterioration in stature change, increased levels of deep trunk muscle fatigue, and an increase in pain during prolonged sitting.ConclusionThe supported dynamic lumbar extension with the ADIM technique appears to provide a protective effect on detrimental stature change and deep trunk muscle fatigue. In addition, it prevented an increase in pain intensity during prolonged sitting in people with CLBP.ApplicationSedentary behavior harms health, particularly affecting the lower back. Clinicians can use the intervention to induce dynamic lumbar movement, and this exercise can maintain deep trunk muscle activity during prolonged sitting, thereby helping to prevent low back pain (LBP) problems.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T12:12:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820966082
       
  • Human Performance Consequences of Automated Decision Aids: The Impact of
           Time Pressure
    • Authors: Tobias Rieger, Dietrich Manzey
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe study addresses the impact of time pressure on human interactions with automated decision support systems (DSSs) and related performance consequences.BackgroundWhen humans interact with DSSs, this often results in worse performance than could be expected from the automation alone. Previous research has suggested that time pressure might make a difference by leading humans to rely more on a DSS.MethodIn two laboratory experiments, participants performed a luggage screening task either manually, supported by a highly reliable DSS, or by a low reliable DSS. Time provided for inspecting the X-rays was 4.5 s versus 9 s varied within-subjects as the time pressure manipulation. Participants in the automation conditions were either shown the automation’s advice prior (Experiment 1) or following (Experiment 2) their own inspection, before they made their final decision.ResultsIn Experiment 1, time pressure compromised performance independent of whether the task was performed manually or with automation support. In Experiment 2, the negative impact of time pressure was only found in the manual but not in the two automation conditions. However, neither experiment revealed any positive impact of time pressure on overall performance, and the joint performance of human and automation was mostly worse than the performance of the automation alone.ConclusionTime pressure compromises the quality of decision-making. Providing a DSS can reduce this effect, but only if the automation’s advice follows the assessment of the human.ApplicationThe study provides suggestions for the effective implementation of DSSs in addition to supporting concerns that highly reliable DSSs are not used optimally by human operators.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T12:10:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820965019
       
  • Human–Autonomy Teaming: A Review and Analysis of the Empirical
           Literature
    • Authors: Thomas O’Neill, Nathan McNeese, Amy Barron, Beau Schelble
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe define human–autonomy teaming and offer a synthesis of the existing empirical research on the topic. Specifically, we identify the research environments, dependent variables, themes representing the key findings, and critical future research directions.BackgroundWhereas a burgeoning literature on high-performance teamwork identifies the factors critical to success, much less is known about how human–autonomy teams (HATs) achieve success. Human–autonomy teamwork involves humans working interdependently toward a common goal along with autonomous agents. Autonomous agents involve a degree of self-government and self-directed behavior (agency), and autonomous agents take on a unique role or set of tasks and work interdependently with human team members to achieve a shared objective.MethodWe searched the literature on human–autonomy teaming. To meet our criteria for inclusion, the paper needed to involve empirical research and meet our definition of human–autonomy teaming. We found 76 articles that met our criteria for inclusion.ResultsWe report on research environments and we find that the key independent variables involve autonomous agent characteristics, team composition, task characteristics, human individual differences, training, and communication. We identify themes for each of these and discuss the future research needs.ConclusionThere are areas where research findings are clear and consistent, but there are many opportunities for future research. Particularly important will be research that identifies mechanisms linking team input to team output variables.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-23T01:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820960865
       
  • Tactile Vigilance Is Stressful and Demanding
    • Authors: Patricia R. DeLucia, Eric T. Greenlee
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe primary aims of the study were to replicate the vigilance decrement in the tactile modality, examine whether a decrease in sensitivity is associated with the decrement, and determine whether tactile vigilance is stressful and demanding.BackgroundWhen people monitor occasional and unpredictable signals for sustained durations, they experience a decline in performance known as the vigilance decrement, which has important practical consequences. Prior studies of the vigilance decrement focused primarily on visual vigilance and, to a lesser degree, on auditory vigilance. There are relatively few studies of tactile vigilance.MethodParticipants monitored vibrotactile stimuli that were created from a tactor, for 40 min.ResultsSensitivity declined, self-report ratings of distress increased, and ratings of task engagement decreased, during the vigil, and perceived workload was moderately high.ConclusionMonitoring tactile signals is demanding and stressful and results in a decrement in signal detection.ApplicationMonitoring tactile signals may result in a decrement in tasks requiring discrimination, such as monitoring lane position with the use of rumble strips; these require discrimination between current road vibration and increased vibration when the car drifts out of its lane and crosses over the strip.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T03:56:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820965294
       
  • Evaluating Driver Features for Cognitive Distraction Detection and
           Validation in Manual and Level 2 Automated Driving
    • Authors: Shiyan Yang, Kyle M. Wilson, Trey Roady, Jonny Kuo, Michael G. Lenné
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate the impacts of feature selection on driver cognitive distraction (CD) detection and validation in real-world nonautomated and Level 2 automated driving scenarios.BackgroundReal-time driver state monitoring is critical to promote road user safety.MethodTwenty-four participants were recruited to drive a Tesla Model S in manual and Autopilot modes on the highway while engaging in the N-back task. In each driving mode, CD was classified by the random forest algorithm built on three “hand-crafted” glance features (i.e., percent road center [PRC], the standard deviation of gaze pitch, and yaw angles), or through a large number of features that were transformed from the output of a driver monitoring system (DMS) and other sensing systems.ResultsIn manual driving, the small set of glance features was as effective as the large set of machine-generated features in terms of classification accuracy. Whereas in Level 2 automated driving, both glance and vehicle features were less sensitive to CD. The glance features also revealed that the misclassified driver state was the result of the dynamic fluctuations and individual differences of cognitive loads under CD.ConclusionGlance metrics are critical for the detection and validation of CD in on-road driving.ApplicationsThe paper suggests the practical value of human factors domain knowledge in feature selection and ground truth validation for the development of driver monitoring technologies.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820964149
       
  • Minding the Gap: Effects of an Attention Maintenance Training Program on
           Driver Calibration
    • Authors: James Unverricht, Yusuke Yamani, Jing Chen, William J. Horrey
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study examines the effect of an existing driver training program, FOrward Concentration and Attention Learning (FOCAL) on young drivers’ calibration, drivers’ ability to estimate the length of their in-vehicle glances while driving, using two different measures, normalized difference scores and Brier Scores.BackgroundYoung drivers are poor at maintaining attention to the forward roadway while driving a vehicle. Additionally, drivers may overestimate their attention maintenance abilities. Driver training programs such as FOCAL may train target skills such as attention maintenance but also might serve as a promising way to reduce errors in drivers’ calibration of their self-perceived attention maintenance behaviors in comparison to their actual performance.MethodThirty-six participants completed either FOCAL or a Placebo training program, immediately followed by driving simulator evaluations of their attention maintenance performance. In the evaluation drive, participants navigated four driving simulator scenarios during which their eyes were tracked. In each scenario, participants performed a map task on a tablet simulating an in-vehicle infotainment system.ResultsFOCAL-trained drivers maintained their attention to the forward roadway more and reported better calibration using the normalized difference measure than Placebo-trained drivers. However, the Brier scores did not distinguish the two groups on their calibration.ConclusionThe study implies that FOCAL has the potential to improve not only attention maintenance skills but also calibration of the skills for young drivers.ApplicationDriver training programs may be designed to train not only targeted higher cognitive skills but also driver calibration—both critical for driving safety in young drivers.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T06:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820965293
       
  • Detecting and Responding to Information Overload With an Adaptive User
           Interface
    • Authors: Sean W. Kortschot, Greg A. Jamieson, Amrit Prasad
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an adaptive user interface that could detect states of operator information overload and calibrate the amount of information on the screen.BackgroundMachine learning can detect changes in operating context and trigger adaptive user interfaces (AUIs) to accommodate those changes. Operator attentional state represents a promising aspect of operating context for triggering AUIs. Behavioral rather than physiological indices can be used to infer operator attentional state.MethodIn Experiment 1, a network analysis task sought to induce states of information overload relative to a baseline. Streams of interaction data were taken from these two states and used to train machine learning classifiers. We implemented these classifiers in Experiment 2 to drive an AUI that automatically calibrated the amount of information displayed to operators.ResultsExperiment 1 successfully induced information overload in participants, resulting in lower accuracy, slower completion time, and higher workload. A series of machine learning classifiers detected states of information overload significantly above chance level. Experiment 2 identified four clusters of users who responded significantly differently to the AUIs. The AUIs benefited performance, completion time, and workload in three clusters.ConclusionBehavioral indices can successfully detect states of information overload and be used to effectively drive an AUI for some user groups. The success of AUIs may be contingent on characteristics of the user group.ApplicationThis research applies to domains seeking real-time assessments of user attentional or psychological state.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T06:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820964343
       
  • An Investigation of Speech Features, Plant System Alarms, and
           Operator–System Interaction for the Classification of Operator Cognitive
           Workload During Dynamic Work
    • Authors: Per Ø. Braarud, Terje Bodal, John E. Hulsund, Michael N. Louka, Christer Nihlwing, Espen Nystad, Håkan Svengren, Emil Wingstedt
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo investigate speech features, human–machine alarms, and operator–system interaction for the estimation of cognitive workload in full-scale realistic simulated scenarios.BackgroundTheories and models of cognitive workload are critical for the design and evaluation of human–machine systems. Unfortunately, there are very few nonintrusive cognitive workload measures available for realistic dynamic human–machine interaction.MethodThe study was conducted in a full-scope control room research simulator of an advanced nuclear reactor. Six crews, each consisting of three operators, participated in 12 scenarios. The operators rated their workload every second minute. Machine learning algorithms were trained to estimate operators’ workload based on crew communication, operator–system interaction, and system alarms.ResultsRandom Forest (RF) utilizing speech and system features achieved an accuracy of 67% on test data. Utilizing speech features only, the accuracy achieved was 63%. The most important speech features were pitch, amplitude, and articulation rate. A 61% accuracy was achieved when alarms and operator–system interaction features were used. The most important features were the number of alarms and amount of operator–system interaction. Accuracy for algorithms trained for each operator ranged from 39% to 98%, with an average of 72%. For a majority of analyses performed, RF and extreme gradient boosting (XGB) outperformed other algorithms.ConclusionThe results demonstrate that the features investigated and machine learning models developed provide a potential for the dynamic nonintrusive measurement of cognitive workload.ApplicationThe approach presented can be developed for nonintrusive workload measurement in real-world human–machine applications, simulator-based training, and research.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T06:51:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820961730
       
  • Comparison Considerations Toward Investigating the Factors of Load and Age
           Group on the Maximum Reach Envelope
    • Authors: Heather Johnston, Colleen Dewis, John Kozey
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objectives were to compare cylindrical and spherical coordinate representations of the maximum reach envelope (MRE) and apply these to a comparison of age and load on the MRE.BackgroundThe MRE is a useful measurement in the design of workstations and quantifying functional capability of the upper body. As a dynamic measure, there are human factors that impact the size, shape, and boundaries of the MRE.MethodThree-dimensional reach measures were recorded using a computerized potentiometric system for anthropometric measures (CPSAM) on two adult groups (aged 18–25 years and 35–70 years). Reach trials were performed holding .0, .5, and 1 kg.ResultsThree-dimensional Cartesian coordinates were transformed into cylindrical (r, θ, Z) and spherical (r, θ, ϕ) coordinates. Median reach distance vectors were calculated for 54 panels within the MRE as created by incremented banding of the respective coordinate systems. Reach distance and reach area were compared between the two groups and the loaded conditions using a spherical coordinate system. Both younger adults and unloaded condition produced greater reach distances and reach areas.ConclusionsWhere a cylindrical coordinate system may reflect absolute reference for design, a normalized spherical coordinate system may better reflect functional range of motion and better compare individual and group differences. Age and load are both factors that impact the MRE.ApplicationThese findings present measurement considerations for use in human reach investigation and design.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T03:36:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820965018
       
  • Derivation and Demonstration of a New Metric for Multitasking Performance
    • Authors: Elizabeth L. Fox, Joseph W. Houpt, Pamela S. Tsang
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe proposed and demonstrate a theory-driven, quantitative, individual-level estimate of the degree to which cognitive processes are degraded or enhanced when multiple tasks are simultaneously completed.BackgroundTo evaluate multitasking, we used a performance-based cognitive model to predict efficient performance. The model controls for single-task performance at the individual level and does not depend on parametric assumptions, such as normality, which do not apply to many performance evaluations.MethodsTwenty participants attempted to maintain their isolated task performance in combination for three dual-task and one triple-task scenarios. We utilized a computational model of multiple resource theory to form hypotheses for how performance in each environment would compare, relative to the other multitask contexts. We assessed if and to what extent multitask performance diverged from the model of efficient multitasking in each combination of tasks across multiple sessions.ResultsAcross the two sessions, we found variable individual task performances but consistent patterns of multitask efficiency such that deficits were evident in all task combinations. All participants exhibited decrements in performing the triple-task condition.ConclusionsWe demonstrate a modeling framework that characterizes multitasking efficiency with a single score. Because it controls for single-task differences and makes no parametric assumptions, the measure enables researchers and system designers to directly compare efficiency across various individuals and complex situations.ApplicationMultitask efficiency scores offer practical implications for the design of adaptive automation and training regimes. Furthermore, a system may be tailored for individuals or suggest task combinations that support productivity and minimize performance costs.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-08T03:51:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820951089
       
  • On Senders’s Models of Visual Sampling Behavior
    • Authors: Y. B. Eisma, P. A. Hancock, J. C. F. de Winter
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe review the sampling models described in John Senders’s doctoral thesis on “visual sampling processes” via a ready and accessible exposition.BackgroundJohn Senders left a significant imprint on human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). Here, we focus on one preeminent aspect of his career, namely visual attention.MethodsWe present, clarify, and expand the models in his thesis through computer simulation and associated visual illustrations.ResultsOne of the key findings of Senders’s work on visual sampling concerns the linear relationship between signal bandwidth and visual sampling rate. The models that are used to describe this relationship are the periodic sampling model (PSM), the random constrained sampling model (RCM), and the conditional sampling model (CSM). A recent replication study that used results from modern eye-tracking equipment showed that Senders’s original findings are manifestly replicable.ConclusionsSenders’s insights and findings withstand the test of time and his models continue to be both relevant and useful to the present and promise continued impact in the future.ApplicationThe present paper is directed to stimulate a broad spectrum of researchers and practitioners in HF/E and beyond to use these important and insightful models.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-07T02:15:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820959956
       
  • Penguins, Birds, and Pilot Knowledge: Can an Overlooked Attribute of Human
           Cognition Explain Our Most Puzzling Aircraft Accidents'
    • Authors: Richard Clewley, Jim Nixon
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe extend the theory of conceptual categories to flight safety events, to understand variations in pilot event knowledge.BackgroundExperienced, highly trained pilots sometimes fail to recognize events, resulting in procedures not being followed, damaging safety. Recognition is supported by typical, representative members of a concept. Variations in typicality (“gradients”) could explain variations in pilot knowledge, and hence recognition. The role of simulations and everyday flight operations in the acquisition of useful, flexible concepts is poorly understood. We illustrate uses of the theory in understanding the industry-wide problem of nontypical events.MethodOne hundred and eighteen airline pilots responded to scenario descriptions, rating them for typicality and indicating the source of their knowledge about each scenario.ResultsSignificant variations in typicality in flight safety event concepts were found, along with key gradients that may influence pilot behavior. Some concepts were linked to knowledge gained in simulator encounters, while others were linked to real flight experience.ConclusionExplicit training of safety event concepts may be an important adjunct to what pilots may variably glean from simulator or operational flying experiences, and may result in more flexible recognition and improved response.ApplicationRegulators, manufacturers, and training providers can apply these principles to develop new approaches to pilot training that better prepare pilots for event diversity.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-06T02:16:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820960877
       
  • After-Action Reviews and Long-Term Performance: An Experimental
           Examination in the Context of an Emergency Simulation
    • Authors: Gonzalo J. Muñoz, Diego A. Cortéz, Constanza B. Álvarez, Juan A. Raggio, Antonia Concha, Francisca I. Rojas, Winfred Arthur, Bastián M. Fischer, Sebastián Rodriguez
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study examined the effectiveness of after-action reviews (AARs; also known as debriefing) in mitigating skill decay.BackgroundResearch on the long-term effectiveness of AARs is meager. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted an experimental study that also overcomes some research design issues that characterize the limited extant research.MethodEighty-four participants were randomly assigned to an AAR or non-AAR condition and trained to operate a PC-based fire emergency simulator. During the initial acquisition phase, individuals in the AAR condition were allowed to review their performance after each practice session, whereas individuals in the non-AAR condition completed a filler task. About 12 weeks later, participants returned to the lab to complete four additional practice sessions using a similar scenario (i.e., the retention and reacquisition phase).ResultsThe performance of participants in the AAR condition degraded more after nonuse but also recovered faster than the performance of participants in the non-AAR condition, although these effects were fairly small and not statistically significant.ConclusionConsistent with the limited research on the long-term effectiveness of AARs, our findings failed to support their effectiveness as a decay-prevention intervention. Because the present study was conducted in a laboratory setting using a relatively small sample of undergraduate students, additional research is warranted.ApplicationBased on the results of the present study, we suggest some additional strategies that trainers might consider to support long-term skill retention when using AARs.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-06T02:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820958848
       
