Subjects -> HEALTH AND SAFETY (Total: 1565 journals)
    - CIVIL DEFENSE (22 journals)
    - DRUG ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (86 journals)
    - HEALTH AND SAFETY (743 journals)
    - HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)
    - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (109 journals)
    - PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HYGIENE (133 journals)
    - WOMEN'S HEALTH (82 journals)

HEALTH FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION (390 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 401 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academy of Health Care Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
ACI Open     Open Access  
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 21)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Healthcare Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Medical Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Advances in Nursing Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Managed Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropologie et santé     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Clinical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Health Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Primary Health     Hybrid Journal  
Australian Journal of Rural Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 349)
Avicenna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BJR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMJ Leader     Hybrid Journal  
BMJ Quality & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
British Journal of Healthcare Assistants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Healthcare Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Hospital Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
British Journal of Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 294)
British Journal of School Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bruce R Hopkins' Nonprofit Counsel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building Better Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Children and Schools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Medical Record English Edition     Hybrid Journal  
CIN : Computers Informatics Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Audit     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinics and Practice     Open Access  
Cognition, Technology & Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Based Medical Journal     Open Access  
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Nurse : A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Das Gesundheitswesen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dental Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Disaster Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
DoctorConsult - The Journal. Wissen für Klinik und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription  
Droit, Déontologie & Soin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
East and Central African Journal of Surgery     Open Access  
Éducation thérapeutique du patient     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
eGEMs     Open Access  
Emergency Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Enfermería Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Epidemiologic Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Escola Anna Nery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethnicity & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Research in Telemedicine / La Recherche Européenne en Télémédecine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Evaluation & the Health Professions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evidence-Based Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Families, Systems, & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family Practice Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Hospital Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gastrointestinal Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geron     Full-text available via subscription  
Global & Regional Health Technology Assessment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Health Action     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global Health Management Journal (GHMJ)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Hospital Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Public Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Handbook of Practice Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Health : An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health and Interprofessional Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Health Care Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Health Expectations     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Health Facilities Management     Free   (Followers: 10)
Health Informatics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Health Information : Jurnal Penelitian     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Health Information Science and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Health Policy and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Health Policy and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health Promotion International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Health Promotion Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Health Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Health Reform Observer : Observatoire des Réformes de Santé     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Health Science Journal of Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Health, Risk & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Healthcare : The Journal of Delivery Science and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Financial Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Healthcare in Low-resource Settings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Healthcare Management Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Healthcare Policy / Politiques de Santé     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Healthcare Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Healthcare Risk Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
HealthcarePapers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hispanic Health Care International     Full-text available via subscription  
História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hospital a Domicilio     Open Access  
Hospital Infection Control & Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Hospital Medicine Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Peer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Hospital Pharmacy     Partially Free   (Followers: 18)
Hospital Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
ICU Director     Hybrid Journal  
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IISE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Independent Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Index de Enfermeria     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Informatics for Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INQUIRY : The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Care Coordination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Computers in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Electronic Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Health Administration and Education Congress (Sanitas Magisterium)     Open Access  
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Health Economics and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Health Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health Sciences Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health Services Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Hospital Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Palliative Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Positive Behavioural Support     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Privacy and Health Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Public and Private Healthcare Management and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Reliable and Quality E-Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Clinical Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Telework and Telecommuting Technologies     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
International Journal of User-Driven Healthcare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Disability and Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Irish Journal of Paramedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JAAPA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jaffna Medical Journal     Open Access  
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal for Healthcare Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Advanced Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 10)

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Health Professions Education
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2452-3011
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3298 journals]
  • The Evolution of Dental Education in the Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Junhel Dalanon, Yoshizo Matsuka
       
  • Public Health Education Student Stereotypes of Other Health Professions
           Before and After an Interprofessional Education Program

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Sam White, Susan Lambert, Joseph Visker, J. Christian Banez, Ben Lasser, Taylor Cichon, Marissa Leong, Nicole Dunseith, Carol Cox PurposeAlthough they participate in interprofessional education and practice, little is known about stereotypes public health education students have of other health professions. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of an interprofessional education program on stereotypes of other health professions students held by public health education students.MethodsUsing a pre-test/post-test control group design, one group (experimental) of public health education student participants was enrolled in a semester-long interprofessional education program while another from the same school of health sciences (control) was not.ResultsUpon completion of the program, the experimental group significantly (p
       
  • Learning Practical Research Skills Using An Academic Paper Framework –
           An Innovative, Integrated Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Jo Lander, Sean Seeho, Kirsty Foster BackgroundThere is a pressing need for effective education to help develop basic research and publication skills among clinicians in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Learning from experience is important for achieving understanding of concepts and acquisition of skills rather than simply recall of facts.MethodsAn innovative research and academic writing skills course was run for 21 participants from two universities in the Philippines. The experientially-based workshop encouraged development of skills and understanding through active involvement. Interaction with tutors and other participants was integral to the process. The novel workshop design linked various phases of the research process to relevant sections of an academic paper, thus integrating activities usually regarded as separate.This paper outlines the structure of the workshop and reports its evaluation through pre- and post-workshop surveys and post-workshop focus groups.ResultsParticipants appreciated the integrated format of the workshop and felt more confident in their ability to plan, conduct and write up research.ConclusionExplicitly linking elements of an academic journal article to the components of developing a research project was successful in promoting learning and understanding of the research process and increased confidence in academic writing in this context and is likely transferable to similar contexts.
       
  • How ‘Testing’ Has Become ‘Programmatic Assessment for
           Learning’

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Lambert W.T. Schuwirth, Cees P.M. van der Vleuten Programmatic assessment for learning is a fundamentally different approach to assessment than the more traditional methods. Yet, it is a logical next step given the history of assessment. In this narrative and subjective review we describe our view on the historical developments in assessment and how they have logically led to the development of programmatic assessment for learning.The early stages of assessment focussed on measurement of competence with an aim to develop the single best method for each aspect of competence. With the development of competencies the notion of integration and more meaningful assessment emerged but still reductionist issue remained. Programmatic assessment for learning currently seeks to assess students more holistically and meaningfully with a rigorous attention to trustworthiness and credibility of the whole assessment process. As such it may be a revolutionary development but it strongly builds on previous research and insights in the field.
       
  • Factors Associated with Academic Performance in Physician Assistant
           Graduate Programs and National Certification Examination Scores. A
           Literature Review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Sierra Moore, Connor Clark, Ashley Haught, Bryce Hinde, Doug Reckner, Jordan Robinson, Aubrey Graham-West, Whitney Wigal, William Childers, Joseph Horzempa PurposeA physician assistant (PA) is a state-licensed, nationally certified healthcare professional who practices medicine on healthcare teams with physicians and other providers. PAs practice medicine across the US (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the US territories). In recent years, the demand for clinicians has increased dramatically which has led to an increase in the number of practicing PAs. To meet this growing demand for healthcare providers, identifying applicants capable of overcoming the challenges associated with the PA educational track in addition to the corresponding clinical training is crucial.MethodIn this paper, we reviewed the literature and discuss preadmission factors and their relationship toward completion of PA graduate programs and successfully passing the national certification examination (PANCE).ResultsPrevious studies indicated a weak positive association between verbal GRE scores and success on the PANCE. Moreover, undergraduate GPA, and taking a variety of undergraduate science prerequisites correlates with passing the PANCE.DiscussionInvestigations of success correlates of other professional programs indicated that psychological factors may have potential for use in predicting whether an applicant would be successful in PA school. These include tests for emotional intelligence and particular personality characteristics.
       
