Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1664 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (262 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (90 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (56 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (953 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (175 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (953 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 801 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Social & Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Social History Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Inquiry : Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access  
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Social Landscape Journal     Open Access  
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Science & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Social Science Computer Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Science Protocols     Open Access  
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Social Science Spectrum     Open Access  
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Social Sciences & Humanities Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Studies and the Young Learner     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Social Studies of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Social Studies Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal  
Social, Humanities, and Educational Studies (SHEs) : Conference Series     Open Access  
Socialiniai tyrimai     Open Access  
Socialium : Revista Cientifica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift     Open Access  
Sociedad e Infancias     Open Access  
Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sociétés & Représentations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Society     Open Access  
Socio     Open Access  
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Sociología y Tecnociencia     Open Access  
Sophia Austral     Open Access  
Soshum : Jurnal Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Sosio Didaktika : Social Science Education Journal     Open Access  
SosioHumanika: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan (Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Education)     Open Access  
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics     Open Access  
Sozial Extra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Studi Magrebini : North African Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Studia Socialia Cracoviensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Asian Social Science     Open Access  
Studies in Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sultan Agung Fundamental Research Journal     Open Access  
Suma de Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Survey Research Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Sustainability : Science, Practice, & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Symmetry     Open Access  
Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Søkelys på arbeidslivet (Norwegian Journal of Working Life Studies)     Open Access  
Tangent     Hybrid Journal  
Tapuya : Latin American Science, Technology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TechTrends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Teme : Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Tempo Social     Open Access  
Teoría y Praxis     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The Batuk     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
The Equilibrium     Open Access  
The EXceptional Parent     Full-text available via subscription  
The New Yorker     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Winnower     Open Access  
The Women : Annual Research Journal of Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Thesis     Open Access  
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tieteessä Tapahtuu     Open Access  
Tinkazos     Open Access  
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access  
Trama : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access  
Trans-pasando Fronteras     Open Access  
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transmotion     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Transtext(e)s Transcultures     Open Access  
Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales : TraHs     Open Access  
Trivium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tulane Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Twentieth Century Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Twenty-First Century Society: Journal of the Academy of Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UC Riverside Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UED Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education     Open Access  
Ultima Década     Open Access  
Uluslararası Anadolu Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / International Anatolian Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Umanistica Digitale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
Universidad de La Habana     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad, Escuela y Sociedad     Open Access  
Universitas Científica     Open Access  
Universitas-XXI, Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Mauritius Research Journal     Open Access  
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACSA     Open Access  
VA Engage Journal     Open Access  
Variations : Revue Internationale de Théorie Critique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Wani : Revista del Caribe Nicaragüense     Open Access  
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Workplace : A Journal for Academic Labor     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Social Science     Open Access  
World Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zambia Social Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Œconomia     Open Access  
Вісник ДонНУЕТ. Серія. Гуманітарні науки     Open Access  
Култура / Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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Journal Cover
VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2411-0221 - ISSN (Online) 2309-3951
Published by VFAST-Research Platform Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Challenges/Barriers Women Leaders Face and Coping Stratigies They Use at
           University Level

    • Authors: Muhammad Amin; Samreen Jalal, Fahd Naveed Kausar
      Abstract: This study focuses to highlight the challenges faced by women in their journey to be successful leaders. Further, this research paper also explores the coping strategies to deal with arising challenges. The qualitative research method has been employed by the researchers to conduct this study. Specifically, phenomenology research design has been used more to address the research questions. Because of the pandemic circumstances, only 12 women leaders were interviewed telephonically based on convenience from the three campuses of a public sector university of Lahore. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data and to generate themes. Six main themes including ‘Cultural Restrictions, Family Related Problems, Issues Related to Colleagues, Problems from Hierarchies, Gender-Discrimination & Stereotyping, and Glass Ceiling (Unseen issues) from Hierarchies’ have been emerged. The data related to the challenges faced by the women leaders has been presented under these themes. To present the data related to the coping strategies used by the women leaders only one main theme named as ‘Masterplan’ has been generated. Some implications of the findings are presented in the last section.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • A Comparative Discourse Analysis of Medical Associations and Research
           Articles Through Van Dijk Microstructure Model

    • Authors: Ata ul Ghafar Ghafar; Dr. Syed Kazim Shah, Iqra Tahir, Zahra Batool
      Abstract: The current study investigates the linguistic gap between discourses of medical associations and research journals through Van Dijk's Model of critical discourse analysis. This will help to understand how language patterns are structured and visuals are constructed to convey the required message. The data analysis method that has been adopted in this study is the Van Dijk's microstructure approach of discourse analysis. The data has been collected from well-known medical journals and association directories. Five research articles and four directories recommendations are taken from 2015 to 2020 on colorectal cancer. A qualitative approach has been used in the data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that certain choices of words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and rhetorical devices have been used in medical discourse to propagate certain ideologies and hidden agendas and divert public attention towards certain dietary brands, medicines, and surgeries. Moreover, the medical discourse has tried to impose a great impact of their hidden ideologies and agendas on public minds. This study is not only useful for readers to understand structural differences between medical journals and associations recommendations but also will helps them to understand hidden purposes of associations and research journals.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Prevailing Security Measures in Federal Government Schools: A Survey-Based

    • Authors: Ishrat Hussain Bhatti; Dr Shamim Haider Tirmazi
      Abstract: Schools are liable to protect our children through teaching them, facilitating them and preparing them to be productive and responsible citizens. The study was designed to investigate into the security practices prevailing at Federal Government Schools. The main objective of the study was to find out deficiencies and challenges in existing school security practices. The sample of the study comprised 490 teachers of FGEI (C/G) in Punjab out of 4925 population. Simple random sampling technique was used for selection of sample from teachers to administer the questionnaire as the complete sample frame was available. 10 % of the population was included in the sample as per Morgan’s table of sample. (Morgan, 1970).  A quantitative methodology was adopted to achieve the objective of the study. Survey method was used to collect the data from the teachers. A questionnaire comprised of 30 items (5-point Likert scale), based on SOP for school security issued by FGEIs (C/G) Directorate for teachers of FGEIs (C/G) Schools, was developed and administered to the sample of the study. Data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics as frequency, percentages and mean-scores. The main findings of the study showed that teachers were satisfied with the security in the FGEIs (C/G) schools. The level of agreement of respondents, on scale statements about school security practices like, entrance of students, student uniform, dress code for teachers, students’ identity card, display of emergency contact numbers, visitors’ entry register, morning assembly and classrooms checking was quite high. Researcher also found that respondent’s level of satisfaction was moderate and low about some practices like, faculty badges, use of metal detectors, number security cameras, security barriers on the main gate, telephone facilities at the main gate, use of cell phones.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Protection of Plant Varieties in Compliance with Pakistan’s Response to
           International Obligations

    • Authors: Muhammad Mubeen; Dr.Hafiz Aziz ur Rehman
      Abstract: The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) enforces an “obligation on all member countries to protect plant varieties either by patents or by a sui generis regime or by a combination of both”. Pakistan adopted the “sui generis choice” to give protection to plant varieties. The rights of commercial breeders are protected under the present legal regime, and further, it gives positive rights to farmers. It also goes “beyond the widely recognized international sui generis regime represented by the International Union for the Protection of Plant Varieties” (UPOV). In compliance with international obligations, Pakistan passed the Plant Breeders’ Rights Act, 2016. This research paper discusses the new legislation and highlights its features and gaps. Further, to what extent the PBR Act can bring together Pakistan’s conflicting obligations under “the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), The Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety (CPB), and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)”'
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Level of In-Service School Teachers' Professional knowledge obtained
           During B.Ed (Hons.) Program as Indicator of Degree Effectiveness