  • Measuring Driver Perception: Combining Eye-Tracking and Automated Road
           Scene Perception
    • Authors: Jork Stapel, Mounir El Hassnaoui, Riender Happee
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo investigate how well gaze behavior can indicate driver awareness of individual road users when related to the vehicle’s road scene perception.BackgroundAn appropriate method is required to identify how driver gaze reveals awareness of other road users.MethodWe developed a recognition-based method for labeling of driver situation awareness (SA) in a vehicle with road-scene perception and eye tracking. Thirteen drivers performed 91 left turns on complex urban intersections and identified images of encountered road users among distractor images.ResultsDrivers fixated within 2° for 72.8% of relevant and 27.8% of irrelevant road users and were able to recognize 36.1% of the relevant and 19.4% of irrelevant road users one min after leaving the intersection. Gaze behavior could predict road user relevance but not the outcome of the recognition task. Unexpectedly, 18% of road users observed beyond 10° were recognized.ConclusionsDespite suboptimal psychometric properties leading to low recognition rates, our recognition task could identify awareness of individual road users during left turn maneuvers. Perception occurred at gaze angles well beyond 2°, which means that fixation locations are insufficient for awareness monitoring.ApplicationFindings can be used in driver attention and awareness modelling, and design of gaze-based driver support systems.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T06:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820959958
       
  • Predicting Procedure Step Performance From Operator and Text Features: A
           Critical First Step Toward Machine Learning-Driven Procedure Design
    • Authors: Anthony D. McDonald, Nilesh Ade, S. Camille Peres
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe goal of this study is to assess machine learning for predicting procedure performance from operator and procedure characteristics.BackgroundProcedures are vital for the performance and safety of high-risk industries. Current procedure design guidelines are insufficient because they rely on subjective assessments and qualitative analyses that struggle to integrate and quantify the diversity of factors that influence procedure performance.MethodWe used data from a 25-participant study with four procedures, conducted on a high-fidelity oil extraction simulation to develop logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), and decision tree (DT) algorithms that predict procedure step performance from operator, step, readability, and natural language processing-based features. Features were filtered using the Boruta approach. The algorithms were trained and optimized with a repeated 10-fold cross-validation. After training, inference was performed using variable importance and partial dependence plots.ResultsThe RF, DT, and LR algorithms with all features had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.78, 0.77, and 0.75, respectively, and significantly outperformed the LR with only operator features (LROP), with an AUC of 0.61. The most important features were experience, familiarity, total words, and character-based metrics. The partial dependence plots showed that steps with fewer words, abbreviations, and characters were correlated with correct step performance.ConclusionMachine learning algorithms are a promising approach for predicting step-level procedure performance, with acknowledged limitations on interpolating to nonobserved data, and may help guide procedure design after validation with additional data on further tasks.ApplicationAfter validation, the inferences from these models can be used to generate procedure design alternatives.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T05:48:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820958588
       
  • Postural Control When Using an Industrial Lower Limb Exoskeleton: Impact
           of Reaching for a Working Tool and External Perturbation
    • Authors: Benjamin Steinhilber, Robert Seibt, Monika A. Rieger, Tessy Luger
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo investigate postural control related to a lower limb exoskeleton (Chairless Chair) when (a) reaching for a working tool, and (b) an external perturbation occurs.BackgroundLower limb exoskeletons aiming to reduce physical load associated with prolonged standing may impair workers’ postural control and increase the risk of falling.MethodForty-five males were reaching for an object (3-kg dumbbell) at the lateral end of their reaching area without the exoskeleton in upright standing (STAND) and with the exoskeleton at a high (EXOHIGH.SEAT) and low sitting position (EXOLOW.SEAT). The task was performed with the object placed in three different angles (120°, 150°, and 180°) in the transversal plane. The minimum absolute static postural stability (SSABS.MIN) as the shortest distance (mm) of the center of pressure to the base of support border was measured (zero indicates risk of falling). Additionally, eight subjects were standing without the exoskeleton or sitting on it (EXOHIGH.SEAT and EXOLOW.SEAT) while being pulled backward. The tilting moment when subjects lost their balance was assessed.ResultsSSABS.MIN was lower when using the exoskeleton (p < .05) but still about 17 mm. The location of the object to be reached had no influence. Tilting moments of less than 30 nm were sufficient to let people fall backward when sitting on the exoskeleton (50 nm for STAND).ConclusionImpairments in postural control by the exoskeleton may not be relevant when reaching laterally for objects up to 3 kg. When an external perturbation occurs, the risk of falling may be much higher; irrespective of factors like uneven or slippery flooring.ApplicationThe risk of falling using the exoskeleton seems to be low when reaching laterally for an object of up to 3 kg. In situations where, for example, a collision with coworkers is likely, this exoskeleton is not recommended.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T05:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820957466
       
  • Estimating Trunk Angle Kinematics During Lifting Using a Computationally
           Efficient Computer Vision Method
    • Authors: Runyu L. Greene, Ming-Lun Lu, Menekse Salar Barim, Xuan Wang, Marie Hayden, Yu Hen Hu, Robert G. Radwin
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveA computer vision method was developed for estimating the trunk flexion angle, angular speed, and angular acceleration by extracting simple features from the moving image during lifting.BackgroundTrunk kinematics is an important risk factor for lower back pain, but is often difficult to measure by practitioners for lifting risk assessments.MethodsMannequins representing a wide range of hand locations for different lifting postures were systematically generated using the University of Michigan 3DSSPP software. A bounding box was drawn tightly around each mannequin and regression models estimated trunk angles. The estimates were validated against human posture data for 216 lifts collected using a laboratory-grade motion capture system and synchronized video recordings. Trunk kinematics, based on bounding box dimensions drawn around the subjects in the video recordings of the lifts, were modeled for consecutive video frames.ResultsThe mean absolute difference between predicted and motion capture measured trunk angles was 14.7°, and there was a significant linear relationship between predicted and measured trunk angles (R2 = .80, p < .001). The training error for the kinematics model was 2.3°.ConclusionUsing simple computer vision-extracted features, the bounding box method indirectly estimated trunk angle and associated kinematics, albeit with limited precision.ApplicationThis computer vision method may be implemented on handheld devices such as smartphones to facilitate automatic lifting risk assessments in the workplace.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T06:12:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820958840
       
  • Know Your Cognitive Environment! Mental Models as Crucial Determinant of
           Offloading Preferences
    • Authors: Patrick P. Weis, Eva Wiese
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveHuman problem solvers possess the ability to outsource parts of their mental processing onto cognitive “helpers” (cognitive offloading). However, suboptimal decisions regarding which helper to recruit for which task occur frequently. Here, we investigate if understanding and adjusting a specific subcomponent of mental models—beliefs about task-specific expertise—regarding these helpers could provide a comparatively easy way to improve offloading decisions.BackgroundMental models afford the storage of beliefs about a helper that can be retrieved when needed.MethodsArithmetic and social problems were solved by 192 participants. Participants could, in addition to solving a task on their own, offload cognitive processing onto a human, a robot, or one of two smartphone apps. These helpers were introduced with either task-specific (e.g., stating that an app would use machine learning to “recognize faces” and “read emotions”) or task-unspecific (e.g., stating that an app was built for solving “complex cognitive tasks”) descriptions of their expertise.ResultsProviding task-specific expertise information heavily altered offloading behavior for apps but much less so for humans or robots. This suggests (1) strong preexisting mental models of human and robot helpers and (2) a strong impact of mental model adjustment for novel helpers like unfamiliar smartphone apps.ConclusionCreating and refining mental models is an easy approach to adjust offloading preferences and thus improve interactions with cognitive environments.ApplicationTo efficiently work in environments in which problem-solving includes consulting other people or cognitive tools (“helpers”), accurate mental models—especially regarding task-relevant expertise—are a crucial prerequisite.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-21T03:44:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820956861
       
  • Learning About the Effects of Alert Uncertainty in Attack and Defend
           Decisions via Cognitive Modeling
    • Authors: Palvi Aggarwal, Frederic Moisan, Cleotilde Gonzalez, Varun Dutt
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe aim to learn about the cognitive mechanisms governing the decisions of attackers and defenders in cybersecurity involving intrusion detection systems (IDSs).BackgroundPrior research has experimentally studied the role of the presence and accuracy of IDS alerts on attacker’s and defender’s decisions using a game-theoretic approach. However, little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that govern these decisions.MethodTo investigate the cognitive mechanisms governing the attacker’s and defender’s decisions in the presence of IDSs of different accuracies, instance-based learning (IBL) models were developed. One model (NIDS) disregarded the IDS alerts and one model (IDS) considered them in the instance structure. Both the IDS and NIDS models were trained in an existing dataset where IDSs were either absent or present and they possessed different accuracies. The calibrated IDS model was tested in a newly collected test dataset where IDSs were present 50% of the time and they possessed different accuracies.ResultsBoth the IDS and NIDS models were able to account for human decisions in the training dataset, where IDS was absent or present and it possessed different accuracies. However, the IDS model could accurately predict the decision-making in only one of the several IDS accuracy conditions in the test dataset.ConclusionsCognitive models like IBL may provide some insights regarding the cognitive mechanisms governing the decisions of attackers and defenders in conditions not involving IDSs or IDSs of different accuracies.ApplicationIBL models may be helpful for penetration testing exercises in scenarios involving IDSs of different accuracies.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-20T01:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820945425
       
  • The Effect of Wave Motion Intensities on Performance in a Simulated Search
           and Rescue Task and the Concurrent Demands of Maintaining Balance
    • Authors: Carolyn A. Duncan, Nicole Bishop, Vicki Komisar, Scott N. MacKinnon, Jeannette M. Byrne
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to examine how intensity of wave motions affects the performance of a simulated maritime search and rescue (SAR) task.BackgroundMaritime SAR is a critical maritime occupation; however, the effect of wave motion intensity on worker performance is unknown.MethodsTwenty-four participants (12 male, 12 female) performed a simulated search and rescue task on a six-degree-of-freedom motion platform in two conditions that differed in motion intensity (low and high). Task performance, electromyography (EMG), and number of compensatory steps taken by the individual were examined.ResultsAs magnitude of simulated motion increased, performance in the SAR task decreased, and was accompanied by increases in lower limb muscle activation and number of steps taken.ConclusionsPerformance of an SAR task and balance control may be impeded by high-magnitude vessel motions.ApplicationThis research has the potential to be used by maritime engineers, occupational health and safety professionals, and ergonomists to improve worker safety and performance for SAR operators.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-15T09:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820952907
       
  • Modeling Human Steering Behavior in Teleoperation of Unmanned Ground
           Vehicles With Varying Speed
    • Authors: Chen Li, Yue Tang, Yingshi Zheng, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Tulga Ersal
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis paper extends a prior human operator model to capture human steering performance in the teleoperation of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in path-following scenarios with varying speed.BackgroundA prior study presented a human operator model to predict human steering performance in the teleoperation of a passenger-sized UGV at constant speeds. To enable applications to varying speed scenarios, the model needs to be extended to incorporate speed control and be able to predict human performance under the effect of accelerations/decelerations and various time delays induced by the teleoperation setting. A strategy is also needed to parameterize the model without human subject data for a truly predictive capability.MethodThis paper adopts the ACT-R cognitive architecture and two-point steering model used in the previous work, and extends the model by incorporating a far-point speed control model to allow for varying speed. A parameterization strategy is proposed to find a robust set of parameters for each time delay to maximize steering performance. Human subject experiments are conducted to validate the model.ResultsResults show that the parameterized model can predict both the trend of average lane keeping error and its lowest value for human subjects under different time delays.ConclusionsThe proposed model successfully extends the prior computational model to predict human steering behavior in a teleoperated UGV with varying speed.ApplicationThis computational model can be used to substitute for human operators in the process of development and testing of teleoperated UGV technologies and allows fully simulation-based development and studies.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T04:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820948982
       
  • Robotic Light Touch Assists Human Balance Control During Maximum Forward
           Reaching
    • Authors: Leif Johannsen, Karna Potwar, Matteo Saveriano, Satoshi Endo, Dongheui Lee
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe investigated how light interpersonal touch (IPT) provided by a robotic system supports human individuals performing a challenging balance task compared to IPT provided by a human partner.BackgroundIPT augments the control of body balance in contact receivers without a provision of mechanical body weight support. The nature of the processes governing the social haptic interaction, whether they are predominantly reactive or predictive, is uncertain.MethodTen healthy adult individuals performed maximum forward reaching (MFR) without visual feedback while standing upright. We evaluated their control of reaching behavior and of body balance during IPT provided by either another human individual or by a robotic system in two alternative control modes (reactive vs. predictive).ResultsReaching amplitude was not altered by any condition but all IPT conditions showed reduced body sway in the MFR end-state. Changes in reaching behavior under robotic IPT conditions, such as lower speed and straighter direction, were linked to reduced body sway. An Index of Performance expressed a potential trade-off between speed and accuracy with lower bitrate in the IPT conditions.ConclusionThe robotic IPT system was as supportive as human IPT. Robotic IPT seemed to afford more specific adjustments in the human contact receiver, such as trading reduced speed for increased accuracy, to meet the intrinsic demands and constraints of the robotic system or the demands of the social context when in contact with a human contact provider.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T04:52:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820950534
       
  • Assessment of Joint Angle and Reach Envelope Demands Using a Video-Based
           Physical Demands Description Tool
    • Authors: Colin D. McKinnon, Michael W. Sonne, Peter J. Keir
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundCurrent methods for describing physical work demands often lack detail and format standardization, require technical training and expertise, and are time-consuming to complete. A video-based physical demands description (PDD) tool may improve time and accuracy concerns associated with current methods.MethodsTen simulated occupational tasks were synchronously recorded using a motion capture system and digital video. The tasks included a variety of industrial tasks from lifting to drilling to overhead upper extremity tasks of different cycle times. The digital video was processed with a novel video-based assessment tool to produce 3D joint trajectories (PDAi), and joint angle and reach envelope measures were calculated and compared between both data sources.ResultsRoot mean squared error between video-based and motion capture posture estimated ranged from 89.0 mm to 118.6 mm for hand height and reach distance measures, and from 13.5° to 21.6° for trunk, shoulder, and elbow angle metrics. Continuous data were reduced to time-weighted bins, and video-based posture estimates showed 75% overall agreement and quadratic-weight Cohen’s kappa scores ranging from 0.29 to 1.0 compared to motion capture data across all posture metrics.Conclusion and ApplicationThe substantial level of agreement between time-weighted bins for video-based and motion capture measures suggest that video-based job task assessment may be a viable approach to improve accuracy and standardization of field physical demands descriptions and minimize error in joint posture and reach envelope estimates compared to traditional pen-and-paper methods.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T04:49:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820951349
       
  • Assessing Increased Activities of the Forearm Muscles Due to
           Anti-Vibration Gloves: Construct Validity of a Refined Methodology
    • Authors: Yumeng Yao, Subhash Rakheja, Christian Larivière, Pierre Marcotte
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe primary aim was to test the construct validity of a surface electromyography (EMG) measurement protocol, indirectly assessing the effects of anti-vibration (AV) gloves on activities of the forearm muscles.BackgroundAV gloves impose a relatively higher grip demand and thus a higher risk for musculoskeletal disorders. Consequently, activities of the forearm muscles should be considered when assessing AV glove performance.MethodEffects of AV gloves on activities of the forearm muscles (ECR: extensor carpi radialis longus; ED: extensor digitorum; FCR: flexor carpi radialis; FDS: flexor digitorum superficialis) were measured via EMG, while gripping a handle with two grip force levels. Fifteen subjects participated with 11 glove conditions, including one with bare hand.ResultsActivities of ECR, FCR, mean of ECR and FCR (ECR_FCR), and mean of all four muscles were sensitive to wearing gloves. Compared with bare hand, combined ECR_FCR activities increased by 22%–78% (mean = 48%, SD = 28%) with gloves. The correlation coefficient (r) of ECR_FCR activities with glove thickness and manual dexterity scores were 0.74 (p < .05) and 0.90 (p < .001), respectively.ConclusionsA refined EMG methodology was the most sensitive to AV gloves with specific forearm muscles (ECR and FCR) and the 50-N handgrip force. Its construct validity was further substantiated by correlations with glove thickness and manual dexterity.ApplicationAssessment of the effect of AV gloves on activities of the forearm muscles can yield design guidance for AV gloves to reduce grip exertion by the gloved hand.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-09-04T03:28:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820948303
       