  • Evaluating Changes in Clinical Decision-making in Physical Therapy
           Students After Participating in Simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Kelly Macauley PurposePhysical therapy students are not consistently prepared to practice in the dynamic healthcare environment immediately after graduation. Implementing other teaching modalities may help to better prepare physical therapy graduates. Medical and nursing student education have effectively used simulation to help prepare students for clinical practice. The purpose of the quasi-experimental design study was to assess the effect of simulation on clinical decision-making (CDM) in Doctor of Physical students in a physical therapy program.MethodsOne-hundred and twenty-two students in two class years participated in the study, with 71 partaking in a simulation activity and 51 students serving as the control. The first-year students participated in a task trainer simulation and the second-year students completed a hybrid simulation. The students’ CDM was measured prior to and after completing the simulation.ResultsThe results demonstrated that the students who participated in simulation had statistically significantly higher scores on the CDM Tool than the students who did participate in simulation. The results also further validated the CDM Tool by demonstrating that second year students had significantly higher scores on the CDM Tool than first year students at both time points.DiscussionStudents demonstrated statistically significant changes in CDM after participating in one simulation experience. Further research is required to replicated these results and determine the optimal dosage of simulation experiences for long-term learning.
       
  • Self-Explanation as a Strategy for Supporting the Development of
           Diagnostic Reasoning in Medical Students: An Exploratory Study on
           Knowledge Development

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Christian Muhoza-Butoke, Christina St-Onge, Martine Chamberland PurposeSelf-explanation (SE) has been shown to support the development of diagnostic reasoning in medical students. However, no study has documented how SE influences the development of the knowledge that underpins this reasoning. This study was a first step to explore this. More specifically the aim was to compare the use of biomedical and clinical knowledge by medical students who use SE while solving the same clinical cases one week apart.MethodsFifty-three medical clerks previously took part in a study to determine the impact of combining SE with listening to examples of SE on solving clinical cases one week later. In the present study, the authors analyzed the SE verbatim of the 15 students in the control group, who only used SE while solving cases. Four cases per participant were analyzed, for a total of 60 transcribed SE recorded at two different times, one week apart (T1 and T2), and for two clinical cases. The verbatim transcripts were coded according to a pre-determined coding grid: paraphrases, clinical inferences, biomedical inferences, monitoring, and errors. Code frequencies were compared at T1 and T2 using a paired t-test.ResultsNo significant difference between the two times in any of the categories: clinical inferences (p=0.28), biomedical inferences (p=0.08), paraphrases (p=0.97), monitoring (p=0.60), and errors (p=0.65).DiscussionOur results did not show quantitative changes of biomedical or clinical knowledge expressed by students using SE when tested at one week interval. The level of students and the short observation period may explain the negative findings. Alternatively, the assumption that knowledge transformation could be captured by simple quantitative measures might be too simplistic. To document and qualify the effects of SE on the medical knowledge, future studies will need to combine different instruments and/or observe its development over a longer period of time.
       
  • Stress and Quality of Life Among University Students: A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Ícaro J.S. Ribeiro, Rafael Pereira, Ivna V. Freire, Bruno G. de Oliveira, Cezar A. Casotti, Eduardo N. Boery PurposeExcessive and continuous stress has effects that go beyond mere health commitment, by triggering various diseases, and it is well stablish that this stress-related somatic events can affect the quality of life. Based on the exposed, the following questions were raised: There is association between quality of life and stress level in university students' What are the potential variables that influences this association' Therefore, this research aimed to analyze recent scientific productions about stress and quality of life in university students.MethodsA systematic review was conducted on the recent scientific production (i.e., published papers along the last five (5) years) in Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). For this it was used the following search terms: "quality of life", restricted to the title, "Stress" and "students" in the title, abstract or keywords, all entered in a single search and connected by the Boolean operator "AND".ResultsThis study identified 142 articles in the scientific literature, but only 13 articles were classified as eligible according to the previously established criteria, highlighting the lack of studies that address the theme under investigation. Among these, quality of life was frequently negatively associated to stress and factors as insomnia and burnout were also associated with its deterioration.DiscussionThis systematic review highlights the negative association between stress and QoL in university students, through the deterioration of various aspects related to physical and mental health.
       
  • Impact of a Comprehensive Early Clinical Exposure Program for Preclinical
           Year Medical Students

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Sumitra Govindarajan, Ganesan Vasanth, Pananghat A. Kumar, Catherine Priyadarshini, Shanmuga Sundaram Radhakrishnan, Vikrant Kanagaraj, Nithilavalli Balasubramanian, Prasanna N. Kumar, T. Jasmine Divya, C. Nandhini Aishwarya PurposeTo study the impact of an early clinical exposure program designed to provide a wide variety (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) of learning experiences for the preclinical year students.MethodOne hundred and fifty preclinical students were posted in small groups to selected departments – Transfusion medicine, Catheterization lab, Simulation lab, Radiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Respiratory medicine and General surgery. Each student had atleast ten hours  of clinical exposure under this program. The program was evaluated through a series of pre and post-test questionnaires, which were designed based on the learning objectives of each session. Students who wished to participate in the program evaluation gave informed consent, took up the pre / post test and were also asked to give their written open comments about the program.ResultsThere was a significant increase in the post-test scores (ranging from 9.14±2.67 to 36.65±6.62) when compared to the pre-test scores (ranging from 7.94±2.31 to 28.69±6.11) for all the sessions (p value
       
  • Blended Learning in Anatomy Teaching for Non-Medical Students: An
           Innovative Approach to the Health Professions Education

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Olivia Miu Yung Ngan, Taylor Lik Hang Tang, Aden Ka Yin Chan, Daisy Minghui Chen, Mei Kuen Tang PurposeAnatomy is a basic science for health professions curricula. Recent research suggests that the innovative blended learning approach (classroom learning plus use of online learning) outperforms conventional didactic teaching by facilitating effective learning. This study explores the feasibility of adopting blended learning in anatomy teaching and evaluates the learning experiences of students.MethodCourseware called electronic Professional Study (ePS) was developed and used for teaching anatomy of the cardiovascular system for non-medical students. ePS composed of three condensed, recorded course lectures, revision guides, and gamified quizzes. These were placed on the Web platform for students to watch before didactic lecture. Scheduled class periods were dedicated to participating in active-learning exercises. By the end of the academic semester, the courseware evaluation was implemented using a set of 5-point Likert scale questions. The e-questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of Year-2 full-time undergraduate students majoring in pharmacy enrolled in an introductory course in anatomy and physiology. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine the relationship between courseware usage and examination results.ResultsAll enrolled students (n = 53) completed and returned the questionnaire. About 38% used the courseware less than ten times during the semester, and 7.5% never used it. e-Questionnaire shows that a majority agreed that the courseware content was clearly presented and easy to navigate. Multiple regression shows that courseware usage did not contribute significantly to the performance.ConclusionsBlended learning was perceived positively by most students. However, no effect on learning could be established.
       
