Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1562 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (740 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 397 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Open     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Advances in Nursing Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Health Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Primary Health     Hybrid Journal  
Australian Journal of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BJR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMJ Leader     Hybrid Journal  
BMJ Quality & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
British Journal of Healthcare Assistants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Healthcare Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Hospital Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 297)
British Journal of School Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bruce R Hopkins' Nonprofit Counsel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building Better Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Medical Record English Edition     Hybrid Journal  
CIN : Computers Informatics Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Audit     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinics and Practice     Open Access  
Cognition, Technology & Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Based Medical Journal     Open Access  
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Nurse : A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Das Gesundheitswesen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dental Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
DoctorConsult - The Journal. Wissen für Klinik und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription  
Droit, Déontologie & Soin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
East and Central African Journal of Surgery     Open Access  
Éducation thérapeutique du patient     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
eGEMs     Open Access  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Enfermería Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Escola Anna Nery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Research in Telemedicine / La Recherche Européenne en Télémédecine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidence-Based Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family Practice Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Hospital Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gastrointestinal Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global & Regional Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Action     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Health Management Journal (GHMJ)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Hospital Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Public Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Handbook of Practice Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health and Interprofessional Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Care Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Health Expectations     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Health Facilities Management     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health Informatics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Health Information : Jurnal Penelitian     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health Information Science and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Reform Observer : Observatoire des Réformes de Santé     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Health Science Journal of Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Healthcare : The Journal of Delivery Science and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Management Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Policy / Politiques de Santé     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Healthcare Risk Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
HealthcarePapers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hospital a Domicilio     Open Access  
Hospital Medicine Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Peer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Hospital Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 18)
Hospital Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
ICU Director     Hybrid Journal  
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IISE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Independent Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Index de Enfermeria     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Informatics for Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INQUIRY : The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Care Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Computers in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Electronic Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Health Administration and Education Congress (Sanitas Magisterium)     Open Access  
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Health Economics and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Health Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Hospital Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Palliative Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Positive Behavioural Support     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Privacy and Health Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Public and Private Healthcare Management and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Reliable and Quality E-Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Clinical Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Telework and Telecommuting Technologies     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
International Journal of User-Driven Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Disability and Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Irish Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JAAPA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jaffna Medical Journal     Open Access  
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal for Healthcare Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Advanced Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aging and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Arts and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Health Policy and Planning
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.512
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 27  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0268-1080 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2237
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [416 journals]
  • ‘We had to manage what we had on hand, in whatever way we could’:
           adaptive responses in policy for decentralized drug-resistant tuberculosis
           care in South Africa
    • Authors: Kielmann K; Dickson-Hall L, Jassat W, et al.
      Pages: 249 - 259
      Abstract: In 2011, the South African National TB Programme launched a policy of decentralized management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in order to expand the capacity of facilities to treat patients with DR-TB, minimize delays to access care and improve patient outcomes. This policy directive was implemented to varying degrees within a rapidly evolving diagnostic and treatment landscape for DR-TB, placing new demands on already-stressed health systems. The variable readiness of district-level systems to implement the policy prompted questions not only about differences in health systems resources but also front-line actors’ capacity to implement change in resource-constrained facilities. Using a grounded theory approach, we analysed data from in-depth interviews and small group discussions conducted between 2016 and 2018 with managers (n = 9), co-ordinators (n = 15), doctors (n = 7) and nurses (n = 18) providing DR-TB care. Data were collected over two phases in district-level decentralized sites of three South African provinces. While health systems readiness assessments conventionally map the availability of ‘hardware’, i.e. resources and skills to deliver an intervention, a notable absence of systems ‘hardware’ meant that systems ‘software’, i.e. health care workers (HCWs) agency, behaviours and interactions provided the basis of locally relevant strategies for decentralized DR-TB care. ‘Software readiness’ was manifest in four areas of DR-TB care: re-organization of service delivery, redressal of resource shortages, creation of treatment adherence support systems and extension of care parameters for vulnerable patients. These strategies demonstrate adaptive capacity and everyday resilience among HCW to withstand the demands of policy change and innovation in stressed systems. Our work suggests that a useful extension of health systems ‘readiness’ assessments would include definition and evaluation of HCW ‘software’ and adaptive capacities in the face of systems hardware gaps.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa147
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • Challenges in implementing emergency obstetric care (EmOC) policies:
           perspectives and behaviours of frontline health workers in Uganda
    • Authors: Mukuru M; Kiwanuka S, Gibson L, et al.