  • Transitions Between Highly Automated and Longitudinally Assisted Driving:
           The Role of the Initiator in the Fight for Authority
    • Authors: Davide Maggi, Richard Romano, Oliver Carsten
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveA driving simulator study explored how drivers behaved depending on their initial role during transitions between highly automated driving (HAD) and longitudinally assisted driving (via adaptive cruise control).BackgroundDuring HAD, drivers might issue a take-over request (TOR), initiating a transition of control that was not planned. Understanding how drivers behave in this situation and, ultimately, the implications on road safety is of paramount importance.MethodSixteen participants were recruited for this study and performed transitions of control between HAD and longitudinally assisted driving in a driving simulator. While comparing how drivers behaved depending on whether or not they were the initiators, different handover strategies were presented to analyze how drivers adapted to variations in the authority level they were granted at various stages of the transitions.ResultsWhenever they initiated the transition, drivers were more engaged with the driving task and less prone to follow the guidance of the proposed strategies. Moreover, initiating a transition and having the highest authority share during the handover made the drivers more engaged with the driving task and attentive toward the road.ConclusionHandover strategies that retained a larger authority share were more effective whenever the automation initiated the transition. Under driver-initiated transitions, reducing drivers’ authority was detrimental for both performance and comfort.ApplicationAs the operational design domain of automated vehicles (Society of Automotive Engineers [SAE] Level 3/4) expands, the drivers might very well fight boredom by taking over spontaneously, introducing safety issues so far not considered but nevertheless very important.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-31T12:28:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820946183
       
  • Toward the Use of Pupillary Responses for Pilot Selection
    • Authors: Nadine Matton, Pierre-Vincent Paubel, Sébastien Puma
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveFor selection practitioners, it seems important to assess the level of mental resources invested in order to perform a demanding task. In this study, we investigated the potential of pupil size measurement to discriminate the most proficient pilot students from the less proficient.BackgroundCognitive workload is known to influence learning outcome. More specifically, cognitive difficulties observed during pilot training are often related to a lack of efficient mental workload management.MethodTwenty pilot students performed a laboratory multitasking scenario, composed of several stages with increasing workload, while their pupil size was recorded. Two levels of pilot students were compared according to the outcome after 2 years of training: high success and medium success.ResultsOur findings suggested that task-evoked pupil size measurements could be a promising predictor of flight training difficulties during the 2-year training. Indeed, high-level pilot students showed greater pupil size changes from low-load to high-load stages of the multitasking scenario than medium-level pilot students. Moreover, average pupil diameters at the low-load stage were smallest for the high-level pilot students.ConclusionFollowing the neural efficiency hypothesis framework, the most proficient pilot students supposedly used their mental resources more efficiently than the least proficient while performing the multitasking scenario.ApplicationThese findings might introduce a new way of managing selection processes complemented with ocular measurements. More specifically, pupil size measurement could enable identification of applicants with greater chances of success during pilot training.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-31T06:41:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820945163
       
  • Top-Down Processing of Drug Names Can Induce Errors in Discriminating
           Similar Pseudo-Drug Names by Nurses
    • Authors: Junko Mitobe, Takahiro Higuchi
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundOne factor that could cause medical errors is confusing medicines with similar names. A previous study showed that nurses who have knowledge about drugs faced difficulty in discriminating a drug name from similar pseudo-drug names. To avoid such errors, finger-pointing and calling (FPC) has been recommended in Japan.ObjectivesThe present study had two aims. The first was to determine whether such difficulty was due to top-down processing, rather than bottom-up processing, being applied even for pseudo-names. The other was to investigate whether FPC affected error prevention for similar drug names.MethodIn two experiments, nurses and non–health care professionals performed a choice reaction time task for drug names and common words, with or without FPC. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed.ResultsWhen drug names were used, nurses showed difficulty discriminating target names from distractors. Furthermore, the error prevention effect of FPC was marginally significant for drug names. However, nurses showed no significant differences when similar drug names were used. There was no significant difference regarding the error rate for words.ConclusionsNurses’ knowledge of drug names activates top-down processing. As a result, the processing of drug names was not as accurate and quick as that for words for nurses, which caused difficulty in discriminating similar names. FPC may be applicable to reduce confusion errors, possibly by leading individuals to process drug names using bottom-up processing.ApplicationThe present study advances current knowledge about error tendencies with similar drug names and the effects of FPC on error prevention.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-23T06:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820946607
       
  • Do Head-Mounted Augmented Reality Devices Affect Muscle Activity and Eye
           Strain of Utility Workers Who Do Procedural Work' Studies of Operators
           and Manhole Workers
    • Authors: Richard W. Marklin, Ashley M. Toll, Eric H. Bauman, John J. Simmins, John F. LaDisa, Robert Cooper
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective was to determine the effect of two head-mounted display (HMD) augmented reality (AR) devices on muscle activity and eye strain of electric utility workers. The AR devices were the Microsoft HoloLens and RealWear HMT-1.BackgroundThe HoloLens is an optical see-through device. The HMT-1 has a small display that is mounted to the side of one eye of the user.MethodTwelve power plant operators and 13 manhole workers conducted their normal procedural tasks on-site in three conditions: HoloLens, HMT-1, and “No AR” (regular method). Duration of test trials ranged up to 30 s for operators and up to 10 min for manhole workers. Mean and peak values of surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals from eight neck muscles were measured. A small eye camera measured blink rate of the right eye.ResultsIn general, there were no differences in sEMG activity between the AR and “No AR” conditions for both groups of workers. For the manhole workers, the HoloLens blink rate was 8 to 11 blinks per min lower than the HMT-1 in two tasks and 6.5 fewer than “No AR” in one task. Subjective assessment of the two AR devices did not vary in general.ConclusionThe decrease in blink rate with the HoloLens may expose utility manhole workers to risk of eye strain or dry-eye syndrome.ApplicationHMD AR devices should be tested thoroughly with respect to risk of eye strain before deployment by manhole workers for long-duration procedural work.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-23T05:34:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820943710
       
  • Biological Plausibility of Arm Postures Influences the Controllability of
           Robotic Arm Teleoperation
    • Authors: Sébastien Mick, Arnaud Badets, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Daniel Cattaert, Aymar De Rugy
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe investigated how participants controlling a humanoid robotic arm’s 3D endpoint position by moving their own hand are influenced by the robot’s postures. We hypothesized that control would be facilitated (impeded) by biologically plausible (implausible) postures of the robot.BackgroundKinematic redundancy, whereby different arm postures achieve the same goal, is such that a robotic arm or prosthesis could theoretically be controlled with less signals than constitutive joints. However, congruency between a robot’s motion and our own is known to interfere with movement production. Hence, we expect the human-likeness of a robotic arm’s postures during endpoint teleoperation to influence controllability.MethodTwenty-two able-bodied participants performed a target-reaching task with a robotic arm whose endpoint’s 3D position was controlled by moving their own hand. They completed a two-condition experiment corresponding to the robot displaying either biologically plausible or implausible postures.ResultsUpon initial practice in the experiment’s first part, endpoint trajectories were faster and shorter when the robot displayed human-like postures. However, these effects did not persist in the second part, where performance with implausible postures appeared to have benefited from initial practice with plausible ones.ConclusionHumanoid robotic arm endpoint control is impaired by biologically implausible joint coordinations during initial familiarization but not afterwards, suggesting that the human-likeness of a robot’s postures is more critical for control in this initial period.ApplicationThese findings provide insight for the design of robotic arm teleoperation and prosthesis control schemes, in order to favor better familiarization and control from their users.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T06:01:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820941619
       
  • Effects of Gesture-Based Interaction on Driving Behavior: A Driving
           Simulator Study Using the Projection-Based Vehicle-in-the-Loop
    • Authors: Lisa Graichen, Matthias Graichen, Josef F. Krems
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe observe the driving performance effects of gesture-based interaction (GBI) versus touch-based interaction (TBI) for in-vehicle information systems (IVISs).BackgroundAs a contributing factor to a number of traffic accidents, driver distraction is a significant problem for traffic safety. More specifically, visual distraction has a strong negative impact on driving performance and risk perception. Thus, the implementation of new interaction systems that use midair gestures to encourage glance-free interactions could reduce visual distraction among drivers.MethodsIn this experiment, participants drove a projection-based Vehicle-in-the-Loop. The projection-based technology combines a visual simulation with kinesthetic, vestibular, and auditory feedback from a car on a test track. While driving, participants used GBI or TBI to perform IVIS tasks. To investigate driving behavior related to critical driving situations and car-following maneuvers, vehicle data based upon longitudinal and lateral driving were collected.ResultsParticipants reacted faster to critical driving situations when using GBI compared to TBI. For drivers using TBI, steering performance decreased and time headway to a preceding vehicle was higher.ConclusionGestures provide a safe alternative to in-vehicle interactions. Moreover, GBI has fewer effects on driver distraction than TBI.ApplicationPotential applications of this research include all in-vehicle interaction systems used by drivers.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-14T03:51:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820943284
       
  • The Effects of Increased Visual Information on Cognitive Workload in a
           Helicopter Simulator
    • Authors: Reilly J. Innes, Zachary L. Howard, Alexander Thorpe, Ami Eidels, Scott D. Brown
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo test the effects of enhanced display information (“symbology”) on cognitive workload in a simulated helicopter environment, using the detection response task (DRT).BackgroundWorkload in highly demanding environments can be influenced by the amount of information given to the operator and consequently it is important to limit potential overload.MethodsParticipants (highly trained military pilots) completed simulated helicopter flights, which varied in visual conditions and the amount of information given. During these flights, participants also completed a DRT as a measure of cognitive workload.ResultsWith more visual information available, pilots’ landing accuracy was improved across environmental conditions. The DRT is sensitive to changes in cognitive workload, with workload differences shown between environmental conditions. Increasing symbology appeared to have a minor effect on workload, with an interaction effect of symbology and environmental condition showing that symbology appeared to moderate workload.ConclusionThe DRT is a useful workload measure in simulated helicopter settings. The level of symbology-moderated pilot workload. The increased level of symbology appeared to assist pilots’ flight behavior and landing ability. Results indicate that increased symbology has benefits in more difficult scenarios.ApplicationsThe DRT is an easily implemented and effective measure of cognitive workload in a variety of settings. In the current experiment, the DRT captures the increased workload induced by varying the environmental conditions, and provides evidence for the use of increased symbology to assist pilots.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T02:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820945409
       
  • A Distracted Scientist: The Life and Contributions of John Senders
    • Authors: P. A. Hancock, Ann Crichton-Harris, Abigail Sellen, Thomas B. Sheridan, Gabriella M. Hancock
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo provide an evaluative and personal overview of the life and contributions of Professor John Senders and to introduce this Special Issue dedicated to his memory.BackgroundJohn Senders made many profound contributions to HF/E. These various topics are exemplified by the range of papers which compose the Special Issue. Collectively, these works document and demonstrate the impact of his many valuable research works.MethodThe Special Issue serves to summarize Senders’ collective body of work as can be extracted from archival sources. This introductory paper recounts a series of remembrances derived from personal relationships, as well as the products of cooperative investigative research.ResultsThis collective evaluative process documents Senders’ evident and deserved status in the highest pantheon of HF/E pioneers. It records his extraordinary life, replete with accounts of his insights and joie de vivre in exploring and explaining the world which surrounded him.ApplicationsSenders’ record of critical contributions provides the example, par excellence, of the successful and fulfilling life in science. It encourages all, both researchers and practitioners alike, in their own individual search for excellence.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-11T11:08:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820941970
       
  • Effectiveness of Lateral Auditory Collision Warnings: Should Warnings Be
           Toward Danger or Toward Safety'
    • Authors: Jing Chen, Edin Šabić, Scott Mishler, Cody Parker, Motonori Yamaguchi
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study investigated the design of spatially oriented auditory collision-warning signals to facilitate drivers’ responses to potential collisions.BackgroundPrior studies on collision warnings have mostly focused on manual driving. It is necessary to examine the design of collision warnings for safe takeover actions in semi-autonomous driving.MethodIn a video-based semi-autonomous driving scenario, participants responded to pedestrians walking across the road, with a warning tone presented in either the avoidance direction or the collision direction. The time interval between the warning tone and the potential collision was also manipulated. In Experiment 1, pedestrians always started walking from one side of the road to the other side. In Experiment 2, pedestrians appeared in the middle of the road and walked toward either side of the road.ResultsIn Experiment 1, drivers reacted to the pedestrian faster with collision-direction warnings than with avoidance-direction warnings. In Experiment 2, the difference between the two warning directions became nonsignificant. In both experiments, shorter time intervals to potential collisions resulted in faster reactions but did not influence the effect of warning direction.ConclusionThe collision-direction warnings were advantageous over the avoidance-direction warnings only when they occurred at the same lateral location as the pedestrian, indicating that this advantage was due to the capture of attention by the auditory warning signals.ApplicationThe present results indicate that drivers would benefit most when warnings occur at the side of potential collision objects rather than the direction of a desirable action during semi-autonomous driving.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-11T11:08:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820941618
       
  • Exploring Localized Muscle Fatigue Responses at Current Upper-Extremity
           Ergonomics Threshold Limit Values
    • Authors: Daniel M. Abdel-Malek, Ryan C. A. Foley, Fahima Wakeely, Jeffrey D. Graham, Nicholas J. La Delfa
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to evaluate localized muscle fatigue responses at three upper-extremity ergonomics threshold limit value (TLV) duty cycles.BackgroundRecently, a TLV equation was published to help mitigate excessive development of localized muscle fatigue in repetitive upper limb tasks. This equation predicts acceptable levels of maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC) for a given duty cycle (DC). Experimental validation of this TLV curve has not yet been reported, which can help guide utilization by practitioners.MethodEighteen participants performed intermittent isometric elbow flexion efforts, in three separate counter-balanced sessions, at workloads defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists’ (ACGIH) TLV equation: low DC (20% DC, 29.6% MVC), medium DC (40% DC, 19.7% MVC), and high DC (60% DC, 13.9% MVC). Targeted localized muscle fatigue (LMF) of the biceps brachii was tracked across numerous response variables, including decline in strength (MVC), electromyography (EMG) amplitude and mean power frequency (MnPF), and several psychophysical ratings.ResultsAt task completion, biceps MnPF and MVC (strength) were significantly different between each TLV workload, with the high DC condition eliciting the largest declines in MnPF and MVC.ConclusionFindings demonstrate that working at different DCs along the ACGIH TLV curve may not be equivalent in preventing excessive LMF. Higher DC workloads elicited a greater LMF response across several response variables.ApplicationHigh DC work of the upper extremity should be avoided to mitigate excess LMF development. Current TLVs for repetitive upper-extremity work may overestimate acceptable relative contraction thresholds, particularly at higher duty cycles.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T11:30:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820940536
       
  • Judging One’s Own or Another Person’s Responsibility in
           Interactions With Automation
    • Authors: Nir Douer, Joachim Meyer
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe explore users’ and observers’ subjective assessments of human and automation capabilities and human causal responsibility for outcomes.BackgroundIn intelligent systems and advanced automation, human responsibility for outcomes becomes equivocal, as do subjective perceptions of responsibility. In particular, actors who actively work with a system may perceive responsibility differently from observers.MethodIn a laboratory experiment with pairs of participants, one participant (the “actor”) performed a decision task, aided by an automated system, and the other (the “observer”) passively observed the actor. We compared the perceptions of responsibility between the two roles when interacting with two systems with different capabilities.ResultsActors’ behavior matched the theoretical predictions, and actors and observers assessed the system and human capabilities and the comparative human responsibility similarly. However, actors tended to relate adverse outcomes more to system characteristics than to their own limitations, whereas the observers insufficiently considered system capabilities when evaluating the actors’ comparative responsibility.ConclusionWhen intelligent systems greatly exceed human capabilities, users may correctly feel they contribute little to system performance. They may interfere more than necessary, impairing the overall performance. Outside observers, such as managers, may overweigh users’ contribution to outcomes, holding users responsible for adverse outcomes when they rightly trusted the system.ApplicationPresenting users of intelligent systems and others with performance measures and the comparative human responsibility may help them calibrate subjective assessments of performance, reducing users’ and outside observers’ biases and attribution errors.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T01:41:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820940516
       
  • A Broader Application of the Detection Response Task to Cognitive Tasks
           and Online Environments
    • Authors: Reilly J. Innes, Nathan J. Evans, Zachary L. Howard, Ami Eidels, Scott D. Brown
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present research applied a well-established measure of cognitive workload in driving literature to an in-lab paradigm. We then extended this by comparing the in-lab version of the task to an online version.BackgroundThe accurate and objective measurement of cognitive workload is important in many aspects of psychological research. The detection response task (DRT) is a well-validated method for measuring cognitive workload that has been used extensively in applied tasks, for example, to investigate the effects of phone usage or passenger conversation on driving, but has been used sparingly outside of this field.MethodThe study investigated whether the DRT could be used to measure cognitive workload in tasks more commonly used in experimental cognitive psychology and whether this application could be extended to online environments. We had participants perform a multiple object tracking (MOT) task while simultaneously performing a DRT. We manipulated the cognitive load of the MOT task by changing the number of dots to be tracked.ResultsMeasurements from the DRT were sensitive to changes in the cognitive load, establishing the efficacy of the DRT for experimental cognitive tasks in lab-based situations. This sensitivity continued when applied to an online environment (our code for the online DRT implementation is freely available at https://osf.io/dc39s/), though to a reduced extent compared to the in-lab situation.ConclusionThe MOT task provides an effective manipulation of cognitive workload. The DRT is sensitive to changes in workload across a range of settings and is suitable to use outside of driving scenarios, as well as via online delivery.ApplicationMethodology shows how the DRT could be used to measure sources of cognitive workload in a range of human factors contexts.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T01:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820936800
       