    • Authors: Samreen Jalal; Dr. Muhammad Amin
      Abstract: Professional knowledge is considered an important component for school teachers because it provides knowledge about different aspects of actual classroom teaching practices and enables them to handle classroom practice problems. B.Ed (Hons.) program contributes a lot to providing professional knowledge to teachers because it provides in-depth knowledge of classroom teaching aspects in four years duration. So the study aims to highlight the importance of the B.Ed (Hons.) program for enriching the professional knowledge of those teachers who are recruited as elementary school teachers based on this degree. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the in-service school teachers' opinions about the effective role of the B.Ed (Hons.) program in enhancing their professional knowledge. The Positivism paradigm of research was employed in this study and the research method was a quantitative method. The population of the study was comprised of all those in-service school teachers who were recruited based on B.Ed (Hons.) degree. The sample of the study was selected by using the purposive method of sampling and the sample was comprised of 110 in-service school teachers in the Lahore district. The professional knowledge of school teachers was evaluated by administering the self-developed questionnaire. Indicators of a questionnaire that measure the level of professional knowledge through questionnaire were comprised of subject-matter knowledge, pedagogy, use of a.v.aids, classroom management, and assessment. Collected data were analyzed by using mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study provided a clear picture of the professional knowledge of school teachers. So this study also implies that efforts should be made to further enhance the professional knowledge of school teachers
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of the Hidden Curriculum on Social Skill of Secondary School

    • Authors: Sajjad Ali; Dr. Muhammad Idris, Dr. Samreen Mehmood
      Abstract: The present research study was aimed to evaluate the effect of hidden curriculum on the development of social skills of secondary school learners in District Mardan. The research study was quantitative in nature. The targeted population of the study was all students of secondary school and its heads of district Mardan. Simple random sampling technique was utilized for collection of data from the desired respondents. The 205 SSTs and 44 heads were the sample of the study. Two five likret scale questionnaires based on sixteen items for Heads and SSTs were used for collection of data. The validity of the questionnaires was evaluated before the distribution through consulting research experts in current research study. The calculated reliability of the data collection tool was calculated through Cronbach’s alpha. The calculated reliability of the questionnaire of hidden curriculum was .832. Data analysis showed that: students at secondary level displayed desired performance of social skills inside and outside the school. It was further calculated that students with hidden curriculum have good level of social moralities and social skills. The social skills of students displayed effective enhancement because of the organizational structure and components of hidden curriculum . Hidden curriculum has an overall effect on the product regarding what the students observe in their educational environment, hear, watch, feel and perform which reflect the display of social skills. Hidden curriculum should be paid crucial consideration and thorough strategies be utilized for its implementation in the educational systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Employees’ Performance Appraisal and Motivation: Using System
           Dynamics Approach

    • Authors: Dr. Salman Iqbal; Dr. Rubeena Tashfeen
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore, Human Resource Management practices. The importance of Human Resource Management practices and their impact on employee’s performance. HRM practices create a vital role and practicing on daily basis in developing countries but it is still not encouraging in developing countries like Pakistan. One of objectives of this research is to understand the possible ways through feedback loops and stock and flow maps to improve employee’s performance. In this research key factors including recognition, performance appraisal and motivation are determined that can help employees to utilize their full potential at workplaces. For this purpose, System Dynamics approach was used to demonstrate the linkages between different HRM practices and how it affects the employee performance through Causal loops and Stock and Flows. The stock and flow result describe the rate of change between different variables and give help to create simulation graphs. Simulation results, describes linear and non-linear behavior and the employee attitude for the specific period. It is found that it is important to prepare the employees for better performance in organization. Employee learining also influences employee’s performance.This research is helpful for scholars, managers, employees and policy makers to understand the non linear behavior of employees’ performance appraisal. Mostly managers percieved that linear function is the solution of several problem at workplaces, which is explained and debated in this paper.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Analysis of the Transformation of the Protagonist in Sherman Alexie’s
           Flight through the Lens of Magical Realism

    • Authors: Aslam Yar; Rashid Ahmad, Mustanir Ahmad
      Abstract: The current study looks at the narrative mode magical realism of Sherman Alexie’s novel Flight. It is a mix of realistic narrative and naturalistic techniques with surreal elements of dream and fantasy. The study has focused on the character of Zits (Michael) who is also the protagonist of the novel. Zits. His original name is Michael but he is nicknamed as Zits because of his skin disease. The present study used qualitative content analysis as a tool of research. The study used Postmodernism as a theoretical framework focusing on the significance of using magical realism as a narrative technique in the novel. The technique of magical realism was needed for portrayal of Zits’ psychological transformational journeys. He was always involved in gruesome retaliations against the society. He even hated his father, who was an American-Indian, until he embarked on the psychological transformational journeys which made him realize that forgiveness is preferable than vengeance since it is the only option for him to find peace of mind and not via revenge or by retaliations. This finally leads him to accept his foster parents who physically and morally mistreated him in his childhood. The technique of magical realism helped the novelist build a world-view he wanted the readers to experience. The study revealed that the technique of magical realism was helpful to the novelist to portray the transformation of the character of Zits. It revealed how the transformed identities of an emotionally wounded male Indian orphan assisted him in considering the evilness of colonialism, racism and violence. It aided him in seeing the need of mending those wounds after realizing empathy, forgiveness, compassion and exploring reconciliation with others as realistic paths out of grieves and sufferings. It's easy to express hopes after all the hardships in the form of shames and destructive ideas.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • An Entrapped woman of Poscoloniality: Journeying through Displacement to
           individuality in Shamsi’s Burnt Shadows

    • Authors: Yasir Khan; Awais Shafiq, Abdul Rashid, Muhammad Farooq
      Abstract: The present study is aimed to trace out the diasporic representation in Shamsie’s Burnt Shadows with reference to postcolonial displacement. For thematic analysis of the novel the model of acculturation proposed by J.W Berry (2005) has been adopted. The findings of the study reveal that all the characters of the novel are the victim of failure of acculturation. Hiroko, Raza and Sajjad Ashraf are the worst victims of psychological distress, cultural shocks and social marginalization due to their consistent displacement. Diaspora which is considered as a source of potential experiences and adjustment has failed in this novel to cater any such potential and benefits to the characters of the novel. Shamsie demands the development of a Pakistani society with unified national ideology 
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Parental Perception about Anti-Social Behavior at Public Place and its
           Effects on Daily Routine Life

    • Authors: Dr. Muhammad Javed Aftab; Sana Qaiser, Dr. Rukhsana Bashir
      Abstract: The prime goal of this study is to investigate the parental perception about anti-social behavior at public place and its effects on daily routine life. Researchers devised a self-made questionnaire with an eye on parents' perceptions of autism's antisocial behavior and the impact it has on their daily routines. There was a section at the beginning of the survey that asked about the respondent's demographics. Parents of autistic children used the survey to verify its validity. The core determination of this exploration was to discover the perception of parents regarding the difficulties faced by parents and also the child who caught with ASD when they are out of their comfort zone (in public places) The findings reported here are based on research conducted as part of the “Parental Perception about Anti-Social Behavior at Public Place and its Effects on Daily Routine Life” project. Major findings of this study is that mostly parents agree that their child having the anti-social behavior like they do weird things such as southing, yelling, screaming, snatching toys from other Childs, feel confused, look someone with fixed attention without any specific reason. In the overall reaction of parent’s shows that they know everything about their uncontrolled child but they just consider it as a behavior problem they are not aware that it is the sign and symptoms of an autism spectrum disorder. For future research it could be recommended that research should be qualitative and interview both parents. This could be done by broadening the sample by including more parents. Gaining more information from both mothers and fathers could provide a better understanding of parent’s perception in Pakistan. Another recommendation is to conduct the study in overall Pakistan to have a better understanding of parent’s perception about autistic child and their difficulties having the child with autism spectrum disorder.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Relationship between Meta-cognition and Academic Achievement of University
           Students in Punjab