  • Implementation of an Outcome-Based Longitudinal Pharmacology Teaching in
           Undergraduate Dental Curriculum at KSAU-HS Experience

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Abdulmalik M. Alkatheri, Abdulkareem M. Albekairy, Mahmoud Mansour, Wesam Abdel-Razaq, Ali Al-Ehaideb, Khalid S. Al-Fouzan, Amjad M. Qandil Purpose/objectivesThe aim of this study is to present a modification of the structure of the pharmacology educational experience for dental students as a result of the early introduction of a pharmacology course into the pre-professional curriculum.MethodsThree courses of professional dental pharmacology were modified before and/or after delivery by developing general course learning outcomes, lecture-by-lecture learning outcomes and theme mapping to align topics taught within these courses and with those taught in the pre-professional dental program.ResultsFinal proposals for three professional dental pharmacology courses, which are distributed over three professional years, were prepared based on teaching experience and theme mapping. Topics were added, deleted, transferred from one course to another to afford courses that are fully aligned, relatively comprehensive, longitudinal, with focus on topics relevant to the dental practice without redundancy. In addition, the design of these courses took into consideration the level of coverage of the pre-professional dental pharmacology course.ConclusionsThis longitudinal inclusion of pharmacology courses form the second pre-professional year to the third professional year is expected to improve dental students’ pharmacology education experience. Although the last of these courses is a pharmacotherapeutic course, more courses with clinically oriented therapeutic approach are recommended.
       
  • Diverse Pathways' The Impact of a Federal Investment in Health
           Professions Programs on Enrollment of Underserved Students

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Heather L. Fox PurposeThis study examined one case of a federal human capital investment in health professions education by comparing enrollment patterns of underserved students in health professions programs of study in a consortium of community colleges before and after they received a $19.6 million U.S. Department of Labor grant.MethodPearson's chi-square tests of independence were used to analyze in the proportion of underserved students across the consortium who enrolled in health professions programs of study prior to and after receiving funding and to examine students’ enrollments by program of study length.ResultsThe changes made by the consortium after receiving the grant funding supported more students from underserved subgroups engaged in health professions programs. Despite the gains seen, Latino and Black students were still significantly underrepresented in associate degree programs, and a significant proportion of Latino students were either delayed or diverted from enrolling in any program of study.DiscussionWhile there were significant gains for most of the underserved subgroups of students in the study, the variation in enrollment patterns of subgroups of students in programs of study of different lengths provides evidence of persistent systemic educational inequities.
       
  • Communication Skills in Patient-Doctor Interactions: Learning from Patient
           Complaints

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Janine W.Y. Kee, Hwee Sing Khoo, Issac Lim, Mervyn Y.H. Koh PurposeDespite communication skills training in medical school, junior doctors continue to demonstrate poor patient-doctor communication skills, where patient unhappiness from the encounter often manifests as patient complaints. We sought to identify crucial communication skills that should be incorporated in the communications curriculum by learning from patient complaints, to explore how the communication lapses occur.Method38 cases of anonymized negative patient feedback about junior doctors were analysed using qualitative content analysis. A two-step fine-coding system involving four researchers was employed.ResultsFour main themes of communication errors were identified, namely: non-verbal (eye contact, facial expression and paralanguage), verbal (active listening and inappropriate choice of words), and content (poor quantity and quality of information provided); and poor attitudes (lack of respect and empathy).DiscussionPatient-doctor communication is a complex interpersonal interaction that requires an understanding of each party׳s emotional state. We identified important but overlooked communication lapses such as non-verbal paralinguistic elements that should be incorporated into communications curriculum, with an emphasis on dialectical learning. These include integrating these findings into a simulation-based communications module for training doctors at a post-graduate level as well as monitoring and analyzing patient complaints regularly to iteratively update the content of the training module. Beyond these skills training, there is also a need to highlight negative emotions of doctors in future research, as it influences their communication patterns and attitudes towards patients, ultimately shaping how patients perceive them.
       
  • Education in Clinical Reasoning: An Experimental Study on Strategies to
           Foster Novice Medical Students’ Engagement in Learning Activities

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Alexander Linsen, Gijs Elshout, David Pols, Laura Zwaan, Sílvia Mamede PurposeClinical reasoning forms the interface between medical knowledge and medical practice. However, it is not clear how to organize education to foster the development of clinical reasoning. This study compared two strategies to teach clinical reasoning.MethodAs part of a regular clinical reasoning course 333 students participated in a two-phase experiment. In the learning phase, participants were randomly assigned to either the conventional strategy (CS) or the new strategy (NS). Participants in the CS solved a clinical case using a written description of a patient encounter and individual study. Participants assigned to the NS solved the same case using a video patient encounter and group discussion. One week later, all participants took the same diagnostic performance test. Performance on the diagnostic test and differences between the groups regarding their interest, cognitive engagement, appreciation of the educational activity, and time investment in self-study were analyzed.ResultsThere was no significant effect of teaching strategy on diagnostic performance (p = .23). Students in the NS condition showed more interest during the session (p = .003) and were more appreciative of the course when assigning an overall grade than the students in the CS condition (p
       
  • The Art of Acknowledging that We Know Nearly Nothing

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Jimmie Leppink
       
  • An Examination of the Structural Validity of the Maslach Burnout
           Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) Using the Rasch Measurement Model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): José Manuel Pérez-Mármol, Ted Brown BackgroundHealth professional students often experience stress and potential burnout when completing their entry-to-practice education. Therefore, having valid scales such as the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) to detect and monitor burnout amongst health professional students is paramount.PurposeThis study investigated the structural validity of the three individual Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) subscales. In particular, the dimensionality, scalability, differential item functioning (DIF) based on gender, rating scale structure, and reliability of the three MBI-SS were examined.MethodA sample of 225 Australian occupational therapy undergraduate students completed it. The Rasch Measurement Model (RMM) was used to analyse the MBI-SS item data from the three MBI-SS subscales: Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Professional / Academic Efficacy.ResultsResults supported the unidimensionality and scalability of the three individual MBI-SS and all items from the three subscales met the RMM fit statistics requirements. None of the subscale items exhibited DIF based on gender and the appropriateness of the MBI-SS rating scales were confirmed. The item and person reliability indices were> 0.80 and> 0.77 respectively for each subscale.Discussion and conclusionThe RMM analysis findings indicate that the three individual MBI-SS subscales exhibited adequate levels of structural validity in relation to dimensionality and DIF when completed by occupational therapy students.
       