  • Multitasking in Driving as Optimal Adaptation Under Uncertainty
    • Authors: Jussi P. P. Jokinen, Tuomo Kujala, Antti Oulasvirta
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective was to better understand how people adapt multitasking behavior when circumstances in driving change and how safe versus unsafe behaviors emerge.BackgroundMultitasking strategies in driving adapt to changes in the task environment, but the cognitive mechanisms of this adaptation are not well known. Missing is a unifying account to explain the joint contribution of task constraints, goals, cognitive capabilities, and beliefs about the driving environment.MethodWe model the driver’s decision to deploy visual attention as a stochastic sequential decision-making problem and propose hierarchical reinforcement learning as a computationally tractable solution to it. The supervisory level deploys attention based on per-task value estimates, which incorporate beliefs about risk. Model simulations are compared against human data collected in a driving simulator.ResultsHuman data show adaptation to the attentional demands of ongoing tasks, as measured in lane deviation and in-car gaze deployment. The predictions of our model fit the human data on these metrics.ConclusionMultitasking strategies can be understood as optimal adaptation under uncertainty, wherein the driver adapts to cognitive constraints and the task environment’s uncertainties, aiming to maximize the expected long-term utility. Safe and unsafe behaviors emerge as the driver has to arbitrate between conflicting goals and manage uncertainty about them.ApplicationSimulations can inform studies of conditions that are likely to give rise to unsafe driving behavior.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T06:39:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820927687
       
  • Trunk Dynamic Stability Assessment for Individuals With and Without
           Nonspecific Low Back Pain During Repetitive Movement
    • Authors: Morteza Asgari, Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Sedighe Kahrizi, Gabel Charles Philip, Mohamad Parnianpour, Kinda Khalaf
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study aimed to employ nonlinear dynamic approaches to assess trunk dynamic stability with speed, symmetry, and load during repetitive flexion-extension (FE) movements for individuals with and without nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP).BackgroundRepetitive trunk FE movement is a typical work-related LBP risk factor contingent on speed, symmetry, and load. Improper settings/adjustments of these control parameters could undermine the dynamic stability of the trunk, hence leading to low back injuries. The underlying stability mechanisms and associated control impairments during such dynamic movements remain elusive.MethodThirty-eight male volunteers (19 healthy, 19 NSLBP) enrolled in the current study. All participants performed repetitive trunk FE movements at high/low speeds, in symmetric/asymmetric directions, with/without a wearable loaded vest. Trunk instantaneous rotation angle was computed for each trial to be assessed in terms of local and orbital stability, using maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponents (LyEs) and Floquet multipliers (FMs), respectively.ResultsBoth groups demonstrated equivalent competency in terms of trunk control and stability, suggesting functional adaptation strategies may be used by the NSLBP group. Wearing the loaded vest magnified the effects of trunk control impairment for the NSLBP group. The combined presence of high-speed and symmetrical FE movements was associated with least trunk local stability.ConclusionNonlinear dynamic techniques, particularly LyE, are potentially effective for assessing trunk dynamic stability dysfunction for individuals with NSLBP during various activities.ApplicationThis work can be applied toward the development of quantitative personalized spinal evaluation tools with a wide range of potential occupational and clinical applications.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T05:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820939697
       
  • Toward a Theory of Visual Information Acquisition in Driving
    • Authors: Benjamin Wolfe, Ben D. Sawyer, Ruth Rosenholtz
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to describe information acquisition theory, explaining how drivers acquire and represent the information they need.BackgroundWhile questions of what drivers are aware of underlie many questions in driver behavior, existing theories do not directly address how drivers in particular and observers in general acquire visual information. Understanding the mechanisms of information acquisition is necessary to build predictive models of drivers’ representation of the world and can be applied beyond driving to a wide variety of visual tasks.MethodWe describe our theory of information acquisition, looking to questions in driver behavior and results from vision science research that speak to its constituent elements. We focus on the intersection of peripheral vision, visual attention, and eye movement planning and identify how an understanding of these visual mechanisms and processes in the context of information acquisition can inform more complete models of driver knowledge and state.ResultsWe set forth our theory of information acquisition, describing the gap in understanding that it fills and how existing questions in this space can be better understood using it.ConclusionInformation acquisition theory provides a new and powerful way to study, model, and predict what drivers know about the world, reflecting our current understanding of visual mechanisms and enabling new theories, models, and applications.ApplicationUsing information acquisition theory to understand how drivers acquire, lose, and update their representation of the environment will aid development of driver assistance systems, semiautonomous vehicles, and road safety overall.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T04:08:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820939693
       
  • Relationship Between Acute Physical Fatigue and Cognitive Function During
           Orthostatic Challenge in Men and Women: A Neuroergonomics Investigation
    • Authors: Ranjana K. Mehta, Joseph Nuamah
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundPostflight orthostatic challenge (OC), resulting from blood pooling in lower extremities, is a major health concern among astronauts that fly long-duration missions. Additionally, astronauts undergo physical demanding tasks resulting in acute fatigue, which can affect performance. However, the effects of concurrent OC and acute physical fatigue on performance have not been adequately investigated.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between acute physical fatigue and cognitive function during OC.MethodsSixteen healthy participants performed the mental arithmetic task and psychomotor tracking tasks in the absence and presence of a prior 1-hour physically fatiguing exercise, on separate days under OC (induced via lower body negative pressure). We recorded task performances on the cognitive tests and prefrontal cortex oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, along with physiological and subjective responses.ResultsThe introduction of the cognitive tasks during OC increased cerebral oxygenation; however, oxygenation decreased significantly with the cognitive tasks under the acute fatigue conditions, particularly during the tracking task and in males. These differences were accompanied by comparable task performances.DiscussionThe findings suggest that mental arithmetic is a more effective countermeasure than psychomotor tracking under acute physical fatigue during OC. Whereas females did not show a significant difference in cerebral oxygenation due to task, males did, suggesting that it may be important to consider gender differences when developing countermeasures against OC.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T03:58:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820936794
       
  • Effects of Distraction in On-Road Level 2 Automated Driving: Impacts on
           Glance Behavior and Takeover Performance
    • Authors: Shiyan Yang, Jonny Kuo, Michael G. Lenné
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe paper aimed to investigate glance behaviors under different levels of distraction in automated driving (AD) and understand the impact of distraction levels on driver takeover performance.BackgroundDriver distraction detrimentally affects takeover performance. Glance-based distraction measurement could be a promising method to remind drivers to maintain enough attentiveness before the takeover request in partially AD.MethodThirty-six participants were recruited to drive a Tesla Model S in manual and Autopilot modes on a test track while engaging in secondary tasks, including temperature-control, email-sorting, and music-selection, to impose low and high distractions. During the test drive, participants needed to quickly change the lane as if avoiding an immediate road hazard if they heard an unexpected takeover request (an auditory warning). Driver state and behavior over the test drive were recorded in real time by a driver monitoring system and several other sensors installed in the Tesla vehicle.ResultsThe distribution of off-road glance duration was heavily skewed (with a long tail) by high distractions, with extreme glance duration more than 30 s. Moreover, being eyes-off-road before takeover could cause more delay in the urgent takeover reaction compared to being hands-off-wheel.ConclusionThe study measured off-road glance duration under different levels of distraction and demonstrated the impacts of being eyes-off-road and hands-off-wheel on the following takeover performance.ApplicationThe findings provide new insights about engagement in Level 2 AD and are useful for the design of driver monitoring technologies for distraction management.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T03:51:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820936793
       
  • Trust in Autonomous Cars: Exploring the Role of Shared Moral Values,
           Reasoning, and Emotion in Safety-Critical Decisions
    • Authors: Ryosuke Yokoi, Kazuya Nakayachi
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveAutonomous cars (ACs) controlled by artificial intelligence are expected to play a significant role in transportation in the near future. This study investigated determinants of trust in ACs.BackgroundTrust in ACs influences different variables, including the intention to adopt AC technology. Several studies on risk perception have verified that shared value determines trust in risk managers. Previous research has confirmed the effect of value similarity on trust in artificial intelligence. We focused on moral beliefs, specifically utilitarianism (belief in promoting a greater good) and deontology (belief in condemning deliberate harm), and tested the effects of shared moral beliefs on trust in ACs.MethodWe conducted three experiments (N = 128, 71, and 196, for each), adopting a thought experiment similar to the well-known trolley problem. We manipulated shared moral beliefs (shared vs. unshared) and driver (AC vs. human), providing participants with different moral dilemma scenarios. Trust in ACs was measured through a questionnaire.ResultsThe results of Experiment 1 showed that shared utilitarian belief strongly influenced trust in ACs. In Experiment 2 and Experiment 3, however, we did not find statistical evidence that shared deontological belief had an effect on trust in ACs.ConclusionThe results of the three experiments suggest that the effect of shared moral beliefs on trust varies depending on the values that ACs share with humans.ApplicationTo promote AC implementation, policymakers and developers need to understand which values are shared between ACs and humans to enhance trust in ACs.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T04:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820933041
       
  • The Influence of Visual-Manual Distractions on Anticipatory Driving
    • Authors: Dengbo He, Birsen Donmez
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to investigate how anticipatory driving is influenced by distraction.BackgroundThe anticipation of future events in traffic can allow potential gains in recognition and response times. Anticipatory actions (i.e., control actions in preparation for potential traffic changes) have been found to be more prevalent among experienced drivers in simulator studies when driving was the sole task. Despite the prevalence of visual-manual distractions and their negative effects on road safety, their influence on anticipatory driving has not yet been investigated beyond hazard anticipation.MethodsA simulator experiment was conducted with 16 experienced and 16 novice drivers. Half of the participants were provided with a self-paced visual-manual secondary task presented on a dashboard display.ResultsMore anticipatory actions were observed among experienced drivers; experienced drivers also exhibited more efficient visual scanning behaviors as indicated by higher glance rates toward and percent times looking at cues that facilitate the anticipation of upcoming events. Regardless of experience, those with the secondary task displayed reduced anticipatory actions and paid less attention toward anticipatory cues. However, experienced drivers had lower odds of exhibiting long glances toward the secondary task compared to novices. Further, the inclusion of glance duration on anticipatory cues increased the accuracy of a model predicting anticipatory actions based on on-road glance durations.ConclusionThe results provide additional evidence to existing literature supporting the role of driving experience and distraction engagement in anticipatory driving.ApplicationThese findings can guide the design of in-vehicle systems and guide training programs to support anticipatory driving.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T04:10:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820938893
       
  • Human Cognition in Interaction With Robots: Taking the Robot’s
           Perspective Into Account
    • Authors: Sophia von Salm-Hoogstraeten, Jochen Müsseler
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study investigated whether and how different human–robot interactions in a physically shared workspace influenced human stimulus–response (SR) relationships.BackgroundHuman work is increasingly performed in interaction with advanced robots. Since human–robot interaction often takes place in physical proximity, it is crucial to investigate the effects of the robot on human cognition.MethodIn two experiments, we compared conditions in which humans interacted with a robot that they either remotely controlled or monitored under otherwise comparable conditions in the same shared workspace. The cognitive extent to which the participants took the robot’s perspective served as a dependent variable and was evaluated with a SR compatibility task.ResultsThe results showed pronounced compatibility effects from the robot’s perspective when participants had to take the perspective of the robot during the task, but significantly reduced compatibility effects when human and robot did not interact. In both experiments, compatibility effects from the robot’s perspective resulted in statistically significant differences in response times and in error rates between compatible and incompatible conditions.ConclusionWe concluded that SR relationships from the perspective of the robot need to be considered when designing shared workspaces that require users to take the perspective of the robot.ApplicationThe results indicate changed compatibility relationships when users share their workplace with an interacting robot and therefore have to take its perspective from time to time. The perspective-dependent processing times are expected to be accompanied by corresponding error rates, which might affect—for instance—safety and efficiency in a production process.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T01:37:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820933764
       
  • Absence of Pilot Monitoring Affects Scanning Behavior of Pilot Flying:
           Implications for the Design of Single-Pilot Cockpits
    • Authors: Anja K. Faulhaber, Maik Friedrich, Tatjana Kapol
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study examines whether the pilot flying’s (PF) scanning behavior is affected by the absence of the pilot monitoring (PM) and aims at deriving implications for the design of single-pilot cockpits for commercial aviation.BackgroundDue to technological progress, a crew reduction from two-crew to single-pilot operations (SPO) might be feasible. This requires a redesign of the cockpit to support the pilot adequately, especially during high workload phases such as approach and landing. In these phases, the continuous scanning of flight parameters is of particular importance.MethodExperienced pilots flew various approach and landing scenarios with or without the support of the PM in a fixed-base Airbus A320 simulator. A within-subject design was used and eye-tracking data were collected to analyze scanning behavior.ResultsThe results confirm that the absence of the PM affects the PF’s scanning behavior. Participants spent significantly more time scanning secondary instruments at the expense of primary instruments when flying alone. Moreover, the frequency of transitions between the cockpit instruments and the external view increased while mean dwell durations on the external view decreased.ConclusionThe findings suggest that the PM supports the PF to achieve efficient scanning behavior. Information should be presented differently in commercial SPO to compensate for the PM’s absence and to avoid visual overload.ApplicationThis research will help inform the design of commercial SPO flight decks providing adequate support for the pilot particularly in terms of efficient scanning behavior.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T01:37:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820939691
       
  • The Validity of Three New Driving Simulator Scenarios: Detecting
           Differences in Driving Performance by Difficulty and Driver Gender and Age
           
    • Authors: Hillary Maxwell, Bruce Weaver, Sylvain Gagnon, Shawn Marshall, Michel Bédard
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe explored the convergent and discriminant validity of three driving simulation scenarios by comparing behaviors across gender and age groups, considering what we know about on-road driving.BackgroundDriving simulators offer a number of benefits, yet their use in real-world driver assessment is rare. More evidence is needed to support their use.MethodA total of 104 participants completed a series of increasingly difficult driving simulation scenarios. Linear mixed models were estimated to determine if behaviors changed with increasing difficulty and whether outcomes varied by age and gender, thereby demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively.ResultsDrivers adapted velocity, steering, acceleration, and gap acceptance according to difficulty, and the degree of adaptation differed by gender and age for some outcomes. For example, in a construction zone scenario, drivers reduced their mean velocities as congestion increased; males drove an average of 2.30 km/hr faster than females, and older participants drove more slowly than young (5.26 km/hr) and middle-aged drivers (6.59 km/hr). There was also an interaction between age and difficulty; older drivers did not reduce their velocities with increased difficulty.ConclusionThis study provides further support for the ability of driving simulators to elicit behaviors similar to those seen in on-road driving and to differentiate between groups, suggesting that simulators could serve a supportive role in fitness-to-drive evaluations.ApplicationSimulators have the potential to support driver assessment. However, this depends on the development of valid scenarios to benchmark safe driving behavior, and thereby identify deviations from safe driving behavior. The information gained through simulation may supplement other forms of assessment and possibly eliminate the need for on-road testing in some situations.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-09T04:38:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820937520
       
  • What’s Driving Me' Exploration and Validation of a Hierarchical
           Personality Model for Trust in Automated Driving
    • Authors: Johannes Kraus, David Scholz, Martin Baumann
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis paper presents a comprehensive investigation of personality traits related to trust in automated vehicles. A hierarchical personality model based on Mowen’s (2000) 3M model is explored in a first and replicated in a second study.BackgroundTrust in automation is established in a complex psychological process involving user-, system- and situation-related variables. In this process, personality traits have been viewed as an important source of variance.MethodDispositional variables on three levels were included in an exploratory, hierarchical personality model (full model) of dynamic learned trust in automation, which was refined on the basis of structural equation modeling carried out in Study 1 (final model). Study 2 replicated the final model in an independent sample.ResultsIn both studies, the personality model showed a good fit and explained a large proportion of variance in trust in automation. The combined evidence supports the role of extraversion, neuroticism, and self-esteem at the elemental level; affinity for technology and dispositional interpersonal trust at the situational level; and propensity to trust in automation and a priori acceptability of automated driving at the surface level in the prediction of trust in automation.ConclusionFindings confirm that personality plays a substantial role in trust formation and provide evidence of the involvement of user dispositions not previously investigated in relation to trust in automation: self-esteem, dispositional interpersonal trust, and affinity for technology.ApplicationImplications for personalization of information campaigns, driver training, and user interfaces for trust calibration in automated driving are discussed.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T05:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820922653
       
  • Pedal Misapplication: Interruption Effects and Age-Related Differences
    • Authors: Kunihiro Hasegawa, Motohiro Kimura, Yuji Takeda
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate whether pedal misapplication occurs more frequently when a pedal task is interrupted for a longer period of time.BackgroundMisapplication of a vehicle’s brake and accelerator pedals can cause severe traffic accidents, especially for older drivers. The present study provides empirical support for the hypothesis that pedal misapplication occurs more frequently when drivers are interrupted for longer periods of time and is demonstrated more prominently in older drivers.MethodsForty younger participants and 40 older participants were asked to perform a pedal choice response task (stepping on either a brake or accelerator pedal) that had been preceded by an interruption task (i.e., touch number task).ResultsPedal misapplications occurred more frequently when the pedal choice response task was preceded by the touch number task for a longer interval (about 120 s) than for a shorter interval (about 30 s). Furthermore, the time-related increase in pedal misapplications was greater for older participants.ConclusionPedal misapplication increases when the pedal task is interrupted for a longer time period, especially for older adults.ApplicationThe findings contribute to our understanding of when and where pedal misapplications tend to occur.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T12:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820936122
       