      Pages: 260 - 272
      Abstract: Uganda is among the sub-Saharan African Countries which continue to experience high preventable maternal mortality due to obstetric emergencies. Several Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) policies rolled out have never achieved their intended targets to date. To explore why upstream policy expectations were not achieved at the frontline during the MDG period, we examined the implementation of EmOC policies in Uganda by; exploring the barriers frontline implementers of EmOC policies faced, their coping behaviours and the consequences for maternal health. We conducted a retrospective exploratory qualitative study between March and June 2019 in Luwero, Iganga and Masindi districts selected based on differences in maternal mortality. Data were collected using 8 in-depth interviews with doctors and 17 midwives who provided EmOC services in Uganda’s public health facilities during the MDG period. We reviewed two national maternal health policy documents and interviewed two Ministry of Health Officials on referral by participants. Data analysis was guided by the theory of Street-Level Bureaucracy (SLB). Implementation of EmOC was affected by the incompatibility of policies with implementation systems. Street-level bureaucrats were expected to offer to their continuously increasing clients, sometimes presenting late, ideal EmOC services using an incomplete and unreliable package of inputs, supplies, inadequate workforce size and skills mix. To continue performing their duties and prevent services from total collapse, frontline implementers’ coping behaviours oftentimes involved improvization leading to delivery of incomplete and inconsistent EmOC service packages. This resulted in unresponsive EmOC services with mothers receiving inadequate interventions sometimes after major delays across different levels of care. We suggest that SLB theory can be enriched by reflecting on the consequences of the coping behaviours of street-level bureaucrats. Future reforms should align policies to implementation contexts and resources for optimal results.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czab001
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • Modern contraceptive availability and stockouts: a multi-country analysis
           of trends in supply and consumption
    • Authors: Muhoza P; Koffi A, Anglewicz P, et al.
      Pages: 273 - 287
      Abstract: Approximately 214 million women of reproductive age lack adequate access to contraception for their family planning needs, yet patterns of contraceptive availability have seldom been examined. With growing demand for contraceptives in some areas, low contraceptive method availability and stockouts are thought to be major drivers of unmet need among women of reproductive age, though evidence for this is limited. In this research, we examined trends in stockouts, method availability and consumption of specific contraceptive methods in urban areas of four sub-Saharan African countries (Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria) and India. We used representative survey data from the Performance Monitoring for Action Agile Project that were collected in quarterly intervals at service delivery points (SDP) stratified by sector (public vs private), with all countries having five to six quarters of surveys between 2017 and 2019. Among SDPs that offer family planning, we calculated the percentage offering at least one type of modern contraceptive method (MCM) for each country and quarter, and by sector. We examined trends in the percentage of SDPs with stockouts and which currently offer condoms, emergency contraception, oral pills, injectables, intrauterine devices and implants. We also examined trends of client visits for specific methods and the resulting estimated protection from pregnancy by quarter and country. Across all countries, the vast majority of SDPs had at least one type of MCM in-stock during the study period. We find that the frequency of stockouts varies by method and sector and is much more dynamic than previously thought. While the availability and distribution of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) were limited compared to other methods across countries, LARCs nonetheless consistently accounted for a larger portion of couple years of protection. We discuss findings that show the importance of engaging the private sector towards achieving global and national family planning goals.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa197
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • A home visit-based early childhood stimulation programme in Brazil—a
           randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Brentani A; Walker S, Chang-Lopez S, et al.
      Pages: 288 - 297
      Abstract: Home visiting programmes are increasingly recognized as one of the most effective interventions to improve child health and development in low-income settings. However, the best platforms to deliver such programmes remain unclear. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the relative effectiveness of child development agents (CDAs) and community health workers (CHWs) as two possible delivery platforms for early childhood development (ECD) focused home visiting intervention in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 900 children aged 9–15 months were screened for potential study inclusion between January and March 2015. Children who did not attend crèches at enrolment were included in the trial. Children were randomly assigned to control or to receive biweekly home visits either through a CHW in the areas covered by the Brazilian Family Health Strategy (FHS) or by a newly hired cadre of CDAs in the areas not covered by the FHS. The primary study outcome was children’s development (cognition, motor, language and social emotional skills) assessed after 12 months of intervention with the PRIDI and Caregiver-Reported Early Development Instruments tools. A total of 826 mother-child dyads were enrolled in the trial. In intention-to-treat analysis, neither intervention arm improved study outcomes. In per-protocol (PP) analysis, the CDA programme resulted in a 0.22 standard deviation increase in children’s development (95% confidence interval [0.01–0.43]). The results presented in this study suggest that home visiting programmes have the potential to improve child development among poor urban families in Brazil. However, delivering home visiting interventions through already active CHWs may not be feasible in the Brazilian context and coordination across sectors is essential to effective ECD policies.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa195
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • Understanding disparities in person-centred maternity care: the potential
           role of provider implicit and explicit bias
    • Authors: Afulani P; Ogolla B, Oboke E, et al.