    • Authors: Abeer Siraj; Dr. Rehmat Ullah Bhatti, Dr Muhammad Asghar Ali
      Abstract: The present study was designed to explore the relationship between meta-cognition and academic achievement in universities in the Punjab Province of the Pakistan. In this article,the main aims of the current research were (1) to assess meta-cognition of university students, (2) to find out the academic achievement of chemistry students, and (3) to investigate the relationship of meta-cognition with learning success.Population was comprised of the students (males 70 and females 148)of chemistry departmentof four universities of Punjab province. This study followed the quantitative study approach. The participants were included through purposive sampling technique. The study adopted correlation design, and utilized questionnaire to collect data.The data was analyzed statistically by using frequency, percentage, mean, Pearson’s’ r, and alpha coefficient via Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) statistical software version 23. Theresults revealed that there was no statistically significant correlation between meta-cognition and academic achievement at university level.From these findings, it is recommended that the university professorsmay plan classroom activities, presentations and research papers in the mannerthose studentsthat encourage use of meta-cognition that has an effective impact on the academic achievement. Therefore, it is advisable for the educatorsthe curriculum for higher studies in chemistry may be design in such a way which requisitions implication of meta-cognition.Moreover, future research studies in other science subjects are recommended to look into closely the relationship of meta-cognition with academic achievement. Keywords: Meta-cognition, Academic Achievement,Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS)
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Afghan Refugee Teacher Education (From 1980 To 2015): A Qualitative Case
           Study of BEFARe, Peshawar, Pakistan

    • Authors: Najma Begum; Syed Munir Ahmad
      Abstract: Refugee teacher education has remained an area of research and practice that has received little attention of academics and researchers alike. In first providing a brief description of the Soviet model of education after their arrival in Afghanistan, the purpose of this paper is to describe the process of rehabilitation of Afghan refugees and provision of emergency education to them. Grounding this empirical research into Lev Vygotsky’s and Yrjo Engeström’s First Generation Activity Theory (FGAT), and Second Generation Activity Theory (SGAT, henceforth),this research paper aims to decipher the socio-economic and cultural context of Afghan refugees before applying SGAT on Afghan Refugees Teachers’ Education (ARTE, henceforth). Qualitative research design was used to conduct this research, whereas, data was collected from primary sources through conducting semi-structured interviews and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) to gain deep insight into the subject matter. However, secondary sources, such as reports of UNHCR, BEFARe/GTZ were also used to substantiate the central argument. Purposive sampling strategy was used to get sample for the study. Major findings of the study show that the influence of the curriculum taught to student teachers brought certain changes in Afghan refugee teachers’ pedagogical skills, and resolved the problems of some classroom teaching practices. The findings also showed that BEFARe remained successful in changing Afghan refugee student teachers’ teaching methods from traditional teaching to activity based teaching. The study contributes to the current knowledge in the field of teacher education and training, the Afghan Ministry of Education, and other NGOs’ working in Afghanistan for education, emergency teachers’ training in general, and specifically refugees’ education across the world.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Gaps in the Elementary Teacher Education Curriculum Regarding the
           Inclusion of Children with Disabilities; Teachers’ Perspective

    • Authors: Muhammad Usman Zia; Fariha Gul
      Abstract: Studies indicate that 96% of the children with disabilities are out of school in Pakistan. Children with disabilities have access to special education schools only, which can accommodate only 4% of children with disabilities. Inclusion of children with disabilities in regular schools is desired to give children with disabilities access to education but general education schools are not welcoming for children with disabilities. One of the major factors contributing to this situation is that the teachers are not educated to accommodate students with diverse needs and abilities. The present study identifies the gaps in the existing elementary teacher education curriculum by exploring the perceptions of elementary school teachers about the ETE curriculum through the survey. A survey questionnaire was developed by the researcher and utilized to acquire the perspectives of the teachers. Results indicate that the existing ETE curriculum does not prepare the teachers to accommodate children with disabilities in regular classrooms.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Sociological Analysis of the Problems Faced by Women Police, A Study of
           District Multan

    • Authors: Hina Aslam; Dr. Saima Afzal, Zahid Hussain Shah, Sonia Akram, Ghulam Sidra
      Abstract: Women are partaking in every one of the areas of life. They have critical job in state and security as police. The present study illustrates the sociological analysis of the issues faced by the ladies police, for example, socio-cultural issues and to investigate the determinants which sway the professional efficacy of women police. The study expects to have a quantitative research on ladies police. The exploration was led in the District Multan with a sample of 218 ladies police respondents belonging to the three different divisions of police including Punjab police, Traffic police and Elite police. Simple random sampling was utilized. The data was collected through questionnaire. Comparative analysis of the strata (counting single/wedded and nuclear/joint) was likewise exhibited based on viability of women police force. The outcomes investigated that Effectiveness of ladies police force is significantly different (p<0.05) for single and wedded ladies police respondents yet insignificant for the respondents from nuclear and joint family structure. The comparison was likewise exhibited between the Punjab police and Elite police based on working hours. The outcomes showed that there is significant difference in working hours among respondents having a place with Punjab police and Elite police.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Oral Communication Problems of Higher Secondary School Students: A Case
           Study of EFL Classes In Swat, Pakistan

    • Authors: Rehmat Ali Mian; Syed Munir Ahmad
      Abstract: This study aimed at exploring students' oral communication problems in EFL classes of higher secondary schools in Swat, Pakistan. Using a qualitative case study design, the study attempted at answering the question: How do students and teachers perceive oral communication problems in EFL classes of higher secondary schools in Swat, Pakistan' Incorporating multiple-embedded case study design approach, through purposive sampling technique, 70 participants (60 students and ten teachers) from 10 higher secondary schools took part in the study. The study used semi-structured interviews and in-depth interviews for gathering the data from the participants; thematic analysis approach was used for analyzing the data. Main findings of the study show that students faced several oral communication problems—linguistic problems, vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar and structure. This study carries pedagogical implications for teachers and teacher training institutions.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Role of Meta-discourse Markers in Persuasive Content: A Corpus-Based
           Analysis of Punjab English Text-books in Pakistan

    • Authors: Ata ul Ghafar; Muhmmad Imran shah, Iqra Tahir, Saad Ijaz
      Abstract: Metadiscourse markers (MMs) are linguistic features that scholars use to express their messages persuasively. Metadiscourse not only aids the reader to comprehend the essential message through construction and content, but also it suggests the pursuer with the specific inclinations and points of view in the essential discourse. This study aims to explore how far the use of these markers is appropriate in the Punjab Curriculum & Textbook Board English language books. A comprehensive model of metadiscourse markers adapted from Siddique et al. (2018) has been used, with focused on interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers. The division and frequency of interactive and interactional features have been examined in the data for the academic year 2018-2019 and further studied metadiscourse markers functionally based on one word, two words, and three words in the text. The data was collected through AntConc 4.0.10 software. According to obtained results, interactive metadiscourse features have been more frequently used than interactional metadiscourse features in the data. The sub-categories of interactive metadiscourse markers such as transition markers and code glosses have been frequently observed in the data. The sub-categories of interactional metadiscourse markers such as engagement markers and self-mention have been frequently observed in the data. In conclusion, this study claimed that the Punjab Curriculum & Textbook Board English language books are appropriate and reader-friendly because of the frequent use of interactive metadiscourse markers. This study provides an exciting opportunity to advance our knowledge of metadiscourse features and highlights the significance of metadiscourse markers in academic writing and syllabus designing from a pedagogical perspective.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Need and Significance of Disability-Friendly Recreational Parks: A
           Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Laila Khalid; Khaula Minhas
      Abstract: This qualitative research paper explores the recreational opportunities for children and youth with special needs in the parks of the province of Punjab. The study also unfolds the need and benefit of recreational parks following accessible park standards to cater to the diverse needs of individuals with disabilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection from the purposively selected stakeholders. Thematic analysis was employed. Findings revealed that the cognitive, social, and emotional development of children and youth with disabilities is hindered due to a shortage of parks and recreational opportunities within and outside the educational institutions. It is recommended that the Punjab government may take it as a serious concern and strive to establish disability-friendly accessible parks following the international park standards. The leisure needs and requirements of the large disabled population should be addressed by the concerned authorities on a priority basis.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • An Exploratory Study of Learning Outcomes Literacy Regarding University
           Teachers: A Case Study of University of Education