  • The Impact of Robotic-Assisted Surgery on Team Performance: A Systematic
           Mixed Studies Review
    • Authors: Brigid M. Gillespie, Joseph Gillespie, Rhonda J. Boorman, Karin Granqvist, Johan Stranne, Annette Erichsen-Andersson
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to describe the impact of robotic-assisted surgery on team performance in the operating room.BackgroundThe introduction of surgical robots has improved the technical performance of surgical procedures but has also contributed to unexpected interactions in surgical teams, leading to new types of errors.MethodA systematic literature search of Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases using key words and MeSH terms was conducted. Screening identified studies employing qualitative and quantitative methods published between January 2000 and September 2019. Two reviewers independently appraised the methodological quality of the articles using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (2018). Discussions were held among authors to examine quality scores of the studies and emergent themes, and agreement was reached through consensus. Themes were derived using inductive content analysis.ResultsCombined searches identified 1,065 citations. Of these, 19 articles, 16 quantitative and 3 qualitative, were included. Robotic-assisted surgeries included urology, gynecology, cardiac, and general procedures involving surgeons, anesthetists, nurses, and technicians. Three themes emerged: Negotiating the altered physical environs and adapting team communications to manage task and technology; managing the robotic system to optimize workflow efficiency; and technical proficiency depends on experience, team familiarity, and case complexity.ConclusionInclusion of a robot as a team member adds further complexity to the work of surgery.ApplicationThese review findings will inform training programs specifically designed to optimize teamwork, workflow efficiency, and learning needs.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T11:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820928624
       
  • Haptic Lane-Keeping Assistance for Truck Driving: A Test Track Study
    • Authors: Jeroen Roozendaal, Emma Johansson, Joost de Winter, David Abbink, Sebastiaan Petermeijer
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study aims to compare the effectiveness and subjective acceptance of three designs for haptic lane-keeping assistance in truck driving.BackgroundHaptic lane-keeping assistance provides steering torques toward a reference trajectory, either continuously or only when exceeding a bandwidth. These approaches have been previously investigated in driving simulators, but it is unclear how these generalize toward real-life truck driving.MethodThree haptic lane-keeping algorithms to assist truck drivers were evaluated on a 6.3-km-long oval-shaped test track: (1) a single-bandwidth (SB) algorithm, which activated assistance torques when the predicted lateral deviation from lane center exceeded 0.4 m; (2) a double-bandwidth (DB) algorithm, which activated as SB, but deactivated after returning within 0.15 m lateral deviation; and (3) an algorithm providing assistance torques continuously (Cont) toward the lane center. Fifteen participants drove four trials each, one trial without and one for each haptic assistance design. Furthermore, participants drove with and without a concurrent visually distracting task.ResultsCompared to unsupported driving, all three assistance systems provided similar safety benefits in terms of decreased absolute lateral position and number of lane departures. Participants reported higher satisfaction and usability for Cont compared to SB.ConclusionThe continuous assistance was better accepted than bandwidth assistance, a finding consistent with prior driving simulator research. Research is still needed to investigate the long-term effects of haptic assistance on reliance and after-effects.ApplicationThe present results are useful for designers of haptic lane-keeping assistance, as driver acceptance and performance are determinants of reliance and safety, respectively.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-06-18T02:36:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820928622
       
  • The Binary-Based Model (BBM) for Improved Human Factors Method Selection
    • Authors: Matt Holman, Guy Walker, Terry Lansdown, Paul Salmon, Gemma Read, Neville Stanton
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis paper presents the Binary-Based Model (BBM), a new approach to Human Factors (HF) method selection. The BBM helps practitioners select the most appropriate HF methodology in relation to the complexity within the target system.BackgroundThere are over 200 HF methods available to the practitioner and little guidance to help choose between them.MethodThe BBM defines a HF “problem space” comprising three complexity attributes. HF problems can be rated against these attributes and located in the “problem space.” In addition, a similar HF “approach space” in which 66 predictive methods are rated according to their ability to confront those attributes is defined. These spaces are combined into a “utility space” in which problems and methods coexist. In the utility space, the match between HF problems and methods can be formally assessed.ResultsThe method space is split into octants to establish broad groupings of methods distributed throughout the space. About 77% of the methods reside in Octant 1 which corresponds to problems with low levels of complexity. This demonstrates that most HF methods are suited to problems in low-complexity systems.ConclusionThe location of 77% of the rated methods in Octant 1 indicates that HF practitioners are underserved with methods for analysis of HF problems exhibiting high complexity.ApplicationThe BBM can be used by multidisciplinary teams to select the most appropriate HF methodology for the problem under analysis. All the materials and analysis are placed in the public domain for modification and consensus building by the wider HF community.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-06-18T02:29:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820926875
       
  • On the Cost of Detection Response Task Performance on Cognitive Load
    • Authors: Francesco N. Biondi, Balakumar Balasingam, Prathamesh Ayare
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigates the cost of detection response task performance on cognitive load.BackgroundMeasuring system operator’s cognitive load is a foremost challenge in human factors and ergonomics. The detection response task is a standardized measure of cognitive load. It is hypothesized that, given its simple reaction time structure, it has no cost on cognitive load. We set out to test this hypothesis by utilizing pupil diameter as an alternative metric of cognitive load.MethodTwenty-eight volunteers completed one of four experimental tasks with increasing levels of cognitive demand (control, 0-back, 1-back, and 2-back) with or without concurrent DRT performance. Pupil diameter was selected as nonintrusive metric of cognitive load. Self-reported workload was also recorded.ResultsA significant main effect of DRT presence was found for pupil diameter and self-reported workload. Larger pupil diameter was found when the n-back task was performed concurrently with the DRT, compared to no-DRT conditions. Consistent results were found for mental workload ratings and n-back performance.ConclusionResults indicate that DRT performance produced an added cost on cognitive load. The magnitude of the change in pupil diameter was comparable to that observed when transitioning from a condition of low task load to one where the 2-back was performed. The significant increase in cognitive load accompanying DRT performance was also reflected in higher self-reported workload.ApplicationDRT is a valuable tool to measure operator’s cognitive load. However, these results advise caution when discounting it as cost-free metric with no added burden on operator’s cognitive resources.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T09:38:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820931628
       
  • Overloaded and at Work: Investigating the Effect of Cognitive Workload on
           Assembly Task Performance
    • Authors: Francesco N. Biondi, Angela Cacanindin, Caitlyn Douglas, Joel Cort
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigates the effect of cognitive overload on assembly task performance and muscle activity.BackgroundUnderstanding an operator’s cognitive workload is an important component in assessing human–machine interaction. However, little evidence is available on the effect that cognitive overload has on task performance and muscle activity when completing manufacturing tasks.MethodTwenty-two volunteers completed an assembly task while performing a secondary cognitive task with increasing levels of demand (n-back). Performance in the assembly task (completion times, accuracy), muscle activity recorded as integrated electromyography (EMG), and self-reported workload were measured.ResultsResults show that the increasing cognitive demand imposed by the n-back task resulted in impaired assembly task performance, overall greater muscle activity, and higher self-reported workload.Relative to the control condition, performing the 2-back task resulted in longer assembly task completion times (+10 s on average) and greater integrated EMG for flexor carpi ulnaris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, and pectoralis major.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that working under high cognitive load not only results in greater muscle activity, but also affects assembly task completion times, which may have a direct effect on manufacturing cycle times.ApplicationResults are applicable to the assessment of the effects of high cognitive workload in manufacturing.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-06-12T04:02:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820929928
       
  • Evolving Trust in Robots: Specification Through Sequential and Comparative
           Meta-Analyses
    • Authors: P. A. Hancock, Theresa T. Kessler, Alexandra D. Kaplan, John C. Brill, James L. Szalma
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objectives of this meta-analysis are to explore the presently available empirical findings on the antecedents of trust in robots and use this information to expand upon a previous meta-analytic review of the area.BackgroundHuman–robot interaction (HRI) represents an increasingly important dimension of our everyday existence. Currently, the most important element of these interactions is proposed to be whether the human trusts the robot or not. We have identified three overarching categories that exert effects on the expression of trust. These consist of factors associated with (a) the human, (b) the robot, and (c) the context in which any specific HRI event occurs.MethodThe current body of literature was examined and all qualifying articles pertaining to trust in robots were included in the meta-analysis. A previous meta-analysis on HRI trust was used as the basis for this extended, updated, and evolving analysis.ResultsMultiple additional factors, which have now been demonstrated to significantly influence trust, were identified. The present results, expressed as points of difference and points of commonality between the current and previous analyses, are identified, explained, and cast in the setting of the emerging wave of HRI.ConclusionThe present meta-analysis expands upon previous work and validates the overarching categories of trust antecedent (human-related, robot-related, and contextual), as well as identifying the significant individual precursors to trust within each category. A new and updated model of these complex interactions is offered.ApplicationThe identified trust factors can be used in order to promote appropriate levels of trust in robots.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-06-10T03:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820922080
       
  • Measuring the Domain Specificity of Workload Using EEG: Auditory and
           Visual Domains in Rotary-Wing Simulated Flight
    • Authors: Kathryn A. Feltman, Kyle A. Bernhardt, Amanda M. Kelley
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe overarching objective was to evaluate whether workload sensory-domain specificity could be identified through electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during simulated rotary-wing operations.BackgroundRotary-wing aviators experience workload from different sensory domains, although predominantly through auditory and visual domains. Development of real-time monitoring tools using psychophysiological indices, such as EEG recordings, could enable identification of aviator overload in real time.MethodTwo studies were completed, both of which recorded EEG, task performance, and self-report data. In Study 1, 16 individuals completed a basic auditory and a basic visual laboratory task where workload was manipulated. In Study 2, 23 Army aviators completed simulated aviation flights where workload was manipulated within auditory and visual sensory domains.ResultsResults from Study 1 found differences in frontal alpha activity during the auditory task, and that alpha and beta activities were associated with perceived workload. Frontal theta activity was found to differ during the visual task while frontal alpha was associated with perceived workload. Study 2 found support for frontal beta activity and the ratio of beta to alpha + theta to differentiate level of workload within the auditory domain.ConclusionThere is likely a role of frontal alpha and beta activities in response to workload manipulations within the auditory domain; however, this role becomes more equivocal when examined in a multifaceted flight scenario.ApplicationResults from this study provide a basis for understanding changes in EEG activity when workload is manipulated in sensory domains that can be used in furthering the development of real-time monitoring tools.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-06-05T08:33:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820928626
       
  • Augmented Visual Feedback: Cure or Distraction'
    • Authors: Yke Bauke Eisma, Clark Borst, René van Paassen, Joost de Winter
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to investigate the effect of augmented feedback on participants’ workload, performance, and distribution of visual attention.BackgroundAn important question in human–machine interface design is whether the operator should be provided with direct solutions. We focused on the solution space diagram (SSD), a type of augmented feedback that shows directly whether two aircraft are on conflicting trajectories.MethodOne group of novices (n = 13) completed conflict detection tasks with SSD, whereas a second group (n = 11) performed the same tasks without SSD. Eye-tracking was used to measure visual attention distribution.ResultsThe mean self-reported task difficulty was substantially lower for the SSD group compared to the No-SSD group. The SSD group had a better conflict detection rate than the No-SSD group, whereas false-positive rates were equivalent. High false-positive rates for some scenarios were attributed to participants who misunderstood the SSD. Compared to the No-SSD group, the SSD group spent a large proportion of their time looking at the SSD aircraft while looking less at other areas of interest.ConclusionAugmented feedback makes the task subjectively easier but has side effects related to visual tunneling and misunderstanding.ApplicationCaution should be exercised when human operators are expected to reproduce task solutions that are provided by augmented visual feedback.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T10:08:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820924602
       
  • Long-Term Evaluation of Drivers’ Behavioral Adaptation to an Adaptive
           Collision Avoidance System
    • Authors: Husam Muslim, Makoto Itoh
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTaking human factors approach in which the human is involved as a part of the system design and evaluation process, this paper aims to improve driving performance and safety impact of driver support systems in the long view of human–automation interaction.BackgroundAdaptive automation in which the system implements the level of automation based on the situation, user capacity, and risk has proven effective in dynamic environments with wide variations of human workload over time. However, research has indicated that drivers may not efficiently deal with dynamically changing system configurations. Little effort has been made to support drivers’ understanding of and behavioral adaptation to adaptive automation.MethodUsing a within-subjects design, 42 participants completed a four-stage driving simulation experiment during which they had to gradually interact with an adaptive collision avoidance system while exposed to hazardous lane-change scenarios over 1 month.ResultsCompared to unsupported driving (stage i), although collisions have been significantly reduced when first experienced driving with the system (stage ii), improvements in drivers’ trust in and understanding of the system and driving behavior have been achieved with more driver–system interaction and driver training during stages iii and iv.ConclusionWhile designing systems that take into account human skills and abilities can go some way to improving their effectiveness, this alone is not sufficient. To maximize safety and system usability, it is also essential to ensure appropriate users’ understanding and acceptance of the system.ApplicationThese findings have important implications for the development of active safety systems and automated driving.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T04:16:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820926092
       
  • Effects of Cognitive and Physical Loads on Dynamic and Static Balance
           Performance of Healthy Older Adults Under Single-, Dual-, and Multi-task
           Conditions
    • Authors: Hamid Allahverdipour, Iman Dianat, Galavizh Mameh, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to examine the effects of cognitive and physical loads on dynamic and static balance performance of healthy older adults under single-, dual-, and multi-task conditions.BackgroundPrevious studies on postural control in older adults have generally used dual-task methodology, whereas less attention has been paid to multi-task performance, despite its importance in many daily and occupational activities.MethodThe effects of single versus combined (dual-task and multi-task) cognitive (to speak out the name of the weekdays in a reverse order) and physical (with three levels including handling weights of 1, 2, and 3 kg in each hand) loads on dynamic and static balance performance of 42 older adults (21 males and 21 females) aged ≥60 years were examined. Dynamic and static balance measures were evaluated using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and stabilometer (sway index) tests, respectively.ResultsThe TUG speed of female participants was generally slower than that of male participants. Age had no effect on balance performance measures. Under dual-task conditions, cognitive load decreased the dynamic balance performance, while the physical task levels had no effect. The dual-task conditions had no impact on the static balance performance. The effects of cognitive and physical loads on dynamic balance performance varied under dual- and multi-task conditions.ConclusionThe findings highlight differences between dual- and multi-task protocols and add to the understanding of balance performance in older adults under cognitive and physical loads.ApplicationThe present study highlights differences between dual- and multi-task methodologies that need to be considered in future studies of balance and control in older adults.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-05-29T05:00:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820924626
       
  • Wrist Posture Estimation Differences and Reliability Between Video
           Analysis and Electrogoniometer Methods
    • Authors: Colin D. McKinnon, Samantha Ehmke, Aaron M. Kociolek, Jack P. Callaghan, Peter J. Keir
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intrarater agreement of estimated wrist angles using video and to compare wrist angles from video analysis to electrogoniometers.BackgroundVideo analysis is used frequently in ergonomic assessments, but factors including parallax and complex angles may influence wrist angle estimates. Electrogoniometers are an alternative to video, but may not be reliable in complex postures. Given the limitations of each method, there is a need to determine the suitability of the measurement methods for field use.MethodTen participants performed frame-by-frame wrist (flexion–extension, radioulnar deviation) and forearm (pronation–supination) posture estimation for worker tasks from three camera views (top, side, and oblique). Workers were equipped with electrogoniometers to record wrist posture during the tasks. The video estimate data was compared between 2 days and to sensor data.ResultsPercent agreement between participants ranged from 53% to 81% across all ratings. Agreement was highest from the side view (66%, κ = 0.56) for flexion–extension and top view for radioulnar deviation (77%, κ = 0.52) and pronation–supination (69%, κ = 0.58). Video–electrogoniometer agreement was lower, with peak agreement from the top view for flexion–extension (57%, κ = 0.49) and radioulnar deviation (68%, κ = 0.30) and the oblique view for pronation–supination (53%, κ = –0.1).ConclusionParticipant estimate agreement was moderate-substantial overall and aligns with previous reports. Disagreement between video and electrogoniometers may be attributed to camera angle and parallax effects and the small magnitude of wrist motions compared to other joints.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-05-25T03:14:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820923839
       
  • Development and Validation of a Descriptive Cognitive Model for Predicting
           Usability Issues in a Low-Code Development Platform
    • Authors: Carlos Silva, Joana Vieira, José C. Campos, Rui Couto, António N. Ribeiro
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of the study was the development and evaluation of a Descriptive Cognitive Model (DCM) for the identification of three types of usability issues in a low-code development platform (LCDP).BackgroundLCDPs raise the level of abstraction of software development by freeing end-users from implementation details. An effective LCDP requires an understanding of how its users conceptualize programming. It is necessary to identify the gap between the LCDP end-users’ conceptualization of programming and the actions required by the platform. It is also relevant to evaluate how the conceptualization of the programming tasks varies according to the end-users’ skills.MethodDCMs are widely used in the description and analysis of the interaction between users and systems. We propose a DCM which we called PRECOG that combines task decomposition methods with knowledge-based descriptions and criticality analysis. This DCM was validated using empirical techniques to provide the best insight regarding the users’ interaction performance. Twenty programmers (10 experts, 10 novices) were observed using an LCDP and their interactions were analyzed according to our DCM.ResultsThe DCM correctly identified several problems felt by first-time platform users. The patterns of issues observed were qualitatively different between groups. Experts mainly faced interaction-related problems, while novices faced problems attributable to a lack of programming skills.ConclusionBy applying the proposed DCM we were able to predict three types of interaction problems felt by first-time users of the LCDP.ApplicationThe method is applicable when it is relevant to identify possible interaction problems, resulting from the users’ background knowledge being insufficient to guarantee a successful completion of the task at hand.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T05:58:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820920429
       
