Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1664 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (262 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (90 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (56 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (953 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (175 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (953 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access  
Društvene i Humanističke Studije     Open Access  
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E-Dimas : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access  
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-l@tina : Revista Electrónica de Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EAU Heritage Journal Social Science and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne     Open Access  
Économie et Solidarités     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad     Open Access  
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EFB Bioeconomy Journal     Open Access  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ejovoc (Electronic Journal of Vocational Colleges)     Open Access  
El Ágora USB     Open Access  
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Electronic Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Emotions : History, Culture, Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Émulations : Revue de sciences sociales     Open Access  
Encuentros : Revista de Ciencias Humanas, Teoría Social y Pensamiento Crítico     Open Access  
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enfoques     Open Access  
Enjeux et société : Approches transdisciplinaires     Open Access  
Enlace Universitario     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios del Desarrollo Social : Cuba y América Latina     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Estudios digital     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access  
Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
Etcétera : Revista del Área de Ciencias Sociales del CIFFyH     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
eTropic : electronic journal of studies in the tropics     Open Access  
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EUREKA : Social and Humanities     Open Access  
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Cooperation     Open Access  
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Fa Nuea Journal     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family Process     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Family Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fields: Journal of Huddersfield Student Research     Open Access  
Finance and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Flaubert     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Formation emploi     Open Access  
FORO. Revista de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Nueva Época     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forskning & Forandring : Research and Change     Open Access  
Forum Ilmu Sosial     Open Access  
Forum Marsilius-Kolleg     Open Access  
Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fourth World Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science     Open Access  
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Funes. Journal of Narratives and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej     Open Access  
Genocide Studies and Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Genocide Studies International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Géographie et cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gizarte Ekonomiaren Euskal Aldizkaria : Revista Vasca de Economía Social     Open Access  
Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences     Open Access  
Global Journal of Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Global Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Graduate Journal of Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Graduate School Journal Chiang Rai Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Grafía     Open Access  
Grassroots     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of Law and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Guacamaya     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Hábitat y Sociedad     Open Access  
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hallazgos     Open Access  
Harmoni Sosial : Jurnal Pendidikan IPS     Open Access  
Hatyai Academic Journal     Open Access  
Hayula : Indonesian Journal of Multidisciplinary Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Herencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heritage     Open Access  
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Higher Education of Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homo Ludens     Open Access  
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Horizontes LatinoAmericanos     Open Access  
Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human Behavior, Development and Society     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Humanities and Social Sciences Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal of Graduate School, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies (HASSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hydra : Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
I+D Revista de Investigaciones     Open Access  
IASSIST Quarterly     Open Access  
Iberoforum. Revista de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Iberoamericana     Open Access  
Iconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Idealogando : Revista de Ciências Sociais da UFPE     Open Access  
IdeAs. Idées d'Amérique     Open Access  
Identities : Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IDS Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Illness, Crisis & Loss     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Im@go. A Journal of the Social Imaginary     Open Access  
imagonautas : Revista interdisciplinaria sobre imaginarios sociales     Open Access  
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
In Situ : Au regard des sciences sociales     Open Access  
Inclusión y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Indiana University Journal of Undergraduate Research     Open Access  
Infinitum: Revista Multidisciplinar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Informação em Pauta     Open Access  
Informes Científicos - Técnicos UNPA     Open Access  
Infrastructure Complexity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Integrated Social Science Journal : Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University     Open Access  
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Development Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences (IJASOS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business and Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Business, Humanities, Education and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Cultural and Social Studies (IntJCSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Divination and Prognostication     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Growth and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Information, Diversity, & Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Korean Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Language and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Research and Scholarly Communication     Open Access  
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies     Open Access  
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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Heritage
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2571-9408
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 581-609: Assessing the (In)Stability of Urban Art
           Paints: From Real Case Studies to Laboratory Investigations of Degradation
           Processes and Preservation Possibilities

    • Authors: Dafne Cimino, Raffaella Lamuraglia, Ilaria Saccani, Michela Berzioli, Francesca Caterina Izzo
      First page: 581
      Abstract: Urban art as a shared expression of street art between artists, citizenship and municipalities has always had an important role in the social life and appearance of modern cities. However, the durability of urban and street artworks is susceptible to the degradation processes that the employed commercial paint formulations undergo once outdoors. These are complex mixtures of compounds, differently sensitive to environmental agents according to their chemical nature. Starting from the colorimetric analysis of murals created in 2010, 2011 and 2018 in Reggio Emilia, Italy, documenting their degradation already after a few months, this study aimed at understanding the stability of the most unstable paints used by the artists in these artworks. A multi-analytical approach evaluated the commercial products under the chemical point of view, after natural and accelerated ageing. Additionally, two manufactured anti-UV varnishes were evaluated for their possible use as coatings. The results pinpointed the weaknesses of the selected paints and highlighted how the application of an anti-UV coating might slightly affect the visual aspect of the artwork, though ensuring a greater resistance to the outdoor conditions due to their minor chemical sensitivity to environmental agents.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 610-633: Air-Surveyed Cropmarks of Early Iron Age
           Heritage in Central Europe—Integrating Remotely Detected Data and
           Excavated Evidence

    • Authors: Martin Gojda, Martin Trefný, Markus Schussmann, Radka Šumberová
      First page: 610
      Abstract: This paper aims to present the potential of observations of the Earth’s surface by means of remote sensing (survey), specifically via direct (active) visual prospection from low altitude to identify and map small components (such as postholes) of archaeological contexts, namely aboveground post-built structures dated to the Early Iron Age (appr. 800–380 B.C.). This work gives an example of archaeological data on buried settlement constructions identified by aerial reconnaissance (i.e., by a non-invasive method), the interpretation—and primarily dating—of which is based on information achieved by excavation practice (recently performed predominantly during rescue campaigns). This research points to the fact that nonetheless to the traditional idea on the limited potential of crop-marked archaeological heritage in terms of dating (the ability of cropmarks displayed over pits, ditches, graves, etc., to produce exact ground-plans of even small buried features, so that their original function and dating can be determined) the number of more or less precisely datable archaeological sites and features buried under the surface is growing, including wooden structures once constructed on the ground (i.e., not sunken under the ground) and leaving on cereal crops just tiny spots/dots regularly spaced into lines. These are features (constructions) with identical ground plans (postholes placed in 4 × 3 and/or 3 × 3 patterns) of which commonly just one in a group of them situated on one site is enclosed by a perimeter line—a foundation for a wall or a trench for a palisade. Consequently, a retrospective survey of air-photo analog archives and digital repositories now brings new evidence on the chronological setting of many crop-marked Early Iron Age sites that previously remained undated.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 634-645: Investigating Late Bronze Age Glass Beads
           from Stotfold, Bedfordshire, UK

    • Authors: Sarah Paynter, Caroline M. Jackson
      First page: 634
      Abstract: A total of seventeen annular transparent blue glass beads and one cylindrical glass bead with opaque grey-white decoration were found at a site near Stotfold, in Bedfordshire, England. The beads were part of a cremation burial (without an urn), associated with small fragments of gold sheet and bone, and the latter were carbon dated to 1303-1052 calBC with 95% probability. Analysis (quantitative using SEM-EDS and qualitative using XRF) found that the beads are made from low magnesium, high potassium (LMHK) glass, of the type prevalent in Europe between around 1200 and 900 BC. The grey-white trail on the cylindrical bead is opacified in a novel way, as neither tin nor antimony colourants were used. These are only the second confirmed example of LMHK glass beads from England, and the earliest in date. They provide evidence of networks extending between this community and continental Europe in the Later Bronze Age, and the burial of a high-status individual at Stotfold. Experimental recreation is used to investigate the possible methods of making the glass, using plant ashes, copper oxide, and quartz sand. A multi-stage process is proposed, using a low temperature firing before the final high temperature melting and homogenising.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 646-663: The Monumental UNESCO Site of
           Panamá Viejo: Investigation of the Masonry Mortars