  • Physiotherapy Students’ Experiences with Clinical Reasoning During
           Clinical Placements: A Qualitative Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Miriam H. Wijbenga, Thamar J.H. Bovend’Eerdt, Erik W. Driessen BackgroundClinical reasoning skills are considered to be among the key competencies a physiotherapist should possess. Yet, we know little about how physiotherapy students actually learn these skills in the workplace. A better understanding will benefit physiotherapy education.ObjectivesTo explore how undergraduate physiotherapy students learn clinical reasoning skills during placements.DesignA qualitative research design using focus groups and semi-structured interviews.SettingEuropean School of Physiotherapy, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.ParticipantsTwenty-two undergraduate physiotherapy students and eight clinical teachers participated in this study.Main outcome measuresThematic analysis of focus groups and semi-structured interviews.ResultsThree overarching factors appeared to influence the process of learning clinical reasoning skills: the learning environment, the clinical teacher and the student. Preclinical training failed to adequately prepare students for clinical practice, which expected them to integrate physiotherapeutic knowledge and skills into a cyclic reasoning process. Students’ basic knowledge and assessment structure therefore required further development during the placements. Clinical teachers expected a holistic, multifactorial problem-solving approach from their students. Both students and teachers considered feedback and reflection essential to clinical learning. Barriers to learning experienced by students included time constraints, limited patient exposure and patient communication.ConclusionsUndergraduate physiotherapy students develop clinical reasoning skills through comparison of and reflection on different reasoning approaches observed in professional therapists. Over time, students learn to synthesise these different approaches into their own individual approach. Physiotherapy programme developers should aim to include a wide variety of multidisciplinary settings and patient categories in their clinical placements.
       
  • Intra-rater Reliability of the ECHOWS Tool for Real-time Assessment of
           Physical Therapy Student Interviewing Skills: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Gretchen A. Seif, Sara V. Kraft, Mark G. Bowden, Jill S. Boissonnault PurposeDevelopment of patient interviewing skills are a component of all healthcare education. The physical therapist-patient interview includes some areas that are unique to the practice of physical therapy. Boissonnault et al. developed the ECHOWS tool, designed specifically to assess how effectively and efficiently the student physical therapist (SPT) performs a patient-interview, or history. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the reliability of the ECHOWS tool for use in real-time student interviews of patients at a student-run free clinic.MethodsThe study is a quasi-experimental design with collection of quantitative data. The subjects included twenty-two SPTs who had previously volunteered to work as student clinicians at the student-run free clinic.ResultsA total of twenty-two interviews included complete data, nineteen with patients with primary orthopedic diagnoses and three with patients with primary neurological diagnoses. The reliability between the ECHOWS scores for real-time patient interviews by SPTs and videotapes for the same interview, ranged from 0.78 to 0.88, demonstrating excellent intra-rater reliability.DiscussionThe ECHOWS tool demonstrated excellent intra-rater reliability between the assessment of real-time student–patient interactions and the assessment of videotaped interactions. This analysis is the first assessment of the tool's intra-rater reliability using real-time SPT interviews on actual patients.
       
  • Fifty Years on: A Retrospective on the World's First Problem-based
           Learning Programme at McMaster University Medical School

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Virginie F.C. Servant-Miklos There are many false ideas and a prioris about the history of problem-based learning in medical education, stemming from a dearth of historical studies of PBL. This study was conducted at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences and offers rigorous historical account of the first problem-based programme and lessons to be drawn from it. Archival data, oral history data from interviews with key participants to the history of McMaster and contemporary publications were triangulated using an inductive and hermeneutic method of historical analysis to produce the historical narrative in this paper. The key findings of this study are (1) PBL was founded by five disgruntled doctors in a time of global change; (2) McMaster did not pioneer the integrated systems approach, but it made it an integral part of problem-based learning; (3) The early PBL curriculum was fluid and variable (4) McMaster offered a loose educational structure dominated by small group learning; (5) The distinctive feature of problem-based learning, compared with all other progressive education methods, was the use of realistic problems at the start of the learning process; (6) Lectures and other top-down modes of knowledge transfer were conclusively not welcome at McMaster (7) Summative assessment was absent from the first problem-based learning programme.
       
  • Time to Develop Entrustable Professional Activities for the Saudi-Med
           Competency Framework

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Mona Hmoud AlSheikh, Rania G. Zaini
       
  • Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) vs. Moderated Regression (MODREG): Why the
           Interaction Matters

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Jimmie Leppink Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is a commonly used statistical method in experimental and quasi-experimental studies. One of the fundamental assumptions underlying ANCOVA is that of no interaction between factor and covariate. Unfortunately, many researchers report the outcomes of ANCOVA but not the outcomes of a check on that non-interaction assumption. Through a comparison of ANCOVA (which assumes non-interaction) and moderated regression (MODREG, which allows for interaction) in a worked example, this article demonstrates that omitting the check of the non-interaction assumption comes at the risk of misestimating a treatment effect or other group difference of interest. If there is substantial interaction between factor and covariate, ANCOVA will result in conclusions of there being a group difference or no group difference whereas MODREG indicates that the magnitude of a group difference depends on the level of the covariate. Therefore, this article advises to first check and report on the interaction, to use that check to decide whether a model without interaction (ANCOVA) or with interaction (MODREG) is to be preferred, and to use ANCOVA only if the criteria outlined in this article indicate a preference towards the model without interaction. Moreover, omitted terms, such as the omitted interaction if one proceeds with ANCOVA, should be reported as well.
       
  • Learner Engagement in Postgraduate Anaesthesia Speciality Training

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Ciana McCarthy, Maureen Kelly PurposeResearch has shown continuing medical education improves doctor performance, new educational approaches improving educational outcomes and individual reflection can help identify learner needs positively improving clinical performance. This study addresses:1.How do doctors on postgraduate anaesthesia specialist training programme engage across Postgraduate Medical Education teaching sessions'2.What are the enablers and barriers to learner engagement'3.Using the benefits of a balanced and informative mixed method approach to identify how Learner Engagement can be affected by clicker technology in this specific group.MethodsA triangulation convergent mixed method approach using 1. Semi structured interviews were conducted with Non Consultant Hospital Doctors 2. A quantitative in class engagement measurement Tool was applied using observers with and without audience response systems. The IEM tool was used in 20 Postgraduate Medical Education sessions. A mixed methods approach was used to integrate findings. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed separately and integrated. Equal weighting was given to both strands.Results8 semi-structured interviews were undertaken and 20 sessions incorporating Didactic lectures, CaseBased Discussion and clicker technology. Most frequent IEM scores for the instructor behaviours were ‘1’[Talking to the class] in all three formats. Most frequent scores for the student behaviours were ‘3’[ Listening to the instructor or a talking student/looking at slides or board] in DL and CS (70.1% and 61.3% respectively), ‘4’[Talking to the instructor/reading something to entire class or writing something on the board] in CBD (49.2%). The 4Rs of learner engagement: readiness, reflection, recap and retain are core building blocks of LE before during and after a teaching session.DiscussionPostgraduate medical learners engage through the 4 Rs of LE. The wellbeing of the learner cannot be underestimated and is a major influential factor in Learner Engagement. Clickers influence engagement through the enablement and enhancement of the 4Rs.
       