    • Authors: Maimoona Naeem; Fariha Gul, Javaid Iqbal, Mubashir Shahzad
      Abstract: Learning Outcome Literacy (LOL) is not only an imperative skill but a prime need to acquire competency in teaching. To make teaching effective and make its flow in the correct direction, LOs competency is indispensable as the whole teaching-learning process is dependent on LOs. The aim of this single “qualitative case study” was to investigate the ambiguity regarding LOs in the “institutions of higher education” and the “University of Education” was selected as a single case for the exploration. Objectives of the study were: to find out the perception of university teachers regarding their knowledge about learning outcomes and to find out the perception of university teachers regarding their understanding of learning outcomes to enable students to attain these LOs. The sample of the study comprised of content teachers of the University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore. Through a purposive sampling method, 12 teachers were carefully chosen. The data of the study was collected through “semi-structured interviews”. The thematic analysis technique was used to analyze the qualitative data. The findings of the study revealed that the University of Education Content Teachers had insufficient knowledge of Learning Outcomes (LO) and were misapprehending Learning Outcomes to enable learners to attain these LOs. In light of the study results, it was concluded that content teachers of the University of Education did not possess the Learning Outcomes Literacy (LOL). Both objectives were interconnected in a way that if someone didn’t have knowledge of LOs he/she could not have an understanding of LOs for students’ attainment. So, the case study concluded that the teachers were not sufficiently literate about LOs.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Appraisal of Self-efficacy: Qualitative Data Analysis

    • Authors: Aaamna Saleem Khan; Irshad Ullah
      Abstract: Self-efficacy is the ability of someone to arrange and execute for the accomplishment of a task up to its maximum. Sometime one possess the capabilities to perform a task but due to the lack of confidence or any other reason they are unable to execute it. Objective of this research to arrange and analyse the available literature to find out and extract word clouds for sources of self-efficacy, self-efficacy theory and levels of self-efficacy. NVIVO 11 Plus was applied to generate the words cloud for exact match, specialized match and generalized match. Finally, conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made. It was concluded that self-efficacy can be improved and enhanced. Institution and community has to arrange different gathering for learners and people.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Professional Capacity Building & Women Empowerment of Faculty at
           Quaid-i-Azam Academy for Educational Development Lahore: A Hermeneutic
           Phenomenological Approach

    • Authors: Saira Andleeb; Zahida Parveen, Rukhsana Bashir
      Abstract: This research study is significant to present a realistic and objective view of the factors (emotional intelligence, perseverance, strategic vision, communication, and critical thinking) that enable women to attain empowerment in their institute. The core purpose of the study was to explore the phenomena of Quaid-Azam Academy for Educational Development (QAED) Lahore faculty and its role in building women's empowerment.  The major purpose of the research was to Identify the faculty barriers in the way of Women's Empowerment in QAED Lahore and Dig out the areas of Professional Capacity Building Practices of QAED Faculty.  Keeping in mind the above debate of literature the given was objectives of this research project to What are the environmental factors that play a significant role in Women Empowerment of Faculty at QAED Lahore' This was qualitative research. The paradigm was interpretivism and the methodology was qualitative. The present study was conducted under the interpretive paradigm. The type of research was phenomenology for this project.  The design was hermeneutic phenomenology. The paradigm was interpretivism and the methodology was qualitative.  Data was collected using semi-structured interviews N-Vivo-12 was used to analyze the data. The thematic analysis approach was applied to analyse the collected data to explore the perseverance and leadership success at QAED Lahore. In Pakistan, the limited research on factors that contribute to women’s success in educational leadership. Need for revised policies within organizations to encourage equal opportunities by reducing deliberate discriminatory activities within the workplace and society. Important areas of research can provide insights to enable women leaders to emerge in the patriarchal society.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Post-Primary Transition Experiences of Students: A Qualitative Case Study
           of Secondary Schools in Dir Lower

    • Authors: Muhammad Imran Khan; Dr. Syed Munir Ahmad
      Abstract: For most students, the transition from one school to another can be a daunting experience, more so for public school students in developing countries such as Pakistan, where there is little or no awareness about the myriad ways in which school transition may affect students in their new school environments. This paper therefore seeks to explore the post-primary transition experiences of students in their secondary schools, by adopting a qualitative research design. The doctoral study, from which this paper is drawn, was conducted in eight secondary schools in District Dir Lower, which included four urban and four rural schools. Using purposive sampling, the data were gathered through semi-structured interview schedules from fifty-eight secondary school students who had recently gone through their transition experience after completion of their primary level. The data were analyzed qualitatively using a thematic analysis approach. The main findings of the study show that the participants faced adjustment problems in overcrowded classrooms; similarly, the problem of adults’ pressure, misbehavior and bullying, absenteeism, and dropout issues are the major concerns at secondary schools. A noteworthy proportion of the participants however were found to be satisfied due to sibling support, the academic changes, and teachers’ attitudes at secondary schools. The study recommends that arrangements for additional classrooms in secondary schools be made; a proper counseling system needed to be introduced for investigating the causes of absenteeism, dropout, and students’ other problems; and Parent-Teacher Councils be strengthened for ensuring a conducive learning environment at the school.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • School Monitoring System in Punjab: Challenges Confronted By Internal
           Schools Monitors

    • Authors: Sajad Ahmad; Zahida Parveen, Farzana Yousaf
      Abstract: In Punjab (Pakistan), an internal school monitoring system is in practice along with an external monitoring system. Internal monitors faced some problems while doing school monitoring. This study aimed to identify the problems faced by internal school monitors and analyze the effects of monitors’ problems on their efficiency in monitoring the elementary schools. The study was delimited to the district Mianwali, which has three tehsils. A census sampling technique was used to select the study sample. A self-developed questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale was used as an instrument and finalized after validation through experts’ opinions to face and content validity. Data were collected from 99 Assistant Education Officers (AEOs), i.e., internal school monitors. The study found that a strong mechanism of school monitoring exists but is not properly organized, having some problems such as lack of power and authority of internal monitors, social interference in their work, and insufficient financial resources. The internal monitors cannot give proper attention to the school’s monitoring due to their socio-economic and professional problems. Their efficiency may be improved by solving these problems.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Conversation Analysis of English Language Classroom Interaction at Public
           Schools in Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Afsheen Nusrat; Nabila Akbar, Aamir Aziz
      Abstract: This Conversation Analysis (CA) study proposes to investigate the Initiation Response Feedback  (IRF),  forms in teacher fronted interaction, to investigate, the amount of teacher talk, teacher–learner interaction including, nature of initiation patterns, at middle level ESL classroom of public schools. All data, used in the study comes from transcription of the audio recordings to elicit the real classroom language. Conversation Analysis (CA) is adopted as the diagnostic approach to identify earlier mentioned features of classroom conversation. Data was recorded by the means of audio recorder and opportunity sampling was done for collecting data. The analysis is done by keeping the research focus in mind that is, identification of real classroom interaction. The findings of this study concludes that public sector classrooms offer very less scope to communication approach of learning as a result students remain unexposed to real life language use and remained stuck on rules of language rather use of language. Finding of the research also displayed that though, the EFL classrooms offer vast room for communication and interactional practices however, it is utilized inappropriately in public schools.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Performance of Public and PEF School Students in Literacy and Numeracy
           Drive (LND): A Comparative Analysis