    • Authors: Chiara Ciantelli, Alessandro Sardella, Silvia Arroyo Duarte, Elena Pecchioni, Alessandra Bonazza
      First page: 646
      Abstract: The presented study illustrates the characterisation of several artificial materials (bedding, joint mortars, and plasters) belonging to the masonries of the UNESCO site of Panamá Viejo, located in Panama City (Panama). This monumental site represents the first Spanish settlement on the Pacific Coast, founded 500 years ago, in 1519. Through mineralogical and petrographic analyses of the collected samples, as stereomicroscope and polarized light microscopy (PLM) observations of bulk and thin sections, respectively, environmental scanning electron microscopy and micro-chemical investigations (ESEM-EDX) and X-Ray Powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis, it was possible to identify the composition of the materials utilized for the production of mortars and plasters, in addition to the determination of their state of conservation. Therefore, this work represents a substantial step for the preservation of the Panamá Viejo site, in order to support the selection of the most suitable restoration products, such as consolidants, protectives, etc., but also for choosing the most compatible materials for possible replacements/integrations in the masonries.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 664-676: X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of
           Picrolite Raw Material on Cyprus

    • Authors: Theodora Moutsiou, Demetrios Ioannides, Andreas Charalambous, Sebastian Schöder, Sam M. Webb, Mathieu Thoury, Vasiliki Kassianidou, Zomenia Zomeni, Christian Reepmeyer
      First page: 664
      Abstract: Picrolite artefacts comprise some of the most distinctive material remains in the prehistory of the island of Cyprus, in the Eastern Mediterranean. Picrolite exploitation dates from at least 12,000 years ago for the manufacture of personal ornaments and items with a symbolic function. It is commonly assumed that picrolite nodules were collected in secondary deposits on an ad hoc basis. This narrative, however, ignores the fact that picrolite carriers can only be found in very specific locations on the island, discrete from each other. Here we report initial outcomes of the application of handheld portable X-ray fluorescence (HHpXRF) and synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SR-μXRF) to the analysis of picrolite raw materials performed at the newly opened PUMA beamline of the SOLEIL Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Our work refines the basic characteristics of the elemental constituents of the picrolite raw material and highlights key micro-structural differences between two distinct source regions on the Troodos Massif in western Cyprus. Picrolite source characterisation is expected to contribute significant new knowledge to the study of rare raw material consumption, prehistoric social organisation, networking and possible long-distance exchange of this idiosyncratic raw material within and beyond the island’s geographic boundaries.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 677-701: ERASMUS+ Strategic Partnerships between
           UNESCO Global Geoparks, Schools, and Research Institutions: A Window of
           Opportunity for Geoheritage Enhancement and Geoscience Education

    • Authors: Marco Giardino, Sophie Justice, Riitta Olsbo, Patrizia Balzarini, Alessandra Magagna, Cristina Viani, Ilaria Selvaggio, Mikko Kiuttu, Jouni Kauhanen, Marjaana Laukkanen, Luigi Perotti
      First page: 677
      Abstract: Since both the EU Erasmus+ program and UNESCO Global Geoparks aim at developing models of best practices, a shared playground for common activities can be found in high geodiversity and rich geoheritage areas to promote innovative education and professional perspectives in the ecological transition. Two consecutive Erasmus+ cooperative partnerships (GEOclimHOME and GEOclimHOME-PRO) involved schools, research institutions, and three European geoparks (Rokua, Finland; Sesia Val Grande, Italy; Chablais, France) for improved perception of climate and environmental changes and appraisal of geoheritage. The common pedagogical approach is presented in this review paper as well as the different methodological solutions for (1) understanding climate change and (2) recognising its natural and human factors, by environmental research and professional experiences. Activities were first addressed to explore the “secret” values of geoheritage for awareness on climate changes. Later, active/passive roles of humans toward the environment have been analysed, which are related to the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). Results of educational activities demonstrated enhanced students’ awareness of social and environmental responsibility. Moreover, the actions highlighted new job opportunities, accomplishing the local and global needs of sustainable development, future skills, and lifestyles within geopark territories.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 702-715: 3D Digital Technologies for the
           Elaboration of a Replica of a Dermatological Didactic Model Belonging to
           the Olavide Museum from the Original Mould

    • Authors: Óscar Hernández-Muñoz, David Aranda Gabrielli, Amaya Maruri Palacín, Emanuel Sterp Moga, Alicia Sánchez-Ortiz
      First page: 702
      Abstract: The Olavide Museum in Madrid, which was founded in the 19th century, preserves one of the most important collections in the world of three-dimensional dermatological models made of polychrome beeswax. These models have been used for the training of numerous generations of dermatologists in Spain. Unfortunately, many of the figures were preserved in precarious conditions during the time that the museum was closed in the middle of the 20th century, and some could not be found after its reopening. In this paper, we show a method for the recovery of a missing model of which only the original plaster cast remains. For this purpose, we use the combination of a structured light scanner and 3D printing, together with traditional techniques, to reproduce a copy of the original cast, in order to prevent its deterioration during the wax casting. As a result of this study, a highly realistic figure was obtained, which represented, in great detail, the small superficial reliefs of the skin lesions, as well as their colour. The conclusion of this research is that it is possible to recreate, with precision, a didactic model in beeswax from its mould, without the need to use the mould in the process, which avoids any risk of deterioration in the process.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 716-741: A Representation Protocol for Traditional
           Crafts

    • Authors: Xenophon Zabulis, Nikolaos Partarakis, Carlo Meghini, Arnaud Dubois, Sotiris Manitsaris, Hansgeorg Hauser, Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Chris Ringas, Lucia Panesse, Nedjma Cadi, Evangelia Baka, Cynthia Beisswenger, Dimitrios Makrygiannis, Alina Glushkova, Brenda Elizabeth Olivas Padilla, Danae Kaplanidi, Eleana Tasiopoulou, Catherine Cuenca, Anne-Laure Carre, Vito Nitti, Ilia Adami, Emmanouil Zidianakis, Paraskevi Doulgeraki, Effie Karouzaki, Valentina Bartalesi, Daniele Metilli
      First page: 716
      Abstract: A protocol for the representation of traditional crafts and the tools to implement this are proposed. The proposed protocol is a method for the systematic collection and organization of digital assets and knowledge, their representation into a formal model, and their utilization for research, education, and preservation. A set of digital tools accompanies this protocol that enables the online curation of craft representations. The proposed approach was elaborated and evaluated with craft practitioners in three case studies. Lessons learned are shared and an outlook for future work is provided.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020040
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 742-755: Digital Routes in Greek
           History’s Paths

    • Authors: Antonios Kargas, Georgios Loumos, Irene Mamakou, Dimitrios Varoutas
      First page: 742
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the development of a virtual reality application, namely “Roots in Greek History” or RoGH, which provides the user with a unique experiential travel or transfer back in time to specific historical periods and historical places which are part of the Greek history and its cultural heritage. The tool is a multi-purpose one which is mainly addressed to tourists, teachers, or researchers. The users are facilitated in deriving historical data, challenged to connect with the past, and are invited to explore the history and the time period, archaeological ruins, and monuments of the past through virtual reality. In order to achieve this goal, the system exploits a dynamically designed and organised chronology, which can provide historical content for various places and cities in different times of their history. Users are given the freedom to choose “place” and “time” and consequently to have access to a variety of content (including 2D or 3D models, text, photos, multimedia, etc.), in an entertaining and educational procedure that creates a personalised information path and leads to empowering knowledge.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 756-787: Architectural Polychromy on the Athenian
           Acropolis: An In Situ Non-Invasive Analytical Investigation of the Colour
           Remains

    • Authors: Eleni Aggelakopoulou, Sophia Sotiropoulou, Georgios Karagiannis
      First page: 756
      Abstract: The preservation of the Athenian Acropolis monuments constitutes an ongoing top-priority national project of global significance and impact. The project concerning the analytical investigation of the polychromy of the Acropolis monuments presented in this paper was part of the Acropolis Restoration Service (YSMA) program (2011–2015), regarding the restoration of the two corners of the west entablature of the Parthenon, which exhibited severe static damage, and a parallel restoration program of the Propylaea. The scope of this research was to investigate the materials in the paint decoration remains on the monuments by applying, entirely in situ, numerous non-invasive techniques on selected architectural members of the Parthenon and the Propylaea. The research focused, mainly, on surfaces where traces of colour or decoration patterns were visible to the naked eye. Furthermore, surfaces that are referred to in the literature as decorated but that are currently covered with weathering crusts (of white or black colour) and/or layers of patina (of yellowish and orange-brown hue), were also examined. The techniques applied in situ on the Acropolis monuments were X-ray fluorescence, micro-Raman, and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, conducted with the use of handheld or portable instruments. The scientific data gathered in situ are discussed in this paper to enhance our knowledge of the architectural polychromy of the classical period. Further investigation by applying analytical techniques on a few selected micro-samples would be highly complementary to this present work.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020042
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 788-812: The Rise of Wine among Ancient
           Civilizations across the Mediterranean Basin