  • Emergency medical services core competencies: A scoping review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Talal AlShammari, Paul A. Jennings, Brett Williams Introductionthe emergency medical services (EMS) are an important part of the health care system as they are the first point of contact for medical emergencies. Moreover, the EMS educational system has seen a rapid transition from a post-employment training model into a pre-employment educational model. Despite this, there is a lack of clarity on what core competencies EMS students are expected to hold.Purposethe objective of this scoping review was to identify the EMS student core competencies in the literature.Methodthe scoping review considered journal articles and grey literature (peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed) and the following databases were utilized: CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and ERIC. Grey literature was also searched using www.greylit.org, Google Scholar and Trove, and expert consultation and EMS professional associations were also considered.Resultsthe search yielded 301 publications (CINAHL n=53; MEDLINE n=103; EMBASE n=84; Scopus n=6; ERIC n=42; miscellaneous grey literature n=13). After removal of duplicates, n=241 citations remained. and title screening produced n=35 publications, following which a full-text review was conducted. Consensus was reached on the inclusion of n=25 publications for review. In total, n=127 core competency statements were extracted which were then reviewed for clarity and removal of duplicates and clustered into a final list of n=33 core competencies.Discussionthe publications were discussed in a thematic approach. The review will provide insight into the scope of knowledge, abilities, skills and education that can be important to the conduct of paramedic students. Moreover, the review would be part of a greater project to develop a set of core competencies specifically designed for Bachelor EMS degrees in Saudi Arabia. This is the first scoping review that has attempted to systematically identify potential core competencies for paramedic students.
       
  • Using Competency-Based Curriculum Design to Create a Health Professions
           Education Certificate Program the Meets the Needs of Students,
           Administrators, Faculty, and Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Laura Parson, Brandon Childs, Picandra Elzie IntroductionHealth Professions Education (HPE) programs emerged to train faculty in teaching and learning within the higher education context. HPE programs are motivated by the belief that faculty trained in teaching and learning will ultimately improve patient care through improved preparation of future practitioners and improved test scores that impact the careers of health professionals and the prestige of the institutions.MethodsWe followed a modified Delphi method for data collection and analyzed data from two in-person focus groups with faculty who work within the health professions at SRU, a collaborative document where health professions faculty filled out information about class types within HPE, an intensive literature review of over 100 policy and research on health professions education needs and best practices, a review of existing health professions education certificate and graduate degree program curriculum, and a review of promotion and tenure handbooks for Dental, Medical, and Nursing faculty at SRU.ResultsAnalysis of course evaluations and stakeholder feedback suggested that the redesigned HPE curriculum meets the needs of HPE faculty, aligned with literature, and was competitive with similar program across the United States.ConclusionsA curriculum that meets the needs of practitioners, administrators, and industry should prepare faculty to gain competency in each of the core domains of health professions education: Professional Foundations (specific to Health Professions Education), Working with Students, Planning and Preparation, Instructional Methods and Strategies (Clinical and Classroom), Assessment and Evaluation, and Evidence-based Practice/Research.
       
  • They Treated us Like Employees Not Trainees: Patient Educator Interns’
           Experiences of Epistemological Shock

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Fatmah Almoayad, Alison Ledger AimTo explore Patient Educator Interns’ (PEIs’) experiences of learning when entering the working environment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 PEIs. Following a narrative type of analysis, case summaries were prepared, compared and interpreted.ResultsAt the beginning of their internship, PEIs held specific desires and expectations concerning the type of training and work they would experience. These included the expectation of explicit educational activities and specific types of work activities. PEIs’ expectations were frequently not met in reality.DiscussionThe findings of the study suggest that new graduates face epistemological shock, which is the challenge of understanding the change from receiving formal instruction at university to learning through participation and engagement in the workplace. Conclusions: Universities could do more to explain to students the differences in learning between university and the workplace, so students better understand the value of participation for learning.
       
  • Exploring the Role of Infographics for Summarizing Medical Literature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Lynsey J. Martin, Alison Turnquist, Brianna Groot, Simon Y.M. Huang, Ellen Kok, Brent Thoma, Jeroen J.G. van Merriënboer PurposeTo investigate differences in (1) reader preference, (2) cognitive load during summary review, and (3) delayed information retention between infographic article summaries and traditional text-only research abstracts.MethodsThe three study outcomes were assessed using a two-phase within-subjects experiment. In phase 1, participants rated cognitive load as the mental effort they invested in reviewing eight article summaries (four in infographic format and four in text-only abstract format) on the 9-point Paas scale (1=low mental effort, 9=high mental effort) and indicated their preferred summary format on a 9-point preference scale (1=preferred infographics, 9=preferred text-only abstracts). Four weeks later, phase-2 tested delayed information retention via two free-recall and two cued-recall questions per article.ResultsParticipants preferred infographic summaries to traditional text-only research abstract summaries as evidenced by a mean format preference score (mean±standard deviation) of 3.97±2.48 (t(71)=13.6, p=0.01) which was significantly more positive than the neutral score of 5 on the 9 point preference scale. Mean mental effort during summary review was lower for infographics (4.30±1.34) than for text-only abstracts (5.06±1.35, t(70)=4.41, p=0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in delayed information retention.DiscussionThis study suggests that infographics could play a role in summarizing medical research literature. While no difference was found in delayed information retention, infographics were associated with higher reader preference and lower cognitive load during summary review. Further research should clarify the practical implications of these findings.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • The Perceptions and Attitudes of Undergraduate Healthcare Sciences
           Students of Feedback: A Qualitative Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Lama S. Alfehaid, Amenah Qotineh, Nada Alsuhebany, Shmylan Alharbi, Hind Almodaimegh PurposeRegardless of the importance of feedback, many students are dissatisfied with the feedback they receive. This study was conducted to evaluate undergraduate healthcare sciences students' perceptions and attitudes toward, and their lived experiences of feedbackMethodsTo evaluate undergraduate healthcare sciences students' perceptions and attitudes toward feedback using a descriptive approach. A Phenomenological qualitative study. Healthcare sciences students were invited to participate in semi-structured focus groups interviews; open-ended questions were developed per the study objectives and the knowledge deficit to guide the discussion.ResultsFive major themes were apparent during the discussion regarding the perceptions and attitudes of healthcare sciences students towards feedback. Students highly regard honest and continuous feedback before grading or final assessment. Students preferred receiving feedback as a private dialogue that contains balanced positive comments and points for improvements. Comparing student performance with others or providing subjective and unspecific feedback were the most common reasons for students to disregard feedback. The value of the level of faculty or years of experience was controversial among students. Limited time, poor communication skills and unavailability of a faculty member were perceived as major barriers for constructive feedback. Students recommended both peer feedback and mutual feedback between students and faculty members to be applied continuously.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that healthcare sciences students need continuous constructive feedback. Providing mutual and peer feedback as a dialogue considering balanced positive comments and points for improvement should be implemented during the educational process. Training for both faculty members and students is highly recommended.
       