      Pages: 298 - 311
      Abstract: Studies in low-resource settings have highlighted disparities in person-centred maternity care (PCMC)—respectful and responsive care during childbirth—based on women’s socioeconomic status (SES) and other characteristics. Yet few studies have explored factors that may underlie these disparities. In this study, we examined implicit and explicit SES bias in providers’ perceptions of women’s expectations and behaviours, as well as providers’ general views regarding factors influencing differential treatment of women. We conducted a convergent mixed-methods study with 101 maternity providers in western Kenya. Implicit SES bias was measured using an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit SES bias assessed using situationally specific vignettes. Qualitative data provided additional details on the factors contributing to disparities. Results provide evidence for the presence of both implicit and explicit bias related to SES that might influence PCMC. Differential treatment was linked to women’s appearance, providers’ perceptions of women’s attitudes, assumptions about who is more likely to understand or be cooperative, women’s ability to advocate for themselves or hold providers accountable, ability to pay for services in a timely manner, as well as situational factors related to stress and burnout. These factors interact in complex ways to produce PCMC disparities, and providing better care to certain groups does not necessarily indicate preference for those groups or a desire to provide better care to them. The findings imply the need for multilevel approaches to addressing disparities in maternity care. This should include provider training on PCMC and their biases, advocacy for women of low SES, accountability mechanisms, and structural and policy changes within health care settings.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa190
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • The role of government agencies and other actors in influencing access to
           medicines in three East African countries
    • Authors: Odoch W; Dambisya Y, Peacocke E, et al.
      Pages: 312 - 321
      Abstract: The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (MLEM) has since 1977 helped prioritize and ensure availability of medicines especially in low- and middle-income countries. The MLEM consists mainly of generic medicines, though recent trends point towards listing expensive on-patent medicines and increasing global support for medicines against non-communicable diseases. However, the implications of such changes for national essential medicines list (NEML) updates for access to essential medicines has received relatively little attention. This study examined how government agencies and other actors in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania participate in and influence the NEML update process and subsequent availability of prioritized medicines; and the alignment of these processes to WHO guidance. A mixed study design was used, with qualitative documentary review, key informant interviews and thematic data analysis. Results show that NEML updating processes were similar amongst the three countries and aligned to WHO guidelines, albeit conducted irregularly, with tendency to reprioritization during procurement stages, and were not always accompanied by revision of clinical guidelines. Variations were noted in the inclusion of medicines against cancer and hepatitis C, and the utilization of health technology assessment (HTA). For medicines against diseases with high global engagement, such as HIV/AIDS and TB, national stakeholders had more limited inputs in prioritization and funding. Furthermore, national actors were not influenced by the pharmaceutical industry during the NEML update process, nor were any conflicting agendas identified between health, trade and industrial policies. Hence, the study suggests that more attention should be paid to the combination of HTAs and NEMLs, particularly as countries work towards universal health coverage, in addition to heightened awareness of how global disease-specific initiatives may confound national implementation of the NEML. The study concludes with a call to strengthen country-level policy and procedural coherence around the process of prioritizing and ensuring availability of essential medicines.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa189
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • The effects of performance-based financing on neonatal health outcomes in
           Burundi, Lesotho, Senegal, Zambia and Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Gage A; Bauhoff S.