    • Authors: Mkrtich Harutyunyan, Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira
      First page: 788
      Abstract: The purpose of this work is to present the archaeological and historical background of viticulture and winemaking from ancient times to the present day in the Mediterranean basin. According to recent archaeological, archaeochemical and archaeobotanical data, winemaking emerged during the Neolithic period (c. 7th–6th millennium BC) in the South Caucasus, situated between the basins of the Black and Caspian Seas, and subsequently reached the Iberian Peninsula and Western Europe during the local beginning of Iron Age (c. 8th century BC), following the main maritime civilizations. This review summarises the most relevant findings evidencing that the expansion of wine production, besides depending on adequate pedo-climatic conditions and wine-growing practices, also required the availability of pottery vessels to properly ferment, store and transport wine without deterioration. The domestication of wild grapevines enabled the selection of more productive varieties, further sustaining the development of wine trade. Other fermented beverages such as mead and beer gradually lost their relevance and soon wine became the most valorised. Together with grapes, it became an object and a system of value for religious rituals and social celebrations throughout successive ancient Western civilizations. Moreover, wine was used for medicinal purposes and linked to a wide variety of health benefits. In everyday life, wine was a pleasant drink consumed by the elite classes and commoner populations during jubilee years, festivals, and banquets, fulfilling the social function of easy communication. In the present work, emphasis is put on the technical interpretation of the selected archaeological and historical sources that may explain present viticultural and oenological practices. Hopefully, this review will contribute to nurturing mutual understanding between archaeologists and wine professionals.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020043
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 813-828: European Flat Oyster (Ostrea Edulis L.)
           in the Eastern Baltic as Evidence of Long-Distance Trade in Medieval and
           Early Modern Times

    • Authors: Lembi Lõugas, Inna Jürjo, Erki Russow
      First page: 813
      Abstract: Along most of the European littoral, oysters were appreciated as a wholesome and palatable food from the Stone Age onwards, yet were transported much further from their natural habitats when long-distance trade in marine foodstuffs began in medieval times. The brackish waters of the Baltic Sea are not considered a suitable environment for this mollusc, and therefore all archaeological oyster shell finds are the result of import to the eastern Baltic. In this study, over 1000 shells found in different medieval and early modern archaeological contexts in Estonia were analysed, and the obtained data recorded in a data repository. Some conclusions are set out, based on shell size and shape, and breakage traces, but more detailed taphonomic studies are left for the future. This study identifies the earliest imports of oysters recorded by archaeological material and written sources. Both show records not much earlier than the 16th century AD. Although no information is preserved about the exact origin of oysters imported to Estonia, the oyster beds most probably exploited are those in the central eastern North Sea, i.e., the Wadden Sea.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020044
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 829-848: Ancient Restoration in Roman Polychromy:
           Detecting Aesthetic Changes'

    • Authors: Elisabetta Neri, Nesrine Nasr, David Strivay
      First page: 829
      Abstract: Few instances of material evidence for ancient colour restorations have been documented over the last 20 years, during which time the scientific approach to the study of polychromy has been defined. This article presents eight new cases of ancient restoration of colour from the Roman Imperial Age. By combining observations in visible and UV light and video microscopy with a micro-stratigraphic approach, MA-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and contextual archaeological data, we have observed evidence which could suggest an aesthetic change in the use of colour between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE: from polychrome and multitone effects to the use of monochromatic, flat, and uniform colour finishes.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020045
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 849-859: Archaeometric Study of Two Tanagra Type
           Statuettes of Unknown Provenance to Support Forensic Study

    • Authors: Michela Ricca, Maria Pia Albanese, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Salvatore Schiavone, Mauro Francesco La Russa, Armando Taliano Grasso, Luciana Randazzo
      First page: 849
      Abstract: This paper is concerned with a morphological-stylistic and archaeometric study of two small pottery statues, confiscated by the Cosenza Carabinieri Unit for the Protection of Cultural Heritage and Anti-Counterfeiting (Calabria, Italy). The research aimed to establish the authenticity of the artworks and to verify a possible origin from the same workshop manufacturing, by providing indications about the textural features and raw materials used for their production. For these purposes, the analytical approach involved the use of minero-petrographic and physical analysis, as follows: petrographic analysis (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermoluminescence tests (TL). The preliminary observation, which highlights differences in the stylistic features of the two statuettes as well as in the color, morphology and distribution of the white-greyish patina, is further confirmed by the TL investigations. The TL test revealed an ancient production only for one of the analyzed finds and the investigations on the raw materials allowed to relate this to a possible local historical-artistic context. The second statuette, on the other hand, is attributable to a modern production as confirmed by TL measurement.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020046
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 860-870: X-ray Dating of a Turin Shroud’s
           Linen Sample

    • Authors: Liberato De Caro, Teresa Sibillano, Rocco Lassandro, Cinzia Giannini, Giulio Fanti
      First page: 860
      Abstract: On a sample of the Turin Shroud (TS), we applied a new method for dating ancient linen threads by inspecting their structural degradation by means of Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS). The X-ray dating method was applied to a sample of the TS consisting of a thread taken in proximity of the 1988/radiocarbon area (corner of the TS corresponding to the feet area of the frontal image, near the so-called Raes sample). The size of the linen sample was about 0.5 mm × 1 mm. We obtained one-dimensional integrated WAXS data profiles for the TS sample, which were fully compatible with the analogous measurements obtained on a linen sample whose dating, according to historical records, is 55–74 AD, Siege of Masada (Israel). The degree of natural aging of the cellulose that constitutes the linen of the investigated sample, obtained by X-ray analysis, showed that the TS fabric is much older than the seven centuries proposed by the 1988 radiocarbon dating. The experimental results are compatible with the hypothesis that the TS is a 2000-year-old relic, as supposed by Christian tradition, under the condition that it was kept at suitable levels of average secular temperature—20.0–22.5 °C—and correlated relative humidity—75–55%—for 13 centuries of unknown history, in addition to the seven centuries of known history in Europe. To make the present result compatible with that of the 1988 radiocarbon test, the TS should have been conserved during its hypothetical seven centuries of life at a secular room temperature very close to the maximum values registered on the earth.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020047
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 871-880: New Early Cretaceous Geosites with
           Palaeogeographical Value from the Northwestern Caucasus

    • Authors: Dmitry A. Ruban, Zoya A. Tolokonnikova
      First page: 871
      Abstract: Field investigations in the northwestern segment of the Greater Caucasus, a Late Cenozoic orogen, have permitted the establishment of two new geosites, namely the Ubin and Bezeps geosites. Both represent Berriasian–Middle Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) marine deposits with abundant trace fossils. The latter are attributed to the Nereites ichnofacies and indicate on deep marine palaeoenvironments (this interpretation challenges previous reconstructions). The geosites represent the palaeogeographical type of geoheritage. They are characterized, particularly, by high scientific and aesthetic importance, but restricted accessibility. Further geoheritage inventory in the central Northwestern Caucasus seems to be promising.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020048
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 881-895: An Integrated Study of the Mesolithic
           Skeleton in Theopetra Cave, Greece: From the Skeleton Analysis to 3D Face
           Reconstruction