  • Decision Makers' Perspectives on the Language of Instruction in Medicine
           in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Musab Alshareef, Osama Mobaireek, Mohamud Mohamud, Ziyad Alrajhi, Ali Alhamdan, Bashir Hamad BackgroundThe main language of instruction for teaching medicine in most of the Arabic-speaking countries is English then French to a lesser extent. To our knowledge, Syria is the only Arab country that uses Arabic as the language of instruction in its medical colleges.ObjectiveThis study explored the perspectives of decision-makers on the choice of English language for medical instruction in Saudi Arabia, in addition to, the academic, economic and social impact of this choice.This paper also explores their awareness of the languages used currently and in the past for teaching medicine and what obstacles are expected if Arabic language is adopted as the language of instruction in medicine.MethodsThis was a qualitative study that purposively interviewed eight decision-makers at the university, regulatory, and ministerial levels on the choice of English language for medical instruction in Saudi Arabia. The semi-structured interviews were developed and conducted by the investigators. Each interview was audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Key themes were identified by the research team, with each theme representing an idea or a position.ResultsAll decision-makers expressed a positive attitude towards the choice of English for medical instruction, but there was also an overall support for a future Arabic curriculum, once obstacles are overcome. The availability of medical resources was the main factor which decision-makers agreed upon for the choice of language. There was also a consensus on the need to introduce Arabic in teaching communication skills.ConclusionThere is an overwhelming preference of choice for the English language over Arabic language for medical instruction. The adaptation of Arabic language was seen to have major obstacles but could be overcome through a given nationwide initiative. It is recommended to have future studies in assessing periodic changes in the perspective of choice of language in medicine.
       
  • Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework for Health Literacy Training in
           Health Professions Education

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Carla Saunders, Debra Palesy, Joanne Lewis PurposeThis review investigates health literacy education interventions for health professions students in higher education settings with the aim of identifying core elements for the first conceptual framework for a health literacy curriculum.MethodA systematic literature search based on pre-specified inclusion criteria was conducted across education and health peer-reviewed literature - Academic Search Complete; CINAHL; MEDLINE (OVID); ProQuest Health & Medicine; SCOPUS (Elsevier); Australian Education Index Plus Text (AEIPT); Education Research Complete; ERIC; ProQuest Education. Twenty-eight peer-reviewed primary studies were found to be eligible and were systemically examined. Data on intervention characteristics, evaluation methods and key outcomes were extracted and content analysed.ResultsNumerous health professions were represented in the examined studies, with undergraduate students principally targeted. The large majority of interventions reported positive results. Significant heterogeneity was found in instructional methods, evaluation instruments and outcomes. Instructional approaches ranged from single didactic to clinical and community placement interventions. Less than 40% of interventions used a pre/post evaluation design and control groups were used in only 3 of the included studies. The most successful interventions were found to be those that offered numerous training sessions and integrated knowledge and skill acquisition particularly when patient communication and assessment skills were developed within real-world settings with patients or community members. Review findings informed a draft health literacy training framework for conceptualizing multiple dimensions of health literacy training structure, design and assessment.Discussion/conclusionCore aspects and best practice teaching elements for health professions health literacy training were identified. It was found that overall, this is an underdeveloped domain in the health professions education field. Future research should focus on identifying an agreed definition of health literacy for this field and structure and process opportunities for health literacy inter-professional education. Also needed is a much better understanding of the impact of health literacy training on specific health profession students, and over what time period to enable targeted curriculum and workforce education planning.
       
  • A simple methodology for discerning item construction flaws in health
           professions examinations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Kenneth D. Royal, Mari-Wells Hedgpeth, Lysa P. Posner PurposeTo introduce to health professions educators a simple methodology that can help discern item construction flaws and mitigate testwiseness effects.MethodThe methodology involved administering a veterinary medical school exam to medical school professional staff participants with no formal training in the medical and health sciences.ResultsThe methodology was evidenced to be robust, as multiple items containing item construction flaws were identified by inflated success rates for a group of examinees who had no prior training in the subject matter.DiscussionHealth professions educators are encouraged to utilize the methodology presented in this paper, where appropriate, to discern item construction flaws, reduce measurement error, and increase score validity relating to their assessments.
       
  • YouTube Enhanced Case Teaching in Health Management and Policy

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Jeremy C. Green, Taha Aziz, Juliane Joseph, Angad Ravanam, Sobia Shahab, Luke Straus PurposeCase teaching is a popular method of health management and policy education but its relationship with technology is outdated. While several major publishers of case teaching materials have recently incorporated internet videos and other multimedia and online content into their offerings, these video case teaching materials are mostly on the manufacturing industry and not on the health care services industry. This project aims to expand existing case teaching materials with YouTube videos, and to report preliminary findings on learning outcomes.MethodYouTube videos were selected to enhance course topics and materials found in traditional text based materials. Original videos were created in the style of Khan Academy, to prerecord short lectures promoted in the literatures on case teaching and flip format learning. Online course evaluations measured student progress on learning objectives.ResultsOnline course evaluations were completed by 48 of 93 students. All responding students reported making progress on “acquiring skills in working with others as a member of a team” and “developing skill in expressing myself orally or in writing”. For both objectives, most of the students reported making “exceptional progress”.DiscussionYouTube videos can be a valuable source of content to supplement existing case teaching materials in health management and policy. More research is needed to distinguish the effects of YouTube videos from other case teaching materials and flipped format aspects of course design. The general method of YouTube enhanced case teaching might be expanded beyond health management and policy to other topics in health professions education.
       