    • Authors: Dr.Muhammad Aqeel Raza; Mahwish Hameed Malik, Farrah Deeba
      Abstract: The role of literacy and numeracy for any society is remarkable. Therefore, the core purpose of the present study was to compare the achievement of public as well as PEF schools on the basis of literacy and numeracy drive (LND). LND has been introduced in the province of Punjab for the purpose of evaluating schools’ performance through Monitoring and Evaluation Assistants (MEAs). The test consists of seven multiple choice questions related to Urdu, English and Mathematics. The objective of the study was to conduct a relative comparative survey in between public and Punjab Education Foundation (PEF) schools of district Muzaffargarh. The study was delimited to only district Muzaffargarh. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select sample. The statistics from chosen schools was acquired by total 317 students including male, female, rural and urban. The analyzer adopted the Government specialists prepared test of literacy and numeracy drive. By contentment of pilot testing and confirmation by supervisor, test was conducted by the researcher. Data were evaluated by mean, standard deviation and z-test. Value of z-test between the performances of Public and PEF Schools is 4.91. Findings of this study showed that there was a noteworthy difference in the achievement of public and PEF schools. Public schools were better in their performance as compared to PEF schools. The study concludes that LND should be continued in Punjab and across Pakistan at more broader level.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Challenges Pre-Service Teachers Face During Teaching Practicum: An Anatomy
           of Teachers’ Education Programs

    • Authors: Dr. Sajid Masood; Malahat F. Siddiqui, Khadija Arif
      Abstract: The study aimed at exploring the challenges and difficulties faced by pre-service teachers during their teaching practicum. The current study espoused Quantitative Research Methods and adopted a self-constructed questionnaire as the research instrument. 860 students were selected through convenient sampling as participants of the study and had recently completed their practicum tenure. The findings from the four areas of inquiry demonstrated that pre-service teachers only experienced a moderate or slight level of challenges which include the availability of instructional material from cooperating school, number of students in a class, teaching subject which is not related to the major area, availability of furniture, using methods for different abilities students, identifying, dealing with individual differences, demands from the cooperating school, teaching extra classes other than assigned ones, doing non-teaching duties in the cooperating school, paying transportation charges during teaching practice. The rest of the problems were identified as slight problems and are consistent with the level of classes being taught. Also, students enrolled in B.Ed. programs faced more problems in comparison to the students enrolled in other programs. The findings will be beneficial for pre-service, teachers’ training institutes, cooperating schools, and policymakers. 
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • A Comparative Study on the Role of Private and Public Sector for Promotion
           of Quality Education at Elementary Level

    • Authors: Dr. Saira; Nishat Zafar, Dr.Afsheen Salahuddin
      Abstract: Education is a must and integral for grooming of individual’s personality. There are diverse types of institutions working e.g. private and public institutions, technical institutions and madrasas. There are three main pillars in these institutes i.e. teachers, students, and curriculum. In this age, private schools are preferred by parents. The main objective of this research paper is to conduct a comparative evaluation of the role of the private and public sectors in promoting excellent education in Punjab, Pakistan, especially Faisalabad Primary Schools. In order to obtain the raw data, the researchers selected 200 teachers from 20 public schools and 20 private schools using an appropriate selection process. Through the test of two groups of students, the researchers assessed the education level, teaching methods and curriculum quality of teachers in public and private schools. Compared with private schools, the researchers found that public schools have complete infrastructure, strong teachers, spacious school buildings, and long-term qualified professors. Therefore, compared with the commercial sector, the public sector has played a role in improving the quality of primary schools. It was found that Public schools lacking with trained teaching staff, well equipped classrooms and good policy and administration. While the other hand private schools deficient of well-educated staff, good infrastructure and self-motivation. It was recommended that the Government needs to realize this situation and to equalize the standards of public and private sector to achieve vigorous qualityeducation at this level.  
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Socio-Psychological Impacts of Corporal Punishment on Secondary School
           Children (A study of Secondary School Teachers in District Zhob,

    • Authors: Mamoon Khan; Saima Afzal, Muntazir Mehdi, Muhammad Meesum Hassan, Naveed Farah
      Abstract: In the public debate, there is controversy regarding the use of corporal punishment as a way to correct the abuse of a child. This research endeavor was directed to find out the impacts of corporal punishment on students’ socio-psychological development. The researcher focused on finding out the reasons for corporal punishment and approaches to remove factors of corporal punishment for schools because it affects the psychological development of students. The main objectives of this study were to study the opinion of school teachers regarding corporal punishments, to explore the impacts of corporal punishment on school students and to analyze the effects of corporal punishment on the educational development of students. In the present study, the researcher used the quantitative research method to explore the sociological and psychological impacts of corporal punishment on secondary school children. All the teachers of secondary schools in District Zhob were the population of the study. 121 respondents from ten different schools were selected through multistage simple random sampling and data were collected through a questionnaire. It was found that a variety of reasons have brought a decline in the use of punitive acts in schools these include legal, social and educational aspects. Teachers are legally prevented from giving punishments to students while on the other hand awareness level among teachers has increased regarding the ill use of such punishment to bring about improvements among students. The old and traditional teaching methods have evolved due to teaching training courses and most the teachers believe that corporal punishment has many negative effects and impacts on children.KEY WORDSCorporal Punishment, Impacts of Corporal Punishment, Socio-Psychological Impacts of Corporal Punishment. Corporal Punishment and Health. 
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Anatomizing Words beyond Gender: A Composite Study on Pakistani
           Motivational Speeches

    • Authors: Aqsa Arshad; Mussarat Azher, Sana Nawaz, Shaista Hassan
      Abstract: The present research article aims to explore the way ideologies are construed and influenced by gender in the oral discoursesof male, female and transgender people. The majority of the people in Pakistan are trapped under the so-called rift which serves in strengthening a sociobiological gendered identity, rather than ideological construal. Therefore, underlying semiotic modalities realizing a perspective are pertinent to be explored for unfolding discursive strategies for constructing ‘performative gendered identities.’ It is widely acknowledged that oral discourse, motivational speeches in particular are the most effective tool to construct and circulate a reality. This paper aims at exploring if the words, concepts, and ideologies are an item of sexual orientation or that of a foreboding human intellect as construed in oral discourses and how gender identities are engraved on the minds through lexical outlines. The data comprises of three Motivational speakers’ (Muniba Mazari, Julie Khan, and Qasim Ali Shah) transcribed oral discourses, in the Pakistani context. Drawing on Register Analysis (Halliday, & Hasan, 1989), and particularly Gender Performativity (Judith Butler, 2011), it examines whether lexical items have any gender-specific criteria of thought processes that construe a particular graph-line on behalf of gender and lexical and ideological mainframe to normalize a particular sociocultural identity. The findings suggest that the intriguing intricacies of oral discourses could be successfully examined through analyzing linguistic patterns and that the ideologies construe the performative identity of both speaker and lexical strain, besides gender. The sociocultural positioning could be norm-conforming but the loophole in social computational norm is to get settled yet. The findings also provide insightful implications for discourse analysis based on Register Analysis by contributing explorations of the lexical aura of ideologies.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jun 2022 18:56:30 +000
  • The Successes and Challenges of an Early Childhood Education Program in
           Punjab: A Qualitative Case Study

    • Authors: Saima Malik; Razia Sultana, Misbaha Malik
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the successes and challenges encountered by the public Early Childhood Education (ECE) schools of Punjab. Using g convenient sampling technique, this study included six ECE headteachers and six teachers from urban and rural areas of Punjab. The study deployed self-developed semi-structured interview protocols which were validated through experts’ opinions. The respondents were asked about their practices to run ECE in their respective schools which include ECE infrastructure, advantages of ECE program in public schools, the usefulness of imparted training to in-service ECE teachers and headteachers, benefits of hiring and imparting training to caregivers, and suggestions for the improvement of the prevailing program. Thematic analysis was applied to obtain interview data. The findings of this study highlighted some challenges in the following areas: the shortage of rooms and staff, lack of budget, constant teachers’ training program, permanent hiring of caregivers, provision of ECE kit, and sustained monitoring system. The novelty of this study is based on the exploration of the perspectives of teachers and headteachers from rulers as well as urban areas of Punjab. The findings bear important implications for the QAED (Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development, school education department, Govt. of Punjab) and policymakers to review the current scenario of early childhood education in Punjab. The present study will encourage researchers to conduct more such studies, and policymakers to design policies that can benefit ECE programs to make modifications or strengthen their existing practices and services specifically in Punjab. 
      PubDate: Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • “Ashes are not Merely the Waste”: Exploring Existentialism in
           Deepa Mehta’s Earth