    • Authors: Manolis J. Papagrigorakis, Emmanuel Maravelakis, Nina Kyparissi-Apostolika, Eleni Stravopodi, Antonios Konstantaras, Orestis Apostolikas, Panagiotis Toulas, Constantin Potagas, Theodoros Papapolychroniou, Michael Mastoris, Philippos N. Synodinos, Antonis A. Kousoulis, Manolis G. Tsilivakos, Peny Tsakanikou, George P. Chrousos
      First page: 881
      Abstract: Skeletal evidence dating back to the Mesolithic period is scarce and should be studied under a multidisciplinary perspective. The primary objective of the study was to carefully assess the skeleton of a young woman from this era, named “Avgi,” to compile its bioarchaeological profile, analyze its paleopathology and dental pathology, and deploy a 3D reconstruction and modeling method in order to reveal her face. Both demographic and pathological information were drawn from macroscopically observing the bones, long bone X-rays, skull CT and X-rays, 3D modeling and printing of the skull, and panoramic dental X-rays. The Manchester method was used for the 3D facial reconstruction. On analysis, we determined that Avgi was a female adolescent, aged around 17–19 years at death, and likely suffering from iron deficiency anemia and Class III dental malocclusion. Notably, Harris lines and a hair-on-end pattern were identified in the long bones and skull radiographs, respectively. Various less significant skeletal lesions reflected potential minor pathologies. Our findings suggest that multidisciplinary collaborative approaches should be followed in the modern study of lesser-known past eras. Multiple scientific perspectives, as well as social structures, geographical aspects, settlements, population movements, and social networks should all be taken into account when assessing lifestyle characteristics and paleopathological signs in skeletal remains.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020049
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 896-935: Evolution of Liu Kang’s Palette and
           Painting Practice for the Execution of Female Nude Paintings: The
           Analytical Investigation of a Genre

    • Authors: Damian Lizun, Teresa Kurkiewicz, Mateusz Mądry, Bogusław Szczupak, Jarosław Rogóż
      First page: 896
      Abstract: The comprehensive technical investigation of female nude paintings by the Singapore pioneer artist Liu Kang (1911–2004) provided the evidence for a discussion of the evolution of his palette of colours and his working process for expression in this genre, particularly the execution of female bodies. As the artist’s free expression in classical nude paintings was limited by the censorship imposed by the Singapore government, the investigated artworks span two periods, 1927–1954 (early career) and 1992–1999 (the “golden years”, during which censorship policies were relaxed). Hence, eight paintings from the Liu family and National Gallery Singapore were selected for non- and micro-invasive analyses of the paint layers. The obtained results were supplemented with archival sources to elucidate certain aspects of Liu Kang’s working practice. The investigation revealed the importance of drawing and sketching studies in the development of artistic ideas. The analytical techniques, such as polarised light microscopy (PLM), field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS) and attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), enabled us to observe a transition from the yellow iron-based tonal ranges of skin colours to complex pigment mixtures composed of additions of cobalt blue, ultramarine, Prussian blue, Cr-containing yellow(s) and green(s), cadmium yellow, orange and/or red and organic reds, revealing the artist’s more liberal use of colours and his experimentation with their contrasting and complementary juxtaposes. In terms of painting technique, the artist’s comparatively laborious paint application using small brushes quickly gave way to a more effortless manipulation of the paint using bigger brushes and the incorporation of palette knives. Moreover, visible light (VIS), near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray radiography (XRR) imaging techniques led to the discovery of a hidden composition in one investigated artwork, which bears resemblance to the nude painting known only from an archival photograph. Additionally, for the first time, the archival search provided photographic evidence that Liu Kang used oil paint tubes from Royal Talens and Rowney in the 1990s. Overall, this in-depth investigation contributes to the understanding of Liu Kang’s approach to the female nude painting and may assist conservators and art historians in studies of twentieth-century commercial paints.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020050
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 936-955: Searching for Silphium: An Updated Review

    • Authors: Lisa Briggs, Jens Jakobsson
      First page: 936
      Abstract: From luxury spice to medical cure-all, silphium was a product coveted throughout the ancient world and occupied an essential place in the export economy of ancient Cyrene. The mysterious extinction of the silphium plant in the 1st century CE leaves us with little evidence as to the exact nature of this important agricultural product. In this paper, an historical background on the kingdom of Cyrene is provided, evidence for the nature of the silphium plant is reviewed, how and why it was consumed and traded is discussed. Possible causes of extinction are considered in the context of plant genetics, biometrics, and soil geochemistry. Next, we demonstrate how modern medical studies conducted on possible living relatives can inform us about claims made by ancient authors as to the medical uses of the silphium plant, including its use as a contraceptive and abortifacient. Finally, methods for recovering silphium are explored. We show how underwater archaeology and the search for ancient shipwrecks off the northern coast of Libya may offer our best chance for the recovery of botanical remains of ancient silphium, and how ancient DNA may be able to establish the genetic makeup of this elusive plant.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020051
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 956-971: A Case Study on Supporting the
           Preservation, Valorization and Sustainability of Natural Heritage

    • Authors: Zacharias Pervolarakis, Antonis Agapakis, Emmanouil Zidianakis, Antonis Katzourakis, Theodoros Evdemon, Nikolaos Partarakis, Xenophon Zabulis, Constantine Stephanidis
      First page: 956
      Abstract: Caves can be considered as features of the landscape that have been formatted through a long period and are signs of the past climatological conditions, of prehistoric animal and human inhabitation, and provide habitat for species. In the near past, caves have also gained tourism interest since they offer unique sightseeing experiences. The sustainability and protection of cave heritage have been recently discussed mainly because over-tourism has been proven to have negative side effects on the preservation of the heritage site. Technology today has provided widely adopted inexpensive technical means to support immersive visiting experiences to sites of heritage interest that could support their valorization and sustainability in forms more friendly to the site. In this work, such an alternative visiting approach is explored through a use case applied to the Alistrati cave near Serres, Greece, where a VR tour guide can support immersive visiting experiences to the heritage site. By employing means of digital preservation of heritage sites the VR solution aspires to offer immersive close to reality engaging visiting experiences.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020052
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 972-990: Are We Betting on the Wrong Horse'
           Insignificant Archaeological Leather Fragments Provide the First Evidence
           for the Exploitation of Horsehide in Renaissance Denmark

    • Authors: Luise Ørsted Brandt, Marie Rathcke Lillemark, Mia Toftdal, Vivi Lena Andersen, Anders P. Tøttrup
      First page: 972
      Abstract: Large archaeological, organic materials can be difficult to preserve, conserve, and store in their entirety, which is why prioritisation is often necessary. Priority is generally given to recognisable objects rather than smaller fragments. Nevertheless, for archaeological leather, exactly such insignificant fragments can provide new information on the diversity of species exploited. In this pilot study, we use a Citizen Science approach for the first time to identify archaeological leather fragments using the protein-based method Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS). By inviting the public to participate in archaeological research, the project’s first 52 samples, including both recognisable and unidentifiable objects, were analysed. We show that the participants not only generated good data, but also contributed to current knowledge by identifying two hitherto undescribed animal species for leather in medieval and Renaissance Copenhagen. The finding of deer suggests that Copenhagen citizens now and then had access to game through the nobility and the finding of horse suggests that the unclean status of horses was sometimes overlooked to exploit its hide. Our findings are promising for more identifications and the new knowledge the project will generate. The study calls into question how we prioritise and assign value to cultural heritage materials.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020053
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 991-1002: The “Lost Guardians” of
           Dante’s Inferno: Medium Wave Infrared Imaging Investigations of a
           XIV Century Illuminated Manuscript

    • Authors: Noemi Orazi, Fulvio Mercuri, Cristina Cicero, Giovanni Caruso, Ugo Zammit, Sofia Ceccarelli, Stefano Paoloni
      First page: 991
      Abstract: On the occasion of the 700th centenary of the death of Dante Alighieri, medium wave infrared imaging analysis of illuminations of the XIV-century code of the Divina Commedia (MS. 1102), hosted in the Biblioteca Angelica in Rome, was performed and discussed. The investigation was carried out by means of thermographic and reflectographic techniques on illuminations where the iconographic representation appeared severely damaged. In particular, through the combined use of both techniques, it was possible to recover the images of the damaged parts of the pictorial layer of the illuminations and of their underdrawings, displaying details of the “lost guardians”, which was useful to reconstruct the conservative history of the precious manuscript.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020054
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1003-1023: An Overview of Germanic Grisailles
           through the Stained-Glass Collection at Pena Palace