  • Is Physiobehavioral Monitoring Nonintrusive' An Examination of
           Transcranial Doppler Sonography in a Vigilance Task
    • Authors: Eric T. Greenlee, Tiffany G. Lui, Emily L. Maw
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe current study was designed to determine whether continuous, physiobehavioral monitoring via transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) has negative effects on human performance or user state in a vigilance task.BackgroundPhysiobehavioral measures have been identified as a promising method of user state assessment, in part because they are thought to be relatively nonintrusive. The notion that physiobehavioral measures are nonintrusive should not be taken for granted and needs to be tested empirically. It is possible that, even though physiobehavioral measures do not require input from a user, they may still hinder performance by causing discomfort, distraction, or interfering with physical activities required for task performance.MethodThe current study employed TCD, a common method of monitoring user vigilance. Participants completed a 40-min vigilance task. During the task, 50% wore TCD apparatus, while 50% did not. Intrusiveness was measured in terms of vigilance performance as well as workload, stress, and simulator sickness.ResultsAnalyses revealed results that mirrored prototypical vigilance findings: performance declined over time, workload was high, distress and reported simulator sickness symptomology increased during the task, while engagement decreased. The presence or absence of TCD monitoring had no direct or interactive effects on performance or user state.ConclusionTCD monitoring of user vigilance appears to be nonintrusive.ApplicationFindings support the recommendation that TCD should be used in research and operational settings where user vigilance is of paramount importance. More broadly, when developing and fielding physiobehavioral state measurement systems, intrusiveness should be considered and evaluated.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-05-12T06:57:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820920118
       
  • Curved Versus Flat Monitors: Interactive Effects of Display Curvature
           Radius and Display Size on Visual Search Performance and Visual Fatigue
    • Authors: Gyouhyung Kyung, Sungryul Park
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to examine the interactive effects of display curvature radius and display size on visual search accuracy, visual search speed, and visual fatigue.BackgroundAlthough the advantages of curved displays have been reported, little is known about the interactive effects of display curvature radius and size.MethodTwenty-seven individuals performed visual search tasks at a viewing distance of 50 cm using eight configurations involving four display curvature radii (400R, 600R, 1200R, and flat) and two display sizes (33″ and 50″). To simulate curved screens, five flat display panels were horizontally arranged with their centers concentrically repositioned following each display curvature radius.ResultsFor accuracy, speed, and fatigue, 33″–600R and 50″–600R provided the best or comparable-to-best results, whereas 50″–flat provided the worst results. For accuracy and fatigue, 33″–flat was the second worst. The changes in the horizontal field of view and viewing angle due to display curvature as well as the association between effective display curvature radii and empirical horopter (loci of perceived equidistance) can explain these results.ConclusionThe interactive effects of display curvature radius and size were evident for visual search performance and fatigue. Beneficial effects of curved displays were maintained across 33″ and 50″, whereas increasing flat display size from 33″ to 50″ was detrimental.ApplicationFor visual search tasks at a viewing distance of 50 cm, 33″–600R and 50″ 600R displays are recommended, as opposed to 33″ and 50″ flat displays. Wide flat displays must be carefully considered for visual display terminal tasks.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-05-06T04:18:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820922717
       
  • Measuring Lethal Force Performance in the Lab: The Effects of Simulator
           Realism and Participant Experience
    • Authors: Kara J. Blacker, Kyle A. Pettijohn, Grant Roush, Adam T. Biggs
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe goal of the current study was to compare two types of shooting simulators to determine which is best suited for assessing different aspects of lethal force performance.BackgroundMilitary and law enforcement personnel are often required to make decisions regarding the use of lethal force. A critical goal of both training and research endeavors surrounding lethal force is to find ways to simulate lethal force encounters to better understand behavior in those scenarios.MethodParticipants of varying degrees of experience completed both marksmanship and shoot/don’t shoot scenarios on both a video game and a military-grade shooting simulator. Using signal detection theory, we assessed sensitivity as a measure of lethal force performance overall. We used hit rate to assess shooting accuracy and false alarm rate to assess decision making.ResultsResults demonstrated that performance was correlated across simulators. Results supported the notion that shooting accuracy and decision making are independent components of performance. Individuals with firearms expertise outperformed novices on the military-grade simulator, but only with respect to shooting accuracy, not unintended casualties. Individuals with video game experience outperformed novices in the video game simulator, but again only on shooting accuracy.ConclusionExperience played a crucial role in the assessment of shooting accuracy on a given simulator platform; decision-making performance remained unaffected by experience level or type of simulator.ApplicationWe recommend that in expert populations or when assessing shooting accuracy, a military-grade shooting simulator be used. However, with a novice population and/or when interested in decision making in lethal force, a video game simulator is appropriate.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T03:50:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820916975
       
  • In Situ Tremor in Vitreoretinal Surgery
    • Authors: Yifan Li, Mitchell D. Wolf, Amol D. Kulkarni, James Bell, Jonathan S. Chang, Amit Nimunkar, Robert G. Radwin
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveSurgeon tremor was measured during vitreoretinal microscopic surgeries under different hand support conditions.BackgroundWhile the ophthalmic surgeon’s forearm is supported using a standard symmetric wrist rest when operating on the patient’s same side as the dominant hand (SSD), the surgeon’s hand is placed directly on the patient’s forehead when operating on the contralateral side of the dominant hand (CSD). It was hypothesized that more tremor is associated with CSD surgeries than SSD surgeries and that, using an experimental asymmetric wrist rest where the contralateral wrist bar gradually rises and curves toward the patient’s operative eye, there is no difference in tremor associated with CSD and SSD surgeries.MethodsSeventy-six microscope videos, recorded from three surgeons performing macular membrane peeling operations, were analyzed using marker-less motion tracking, and movement data (instrument path length and acceleration) were recorded. Tremor acceleration frequency and magnitude were measured using spectral analysis. Following 47 surgeries using a conventional symmetric wrist support, surgeons incorporated the experimental asymmetric wrist rest into their surgical routine.ResultsThere was 0.11 mm/s2 (22%) greater (p = .05) average tremor acceleration magnitude for CSD surgeries (0.62 mm/s2, SD = 0.08) than SSD surgeries (0.51 mm/s2, SD = 0.09) for the symmetric wrist rest, while no significant (p> .05) differences were observed (0.57 mm, SD = 0.13 for SSD and 0.58 mm, SD = 0.11 for CSD surgeries) for the experimental asymmetric wrist rest.ConclusionThe asymmetric wrist support reduced the difference in tremor acceleration between CSD and SSD surgeries.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-04-14T06:33:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820916629
       
  • Effects of Workstation Type on Mental Stress: fNIRS Study
    • Authors: Emad Alyan, Naufal M. Saad, Nidal Kamel
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the workstation type on the severity of mental stress by means of measuring prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.BackgroundWorkstation type is known to influence worker’s health and performance. Despite the practical implications of ergonomic workstations, limited information is available regarding their impact on brain activity and executive functions.MethodTen healthy participants performed a Montreal imaging stress task (MIST) in ergonomic and nonergonomic workstations to investigate their effects on the severity of the induced mental stress.ResultsCortical hemodynamic changes in the PFC were observed during the MIST in both the ergonomic and nonergonomic workstations. However, the ergonomic workstation exhibited improved MIST performance, which was positively correlated with the cortical activation on the right ventrolateral and the left dorsolateral PFC, as well as a marked decrease in salivary alpha‐amylase activity compared with that of the nonergonomic workstation. Further analysis using the NASA Task Load Index revealed a higher weighted workload score in the nonergonomic workstation than that in the ergonomic workstation.ConclusionThe findings suggest that ergonomic workstations could significantly improve cognitive functioning and human capabilities at work compared to a nonergonomic workstation.ApplicationSuch a study could provide critical information on workstation design and development of mental stress that can be overlooked during traditional workstation design and mental stress assessments.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-04-14T06:29:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820913173
       
  • Restoring Attentional Resources With Nature: A Replication Study of
           Berto’s (2005) Paradigm Including Commentary From Dr. Rita Berto
    • Authors: Brittany N. Neilson, Curtis M. Craig, Raelyn Y. Curiel, Martina I. Klein
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to replicate Berto’s (2005) heavily cited work on attention restoration.BackgroundNature interventions have gained increased interest for improving performance of attentionally demanding tasks. Berto (2005) indicated that viewing digital nature images could improve performance on a subsequent response inhibition task, the sustained attention to response task (SART). However, experimental design and statistical concerns about her experiments as well as failure to support her findings across multiple unpublished studies in our laboratory provided rationale for this replication study.MethodTwenty participants were each assigned to one of three digital image conditions: nature, urban, and control. Participants performed the SART before and after digital image exposure.ResultsSART performance metrics (total correct target responses, mean response time, and transformed d′) were analyzed using 2 (SART) × 3 (image interventions) mixed design ANOVAs. The results failed to replicate Berto (2005).ConclusionPossible reasons for not replicating Berto (2005) are discussed, including (1) sample differences, (2) different testing environments and procedures, (3) insufficient attentional depletion, and (4) individual differences.ApplicationsResearch needs to determine the effectiveness of such interventions, the specific attention tasks that might benefit, and the individual difference variables relevant for attention restoration.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-30T03:23:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820909287
       
  • Analysis of Human–Exoskeleton System Interaction for Ergonomic
           Design
    • Authors: Yilin Wang, Jing Qiu, Hong Cheng, Xiaojuan Zheng
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveLower-limb exoskeleton systems are defined as gait training or walking-assisting devices for spinal cord injury or hemiplegic patients. Crutches, straps, and baffles are designed to protect subjects from falling. However, skin abrasions occur when the interaction forces are too large. In this study, the interaction forces between the human body and an exoskeleton system named the AIDER were measured to confirm whether the design was ergonomic.BackgroundThe AIDER system is a wearable lower-limb exoskeleton. It secures a subject by binding on the waist, thighs, shanks, and feet.MethodEight healthy subjects participated in the study. The interaction forces of the waist strap, thigh baffles, shank baffles, and crutch handles were measured by pressure sensors. Ten repetitions were completed in this study. After one repetition, custom comfort questionnaires were completed by the subjects.ResultsAlthough a few of the peak values of the maximum intensities of pressure between the hands and crutch handles reached the minimum value of the pain–pressure threshold (PPT), the average pressure intensities were much smaller than the PPT value.ConclusionsThe results indicated that the mechanical structure and control strategy of the AIDER must be improved to be more ergonomic in the future.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T08:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820913789
       
  • Relationship Between Interface Pressures and Pneumatic Cuff Inflation
           Pressure at Different Assessment Sites of the Lower Limb to Aid Soft
           Exoskeleton Design
    • Authors: Tjaša Kermavnar, Kevin J. O’Sullivan, Adam de Eyto, Leonard W. O’Sullivan
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim was to develop a means of predicting interface pressure from cuff inflation pressure during circumferential compression at the lower limb, in order to inform the design of soft exoskeletons.BackgroundExcessive mechanical loading of tissues can cause discomfort and soft tissue injury. Most ergonomic studies on exoskeletons are of interface pressure, but soft exoskeletons apply circumferential pressures similar to tourniquet cuffs by way of cuff inflation pressure. This study details the relationship between interface and cuff inflation pressures for pneumatic tourniquet cuffs.MethodPneumatic cuffs of different widths were inflated to target pressures on (A) a rigid cylinder, (B) the dominant thigh and calf, and (C) knee of healthy participants standing still. Interface pressures were measured under the cuffs using a pressure-sensing mat. Average interface pressures were then compared to cuff inflation pressures. The influence of cuff width, cuff inflation pressure, and participants’ anthropometric data on pressure transmission was assessed.ResultsA strong linear relationship between cuff inflation pressures and interface pressures was observed. Interface pressures were generally higher than cuff inflation pressures. The efficiency of pressure transmission to the lower limb depended on assessment site, adipose tissue thickness, cuff size, cuff inflation pressure, and possibly limb circumference. Regression equations were developed to predict interface pressures at the thigh, calf, and knee.ConclusionInterface pressures under pneumatic cuffs are influenced by the cuff size, cuff inflation pressure, and tissue compressibility. Predicted interface pressure from cuff inflation pressure and vice versa can be used to aid the design of soft exoskeletons.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-13T04:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820908758
       
  • Truck Platooning Under Real Traffic Conditions: First Insights on
           Behavioral Adaptations and Gap Preference of Professional Drivers
    • Authors: Sarah-Maria Castritius, Christoph Johannes Dietz, Patric Schubert, Johanna Moeller, Simone Morvilius, Sabine Hammer, Chung Anh Tran, Christian T. Haas
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to investigate (1) how different gap sizes are perceived by professional truck drivers under real traffic conditions and (2) whether semi-automated platoon driving leads to changes in driving behavior of subsequent manual driving.BackgroundPlatoon driving is a current branch in the development of automated driving in which two or more vehicles build a convoy. The lead vehicle is controlled manually while following vehicles are electronically coupled to it and drive semi-automated with small gaps in order to achieve a better traffic flow and potential fuel savings.MethodIn a real road experiment, 10 trained professional truck drivers completed a total of 33 test drives with a two-truck platoon on the German highway A9 with a gap size of either 15 or 21 m, in the leading and the following vehicle.Results(1) The drivers experienced both gap sizes as comfortable and preferred the smaller gap size of 15 m. (2) Both gap sizes led to significantly higher standard deviation of lane position in post- compared to pre-platoon driving. No significant difference in distance keepings in post- compared to pre-platoon driving occurred. Qualitative data give hints on difficulties, when switching back to regular truck driving.ConclusionThe results implicate that small gap sizes are perceived as comfortable by drivers and that platoon driving has an influence on subsequent manual driving.ApplicationCountermeasures to behavioral adaptations should be considered in order to ensure a safe conduction of platoon driving.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-09T03:48:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820908481
       
  • Effects of Mobile Computer Terminal Configuration and Level of Driving
           Control on Police Officers’ Performance and Workload
    • Authors: Taylor Shupsky, Adriana Lyman, Jibo He, Maryam Zahabi
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to assess police officers’ performance and workload in using two mobile computer terminal (MCT) configurations under operational and tactical driving conditions.BackgroundCrash reports have identified in-vehicle distraction to be a major cause of law enforcement vehicle crashes. The MCT has been found to be the most frequently used in-vehicle technology and the main source of police in-vehicle distraction.MethodTwenty police officers participated in a driving simulator-based assessment of driving behavior, task completion time, and perceived workload with two MCT configurations under operational and tactical levels of driving.ResultsThe findings revealed that using the MCT configuration with speech-based data entry and head-up display location while driving improved driving performance, decreased task completion time, and reduced police officers’ workload as compared to the current MCT configuration used by police departments. Officers had better driving but worse secondary task performance under the operational driving as compared to the tactical driving condition.ConclusionThis study provided an empirical support for use of an enhanced MCT configuration in police vehicles to improve police officers’ safety and performance. In addition, the findings emphasize the need for more training to improve officers’ tactical driving skills and multitasking behavior.ApplicationThe findings provide guidelines for vehicle manufacturers, MCT developers, and police agencies to improve the design and implementation of MCTs in police vehicles considering input modality and display eccentricity, which are expected to increase officer and civilian safety.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-09T03:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820908362
       
  • A Strategic Core Role Perspective on Team Coordination: Benefits of
           
    • Authors: Surabhi Pasarakonda, Gudela Grote, Jan B. Schmutz, Jasmina Bogdanovic, Merlin Guggenheim, Tanja Manser
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe examine whether surgical teams can handle changes in task requirements better when their formal leader and strategic core role holder—that is, the main surgeon—is central to team coordination.BackgroundEvidence regarding the benefits of shared leadership for managing complex tasks is divided. We tested whether a strategic core role holder’s centrality in team coordination helps teams to handle different types of task complexity.MethodWe observed coordination as specific leadership behavior in 30 surgical teams during real-life operations. To assess the strategic core role holder’s coordination centrality, we conducted social network analyses. Task complexity (i.e., surgical difficulty and unexpected events) and surgical goal attainment were rated in a questionnaire.ResultsIn the critical operation phase, surgical difficulty impaired goal attainment when the strategic core role holder’s coordination centrality was low, while this effect was nonsignificant when his/her coordination centrality was high. Unexpected events had a negative effect on surgical goal attainment. However, coordination centrality of the strategic core role holder could not help manage unexpected events.ConclusionThe results indicate that shared leadership is not beneficial when teams face surgical difficulty during the critical operation phase. In this situation, team coordination should rather be centralized around the strategic core role holder. Contrarily, when unexpected events occur, centralizing team coordination around a single leader does not seem to be beneficial for goal attainment.ApplicationLeaders and team members should be aware of the importance of distributing leadership differently when it comes to managing different types of task complexity.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T07:54:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820906041
       