  • Integration of Patients into First-year Neuroscience Medical Curriculum

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Jasmine Pendergrass, Bianca Stewart, Kelsey Williams, James Buggy, Asa Black, Sandip Jain, Mary Hughes, Chris Troup, Thomas I. Nathaniel BackgroundA medical neuroscience curriculum that integrates broad categorization of neurological diseases in the first year of medical education has a functional utility to strengthen the foundation of medical students in clinical neuroscience. Students–patients interactive activities could provide an understanding of core curricula for basic neuroscience and clinical neurology.MethodsTwelve neurological patients, with varying neurological diseases, volunteered to share their medical experiences with small groups of students in a 30-minute session. A debriefing segment with clinical and biomedical science faculty and students followed these sessions. Two structured student surveys – a pre and posttests were administered.Results98.5% of students agreed (85.5% of these students strongly agreed) that patient integration into the first-year neuroscience module provided real-life experiences that were helpful in their understanding of clinical neuroscience. 95.6% of students agreed that their ability to interact with a diverse group of neurological patients was improved. Prior to the students–patients interactive session, only 91.1% of students agreed (52.6% of these students strongly agreed) that patient integration would be beneficial in their understanding of clinical neuroscience.DiscussionThe integration of patients into the neuroscience module provides better understanding of clinical concepts in neuroscience. It facilitates a meaningful discussions, stimulated critical thinking in neuroscience, and increased students׳ insights into patient–physician relationships, even at year one in the medical school, with significant real-life experiences.
       
  • The Single-Item Questionnaire

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Henk Schmidt
       
  • Altruism: Should it be Included as an Attribute of Medical
           Professionalism'

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Joanne Harris ProblemAltruism is often included in classical and modern definitions of medical professionalism and some feel that medicine is a vocation where altruism is a pre-requisite. However since the 1970s there have been changes in society affecting the way all professions are viewed. Some high profile medical malpractice cases mean the public no longer perceives the medical profession as infallible. Following the Harold Shipman case, medical educators began to argue that retaining the concept of altruism did a disservice to the medical profession where “it is the claim of altruism that allows the medical profession to claim moral superiority”.1ApproachThe historical course of medical professionalism was examined looking at changes in the way the profession viewed itself and how doctors were regarded by the public. It drew on the socio-cultural changes of the latter half of the twentieth century as well as the rise in medical malpractice cases to show how these have influenced professional values. Changes to the medical profession following the case of Harold Shipman were highlighted with the current usage of the term altruism by members of the profession.OutcomesArguments both for and against retaining altruism in the definition of medical professionalism were discussed. Ethicists argued that following the moral code of beneficence in the course of medical practice, it was not possible to be altruistic and many feel that receiving a fee for services can never allow for true altruism. There is an argument that working without consideration for one׳s own well-being may lead to an increase in burn-out in the medical profession.Next stepsFor many, the future of the medical profession lies in abandoning altruism as part of its defining qualities and adopting a new ethical definition of professionalism that fits with the complexities of modern society
       
  • Mastery of Communication Skills. Does Intelligence Matter'

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Jeroen Kuntze, Henk T. van der Molen, Marise Ph. Born BackgroundInsight in the influence of intelligence on the mastery of communication skills is important for improving the microcounselling method, an effective training programme for acquiring these skills.MethodParticipants were 323 bachelor psychology students. The participants׳ level of verbal, spatial and numerical intelligence was determined. Participants followed either a course in basic skills or a course in advanced skills. Their level of mastery of these skills was assessed with a video test.ResultsBoth training programmes proved to be effective in training communication skills. As expected, numerical and spatial intelligence were no significant predictors for the mastery of these skills. Verbal intelligence did matter for the mastery of basic communication skills, but only when students are not acquainted with the use of these skills.DiscussionStudents profit from training these skills, regardless of their intelligence level.
       
  • Prevalence of Self-prescribing Propranolol Among Medical and Dental
           Students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Omar A. Al-Mohrej, Waad M. Al-Bani, Nouf S. AlShaalan, Rawan A. Aldahash, Anas M. Alyamani, Hind S. Almodaimegh PurposeThe life of students is full of stressors that might have an impact on their mood and academic performance. These stressors are exaggerated among medical and dental students, as they have to worry more about financial, social, and academic issues. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and predictors of inappropriate self-prescribing of propranolol (Inderal®) among medical and dental students at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.MethodsA cross-sectional study using consecutive sampling was carried out among Saudi medical and dental students, who were enrolled in KSAU-HS during the study period. A validated newly developed English questionnaire was sent via E-mail to all eligible participants with response rate of 86.9%. Chi-square test was used to compare between groups, whereas multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out, where the variables that were included in the model were the ones that showed statistical significance at the bivariate level.ResultsAround 30% of the sample used propranolol (Inderal®) during their college years. Propranolol use predictors showed that females from both specialties were less likely to use propranolol (OR=0.11, 95% CI=0.06–0.24, P-value
       
  • Teaching Language Effects on Students׳ Performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Hisham N. Bani-Salameh We report our results on a study of our medical student׳s performance and its relation to the teaching language. We used the force concept inventory (FCI) as our study tool and gave it to our students before and after instructions in class on materials covered by the test. Our students׳ native language is Arabic and we teach in English and therefore they were given the test both in Arabic and English. This study is one part of a bigger project to assess the whole educational process (both teaching and learning) in our department. It was triggered by students׳ poor English proficiency shown in class. Our results indicate weak correlation between students׳ performance and the teaching language used.
       
  • Nutrition in Medicine: Medical Students׳ Satisfaction, Perceived
           Relevance and Preparedness for Practice

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Victor Mogre, Fred Stevens, Paul A. Aryee, Albert J.J.A. Scherpbier PurposeDoctors play a critical role in providing nutrition care and supporting patients to adopt healthy dietary habits. Improving the quality of nutrition education in medical schools is necessary to build the capacity of doctors to deliver effective nutrition care to help reduce malnutrition especially for sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated Ghanaian undergraduate clinical level medical students’ satisfaction with their current nutrition education, preparedness to provide nutrition care, perceived relevance of nutrition education to their future practice and their relationships.MethodA survey among 207 clinical level medical students was conducted. An 11-item questionnaire with subscales was used to assess students’ demographic characteristics, satisfaction with current nutrition education, preparedness to provide nutrition care and perceived relevance of nutrition education to their future practice.ResultsNinety-two percent (n=187) of the students considered nutrition education to be relevant to their future practice. However, the majority of the students (70%) were dissatisfied with the amount of time dedicated to nutrition education in their curriculum; integration of nutrition into organ-system based modules (62.0%); inclusion of nutrition materials to promote independent study (62.8%) and nutrition course content (59.0%). Only 22.2% felt adequately prepared by their current nutrition education to provide nutrition care in the general practice setting. Satisfaction with current education in nutrition was positively related to students’ preparedness to provide nutrition care in the general practice setting.DiscussionStudents were dissatisfied with their current education in nutrition, felt inadequately prepared to provide nutrition care and considered nutrition education to be highly relevant to their future practice. The findings of this study provide additional evidence that suggests changes in the current format and content of nutrition education in medical education.
       