    • Authors: Alexandra Rodrigues, Mathilda L. Coutinho, Carla Machado, Luís Cerqueira Alves, Andreia Machado, Márcia Vilarigues
      First page: 1003
      Abstract: The lack of studies reporting the characterisation of Germanic grisaille is evident, despite the recent interest of researchers in this glass painting material. This work consists of the first assessment of Germanic grisaille’ chemical composition on a wide chronology (14th–19th centuries), that was only possible through the unique stained-glass collection of King Ferdinand II of Portugal. From the considerable amount of panels produced in Germanic territory and assembled by Ferdinand, twenty-two panels were characterised, and some trends of glass support typical composition and grisaille recipes were verified through this case study. A copper-based grisaille appears to have been the preference up to the 18th century. The 19th century shows higher diversity in composition, with new compounds (such as Co, Cr, Mn) appearing as colourising materials. However, with a limited number of analyses, and dispersed throughout time and different geographic locations, the results of this study are unprecedented, by being able to present the first overview on grisaille composition in Germanic stained glasses.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020055
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1024-1049: Conveying Intangible Cultural Heritage
           in Museums with Interactive Storytelling and Projection Mapping: The Case
           of the Mastic Villages

    • Authors: Vasiliki Nikolakopoulou, Petros Printezis, Vassilis Maniatis, Dimitris Kontizas, Spyros Vosinakis, Pavlos Chatzigrigoriou, Panayiotis Koutsabasis
      First page: 1024
      Abstract: Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR), as implemented with projection mapping, is part of mixed-reality technology with numerous applications in the cultural domain. In museums, interactive projection mapping has been exploited to superimpose virtual content on exhibited artefacts, offering users various hybrid ways to interact with the artefacts’ physical and digital content. For this reason, it has been widely used in the context of architectural heritage to promote culture and raise awareness about historical buildings or landscapes by visualizing significant elements they convey. This paper presents the design, development, and iterative user evaluation of an interactive projection mapping installation for the Mastic Museum on Chios island in Greece that promotes UNESCO’s intangible cultural heritage. The installation affords tangible interaction to activate the video projections presented in a storytelling manner on a 3D-printed scale model of a representative historic settlement exhibited inside the museum. The concept of this installation aims to connect the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of mastic and the related villages with narration and vivid illustrations. Three evaluation phases took place during the development at the lab and the museum, informing UX, learning, and design considerations.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020056
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1050-1065: Travel to Greece and Polychromy in the
           19th Century: Mutations of Ideals of Beauty and Greek Antiquities

    • Authors: Marianna Charitonidou
      First page: 1050
      Abstract: The article examines the collaborations between the pensionnaires of the Villa Medici in Rome and the members of the French School of Athens, shedding light on the complex relationships between architecture, art, and archeology. The second half of the 19th century was a period during which the exchanges and collaborations between archaeologists, artists, and architects acquired a reinvented role and a dominant place. Within such a context, Athens was the place par excellence, where the encounter between these three disciplines took place. The main objective of the article is to render explicit how the revelations of archeology, actively disseminated by the members of the French School of Athens—the “Athéniens”—had an important impact on the approach of certain pensionnaires of the Villa Medici in Rome. Particular emphasis is placed on certain pensionnaires, who decided to devote their envois to ancient monuments of Greece. In parallel, the article intends to shed light on the methods that helped the pensionnaires-architects of the Villa Medici in Rome appropriate archaeological discoveries concerning Greek antiquities. The article takes, as a starting point, the following hypothesis: to better understand the figure of the architect-archaeologist, of whom Jacques Ignace Hittorff is an emblematic example, it is pivotal to bear in mind that before the second half of the 19th century neither the figure of Hellenic archeology nor the figure of the architect had yet acquired their autonomy. Taking into account that Johann Joachim Winckelmann, in the middle of the 18th century, forged an ideal Greek model, which was criticized during the second half of the 19th century, the article also sheds light on the fact that the revelations of archaeologists have called into question the Winckelmannian image of Greece. Another aspect that is explored in the article is Jacques Ignace Hittorff’s studies concerning the polychromy of ancient Greek monuments, paying special attention to his Restitution du temple d’Empédocle à Sélinonte ou l’Architecture polychrome chez les Grecs. The article also explores how the shifts of the status of philhellenism are related to the mutations of the meaning of travel to Greece. In parallel, it investigates the impact of Greek independence on the ideals of beauty and nature in arts, as well as how Greek independence is related to the intensification of the interest in the excavations of Greek antiquities.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020057
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1066-1088: A Strong Sustainability Framework for
           Digital Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Introducing the Eco-Sufficiency
           Perspective

    • Authors: Evangelia Paschalidou, Charlotte Fafet, Leonidas Milios
      First page: 1066
      Abstract: The intensifying effects of climate change are becoming one of the main threats to cultural heritage, posing risks of degradation or destruction. Climate change is bringing complexity and uncertainty to ensuring the resilience of cultural heritage, and among risk mitigation measures digitalisation is regarded as a promising tool. However, the infrastructure required for the digitalisation process exerts significant pressures on the environment contributing to climate deterioration. To address these issues, this contribution developed a strong sustainability framework for the preservation of cultural heritage through digitalisation, for minimising environmental impacts and maximising the potential of preservation. To construct the framework, a literature review was conducted on efficiency and sufficiency concepts and existing approaches to sustainability of digitalisation in cultural heritage. To test the potential application and feasibility of the framework in driving environmental sustainability efforts within cultural heritage organisations, the case study of the Finnish Heritage Agency was analysed. The results showed that the understanding of the sustainability of digitalisation is not fully developed. Strong sustainability is hardly applied in practice, even though an inherent tendency for sufficiency especially in the appraisal stage was identified. It was highlighted that extensive stakeholder networks are required for advancing the sustainability of digital preservation. Ultimately, re-examining current practices and realigning stakeholders would be required for addressing the current challenges.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020058
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1089-1119: The World’s Oldest Book Printed
           by Movable Metal Type in Korea in 1239: The Song of Enlightenment

    • Authors: Woo Sik Yoo
      First page: 1089
      Abstract: Four nearly identical versions of an ancient printed book, the Song of Enlightenment with Commentaries by Buddhist Monk Nammyeong Cheon (南明泉和尙頌證道歌), were examined by image analysis and comparisons to identify whether they are the identical versions or different versions in terms of printing techniques. Two out of four versions have been designated as Korean treasures and the other two versions are currently being examined for designation as Korean cultural properties. One of two Korean treasures has been spotlighted as a potential movable metal type printing book prior to the Jikji printed in 1377, as recognized by the UNESCO Memory of the World program. Heated debates over the printing techniques and printing dates have overwhelmed Korean historians for more than 50 years. Due to the subjective nature of the evaluation, it was hard to reach a unanimous decision. Finding objective new evidence is needed to end this heated debate. We found very clear evidence showing that one version is significantly different from the others and was likely printed using movable metal type in September 1239. It is the oldest extant book printed using metal type, 138 years prior to the printing date of Jikji.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020059
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1120-1140: Scientific Study of the Origin of the
           Painting from the Early 20th Century Leads to Pablo Picasso

    • Authors: Marica Bakovic, Slobodanka Karapandza, Sajed Mcheik, Ana Pejović-Milić
      First page: 1120
      Abstract: This study applied multiple scientific approaches to establish the significance of an old work of art, Red Guitar, by examining its historical origin and the color materials used in its creation. Additionally, the study provides thus far unknown pieces of Olga Picasso’s family history to be added to her biography. Scientific approaches included digital X-ray radiography, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and elemental thermal conductivity analysis. This combination of techniques provided a broad confirmation as to when the painting was created. The work includes colors (white, black, blue, yellow, green, red, and brown/red) and prevalent use of lead- and iron-based historic pigments—chrome yellow, yellow ochre, and red ochre. It also documents the use of unconventional materials, such as the colorant, Pigment Red 4, and nitrocellulose. This investigation led to the conclusion that the artwork, Red Guitar, is authentic and in accordance with Picasso’s work during the first two decades of the 20th century.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020060
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1141-1159: Integrating Archaeological Data in
           Multidisciplinary Environmental Studies—Methodological Notes from
           High-Resolution Mapping of Ancient Features in Southern Israel