      Pages: 332 - 340
      Abstract: Maternal and newborn care has been a primary focus of performance-based financing (PBF) projects, which have been piloted or implemented in 21 countries in sub-Saharan Africa since 2007. Several evaluations of PBF have demonstrated improvements to facility delivery or quality of care. However, no studies have measured the impact of PBF programmes directly on neonatal health outcomes in Africa, nor compared PBF programmes against another. We assess the impact of PBF on early neonatal health outcomes and associated health care utilization and quality in Burundi, Lesotho, Senegal, Zambia and Zimbabwe. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and apply difference-in-differences analysis to estimate the effect of PBF projects supported by the World Bank on early neonatal mortality and low birthweight. We also assessed the effect of PBF on intermediate outputs that are frequently explicitly incentivized in PBF projects, including facility delivery and antenatal care utilization and quality, and caesarean section. Finally, we examined the impact among births to poor or high-risk women. We found no statistically significant impact of PBF on neonatal health outcomes, health care utilization or quality in a pooled sample. PBF was also not associated with better health outcomes in each country individually, though in some countries and among poor women PBF improved facility delivery, antenatal care utilization or antenatal care quality. There was no improvement on the health outcomes among poor or high-risk women in the five countries. PBF had no impact on early neonatal health outcomes in the five African countries studied and had limited and variable effects on the utilization and quality of neonatal health care. These findings suggest that there is a need for both a deeper assessment of PBF and for other strategies to make meaningful improvements to neonatal health outcomes.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa191
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • COVID-19 and the proliferation of urban networks for health security
    • Authors: Boyce M; Katz R.
      Pages: 357 - 359
      Abstract: Recent years have witnessed cities establishing themselves as major players in addressing global issues, often taking collective action through international city networks and organizations. These networks are important, as they amplify the voices of municipal officials, who are often excluded from high-level decision-making, and can also provide a platform for officials from low- or middle-income nations to participate in higher-level political forums. The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic has included traditional public health stakeholders—including supranational organizations, international non-governmental organizations and national authorities—but has also featured mayors and city networks, in an unprecedented fashion. Existing networks without an explicit focus on health have shifted their focuses to prioritize pandemic response and several new networks have been created. These developments are significant, not only because they represent a shift in health governance and policy, but also because cities and urban networks more broadly have exhibited a nimbleness and pragmatism unmatched by higher levels of governance. These characteristics could prove beneficial for addressing the current pandemic, as well as future health issues and emergencies. Furthermore, given the relative lack of engagement with health security issues before the COVID-19 pandemic, the drastic health and economic impacts associated with it, and the demonstrable value added by strong city leadership, there are an open policy window and a compelling case for continued city engagement in health security.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa194
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • Remote data collection for public health research in a COVID-19 era:
           ethical implications, challenges and opportunities
    • Authors: Hensen B; Mackworth-Young C, Simwinga M, et al.
      Pages: 360 - 368
      PubDate: Sun, 07 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa158
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2021)
  • Equity and economic evaluation of system-level health interventions: A
           case study of Brazil's Family Health Program
    • Authors: Love-Koh J; Mirelman A, Suhrcke M.
      Pages: 229 - 238
      Abstract: Distributional economic evaluation estimates the value for money of health interventions in terms of population health and health equity impacts. When applied to interventions delivered at the population and health system-level interventions (PSIs) instead of clinical interventions, additional practical and methodological challenges arise. Using the example of the Programme Saúde da Familia (PSF) in Brazil, a community-level primary care system intervention, we seek to illustrate these challenges and provide potential solutions. We use a distributional cost-effectiveness analysis (DCEA) approach to evaluate the impact of the PSF on population health and between-state health inequalities in Brazil. Data on baseline health status, disease prevalence and PSF effectiveness are extracted from the literature and incorporated into a Markov model to estimate the long-term impacts in terms of disability-adjusted life years. The inequality and average health impacts are analysed simultaneously using health-related social welfare functions. Uncertainty is computed using Monte Carlo simulation. The DCEA encountered several challenges in the context of PSIs. Non-randomized, quasi-experimental methods may not be powered to identify treatment effect heterogeneity estimates to inform a decision model. PSIs are more likely to be funded from multiple public sector budgets, complicating the calculation of health opportunity costs. We estimate a cost-per-disability-adjusted life years of funding the PSF of $2640. Net benefits were positive across the likely range of intervention cost. Social welfare analysis indicates that, compared to gains in average health, changes in health inequalities accounted for a small proportion of the total welfare improvement, even at high levels of social inequality aversion. Evidence on the population health and health equity impacts of PSIs can be incorporated into economic evaluation methods, although with additional complexity and assumptions. The case study results indicate that the PSF is likely to be cost-effective but that the inequality impacts are small and highly uncertain.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa181
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2020)
  • How workers respond to social rewards: evidence from community health
           workers in Uganda
    • Authors: Chowdhury R; McKague K, Krause H.