  • Trusting Other Vehicles’ Automatic Emergency Braking Decreases
           Self-Protective Driving
    • Authors: Yasunori Kinosada, Takashi Kobayashi, Kazumitsu Shinohara
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe focused on drivers in close proximity to vehicles with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). We examined whether the belief that an approaching vehicle is equipped with automatic emergency braking (AEB) influences behavior of those drivers.BackgroundIn addition to benefits of ADAS, previous studies have demonstrated negative behavioral adaptation, that is, behavioral changes after introduction of ADAS, by its users. However, little is known about whether negative behavioral adaptation can occur for nonusers in close proximity to vehicles with ADAS.MethodExperienced (Experiment 1) and novice (Experiment 2) drivers drove a simulator vehicle without ADAS and tried to pass through intersections. We manipulated participants’ belief about whether an approaching vehicle had AEB and time-to-arrival of the approaching vehicle. Participants kept constant speed or pressed the brake pedal before entering each intersection. In Experiment 2, participants rated their trust in AEB by a questionnaire after driving.ResultsIn both experiments, belief about the approaching vehicle’s AEB did not influence braking probability; however, belief delayed initiation of braking. The effect of belief on braking latency was only observed when trust in AEB was higher in Experiment 2.ConclusionNegative behavioral adaptation can occur for nonusers in close proximity to users of AEB, and trust in AEB plays an important role.ApplicationWhen evaluating the effect of ADAS, the possible behavioral change of surrounding nonusers as well as users should be taken into account. To establish consumers’ trust accurately, advertisements (e.g., TV commercials) must carefully consider their messages.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-26T07:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820907755
       
  • Dancing With Algorithms: Interaction Creates Greater Preference and Trust
           in Machine-Learned Behavior
    • Authors: Robert S. Gutzwiller, John Reeder
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe examined a method of machine learning (ML) to evaluate its potential to develop more trustworthy control of unmanned vehicle area search behaviors.BackgroundML typically lacks interaction with the user. Novel interactive machine learning (IML) techniques incorporate user feedback, enabling observation of emerging ML behaviors, and human collaboration during ML of a task. This may enable trust and recognition of these algorithms.MethodParticipants judged and selected behaviors in a low and a high interaction condition (IML) over the course of behavior evolution using ML. User trust in the outputs, as well as preference, and ability to discriminate and recognize the behaviors were measured.ResultsCompared to noninteractive techniques, IML behaviors were more trusted and preferred, as well as recognizable, separate from non-IML behaviors, and approached similar performance as pure ML models.ConclusionIML shows promise for creating behaviors by involving the user; this is the first extension of this technique for vehicle behavior model development targeting user satisfaction and is unique in its multifaceted evaluation of how users perceived, trusted, and implemented these learned controllers.ApplicationThere are many contexts where the brittleness of ML cannot be trusted, but the advantage of ML over traditional programmed behaviors may be large, as in some military operations where they could be scaled. IML in this early form appears to generate satisfactory behaviors without sacrificing performance, use, or trust in the behavior, but more work is necessary.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T04:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820903893
       
  • Neck Muscular Load When Using a Smartphone While Sitting, Standing, and
           Walking
    • Authors: Woojin Yoon, Seobin Choi, Hyeseon Han, Gwanseob Shin
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveMyoelectric activity of neck extensor muscles and head kinematic variables, when using a smartphone for one-handed browsing and two-handed texting while sitting, standing, and walking, were evaluated to compare the neck muscular load during these tasks and across the posture conditions.BackgroundThere has been limited research on the relation between head-down postures and the muscular load on the neck of smartphone users.MethodsTwenty-one asymptomatic young users were asked to perform one-handed browsing and two-handed texting tasks in each of the posture conditions, and the myoelectric activities of the neck extensor muscles, head kinematic variables, and upper back posture were quantified.ResultsThe muscle activation level when using a phone during walking was 21.2% and 41.7% higher than that of sitting and standing on average (p < .01). Head vertical and angular accelerations were also significantly greater (p < .01) for walking than for sitting and standing conditions. Between the two conducted tasks, participants flexed their heads more significantly (p < .01) with higher activation of the neck extensor muscles (p < .01) when texting as compared to when browsing.ConclusionResults indicate that two-handed texting while walking would be the most physically demanding scenario for neck musculature, and it might be attributable to the dynamics of the head while walking with the head facing downwards.ApplicationThese findings can be used to better understand the potential relation between smartphone use and the occurrence of neck musculoskeletal problems and to inform the users of the ergonomic risks of using smartphones while walking.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T06:00:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820904237
       
  • Typing on a Smartwatch While Mobile: A Comparison of Input Methods
    • Authors: Colton J. Turner, Barbara S. Chaparro, Jibo He
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe user experience of typing on a smartwatch was evaluated with three unique input methods (tap, trace, and handwriting) while standing and while walking.BackgroundDespite widespread development within the technology industry, smartwatches have had a relatively slow adoption worldwide compared to smartphones. One limiting factor of smartwatches has been the lack of an efficient means of text entry. The 2017 release of Android Wear addressed this issue by providing support for native text entry (i.e., tap, trace, and handwriting). Determining how user performance and subjective ratings compare across these input methods is essential to understanding their contribution to smartwatch user experience.MethodTwenty college-age individuals typed phrases using tap, trace, and handwriting input on a smartwatch in three different mobility scenarios (standing, walking a simple course, walking a complex course).ResultsParticipants typed faster with trace (30 words per minute; WPM) than with tap (20 WPM) and handwriting (18 WPM), regardless of mobility. Trace also outperformed tap and handwriting across all subjective metrics, regardless of mobility.ConclusionTrace input appears to be especially well suited for typing on a smartwatch as it was found to be objectively and subjectively superior to tap and handwriting regardless of user mobility. Objectively, typing speeds with trace are shown to be nearly two times faster than most alternative input methods described in the literature.ApplicationResults suggest smartwatch manufacturers should include QWERTY keyboards with trace input as a standard feature in order to provide the best overall typing experience for their users.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T09:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819891291
       
  • Between Two Rocks and in a Hard Place: Reflecting on the Biomechanical
           Basis of Shoulder Occupational Musculoskeletal Disorders
    • Authors: Clark R. Dickerson, Alison C. McDonald, Jaclyn N. Chopp-Hurley
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim was to review the biomechanical origins of occupational shoulder damage, while considering the complexity of shoulder mechanics and musculoskeletal consequences of diverse task demands.BackgroundAccessible measures of physical exposures are the primary focus of occupational shoulder assessments and analyses. This approach has led to guidelines and intervention strategies that are often inadequate for mitigating shoulder disorders amongst the complexity of modern workplace demands. Integration of complex shoulder mechanics into occupational assessments, analyses, and interventions is critical for reducing occupational shoulder injury risk.MethodThis narrative review describes shoulder biomechanics in the context of common injury mechanisms and consequent injuries, with a particular focus on subacromial impingement syndrome. Several modulators of shoulder injury risk are reviewed, including fatigue, overhead work, office ergonomics considerations, and pushing and pulling task configurations.ResultsRelationships between work requirements, muscular demands, fatigue, and biomechanical tissue loads exist. This review highlights that consideration of specific workplace factors should be integrated with our knowledge of the intricate arrangement and interpersonal variability of the shoulder complex to proactively evaluate occupational shoulder demands and exposures.ConclusionA standard method for evaluating shoulder muscle exposures during workplace tasks does not exist. An integrated approach is critical for improved work design and prevention of shoulder tissue damage and accompanying disability.ApplicationThis review is particularly relevant for researchers and practitioners, providing guidance for work design and evaluation for shoulder injury prevention by understanding the importance of the unique and complex mechanics of the shoulder.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T07:06:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819896191
       
  • Usability: Adoption, Measurement, Value
    • Authors: Janine D. Mator, William E. Lehman, Wyatt McManus, Sarah Powers, Lauren Tiller, James R. Unverricht, Jeremiah D. Still
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe searched for the application of usability in the literature with a focus on adoption, measurements employed, and demonstrated value. Five human factors domains served as a platform for our reflection, which included the last 20 years.BackgroundAs usability studies continue to accumulate, there has been only a little past reflection on usability and contributions across a variety of applications. Our research provides a background for general usability, and we target specific usability research subareas within transportation, aging populations, autistic populations, telehealth, and cybersecurity.Method“Usability” research was explored across five different domains within human factors. The goal was not to perform an exhaustive review but, rather, sample usability practices within several specific subareas. We focused on answering three questions: How was usability adopted' How was it measured' How was it framed in terms of value'ConclusionWe found that usability is very domain specific. Usability benchmarking studies and empirical standards are rare. The value associated with improving usability ranged widely—from monetary benefits to saving lives. Thus, researchers are motivated to further improve usability practices. A number of data collection and interpretation challenges still call for solutions.ApplicationFindings offer insight into the development of usability, as applied across a variety of subdomains. Our reflection ought to inform future theory development efforts. We are concerned about the lack of established benchmarks, which can help ground data interpretation. Future research should address this gap in the literature. We note that our findings can be used to develop better training materials for future usability researchers.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T04:37:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819895098
       
  • Why and How to Approach User Experience in Safety-Critical Domains: The
           Example of Health Care

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Tobias Grundgeiger, Jörn Hurtienne, Oliver Happel
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:To highlight the importance of the personal experience of users who interact with technology in safety-critical domains and summarize three interaction concepts and the associated theories that provide the means for addressing user experience.Background:In health care, the dominant concepts of interaction are based on theories arising from classic cognitive psychology. These concepts focus mainly on safety and efficiency, with too little consideration being given to user experience.Method:Users in complex socio-technical and safety-critical domains such as health care interact with many technological devices. Enhancing the user experience could improve the design of technology, enhance the well-being of staff, and contribute to modern safety management. We summarize concepts of “interaction” based on modern theories of human–computer interaction, which include the personal experience of users as an important construct.Results and Conclusion:Activity theory, embodiment, and interaction as experience provide a theoretical foundation for considering user experience in safety-critical domains. Using an example from anesthesiology, we demonstrate how each theory provides a unique but complementary view on experience. Finally, the methodological possibilities for considering personal experience in design and evaluations vary among the theories.Application:Considering user experience in health care and potentially other safety-critical domains can provide an additional means of optimizing interaction with technology, contributing to the well-being of staff, and improving safety.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-01-08T10:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819887575
       
  • Is It Time to Go Positive' Assessing the Positively Worded System
           Usability Scale (SUS)
    • Authors: Philip Kortum, Claudia Ziegler Acemyan, Frederick L. Oswald
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      Objective:The goal of the research presented in this paper was to determine if the positively worded System Usability Scale (SUS) can be used in place of the positively and negatively worded standard SUS instrument for the subjective assessment of usability, and whether the results found here replicate those of Sauro and Lewis.Background:Sauro and Lewis’ previous study found no evidence that responses to SUS items differed across the standard SUS and the modified, positively worded version of the SUS when participants assessed websites. This study replicates and extends this work by examining a large number of different systems with larger sample sizes to add to the generalizability of previous findings.Methods:So that participants could retrospectively assess 20 products, the standard SUS was administered to 268 participants and the positive SUS to 698 participants. SUS scores were computed and the data analyzed using psychometric methods to explore how the two versions of the SUS differed.Results:The standard and positive versions of the SUS yielded similar SUS scores. In addition, both versions of the scale demonstrated evidence in support of reliability and validity.Conclusion:Either version of the SUS can be used with confidence to measure subjective usability. Furthermore, the scores generated from both versions of the SUS can be directly compared.Applications:In situations where cognitive load, participants’ spoken language, or item consistency with other surveys being given may be a factor, the positive SUS is a viable alternative to the standard SUS.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-01-08T09:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819881556
       
  • A Framework for Design of Conversational Agents to Support Health
           Self-Care for Older Adults
    • Authors: Daniel G. Morrow, H. Chad Lane, Wendy A. Rogers
      First page: 369
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe examined the potential of conversational agents (CAs) to support older adults’ self-care related to chronic illness in light of lessons learned from decades of pedagogical agent research, which investigates the impact and efficacy of CAs for a wide range of learners.BackgroundThe role of CAs in education (i.e., pedagogical agents) has been long studied, but their potential for supporting self-care has received less attention, especially for older adults.MethodsWe reviewed work on pedagogical agents and considered how it informs the design of CAs for older adults. We propose a framework for designing CAs to support older adult self-care, which organizes a review of work in this area and integration with the pedagogical agent literature.ResultsOur review of the pedagogical agent literature revealed an evolution from teaching machines to interactive, social systems that influence student motivational as well as learning outcomes. To integrate this review with work on CAs and self-care, we developed a framework that specifies how self-care goals evolve with stages of an illness, communication goals that support self-care at each stage, patient needs, and requirements for CAs to support these needs. The review identified an agenda for future research on CA functions and features that help older adults accept need for self-care, establish self-care, and sustain self-care over time.ConclusionsIntegrating insights from the pedagogical agent literature with research on developing CAs for self-care defines an agenda for developing and evaluating CAs to help older adults manage illness.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T03:55:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820964085
       
  • The Ups and Downs of Camera-Monitor Systems: The Effect of Camera Position
           on Rearward Distance Perception
    • Authors: Christoph Bernhard, Heiko Hecht
      First page: 415
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigates the effects of different positions of side-mounted rear-view cameras on distance estimation of drivers.BackgroundCamera-monitor systems bring advantages as compared to conventional rear-view mirrors, such as improved aerodynamics and enlarged field-of-view. Applied research has mainly focused on the comparison between cameras and mirrors or on positioning of in-vehicle monitors. However, the positioning of the exterior camera awaits investigation given that the perspective of the observer at does affect depth perception at large.MethodIn two experiments, a total of 50 students estimated metric distances to static vehicles presented in realistic or 3D-rendered pictures. The pictures depicted the rearward scene of a car following the driver as viewed through a camera at varying vertical and horizontal positions. The following vehicle’s size and environmental information varied among conditions and experiments.ResultsLower camera positions led to distance overestimation and higher positions to underestimation. The effect increased as the distance to the following vehicle decreased. Moreover, larger vehicles led to stronger distance underestimation, especially in low camera positions. Interestingly, the main effect of camera position disappeared when the ego-vehicles’ back was visible.ConclusionDifferent rearward viewpoints affect distance estimation of drivers, especially in close distances. However, a visible reference of one’s own vehicle seems to mostly compensate this effect.ApplicationIn general, the rear-view camera should be mounted rather higher and to the front of the vehicle. Also, the vehicle’s back should always be visible. Low camera positions are not recommended.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-03T06:28:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819895866
       
  • Habitability in Berthing Compartments and Well-Being of Sailors Working on
           U.S. Navy Surface Ships
    • Authors: Panagiotis Matsangas, Nita Lewis Shattuck
      First page: 462
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe study had two objectives: (a) to assess the prevalence of sleep-related habitability concerns in the berthing compartments of U.S. Navy surface ships and (b) to assess whether habitability issues in berthing compartments affected the sleep and well-being of crew members.BackgroundThe importance of habitability for human well-being is recognized. Little is known, however, about the association between habitability factors in the sleeping/berthing compartments and sailor well-being in operational conditions.MethodFit-for-duty sailors (N = 1,269; from six ships) participated in this naturalistic and longitudinal study. Sailors reported habitability factors affecting their sleep and completed four standardized questionnaires to assess daytime sleepiness, insomnia, sleep quality, and mood. Sleep was assessed through wrist-worn actigraphy and activity logs.ResultsNoise, ambient temperature, poor bedding conditions, and ambient light were the most frequently reported factors of concern. Compared to their peers with fewer complaints, sailors with more habitability-related complaints were more likely to have elevated daytime sleepiness (by 23%) and to report insomnia symptoms (145%) and lower sleep quality (21%). Sailors who reported more habitability-related issues also tended to sleep longer. Individuals with more complaints about habitability also tended to report worse mood (total mood disturbance, tension/anxiety, depression, fatigue, and confusion/bewilderment).ConclusionHabitability-related complaints are associated with sailor well-being and sleep. Future studies should expound on the various detrimental factors that degrade conditions in berthing compartments and negatively impact crew well-being.ApplicationHabitability in berthing compartments of surface ships is associated with sailors’ daytime sleepiness, insomnia severity, mood, and sleep attributes. Ship designers should take these findings into consideration and investigate viable and cost-effective methods to mitigate the problems we identified.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-28T06:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820906050
       