    • Authors: Moti Mordechai Haiman
      First page: 1141
      Abstract: The article presents two aspects of a project of high-resolution mapping of archaeological features in the southern region of Israel, which was conducted intermittently between 2003 and 2016. One aspect is archaeological, with emphasis on the dense features underlying the area on the periphery of ancient settlements; the second aspect is the objective of integrating the data in multidisciplinary environmental studies. The main conclusion derived from the mapping project is that the existing data in the databases and publications, despite their richness, will not suffice and that there is a need to return to the field and supplement the features in accordance with the aims of the study. Sorting the collected features is a no less complex challenge, as is the relationship with the settlements in question. This challenge calls for expertise gained from cumulative experience gained in fieldwork, for the simple reason that the features date from different periods, and the potential correlation of certain features with a specific settlement is the test. This kind of upgrading with regard to the archaeological aspect in multidisciplinary environmental studies is critical because, in our view, the archaeological data lag behind the technological development of accompanying research, including research that has employed remote sensing as well as a variety of laboratory tests. It has been found that quite a few of these advanced studies use terms such as “site”, which in many cases is no more than a point indicating the general location of feature distribution. The same applies to the use of dating as a preferred goal before investing the necessary effort in sorting the features. If this effort is not invested first, there is no way of conclusively determining what is being dated and how dating a specific object contributes to understanding the settlement distribution in a region.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020061
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1160-1198: When the ‘Asset’ Is
           Livelihood: Making Heritage with the Maritime Practitioners of Bagamoyo,
           Tanzania

    • Authors: John P. Cooper, Elgidius B. Ichumbaki, Lucy K. Blue, Philip C. M. Maligisu, Sinyati R. Mark
      First page: 1160
      Abstract: This paper examines the dilemmas, obligations and opportunities faced by heritage professionals in elaborating cultural ‘assets’ among the breadwinning practices of contemporary, artisanal communities. It takes as its case study the authors’ Bahari Yetu, Urithi Wetu (‘Our Ocean, Our Heritage’) project and its engagement with maritime practitioners in and around the town of Bagamoyo, Tanzania. The article identifies Bagamoyo’s contemporary maritime scene as meriting heritage recognition on a global level, yet sitting entirely outside the country’s legal and political conception of heritage. Moreover, it acknowledges that ‘heritage’ as founded on the livelihood-earning activities of the community’s practitioners, such as boatbuilders, fishers and mariners. These often operate at subsistence level, yet are subject to transformative economic, social and environmental forces, as well as government agencies with no heritage remit. Drawing upon and reporting their co-creative engagements and activities with the Bagamoyo community, the authors argue for a non-reifying and people-centred approach to ‘living’ heritage situations such as that of maritime Bagamoyo, in which the tools of heritage engagement are deployed to amplify the concerns of the practitioner community to a wider audience.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020062
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1199-1239: Palmyrene Polychromy: Investigations of
           Funerary Portraits from Palmyra in the Collections of the Ny Carlsberg
           Glyptotek, Copenhagen

    • Authors: Cecilie Brøns, Jens Stenger, Jørn Bredal-Jørgensen, Fabiana Di Gianvincenzo, Luise Ørsted Brandt
      First page: 1199
      Abstract: The current study is the first comprehensive investigation of the polychromy of Palmyrene funerary portraits. It presents the technical examinations of six portraits (ca. 150–250 CE) from the collection of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, illustrating the marvellous splendour of the cultural heritage of ancient Palmyra. The six portraits were examined with various analytical methods, including microscopy, ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence imaging and visible light-induced infrared luminescence imaging, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Finally, two samples were collected for liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to obtain the amino acid sequence information. Various pigments were detected in the polychromy including lapis lazuli, pyromorphite, mimetite, yellow ochre, red ochre, a red lake, lead carbonate, zinc oxide, bone black, and charcoal black. The proteinaceous binding medium was identified as collagen-based and possibly also keratin-based animal glue. The examinations of the Palmyrene portraits in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek have proven that these artefacts, despite their current uniform, white appearance, originally presented themselves in a wealth of colours. This is illustrated by the digital reconstructions carried out of two of the examined portraits, which show how the original painting of these portraits would have given them an entirely different expression from what we see today.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020063
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1240-1252: Sacred Animals at Saqqara

    • Authors: Paul T. Nicholson
      First page: 1240
      Abstract: Saqqara, the necropolis of the first capital city of a unified Egypt, is best known today for the Step Pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser (2667–2648 B.C.). However, the Step Pyramid is only the most visible feature of this great burial site, and the tombs of many thousands of individuals are hidden beneath the sands, some excavated, others not. These human burials are only a part of Saqqara’s funerary history. This paper examines the catacombs of the numerous animals revered by the Egyptians at Saqqara and whose burial places have come to be known collectively as ‘The Sacred Animal Necropolis’ (SAN). First amongst these, both in importance and inception, was the Apis bull, the living image (ba) of Ptah, creator god of Memphis. However, it was the work conducted by Professor W.B. Emery (1903–1971) which brought to light the burial place of the Mother of the Apis as well as those for ibises, falcons, and baboons and which has provided much of what we know of the Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara. More recent work has built upon the discoveries made by Emery and others and taken a new approach to these subterranean catacombs for sacred animals.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020064
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1253-1275: 3D Model Acquisition and Image
           Processing for the Virtual Musealization of the Spezieria di Santa Maria
           della Scala, Rome

    • Authors: María Luisa Vázquez de Ágredos Pascual, Roberta Fantoni, Massimo Francucci, Massimiliano Guarneri, Marialuisa Mongelli, Samuele Pierattini, Marco Puccini, Sergio Ferrero Gil, Juan Carlos Izquierdo Garay, Juan Manuel Gil Bordallo
      First page: 1253
      Abstract: This study was carried out within the project “Roma Hispana. Nuevas tecnologías aplicadas al estudio histórico, la musealización y la puesta en valor de Patrimonio Cultural español en Roma: la spezieria di Santa Maria della Scala” (Universitat de València Spain), which is funded by the Conselleria d’Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital of the Generalitat Valenciana (2020–2021) and authorized by the Sovrintendenza Speciale Archeologia Belle Arti e Paesaggio (Special Superintendence of Archeology, Fine Arts and Landscape) of Rome, Italy. The spezieria di Santa Maria della Scala was the oldest apothecary in Europe managed by the order of Discalced Carmelite friars. Operating between the second half of the seventeenth century and the mid-twentieth century, over time it acquired great prestige, becoming known as the Pharmacy of the Popes. The aims of the “Roma Hispana” project are to study, musealize and disseminate the material and immaterial cultural heritage of this historical spezieria by combining physicochemical and cultural studies, new 3D technologies, and artificial intelligence. As a case study, in this paper we report the application of a laser scanner prototype for 3D color imaging of the spezieria’s sales room and use a simpler photogrammetry method to collect analogous data in the small nearby storeroom coupled to the high-power capabilities of the ENEA parallel computer facility. Digital data were collected to enable a virtual tour that provides a fully navigable, faithful, high-resolution 3D color model to render this ancient Roman apothecary accessible and usable to interested members of the public and experts in the sector (art historians, restorers, etc.). We also describe the 3D technology used to obtain three-dimensional images of the cultural assets of these spaces (mostly drug containers) and its results. The ultimate aim of this study is to achieve the virtual musealization of the heritage complex.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020065
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1276-1294: The Pigments of the Painter Fleury
           Richard (1777–1852), a Model for Multidisciplinary Study

    • Authors: Davy Carole, Erika Wicky, Amina Bensalah-Ledoux, Stéphane Paccoud, Cécile Le Luyer, Anne Pillonnet, Gérard Panczer
      First page: 1276
      Abstract: Fleury Richard was a colorist painter of the early 19th century. He practiced the oil technique inspired by the Renaissance at a time when advances in chemistry were introducing many new synthetic pigments. His color-mixing cabinet has been kept intact at the Musée des Beaux Arts de Lyon. This original study is based on the analysis of more than 40 color powders using different spectroscopic techniques (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy), color index estimation, and the comparison of the results obtained from three pictural works painted by the artist. It allows us (i) to identify and reference the pigmented powders and pictural choices in connection with historical manuscripts describing the artist’s practice, and (ii) to identify the most judicious analysis methods and question the difficulty of analyzing paintings in a non-destructive way, where pigments are put into a matrix and mixed.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020066
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1295-1309: 3D Reconstruction & Modeling of the
           Traditional Greek Trechadiri: “Aghia Varvara”