      Pages: 239 - 248
      Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of a non-financial incentive—a competitive annual award—on community health workers’ (CHWs) performance, an issue in the public health literature that has not been explored to its potential. Combining data on a competitive social ‘Best CHW’ award with the monthly performance of 4050 CHWs across Uganda, we examined if introducing social recognition awards improved the performance of CHWs. In contrast to predominant explanations about the effect of awards on motivation, our first multilevel mixed-effect models found that an award within a branch (consisting of ∼30 CHWs) was negatively associated with the performance of the local peers of the winning CHW. Models focused on non-winning branch offices revealed two additional findings. First, a branch showed underperformance if a CHW from any of the three neighbouring branches won an award in the previous year, with average monthly performance scores dropping by 27 percentage points. Second, this negative association was seen only in the top 50th percentile of CHWs. The bottom 50th percentile of CHWs exhibited increased performance by 13 percentage points. These counter-intuitive results suggest that the negative response from high performers might be explained by their frustration of not winning the award or by emotions such as envy and jealousy generated by negative social comparisons. Our results suggest that more fine-grained examination of data pertaining to motivators for CHWs in low-income countries is needed. Motivational incentives like awards may need to be customized for higher- and lower-performing CHWs.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Nov 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa162
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2020)
  • ‘You cannot touch taxes easily’: making the case for tobacco
           taxation in India
    • Authors: Rao Seshadri S; Kaulgud R, Jha P.
      Pages: 322 - 331
      Abstract: India represents over 1.3 billion people with >100 million adult smokers. The catastrophic health costs of smoking are staggering; and estimates show that even modest increases in taxes on cigarettes and bidis would both raise substantial revenues for the government and save ∼69 million years of healthy life over the next four decades. Karnataka represents a good example of tobacco control efforts and their impact. This case study examines the factors that have contributed to tobacco control policy in Karnataka based on 23 semi-structured interviews with key informants engaged in tobacco policymaking and decision-making, tobacco control/taxation research and advocacy. Their narratives indicate that: (i) Domestic taxation policy is complicated by the complex tax structure and centralized control over taxation with the introduction of Goods and Services Tax; (ii) Implementation of legal frameworks is a challenge, due to conflicts with powerful industry and farmer lobbies. A vigorous civil society backed by the Courts is necessary to garner political support; (iii) Action on taxation is hampered by weak leadership and mixed messaging; and (iv) There is a need for innovative policy solutions to promote both demand- and supply-side measures for tobacco control. Tobacco control advocates need to recognize the political economy of tobacco control and generate strong, reliable and scientifically sound evidence to support their arguments. Working for incremental ‘wins’ in terms of more stringent application of existing legal frameworks can make a substantial difference even in contexts where enhancing tobacco taxes is a challenge. Promoting multisectoral action is critical, at both policy and the ground levels, by expanding ownership and responsibility for tobacco control to sectors beyond health. Finally, the health sector needs to recommit to its role as a champion for tobacco control. Failure to do so would amount to a failure on multiple fronts—public health, economic, fiscal and ethical.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa171
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2020)
  • Comparing the use of direct observation, standardized patients and exit
           interviews in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of
           methods of assessing quality of primary care
    • Authors: Aujla N; Chen Y, Samarakoon Y, et al.
      Pages: 341 - 356
      Abstract: Clinical records in primary healthcare settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are often lacking or of too poor quality to accurately assess what happens during the patient consultation. We examined the most common methods for assessing healthcare workers’ clinical behaviour: direct observation, standardized patients and patient/healthcare worker exit interview. The comparative feasibility, acceptability, reliability, validity and practicalities of using these methods in this setting are unclear. We systematically review and synthesize the evidence to compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We include studies in LMICs where methods have been directly compared and systematic and narrative reviews of each method. We searched several electronic databases and focused on real-life (not educational) primary healthcare encounters. The most recent update to the search for direct comparison studies was November 2019. We updated the search for systematic and narrative reviews on the standardized patient method in March 2020 and expanded it to all methods. Search strategies combined indexed terms and keywords. We searched reference lists of eligible articles and sourced additional references from relevant review articles. Titles and abstracts were independently screened by two reviewers and discrepancies resolved through discussion. Data were iteratively coded according to pre-defined categories and synthesized. We included 12 direct comparison studies and eight systematic and narrative reviews. We found that no method was clearly superior to the others—each has pros and cons and may assess different aspects of quality of care provision by healthcare workers. All methods require careful preparation, though the exact domain of quality assessed and ethics and selection and training of personnel are nuanced and the methods were subject to different biases. The differential strengths suggest that individual methods should be used strategically based on the research question or in combination for comprehensive global assessments of quality.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Dec 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czaa152
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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