  • Promotion and Tenure: Application of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning,
           and Scholarship of Engagement Criteria to Health Professions Education

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Health Professions Education, Volume 4, Issue 1Author(s): Shilpa J. Register, Katherine M. King PurposeThis paper strives to provide clarity to two of the newer categories of scholarship as defined by Boyer and Shulman: 1) scholarship of teaching and learning, and 2) scholarship of engagement. Additionally, the paper will discuss the application of scholarship to promotion and tenure in health professional education. Lastly, potential barriers and challenges will be discussed with the introduction of possible models to assist faculty in career promotion efforts.MethodA literature review was performed to retrieve articles and publicly accessible data related to faculty promotion and tenure in health professional education. The articles chosen focused on the scholarship of teaching and learning, and the scholarship of engagement.ResultsThe results show a paucity of research focused on scholarship attainment within health professional education. Further, there are discrepancies among health professions and between academic institutions on scholarship criteria.DiscussionMore research on the application of the scholarship of discovery, the scholarship of integration, and the scholarship of application is needed in health professions education to further guide faculty and administrators. Investigation into the discrepancy in rank within tenured faculty in educations is an area that would bring insight into current challenges and barriers, allowing educational researchers the ability to research and develop effective strategies.
       
  • Prevalence and predictors of anxiety in healthcare professions students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Kelly Macauley, Laura Plummer, Charlotte Bemis, Genevieve Brock, Christine Larson, Johanna Spangler PurposeThe prevalence and severity of anxiety among students is increasing. Elevated levels of anxiety may decrease students’ academic performance, professionalism, and their ability to manage elements of patient care. Anxiety and the impact of anxiety have been well studied in medical and nursing students, but it has not been investigated as much in other healthcare professions programs. The purpose of the study is to describe the prevalence and determine predictors of anxiety in healthcare professions students.MethodsThree-hundred and fifty-one, first and second year Doctor of Physical Therapy, Master of Science in Communication Science Disorders, and Master of Physician Assistant studies students were recruited to participate during the fall semester. Fifty-two percent, or 183 students completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS), the tools used to assess different anxiety levels.ResultsFifty-one percent of females and 37.5% of males have at least moderately high test anxiety. Eighty-three percent of students have greater than normal State Anxiety and 56% of students have higher than normal Trait Anxiety levels. The regression models identified several variables for predicting WTAS, STAI-trait (STAI-T), and STAI-state (STAI-S) scores. However, a large part of variance was unaccounted for, indicating there are other factors contributing to anxiety were not assessed.DiscussionHealthcare professions students have higher anxiety levels compared to normative values in the general population. Qualitative research to explore further the etiology of students’ anxiety is warranted.
       
  • A Pragmatic Approach to Statistical Testing and Estimation (PASTE)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Jimmie Leppink The p-value has dominated research in education and related fields and a statistically non-significant p-value is quite commonly interpreted as ‘confirming’ the null hypothesis (H0) of ‘equivalence’. This is unfortunate, because p-values are not fit for that purpose. This paper discusses three alternatives to the traditional p-value that unfortunately have remained underused but can provide evidence in favor of ‘equivalence’ relative to ‘non-equivalence’: two one-sided tests (TOST) equivalence testing, Bayesian hypothesis testing, and information criteria. TOST equivalence testing and p-values both rely on concepts of statistical significance testing and can both be done with confidence intervals, but treat H0 and the alternative hypothesis (H1) differently. Bayesian hypothesis testing and the Bayesian credible interval aka posterior interval provide Bayesian alternatives to traditional p-values, TOST equivalence testing, and confidence intervals. However, under conditions outlined in this paper, confidence intervals and posterior intervals may yield very similar interval estimates. Moreover, Bayesian hypothesis testing and information criteria provide fairly easy to use alternatives to statistical significance testing when multiple competing models can be compared. Based on these considerations, this paper outlines a pragmatic approach to statistical testing and estimation (PASTE) for research in education and related fields. In a nutshell, PASTE states that all of the alternatives to p-values discussed in this paper are better than p-values, that confidence intervals and posterior intervals may both provide useful interval estimates, and that Bayesian hypothesis testing and information criteria should be used when the comparison of multiple models is concerned.
       
  • Medical Education in Egypt: Historical Background, Current Status, and
           Challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Adel Abdelaziz, Salah Eldin Kassab, Asmaa Abdelnasser, Somaya Hosny BackgroundFrom its beginnings in 1827, an important goal of medical education in Egypt has been to qualify physicians who can provide high-quality health care services for their local community and other communities in the Middle East region.Objective and methodTo describe the historical background, current status, and future challenges of medical education in Egypt, the authors conducted an extensive internet search, and made electronic communications as well as site visits to gather relevant data. In the final phase, the authors organized and interpreted their data with emphasis on the historical background, features of the curricula, practices of quality, and accreditation, as well as the challenges encountered. The authors collected data from 27 medical schools, all of which are supervised by Egypt's Supreme Council of Universities.ResultsThe findings showed that the undergraduate programs (UGMEs) of medical schools in Egypt can be broken down into three categories reflecting the status of reform: innovative, traditional, or in transition. Areas of reform have included the main features of curriculum, teaching and learning methods, and assessment tools. Postgraduate studies in medicine (PGSM) in Egypt take place under two systems: the academic system, offered by universities, and the professional Fellowship of Egyptian Board (FEB) program, offered by the Ministry of Health. There are many initiatives to establish a national regulatory system for continuing medical education, but none of these initiatives is yet well established.ConclusionWhile UGME reform in Egypt is progressing, improvements are still required in both PGSM and CME.
       
  • The Effect of Performance Standards and Medical Experience on Diagnostic
           Calibration Accuracy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018Source: Health Professions EducationAuthor(s): Marloes L. Nederhand, Huib K. Tabbers, Ted A.W. Splinter, Remy M.J.P. Rikers PurposeMedical doctors do not always calibrate accurately in terms of their diagnostic performance, which means that their evaluation of their diagnosis differs from their actual performance. Inaccurate calibration can lead to maltreatment and increased health care costs. This study was conducted to investigate whether calibration accuracy can be improved among both board certified medical specialists and medical students by providing them with a simple form of feedback (i.e., performance standards). We expected that performance standards would enhance calibration accuracy. Furthermore, we expected that medical specialists would overall be better calibrated than medical students.MethodsMedical specialists (n=42) and medical students (n=43) diagnosed three clinical cases and rated their own performance, after which they did or did not receive standards (i.e., the correct diagnoses). All participants were then tested: they had to diagnose three new cases and had to rate their performance without receiving diagnostic feedbackResultsIn support of our hypotheses, findings indicate that both students and specialists who received performance standards calibrated better than students and specialists who did not receive standards. Furthermore, medical specialists calibrated better than medical students.DiscussionThis study shows that providing simple forms of feedback constitute effects on calibration accuracy on new tasks.
       
 
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