    • Authors: Andreas Arapakopoulos, Orestis Liaskos, Sofia Mitsigkola, Georgios Papatzanakis, Sofia Peppa, Georgios Remoundos, Alexandros Ginnis, Christos Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Mazis, Odysseas Tsilikidis, Yannis Yighourtakis
      First page: 1295
      Abstract: 3D modeling techniques have grown increasingly prevalent in a variety of disciplines, including cultural heritage and ship design. The methodology used in the 3D reconstruction of a traditional Greek boat with the Trechadiri hull type named “Aghia Varvara” is presented in this study. The original boat was built in 1925 and is characterized as a modern cultural heritage monument by the Greek Ministry of Culture. The digital reconstruction of the boat is explained in detail, including 3D laser scanning and computer aided geometric design (CAGD), as well as the description of the 3D printing process. The boat’s 3D digital model has been used for the enrichment of the NAVS Project’s digital library, demonstrating the unique geometrical, typological, and cultural characteristics of Greek traditional shipbuilding, a living craft which listed on Greece’s National Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020067
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 1310-1329: The Fellini Museum of Rimini in Italy
           and the Genetic Algorithms-Based Method to Optimize the Design of an
           Integrated System Network and Installations

    • Authors: Fabio Garzia
      First page: 1310
      Abstract: The Fellini Museum is an exhibition hall dedicated to the Rimini film director Federico Fellini, included by the Ministry of Culture of Italy among the great national cultural projects. It was inaugurated on 19 August 2021, and it is the first worldwide exhibition hall dedicated to the famous film director. The museum, intended as a widespread museum center, is divided into three separate places in the historic center of Rimini: Sismondo Castle (built at the behest of Sigismondo Malatesta, at that time Lord of Rimini and Fano, starting from 1437 AD), Fulgor Palace and Malatesta square. The goal of the present paper is double. In the first part, as a case study, the innovative integrated system and installations planned for the optimal functioning and management of the Fellini Museum of Rimini in Italy is illustrated, showing its related complexity, due to its extension and articulation through different environments and due to the respect for architectural/historical heritage. In the second part, as dedicated and linked research, a proper Genetic Algorithms-based method, studied and applied for the optimization of the design of the wired network of the integrated system, the electrical power network and the air conditioning network is illustrated. It guarantees a decrease of realization costs, considering also the typical vincula and restrictions of already existing historical buildings, such as the considered one.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5020068
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 103-128: Mixed-Reality Demonstration and Training
           of Glassblowing

    • Authors: Anne Laure Carre, Arnaud Dubois, Nikolaos Partarakis, Xenophon Zabulis, Nikolaos Patsiouras, Elina Mantinaki, Emmanouil Zidianakis, Nedjma Cadi, Evangelia Baka, Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Dimitrios Makrygiannis, Alina Glushkova, Sotirios Manitsaris
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Traditional crafts exhibit tangible and intangible dimensions. Intangible dimensions include the practitioner’s gestural know-how in craft practice and have received smaller attention than tangible dimensions in digitization projects. This work presents the process of representation and presentation of the glasswork and is exemplified in the re-creation of a historical object. Following an articulated pipeline approach for data collection, annotation, the crafting process is represented visually and semantically in a way that can be meaningfully presented and utilized in craft training and preservation. The outcomes of the proposed approach were used to implement a Mixed Reality installation. The installation targets craft presentation through an exploration of the workspace, as well as craft training through an interactive experience where users re-enact gestures of a glass master holding a tool and receiving audiovisual feedback on the accuracy of their performance. Preliminary evaluation results show high acceptance of the installation and increased user interest.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 129-144: Challenges in the Valorization of the
           Funerary Heritage; Experiences in the Municipal Cemetery of Murcia (Spain)
           

    • Authors: Gabriel López-Martínez, Klaus Schriewer
      First page: 129
      Abstract: The cemetery is a cultural landscape that represents themes of great relevance to interpret the structure of a society, roles, and hierarchies, as a reflection of its social life. The cemetery gathers a whole symbolic universe where local social histories are represented, beyond the history of art and the architectural aspect. As a heritage element, the cemetery shows us the socio-cultural changes of a territory: religious questioning, changes linked to the family, individualization of contemporary society or broader questions about socio-economic structure. This article presents the experience conducted during the last 6 years in the Cemetery “Nuestro Padre Jesús” in Murcia (Spain), through a collaboration among the Sociedad Murciana de Antropolgía (SOMA), the University of Murcia and the Municipality of Murcia, developing the project “Funerary Cultures”, whose main objective is to promote the heritage, cultural and historical values of the funerary culture. Specifically, as a result of this teaching innovation experience, the six thematic guides to visit the cemetery are presented as an experience of patrimonialization of elements of the cemetery and its consequent selection and consensus exercise to determine what was considered as heritage in the context of the cemetery. Finally, a proposal of a systematic process in the valuation and selection of the material objects in the cemetery is presented; this proposal allows us to establish a debate on what considerations to take into account when considering the relationship between cultural heritage and the cemetery as a cultural landscape in permanent transformation.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 145-156: Non-Destructive In Situ Investigation of
           the Study of a Medieval Copper Alloy Door in Canosa di Puglia (Southern
           Italy)

    • Authors: Giovanni Buccolieri, Alfredo Castellano, Vito Nicola Iacobelli, Giorgio Giuseppe Carbone, Antonio Serra, Lucio Calcagnile, Alessandro Buccolieri
      First page: 145
      Abstract: This paper reports the analyses carried out on the medieval copper alloy door (1111–1118 AD) of the mausoleum of Boemondo d’Altavilla in Canosa di Puglia (Southern Italy). The studied door is the smallest medieval bronze door extant in Italy and, unlike the other Byzantine doors, was most probably made in Canosa di Puglia and not in Constantinople. Analyses were performed to assess the chemical composition of the alloy patinas using a portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) instrument designed at the University of Salento. The experimental results suggested that the two door leaves have the same chemical composition, even if they appear different in both style and size. Furthermore, the alloy used for the door is different from the other previously-analyzed Byzantine bronze doors. The obtained results can be used in the future to compare the chemical composition of other Byzantine doors in order to better understand the manufacture of these precious artifacts.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 157-169: Understanding the Quadruple Flutes of
           Teotihuacan, Mexico

    • Authors: Arnd Adje Both
      First page: 157
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the quadruple flutes (multiple pipes) from the UNESCO World Heritage Centre of Teotihuacan, Mexico, based on a thorough examination of the fragmented, restored and partly reconstructed archaeological finds and the manufacture and subsequent test of a series of playable reproductions with a refined reconstructive design. For the latter, organological features, such as the diameter, number and position of the fingerholes/tone holes and the length of the individual pipes of the restored finds are challenged and a new design is proposed that might be closer to the original construction of the Teotihuacan instruments. The study reveals a better understanding of the particular construction, acoustics and musical possibilities of the Teotihuacan quadruple flutes.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 170-191: Served on a Plate: A Late Medieval
           Ceramic Vessel with Sgraffito Decoration of a Sailing Ship from the
           Ropotamo Underwater Excavations, Black Sea, Bulgaria

    • Authors: Dragomir Garbov, Kroum Batchvarov
      First page: 170
      Abstract: We report on the interpretation of a late medieval Eastern Mediterranean glazed ceramic vessel with sgraffito decoration depicting a sailing ship. The artefact represents a chance find that was recovered outside the excavation area of the Ropotamo underwater archaeological excavations on the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast in 2017. Fragments of late medieval sgraffito-decorated ceramics with depictions of sailing ships are rare. Complete examples can be considered exceptional. The Ropotamo artefact is of particular interest due to the freehand execution of its decoration, which suggests some understanding of contemporary ship proportions and seafaring practices on behalf of the artisan. The specimen is analyzed against similar artefacts and discussed in the context of maritime graffiti from the Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean regions. The aim is to establish its potential for studying archaeological ceramics and evaluate the extent to which the decoration reflects aspects of Eastern Mediterranean maritime culture of the late Byzantine and early post-Byzantine periods. More research is required to appreciate the full potential of the Ropotamo artefact. A hypothesis for origin, dating and significance has been proposed. However, due to a shortage of published parallels, it may be subject to further refinements in the future in case more stratified similis are identified.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 192-214: Museums and Digital Culture: From Reality
           to Digitality in the Age of COVID-19