  • Temperature–Color Interaction: Subjective Indoor Environmental
           Perception and Physiological Responses in Virtual Reality
    • Authors: Giorgia Chinazzo, Kynthia Chamilothori, Jan Wienold, Marilyne Andersen
      First page: 474
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTemperature–color interaction effects on subjective perception and physiological responses are investigated using a novel hybrid experimental method combining thermal and visual stimuli from real and virtual reality (VR) environments, respectively.BackgroundDespite potential building design applications, studies combining temperature with daylight transmitted through colored glazing are limited due to hard-to-control light conditions. VR is identified as a promising experimental tool for such investigations that overcomes the limitations of experiments using daylight.MethodFifty-seven people participated in an experiment combining three colored glazing (orange/blue/neutral) and two temperatures (24°C/29°C). Exposed to one color–temperature combination, participants evaluated their thermal, visual, and overall perception, whereas their physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature) were continuously measured.ResultsDaylight color significantly affected thermal perception, whereas no significant effects of temperature on visual perception were found. Acceptability of the workspace was affected by both color and temperature. Cross-modal effects from either daylight color or temperature levels on physiological responses were not observed.ConclusionIn the VR setting, the orange daylight led to warmer thermal perception in (close-to-) comfortable temperatures, resulting in a color-induced thermal perception and indicating that orange glazing should be used with caution in a slightly warm environment.ApplicationFindings can be applied to the design of buildings using new glazing technologies with saturated colors, such as transparent photovoltaics. Despite some limitations, the hybrid environment is suggested as a promising experimental tool for future studies on indoor factor interactions.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T05:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819892383
       
  • Olfactory Facilitation of Takeover Performance in Highly Automated Driving
    • Authors: Qiuyang Tang, Gang Guo, Zijian Zhang, Bingbing Zhang, Yingzhang Wu
      First page: 553
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study aims to quantify the impact of olfactory stimulation and takeover modality on the performance of takeovers in conditionally automated driving.BackgroundTakeover requests are important for the safety of automated vehicles. The reaction time and subsequent performance of drivers in the takeover process are crucial for safety. In this study, peppermint was adopted as an auxiliary modality to the tactile and auditory design of takeover requests.MethodsSixty participants took part in the experiment, which required participants to avoid a stalled vehicle after they were awoken from a state of light sleep by a takeover request. Takeover modality (tactile, auditory, and combined) was the within-subjects factor. In the between-subjects design, half of the participants received a peppermint odor stimulation when the takeover request occurred, and the other half received a placebo (air).ResultsThe presence of peppermint odor did not influence the reaction time, but participants did show signs of being more alert afterwards. For the moment of takeover, use of the auditory modality had a significant positive effect on reaction time compared to the tactile conditions.ConclusionPeppermint odor had a positive impact on drivers’ takeover quality when engaged in nondriving-related activities such as light sleep, and the takeover request modalities were shown to be crucial for a safe and successful takeover.ApplicationThe results will be useful as a reference for developers of automated driving systems to design human–machine interfaces, shorten the driver’s reaction time, and improve takeover quality.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T08:50:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819893137
       
  • Effect of Repositioning Aids and Patient Weight on Biomechanical Stresses
           When Repositioning Patients in Bed

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Neal Wiggermann, Jie Zhou, Nancy McGann
      First page: 565
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to estimate the risk of injury when repositioning patients of different weight with commonly used repositioning aids.BackgroundRepositioning dependent patients in bed is the most common type of patient handling activity and is associated with high rates of musculoskeletal disorders in healthcare workers. Several studies have evaluated repositioning aids, but typically for a single patient weight and often without estimating risk of injury based on biomechanical analysis.MethodTen nurses performed four repositioning activities on three participants (50, 77, 141 kg) using three repositioning aids (pair of friction-reducing sheets [FRS], turn and position glide sheet, air-assisted transfer device) and a draw sheet. Motion capture, hand forces, and ground reaction forces were recorded. Spine loading was estimated using a dynamic biomechanical model.ResultsHand forces and spine compression exceeded recommended limits for most patient weights and repositioning tasks with the draw sheet. FRS and glide sheet reduced these loads but still exceeded recommended limits for all but the 50-kg patient. Only the air-assisted transfer device reduced forces to accepted levels for all patient weights. Physical stresses were relatively low when turning patients.ConclusionMost repositioning aids are insufficient to properly mitigate risk of musculoskeletal injury in healthcare workers. Only the air-assisted transfer device was sufficient to adequately mitigate the risk of injury when moving patients of average or above-average weight.ApplicationTo safely move dependent patients, a robust solution requires mechanical lifts and may utilize air-assisted transfer devices for patient transfers.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T08:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819895850
       
  • Drivers’ Spatio-Temporal Attentional Distributions Are Influenced by
           Vehicle Dynamics and Displayed Point of View
    • Authors: Tyler N. Morrison, Emanuele Rizzi, O. Anil Turkkan, Richard J. Jagacinski, Haijun Su, Junmin Wang
      First page: 578
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to measure drivers’ attention to preview and their velocity and acceleration tracking error to evaluate two- and three-dimensional displays for following a winding roadway.BackgroundDisplay perturbation techniques and Fourier analysis of steering movements can be used to infer drivers’ spatio-temporal distribution of attention to preview. Fourier analysis of tracking error time histories provides measures of position, velocity, and acceleration error.MethodParticipants tracked a winding roadway with 1 s of preview in low-fidelity driving simulations. Position and rate-aided vehicle dynamics were paired with top-down and windshield displays of the roadway.ResultsFor both vehicle dynamics, tracking was smoother with the windshield display. This display emphasizes nearer preview positions and has a closer correspondence to the control-theoretic optimal attentional distributions for these tasks than the top-down display. This correspondence is interpreted as a form of stimulus–response compatibility. The position error and attentional signal-to-noise ratios did not differ between the two displays with position control, but with more complex rate-aided control much higher position error and much lower attentional signal-to-noise ratios occurred with the top-down display.ConclusionDisplay-driven influences on the distribution of attention may facilitate tracking with preview when they are similar to optimal attentional distributions derived from control theory.ApplicationDisplay perturbation techniques can be used to assess spatially distributed attention to evaluate displays and secondary tasks in the context of driving. This methodology can supplement eye movement measurements to determine what information is guiding drivers’ actions.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-10T08:02:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820902879
       
  • Trusting Autonomous Security Robots: The Role of Reliability and Stated
           Social Intent
    • Authors: Joseph B. Lyons, Thy Vo, Kevin T. Wynne, Sean Mahoney, Chang S. Nam, Darci Gallimore
      First page: 603
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis research examined the effects of reliability and stated social intent on trust, trustworthiness, and one’s willingness to endorse use of an autonomous security robot (ASR).BackgroundHuman–robot interactions in the domain of security is plausible, yet we know very little about what drives acceptance of ASRs. Past research has used static images and game-based simulations to depict the robots versus actual humans interacting with actual robots.MethodA video depicted an ASR interacting with a human. The ASR reviewed access credentials and allowed entrance once verified. If the ASR could not verify one’s credentials it instructed the visitor to return to the security checkpoint. The ASR was equipped with a nonlethal device and the robot used this device on one of the three visitors (a research confederate). Manipulations of reliability and stated social intent of the ASR were used in a 2 × 4 between subjects design (N = 320).ResultsReliability influenced trust and trustworthiness. Stated social intent influenced trustworthiness. Participants reported being more favorable toward use of the ASR in military contexts versus public contexts.ConclusionThe study demonstrated that reliability of the ASR and statements regarding the ASR’s stated social intent are important considerations influencing the trust process (inclusive of intentions to be vulnerable and trustworthiness perceptions).ApplicationIf robotic systems are authorized to use force against a human, public acceptance may be increased with availability of the intent-based programming of the robot and whether or not the robot’s decision was reliable.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-06T07:14:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820901629
       
  • Communication of Hazards in Mixed-Reality Telerobotic Systems: The Usage
           of Naturalistic Avoidance Cues in Driving Tasks
    • Authors: Robert Valner, Jason Mario Dydynski, Sookyung Cho, Karl Kruusamäe
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigates the effect of naturalistic visual cues on human avoidance behavior for a potential use in telerobotic user interfaces incorporating mixed-reality environments (e.g., augmented reality).BackgroundTelerobotic systems used in hazardous environments require interfaces that draw operators’ attention to potential dangers. Existing means of hazard notification can often distract or induce stress in operators. In the design and implementation of such interfaces, visual semiotics plays a critical role in creating more effective interfaces. Naturalistic visual cues such as Aposematism or Kindchenschema have proven effective to communicate danger or caution in nature, but the application of these cues in visual systems have yet to be thoroughly investigated.MethodA study was conducted where 40 volunteering participants were asked to control a remote vehicle in a simulated environment. The environment contained a set of neutral and visually augmented obstacles that were designed to provoke avoidance behavior.ResultsThe use of visual cues triggered greater avoidance behaviors in participants compared to neutral obstacles. The distance of avoidance was correlated with the type of cue present, with obstacles augmented by Aposematism (Cue A) having a greater participant–obstacle distance than Kindchenschema (Cue K).ConclusionsThis study shows the potential for the incorporation of naturalistic visual cues as a means to designate warning or caution in telerobotic environments.ApplicationsThe findings can offer practical guidelines for the design of visual cues in telerobotic interfaces. The further incorporation of such cues may reduce operator stress and the amount of human errors in telerobotic operations.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T04:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820902293
       
  • Differentiating Experience From Cue Utilization in Radiological
           Assessments
    • Authors: Ann J. Carrigan, John Magnussen, Andrew Georgiou, Kim M. Curby, Thomas J. Palmeri, Mark W. Wiggins
      First page: 635
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis research was designed to examine the contribution of self-reported experience and cue utilization to diagnostic accuracy in the context of radiology.BackgroundWithin radiology, it is unclear how task-related experience contributes to the acquisition of associations between features with events in memory, or cues, and how they contribute to diagnostic performance.MethodData were collected from 18 trainees and 41 radiologists. The participants completed a radiology edition of the established cue utilization assessment tool EXPERTise 2.0, which provides a measure of cue utilization based on performance on a number of domain-specific tasks. The participants also completed a separate image interpretation task as an independent measure of diagnostic performance.ResultsConsistent with previous research, a k-means cluster analysis using the data from EXPERTise 2.0 delineated two groups, the pattern of centroids of which reflected higher and lower cue utilization. Controlling for years of experience, participants with higher cue utilization were more accurate on the image interpretation task compared to participants who demonstrated relatively lower cue utilization (p = .01).ConclusionThis study provides support for the role of cue utilization in assessments of radiology images among qualified radiologists. Importantly, it also demonstrates that cue utilization and self-reported years of experience as a radiologist make independent contributions to performance on the radiological diagnostic task.ApplicationTask-related experience, including training, needs to be structured to ensure that learners have the opportunity to acquire feature–event relationships and internalize these associations in the form of cues in memory.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-09T04:57:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820902576
       
  • Force Anticipation and Its Potential Implications on Feedforward and
           Feedback Human Motor Control
    • Authors: Hideyuki Kimpara, Kenechukwu C. Mbanisi, Zhi Li, Karen L. Troy, Danil Prokhorov, Michael A. Gennert
      First page: 647
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of human force anticipation, we conducted an experimental load-pushing task with diverse combinations of informed and actual loading weights.BackgroundHuman motor control tends to rely upon the anticipated workload to plan the force to exert, particularly in fast tasks such as pushing objects in less than 1 s. The motion and force responses in such tasks may depend on the anticipated resistive forces, based on a learning process.MethodPushing performances of 135 trials were obtained from 9 participants. We varied the workload by changing the masses from 0.2 to 5 kg. To influence anticipation, participants were shown a display of the workload that was either correct or incorrect. We collected the motion and force data, as well as electromyography (EMG) signals from the actively used muscle groups.ResultsOveranticipation produced overshoot performances in more than 80% of trials. Lighter actual workloads were also associated with overshoot. Pushing behaviors with heavier workloads could be classified into feedforward-dominant and feedback-dominant responses based on the timing of force, motion, and EMG responses. In addition, we found that the preceding trial condition affected the performance of the subsequent trial.ConclusionOur results show that the first peak of the pushing force increases consistently with anticipatory workload.ApplicationThis study improves our understanding of human motion control and can be applied to situations such as simulating interactions between drivers and assistive systems in intelligent vehicles.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T03:42:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720819900842
       
  • A Longitudinal Evaluation of Risk Factors and Interactions for the
           Development of Nonspecific Neck Pain in Office Workers in Two Cultures
    • Authors: Deokhoon Jun, Venerina Johnston, Steven M. McPhail, Shaun O’Leary
      First page: 663
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo identify risk factors for the development of interfering neck pain in office workers including an examination of the interaction effects between potential risk factors.BackgroundThe 1-year incidence of neck pain in office workers is reported as the highest of all occupations. Identifying risk factors for the development of neck pain in office workers is therefore a priority to direct prevention strategies.MethodsParticipants included 214 office workers without neck pain from two cultures. A battery of measures evaluating potential individual and workplace risk factors were administered at baseline, and the incidence of interfering neck pain assessed monthly for 12 months. Survival analysis was used to identify relationships between risk factors and the development of interfering neck pain.ResultsOne-year incidence was 1.93 (95% CI [1.41, 2.64]) per 100 person months. Factors increasing the risk of developing interfering neck pain were older age, female gender, increased sitting hours, higher job strain, and stress. A neutral thorax sitting posture, greater cervical range of motion and muscle endurance, and higher physical activity were associated with a decreased risk of neck pain. The effects of some risk factors on the development of neck pain were moderated by the workers’ coping resources.ConclusionMultiple risk factors and interactions may explain the development of neck pain in office workers. Therefore, plans for preventing the development of interfering neck pain in office workers should consider multiple individual and work-related factors with some factors being potentially more modifiable than others.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T06:45:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820904231
       
  • Team Combat Identification: Effects of Gender, Spatial Visualization, and
           Disagreement
    • Authors: Anthony L. Baker, Joseph R. Keebler, Emily C. Anania, David Schuster, John P. Plummer
      First page: 684
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe combat identification (CID) abilities of same-gender and mixed-gender dyads were experimentally assessed, along with measures of spatial skills and team communication.BackgroundCID is a high-stakes decision-making task involving discrimination between friendly and enemy forces. Literature on CID is primarily focused on the individual, but the extensive use of teams in the military means that more team-based research is needed in this area.MethodAfter a set of training sessions, 39 dyads were tasked with identifying 10 armored vehicles in a series of pictures and videos. Team communication was recorded, transcribed, and coded for instances of disagreements.ResultsAnalyses indicated that males scored higher on a spatial visualization measure than did females. M-M teams performed significantly better than M-F teams on the CID task, but when spatial ability and team disagreements were added as predictors, the effect of team gender composition became nonsignificant. Spatial ability and team disagreement were significant predictors of team CID performance.ConclusionResults suggest that spatial skills and team disagreement behaviors are more important for team CID performance than a team’s gender composition. To our knowledge, this is the first lab study of team CID.ApplicationThis research highlights the importance of understanding both individual differences (e.g., spatial skills) and team processes (e.g., communication) within CID training environments in the military context.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-04T06:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820902286
       
  • Shared Gaze Fails to Improve Team Visual Monitoring
    • Authors: Jason S. McCarley, Nathan Leggett, Alison Enright
      First page: 696
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim was to test the value of shared gaze as a way to improve team performance in a visual monitoring task.BackgroundTeams outperform individuals in monitoring tasks, but fall short of achievable levels. Shared-gaze displays offer a potential method of improving team efficiency. Within a shared-gaze arrangement, operators collaborate on a visual task, and each team member’s display includes a cursor to represent the other teammates’ point of regard. Past work has suggested that shared gaze allows operators to better communicate and coordinate their attentional scanning in a visual search task. The current experiments sought to replicate and extend earlier findings of inefficient team performance in a visual monitoring task, and asked whether shared gaze would improve team efficiency.MethodParticipants performed a visual monitoring task framed as a sonar operation. Displays were matrices of luminance patches varying in intensity. The participants’ task was to monitor for occasional critical signals, patches of high luminance. In Experiment 1, pairs of participants performed the task independently, or working as teams. In Experiment 2, teams of two participants performed the task with or without shared-gaze displays.ResultsIn Experiment 1, teams detected more critical signals than individuals, but were statistically inefficient; detection rates were lower than predicted by a control model that assumed pairs of operators searching in isolation. In Experiment 2, shared gaze failed to increase target detection rates.Conclusion and applicationOperators collaborate inefficiently in visual monitoring tasks, and shared gaze does not improve their performance.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T05:51:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820902347
       
  • The Effects of Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality as
           Training Enhancement Methods: A Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Alexandra D. Kaplan, Jessica Cruit, Mica Endsley, Suzanne M. Beers, Ben D. Sawyer, P. A. Hancock
      First page: 706
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the presently available, empirical findings on transfer of training from virtual (VR), augmented (AR), and mixed reality (MR) and determine whether such extended reality (XR)-based training is as effective as traditional training methods.BackgroundMR, VR, and AR have already been used as training tools in a variety of domains. However, the question of whether or not these manipulations are effective for training has not been quantitatively and conclusively answered. Evidence shows that, while extended realities can often be time-saving and cost-saving training mechanisms, their efficacy as training tools has been debated.MethodThe current body of literature was examined and all qualifying articles pertaining to transfer of training from MR, VR, and AR were included in the meta-analysis. Effect sizes were calculated to determine the effects that XR-based factors, trainee-based factors, and task-based factors had on performance measures after XR-based training.ResultsResults showed that training in XR does not express a different outcome than training in a nonsimulated, control environment. It is equally effective at enhancing performance.ConclusionAcross numerous studies in multiple fields, extended realities are as effective of a training mechanism as the commonly accepted methods. The value of XR then lies in providing training in circumstances, which exclude traditional methods, such as situations when danger or cost may make traditional training impossible.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2020-02-24T06:56:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0018720820904229
       
 
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