    • Authors: Muhammad Qasim
      Abstract: Existentialism, as a philosophical movement, maintains that man is helpless, frustrated and alienated in this absurd, chaotic and meaningless world but, according to Sartre, he has the option to drag himself out of that void and chaos by utilizing his freedom of choice and power of his action. He can do so by being committed and responsible. Thus, he can define his existence and give meaning to the meaningless world. This study explores these aspects of Sartre’s Existentialism in Deepa Mehta’s (1998) classic Earth, which unpacks the bitter reality of Indian partition, its causes and long lasting effects. The people of the two divided countries were thrown into hatred and enmity, which caused a real existential challenge in the forms of uncertainty, fear and doubt. This is what Deepa Mehta, with remarkable courage, portrays on the big screen. At the same time, she pleads and advocates for a better and inclusive society by showing the past and horrible conditions during partition. She seems to urge the people of India and Pakistan to end enmity and uproot hatred by taking up the right choices and proper actions. This study finds this Mehta’s existential quest quite relevant to the contemporary but permanent severity and tension lurking at the border of once-one nations.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Reflective Practices and Academic Achievement of Students: A Correlational

    • Authors: Ghazanfar Ali; Zunaira ZainabFatima, Ashfaque Ahmad
      Abstract: This study aim was to investigate the relationship between reflective practices and academic achievement of students at university level. The study purpose was to compare the reflective practices of male and female students at university of Sargodha; and determining the relationship between reflective practices and academic achievement of students at university of Sargodha. Descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The target population was the undergraduate students of University of Sargodha. The sample of the study was 400 undergraduates’ students (200 from faculty of Physical Sciences and 200 from Social Sciences). Sample was selected by using convenient sampling technique. An adopted instrument “development of a questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking” by Kember et al. (2000) used in this study. Data was collected by personal visits of researcher from university of Sargodha selected departments. The data was analyzed by computing the descriptive and inferential statistics. Researcher applied independent sample t test to compare the reflective practices of male and female students at university of Sargodha. Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was used for determining the relationship between reflective practices and academic achievement of students at university of Sargodha. Collected data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Descriptive statistics frequency, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics Independent Sample t test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used for analysis of collected data. The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference between the reflective practices of male and female university students and there was significant positive relationship between reflective practices and academic achievement of university students. This study could be replicated further on larger sample size using a combined and qualitative research for better understanding the reflective practices among undergraduates’ university students. Seminars and workshop would be conducted department wise to enhance the reflective practices of students.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Development and Analysis of Objective test Items of English at
           Intermediate Level (Part-I)

    • Authors: Amir Hafeez Malik; Rashda Perveen, Abdullah Shafiq, Abdul Rashid
      Abstract: The present study presents the analysis of current practices in development and analysis of objective test items for Intermediate Part-I level in Punjab, Pakistan. The study is preceded with the help of teachers teaching English to Intermediate Part-I class. A Test consisting of 60 items was produced for students. This Test was the basic tools for collections of data for the study. For each item of the Test, four options were given and students had to tick only one of them. The data collected through Test was then analyzed, tabulated, difficulty level and discrimination powers were calculated and each item was interpreted separately. The key point of the study is that a number of issues are being faced by both the teachers in class, as test designers, as examiners and also by the students as testees. Therefore, this study provides guides to develop and analyze object test items for Intermediate Part-I level. It is aimed to bring reliability and validity to development and analysis of objective test items for a better education system.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of Principal Leadership Role on Secondary Schools Culture in Khyber

    • Authors: Abdul Haq; Dr Muhammad Rauf
      Abstract: The aim (purpose) of this study is to determine the relationship and effect of principal leadership role on school culture. The population of the study was all the secondary schools in 5 zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 650 secondary schools from all the 5 districts of Zone-2 was taken randomly (lottery method). Multi- stage sampling technique was used. The data were collected personally through Leadership Inventory and Culture Inventory questionnaires and pilot study was conducted for finding the reliability of the questionnaires. Five likert scale answers were used in both the questionnaires ( Agree, Strongly Agree, Neutral, Disagree , Strongly Disagree).The data were analyzed through SPSS. The values of the two types of data of LPI and SCI are 0.877 and 0.904. The Regression Model Process Marco by Andrew F. Hayes was used to find out the relationship and effect of principal leadership role and school culture. As a result, it's important for principals to consider how their leadership strategies and attitudes contribute to a healthy school culture. All of the factors of leadership and all of the factors of school culture had a strong and important relationship, according to the results of this report.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Teaching Writing to Students with Physical Disabilities: A Qualitative

    • Authors: Kashif Iqbal; tahira zafarullah, Ayesha Zia
      Abstract: Writing is the major skill in education for students with physical disabilities. Students with physical disabilities are also supposed to have mastery in writing skill to accomplish their academic goals. This study was based on a qualitative approach to analyze errors made by students with physical disabilities in writing, problems experienced by their teachers. The population of the study were all students with physical disabilities from school level, their teachers in Lahore city. Data of 31 respondents including teachers (N= 15) and students with physical disabilities (N=16) from grade 4, 5 and 6 were taken as a sample by using the purposive sampling technique. The instruments of the study were an interview protocol for teachers and syllabus based test for students with physical disabilities. Data was collected through interviews and syllabus based test. Qualitative data including interviews response and document analysis was analyzed through coding & thematic analysis by following up a validated writing rubric. The findings of the study revealed that there are many errors that students with physical disabilities make while writing. It was also founded that teachers experience many problems while teaching writing to students with physical disabilities. Additionally, strategies used by teachers while teaching writing were also the part of the findings. Teacher’s training and conceptual learning of writing skill for students with physical disabilities were strongly recommended for better teaching and learning process
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +000

    • Authors: Ghulam Ghulam Murtaza; Ammara Farukh, Naureen Nazar
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of trainee teachers’ attitude on learning and teaching English as a second language in Pakistani classrooms. The aim of this study was to investigate those social and cognitive factors that influence learner’s attitude, motivation and oral proficiency skills in ESL class. It was also observed that the oral communication of the learners in this area is directly affected by the most influential factors: socio-economic status and cognitive style and strategies. The quantitative methodology was adopted to assess the impact of attitude on ESL oral proficiency skills. The students enrolled in the B.Ed. programs of 3 different Elementary colleges and 3 university campuses based in Multan division comprised the population of this study. Data was analyzed through SPSS finding out the relationship among different variables. The data collection tools for the proposed research were test, questionnaire and interviews. The findings show that language learning is deeply influenced by the factors of positive attitude, motivation and socio economic status. These factors play a significant role in attaining oral communication. Moreover social status of the parents contributes a lot. Analysis also shows that there is an absolute linkage among speaking proficiency and the above mentioned factors.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Brand Aslam: Contesting Nadeem Aslam as Pakistani Anglophonic Voice

    • Authors: Dr.Barirah Nazir; Abdullah Shafiq, Abdul Rashid
      Abstract: This article explores how the literary texts have been influenced by the writer’s promotion as an author with the knowledge and authority to represent Pakistan. We discuss how “Brand Aslam” draws on and amplifies elements of “Brand Pakistan” to secure the authority of Aslam’s representations of the nation he left as a teenager. We are particularly interested in how the branding of Aslam in terms of his national identity (here, Pakistan), especially due to his active involvement in creation of his image, influences commodity value of his work(s) in the global literary market. We conclude that the “real-life” stories of him as a literary celebrity become the objects of special fascination and determine the reception of his works as a postcolonial author from margins.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Ecocritical Reading of Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra

    • Authors: Sajid Hussain; Dr. Barirah Nazir, Raheel Rehman Khan, Abdul Rashid
      Abstract: The present study is aimed to trace out the relationship of nature and man in the play Antony and Cleopatra by William Shakespeare. The major theoretical insights have been taken from the model of Ecocriticism proposed by Rueckert (2006) in his seminal work Metaphor and Reality: A Meditation on Man, Nature and Words. The ecocritical discourse analysis of the play, Antony and Cleopatra, reveals that there is proximal relationship between nature and human culture. Both human and nature remain interactive consistently. The ecocritical survey of Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra concludes that each human character plays complete set of roles, either ecocidal or eco-affable depending upon the intensity of their eco-awareness. It can concluded that Nature has brightness and joy which happen to be essential elements blossom and revive in due course making possible the improvement and delighted restoration.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Oppression of Minorities in Arundhati Roy’s The Ministry of Utmost

    • Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan Khan; Waheed Ahmad Khan, Abbass Zaman
      Abstract: Victimization and oppression are two leading influences which have maltreated the Indian minorities under the Indian administration. The present paper talks about the plight of the Indian smaller sects as portrayed in Arundhati Roy’s The Ministry of Utmost Happiness in the light of Frantz Fanon’s (1961) notion of neocolonialism. The recent paper uses qualitative data while addressing the troubled Indian sub-groups. After a comprehensive textual interpretation, it concludes that the minority groups in India are mistreated and persecuted. It highlighted the anti-minority state policies which have targeted them and mostly the Muslims. The paper finds that religion is used as a weapon against them. State sponsored violent mobs and several black laws had endangered the strengthless inhabitants in India. The state police are the main handlers behind this oppression and violence. Police as well their sponsored armed masses had turned the country into a quicksand for the minorities and mostly the Muslims. Indian forces apply the tactics of neocolonialism to persecute and damage the sub-groups in India.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Social Media Marketing Activities: A Tool For Creating Brand Awareness

    • Authors: Nida Kamal; Mehreen Fatima, Hina Samdani, Muhammad Awais Mehmood
      Abstract: These days, e-commerce being the latest trend, is developing the inclination of people towards online platforms like social media to get their desired products in best price, ease, less time and increases brand awareness.  If the business has a good social media marketing plan, whereas they manage their online presence in a remarkable manner, then only will brand awareness work in their favor.  The study aims to analyze the mediating effect of brand consciousness as well as value consciousness on brand awareness taking perceived social media marketing activities as the independent variable. Quantitative approach using deduction as a method of hypotheses development has been employed in this study. Structured questionnaire was generated in order to gather data essential for the study.  The data has been collected from 250 university students from Islamabad and Rawalpindi via the convenience sampling technique. The study aspires to analyze the mediating effect of brand consciousness and value consciousness on brand awareness by the impact of perceived social media marketing activities. It was analyzed that social media marketing activities play an important role in having significant impact on brand awareness. Furthermore, brand consciousness and value consciousness also have a mediating impact on the relationship found among social media marketing activities and brand awareness. 
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparison of Current Trends in Early Childhood Education in Public and
           Private Sector Schools of Azad Jammu & Kashmir

    • Authors: Nadia Nazir; Dr. Mahek Arshad, Zafar Iqbal Yousuf Zai
      Abstract: The importance of early childhood education is undeniable as it is the foundation stone for all the upcoming levels of education. Various trends of early childhood education (hereafter ECE) have emerged in new era. The relevant data were collected from primary school teachers of both public and private sector schools of district Sudhnuti in AJ & K were taken as population. The Self-constructed questionnaire was comprised of 32 items used for data collection. In this questionnaire, the implementation of current trends of ECE was observed across public and private sector schools of AJ&K. The t-test was applied to make a comparison of the implementation of the current trend.. A stratified random sampling technique was used to collect data from 291 public sector school primary teachers. After analyzing the results, it was found that there was a significant difference in both public and private sector schools regarding current trends of ECE. The findings of the study show all over comparison mean of trends in ECE in public sector schools. The findings revealed that the private sector school teachers implement more current ECE trends in their classrooms than the public sector school teachers. The private sector school teachers have a more encouraging environment as compared to the public sector school teachers. Public and private sector schools may offer good quality ECE programs for the ECE teachers. Keeping the results of the study in mind it can safely be said that all stakeholders must take more initiatives to improve the standards of early childhood education. Educational institutions can conduct workshops for the pre-service and in-service ECE teachers. Government should allocate more funds to provide more facilities to ECE teachers so that they may achieve the high standards in ECE. .
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Reforms in Education Sector and their Effects on Teachers’ Job

    • Authors: Tyeba Ambreen Siddiqi; Gul Zaman, Dr. Muhammad Shah
      Abstract: This study intends to explore reforms in education sector and their effects on teachers’ job attitudes in Southern Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa at elementary and secondary level. The topic of the study was “Reforms in Education Sector and their Effects on Teachers’ Job Attitudes”. The purpose of the study was to identify the effect of education sector reforms in southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and their effects on the job attitudes of the teachers as well as on the internal environment of the schools. Hypotheses to be tested were; these reforms have no significant effect on teachers’ job attitudes as well as on internal environment of the schools, no significant difference exists in the attitudes of male and female as well as rural and urban teachers. This research study was quantitative in nature and methodology of the study was descriptive. Self made questionnaire consisting of five point Likert scale was used for data collection. All male and female teachers (6660) in the elementary and secondary schools of southern districts namely Bannu, Lakki Marwat, Dera Ismail Khan and Tank constituted population. Findings showed that these reforms have positive effect on teachers’ job attitudes and on the internal environment of the schools. Findings also showed that significant difference was found in attitudes of rural and urban teachers. Attitudes of urban teachers were more positive, as their mean was greater. Significant difference was found in the attitudes of male and female teachers. Significant difference was found in the attitudes of rural and urban teachers as well as in the attitudes of male and female teachers. Based on the findings, following recommendations were made. As these reforms have positive effect on teachers’ job attitudes and on internal environment of the schools, so these may be introduced in all those schools which lack these reforms
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • A Study of School Climate and Students’ Academic Achievement in Public
           and Private Secondary Schools of Lahore

    • Authors: Muhammad Amin; Sumera Rashid, Humera Amin
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the school climate and students' academic achievement in public and private secondary schools of Lahore, Pakistan. The study used quantitative research approach. The researchers adapted Pashiardis' (2008) instrument "School Climate Student Questionnaire (SCSQ)” to examine students' perceptions regarding school climate, while previous academic results of selected students were used to assess their academic achievement. The questionnaire had 44 questions on a 5-point Likert scale. The experts' viewpoints and pilot testing ensured the questionnaire's validity and reliability. A proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The study sample includes 300 male and female students from public and private secondary school of Lahore. The data were analyzed using SPSS to perform descriptive and inferential statistics to address the research questions. The study results show that private schools show better physical and social environment than public schools, however learning environment is similar both in public and private schools. Overall, there is no difference between the school climate of public and private secondary schools. Private schools show significantly better academic achievement than public schools. Overall male schools climate is statistically better than female schools climate. Male students have significantly better academic achievement than female students. The school climate has implications for educational plans and policies that aim to improve the school climate and hence improve students' academic achievement.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Instructional Supervision Practices: Comparison of Private and Public
           Secondary Schools of Lahore

    • Authors: Muhammad Amin; Humera Amin, Sumera Rashid
      Abstract: This study aims to compare the instructional supervision practices used by the principals in public and private secondary schools of Iqbal Town, Lahore. The research is quantitative and descriptive, and it is based on quantitative data derived through the use of a structured questionnaire. The study's population consisted of all secondary-level teachers from public and private schools of Iqbal Town, Lahore who taught at the secondary level. Two hundred teachers were selected through multistage random sampling technique from both sectors and gender (male and female), with an equal number of teachers from each sector and both genders participating in the study. Based on the mean score data it can be concluded that principals of the private school are have better practice of instructional supervision as compared to the principals of public schools. Results of the t-test indicate that difference between the mean score regarding principals’ instructional supervision practices in private and public schools is statistically significant. It can be inferred that principals of the private schools have significantly better practice of instructional supervision than principals of public schools. It is recommended that instructional supervision practices in the public schools needs to be improved to enhance the students’ performance and to make the school effective.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Ukraine: The Dilemma of the "Gate of Europe"

    • Authors: Dr Saima Aftab; Dr Adeel Iftikhar, Dr Nighat Younas
      Abstract: Europe has been caught up in a new round of security crises since 2021, when Russia built up heavy troops on its border with Ukraine. The West speculated that Russia would launch an attack on Ukraine, the media exaggerated the imminent war, and major think tanks began to pay attention to Russia’s strategic intentions and trends. The United States and major European powers responded to the crisis through diplomatic and military means. Known as the "Gate of Europe", Ukraine fought against Russia in 2013-2014. Now it has once again become the focus of global geopolitics, and its fate has attracted international attention. This article will discuss NATO "opportunities" that exacerbate the international security dilemma and China's strategic choices that will not end the unstoppable geopolitical dilemma The other part will show the unsuccessful course of the modern state in the Ukraine crisis, and will also enlighten the Russian-Ukrainian conflict; the dual security dilemma. Finally the fate of the gates of Europe: bridges or a barrier'
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Analysis of Vocabulary Items Incorporated in PTBB English Textbooks
           Prescribed for Intermediate Part-I

    • Authors: Muhammad Riaz; Amir Hafeez Malik, Abdullah Shafiq
      Abstract: This study aimes at analyzing the vocabulary items of English textbooks I & III for intermediate Part-I students prescribed by Punjab Text Book Board (PTBB) in order to investigate to what extent the vocabulary items match with OALD specialist lists developed by Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 7th Edition (2005). A corpus analysis of the Intermediate Part-I English textbooks I & III has been done according to OALD specialist lists. The data were analysed through quantitative analysis using AntConc. The analyzed data reveal the weaknesses of the prescribed textbooks with regards to the vocabulary items and the vocabulary needs of the Intermediate Part-I learners. Thus, the prescribed Intermediate Part-I English textbooks are needed to re-design and necessary improvement should be made in vocabulary items of English textbooks I & III for Intermediate Part-I to meet the academic and practical needs of learners. Improved textbooks are the need of the hour, solution of the learners’ vocabulary problems and the best possible help in achieving expected learning outcomes. 
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • An Analysis of the use of Emojis in Digital Communication

    • Authors: Shaista Ghazanfar; Dr. Saira Maqbool, Dr. Rubina Masum
      Abstract: The current study aims to explore whether emojis render same meanings to all individuals. It also discusses different interpretations of whatsapp emojis results in miscommunication. Writing, pictograms, symbols, signs and other modes of communication when used collectively, reinforce each other to make communication more effective. Emojis, an advanced form of pictograms and one of the most used means of communication by new generation are graphical by nature and are open to interpretation. In this digitalized world, emojis are universally used by everyone to presents one’s feelings and thought vibrantly. Quantitative research design was employed. A sample size of 100 learners from 2 public and 2 private universities was selected to get data through a closed ended questionnaire carrying 50 randomly selected emojis used in whatsapp having different meanings. Data were analyzed through SPSS software for interpretation of results by employing standard deviation, and independent sample t-test. It was concluded that different participants were of varied opinion about the same emojis. Difference in gender also affects the interpretation of meaning due to their own sub-cultures
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Navigating through the Regulatory Lens: Fueling or Un-fueling SMEs Growth
           in Pakistan

    • Authors: Nida Masroor; Dr Saima Tabassum
      Abstract: A healthy corporate sector ensures the economic success of a country. The smooth and effective execution of an organization is highly dependent on the task environment it is working. A company has to modify its internal environment in accordance with the external environment so as to make it a success. Political and legal environment is one of the most important environments having direct impact on the overall business environments specially the economic environment. The legal framework defines the boundaries for an organization that has to be complied. The government is responsible to make the task environment favorable for the organizations by drafting policies, supportive and beneficial for them. Although the macro environment is beyond control of an organization but the government of a country has the power to regulate it to certain extent by stabilizing the political and legal framework to make the task environment favourable for them. Ease of doing business is one of the most important drivers encouraging entrepreneurship. The objective of research is to identify the legal constraints behind closure/ restricted growth of SMEs. The data was gathered from the entrepreneurs regarding the legal constraints faced by their organizations/ sectors using survey questionnaire based on likert scale depicting the level of their effect on the organization. The research emphasizes the need of policies stimulating growth of SMEs rather impeding them. The research aims to facilitate the policy makers while drafting policies to make them beneficial for economic growth by ensuring ease of doing business in the country.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Enhancing Confidence in Students’ English Speaking Skills by the Use
           of Interactive Practices

    • Authors: Dr. Afsheen Salahuddin; Dr. Farah Deeba, Amna Saleem
      Abstract: In a developing country like Pakistan, speaking English has emerged as the most popular tool for communication. Fluent speakers of English get good job opportunities as this is also the need of the hour. The English language has become an international language widely spoken all over the world. For the present study, the problem identified by the researchers was the low confidence level of students in spoken English. Therefore, the core purpose of the current endeavor was to enhance the confidence of students in speaking English by using interactive practices. The present study was conducted at one of the private sector universities in Lahore, Pakistan. The quasi-experiment and pre-and post-test research designs were used in the study. An intact group consisting of 40 students from the university was included in the study. Furthermore, these 40 students were divided into two groups, i.e., the experimental group and the control group. The traditional teaching method utilized in the English language lessons was replaced by innovative and interactive sessions for one semester for the experimental group. The null hypothesis developed was: there was no change in the confidence level of students in speaking English before and after the intervention. The data was statistically analyzed, and it was discovered that interactive activities can boost students' confidence and reduce anxiety while promoting an urge in them to speak up without hesitation. Thus, it is proposed that interactive activities be used in the English language classroom to boost students’ speaking skills in English.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The feeling of ‘Being There’ in 360o videos increase news

    • Authors: Naveed Ullah Hashmi; Dr. Wajid Zulqarnain, Dr. Noman Ahmed
      Abstract: Virtual reality news videos are paving its place in the new journalism. Particularly, in the flood of fake news items the potential use of VR news has been increased as this technology provides more sense of presence than the traditional content. There are few studies that empirically supports that sense of presence has direct effects on news credibility therefore the aim of this study is to explore the relationship between sense of presence and news credibility. For this experimental method was applied in which 360o video was selected from “The New York Times”. 154 male and female students of the media department were voluntarily recruited. 2D-video and 360o version of the video were shown to them. Their responses were collected on the pre-structured questionnaires. The results validate the previous findings of the studies that there is a positive and significant relationship between sense of presence and news credibility. This study has theoretical implications as well it could be helpful for the technology developers and policy makers. 
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Computer-Based Integrated Learning System on the Teaching of
           Mathematics at Higher secondary Level in Pakistan

    • Authors: Sher Ali Khan; Dr. Muhammad Rauf
      Abstract: The purpose of this experimental research is to determine the effectiveness of computer-based integrated learning system on the teaching of Mathematics at a higher secondary level in Pakistan. The objectives of the study were to measure the academic achievement of students in Mathematics by teaching through the traditional method, measure the academic achievement of students using the computer-based integrated learning system in Mathematics, and compare the effectiveness of computer-based integrated learning system and traditional method in term of academic achievement of the higher secondary schools’ students in Mathematics. All the Students of F.Sc Pre-Engineering in G.H.S.S of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa constituted the population of the study. One Govt. Higher Secondary School was conveniently taken from the population as a sample. Students were divided into experimental group and control group randomly containing 25 students in each group. Pretest, post-test control group design was used in this study. The pre-test score was recorded before the treatment and the post-test score after six weeks of treatment. The collected data were tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted with SPSS. For analysis of the result, a t-test was used. The study concluded from the analysis that a computer-based integrated learning system was more effective as compared to the traditional method of teaching Mathematics. The study recommended that a computer based integrated learning system should be adopted in the existing system of teaching Mathematics to increase the interest and motivation of students and decrease the anxiety of Mathematics.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
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