    • Authors: Tula Giannini, Jonathan P. Bowen
      First page: 192
      Abstract: Museums increasingly recognize the need to address advances in digital culture which impact the expectations and needs of their audiences. Museum collections of real objects need to be presented both on their own premises and digitally online, especially as digital and social media becomes more and more influential in people’s everyday lives. From interdisciplinary perspectives across digital culture, art, and technology, we investigate these challenges magnified by advances in digital and computational media and culture, looking particularly at recent and relevant reports on changes in the ways museums interact with the public. We focus on human digital behavior, experience, and interaction in museums in the context of art, artists, and human engagement with art, using the observational perspectives of the authors as a basis for discussion. Our research shows that the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated many of the changes driving museum transformation, about which this paper presents a landscape view of its characteristics and challenges. Our evidence shows that museums will need to be more prepared than ever to adapt to unabated technological advances set in the midst of cultural and social revolution, now intrinsic to the digital landscape in which museums are inevitably connected and participating across the global digital ecosystem where they inevitably find themselves entrenched, underscoring the central importance of an inclusive integrative museum model between physical and digital reality.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 215-232: Imaging Diagnostics Coupled with
           Non-Invasive and Micro-Invasive Analyses for the Restoration of
           Ethnographic Artifacts from French Polynesia

    • Authors: Claudia Colantonio, Luca Lanteri, Alessandro Ciccola, Ilaria Serafini, Paolo Postorino, Erminia Censorii, Doinita Rotari, Claudia Pelosi
      First page: 215
      Abstract: In this paper, two different objects from the ethnographic collection of the museum of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary (Rome), a Polynesian barkcloth (tapa) and a Polynesian headdress in feathers (pa’e ku’a), were investigated to characterize the materials, to evaluate their state of conservation and address the restoration activities. Imaging methods such as multispectral imaging, 3D ultraviolet induced fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy have been integrated with analytical techniques such as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Imaging investigations allowed us to differentiate constitutive materials and study their distribution, such as the yellow dye in the tapa used to trace the geometrical pattern and the psittacofulvins responsible for the feathers’ colors in the headdress. The combination of molecular spectroscopy, supported by observation under a scanning electron microscope, allowed us to propose a characterization of the organic painting materials (Morinda citrifolia, Curcuma longa) used for the tapa, and of the type of feathers (from Vini kuhlii bird) and vegetal fibers (Cocos nucifera L.) used to realize the headdress, as well as enabling the identification of degradation products and microorganisms affecting the artifacts before restoration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detected the organic materials used as adhesives for the tapa and headdress: a polysaccharide, probably starch, for the tapa and a natural rubber from Cerbera manghas L. for the headdress. The results of the multi-analytic diagnostic campaign enabled the choice of proper restoration materials, compatible with the original ones, and helped us develop effective protocols for the artifacts’ conservation, such as laser cleaning of the feathers.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 233-259: Non-Invasive Raman Analysis of 18th
           Century Chinese Export/Armorial Overglazed Porcelain: Identification of
           the Different Enameling Techniques

    • Authors: Philippe Colomban, Anh-Tu Ngo, Nicolas Fournery
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Six rare porcelains of the Qing Dynasty, in particular, dishes ordered respectively for Philibert Orry, the Duke of Penthièvre and a tureen from the service of Louis XV, with royal coat-of-arms, were analyzed non-invasively by Raman microspectrometry. A coffee pot with a rare decoration attributed to Cornelius Pronk was also analyzed as well as two plates, one decorated with an Imari-style pattern and the second post-decorated in the Low-Countries/Holland. The enamel types and coloring or opacifying agents were identified on the basis of combined Raman and SEM-EDXS analysis previously published as well as new section and surface analysis of five plate samples representative of different technologies (blue-and-white, Famille rose). The use of lead oxide for the preparation of overglaze is demonstrated. For the first time, the use of borax in the blue overglaze according to the recipe from the 1753 manuscripts of French chemist Jean Hellot is demonstrated on Chinese porcelain. This fact, like the use of cobalt free of manganese, demonstrates the use of European ingredients and/or recipes for ceramics exported from China to Europe. The highlighting of the use of different recipes or raw materials for porcelain from the same period can therefore be the signature of different workshops. For instance, three different Raman signatures of red decoration were identified from the hematite vibration modes: very narrow modes for Pronk’ coffee pot and Louis XV tureen, broad for Orry’ dish and intermediate for the others. Three workshops are thus expected. It is interesting to note that the use of arsenic for the realization of white enamels corresponds to the latest objects, made after 1738. China was therefore in the 18th century both an importer of European know-how, design and an exporter of enameled products made with imported technologies to Europe.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 260-285: Ground Penetrating Radar Survey of the
           UNESCO Painted Churches in the Troodos Region (Cyprus)

    • Authors: William L. Mitchell, Dante Abate, Kevin S. Colls, Marina Faka, Caroline Sturdy Colls, Nikolas Bakirtzis
      First page: 260
      Abstract: In the framework of the IH-AT (Invisible Heritage Analysis and Technology) project, a cluster of churches ranging from the 11th to the 16th centuries, located in the Troodos Mountain range of Cyprus, designated by UNESCO as World Heritage monuments, were investigated using Non-Destructive-Techniques (NDT) (geophysical and topographic survey), 3D modelling and visualisation methods, contextualised and interpreted by art-historical and archaeological research. A geophysical survey, performed using a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), specifically aimed to confirm the presence or absence of buried features of archaeological interest at each of these sites, in particular, evidence of monastic complexes and buildings that used to surround preserved churches. This paper describes the preliminary results of this survey and some initial interpretations concerning what new information can be discerned about the now lost monastery complexes, in advance of future excavation.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 286-296: The Power of Combining MA-XRF, Infrared
           Reflectography and Digital Microscopy to Unveil the Production of the 16th
           Century Illuminated Charter of Évora: What May Be Hidden under a
           Painted Surface'

    • Authors: Catarina Miguel, Silvia Bottura-Scardina, Carlo Bottaini, Sara Valadas, Antonio Candeias, Francisco Bilou
      First page: 286
      Abstract: In recent decades, many works have been devoted to the study of materials and painting techniques used to produce illuminated manuscripts. If the analyses were once largely invasive, the approach has become increasingly more in situ and non-invasive over the years. This work presents the results of the analysis of the Portuguese Charter of Évora, an illuminated manuscript that dates back to 1501, combining an elemental mapping technique (MA-XRF) with the non-invasive imaging techniques of infrared reflectography and digital microscopy. Remarkably, this approach allowed us to obtain unexpected results regarding the chronology of production of the illumination of the view of the City of Évora and of the Charter of Évora itself, posing new questions for art history on the political, social and artistic context of the early 16th century City of Évora.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 297-310: Northwest Native Plants: A Digital Space
           for Paleoethnobotanical Knowledges and Biocultural Heritage

    • Authors: Molly Carney, Melanie Diedrich, John C. Blong, Jade d’Alpoim Guedes, Tiffany J. Fulkerson, Tiffany Kite, Katy Leonard-Doll, Joyce LeCompte-Mastenbrook, Mario Zimmermann, Shannon Tushingham
      First page: 297
      Abstract: Biocultural heritage preservation relies on ethnobotanical knowledge and the paleoethnobotanical data used in (re)constructing histories of human–biota interactions. Biocultural heritage, defined as the knowledge and practices of Indigenous and local peoples and their biological relatives, is often guarded information, meant for specific audiences and withheld from other social circles. As such, these forms of heritage and knowledge must also be included in the ongoing data sovereignty discussions and movement. In this paper we share the process and design decisions behind creating an online database for ethnobotanical knowledge and associated paleoethnobotanical data, using a content management system designed to foreground Indigenous and local perspectives. Our main purpose is to suggest that the Mukurtu content management system, originally designed for physical items of cultural importance, be considered as a potential tool for digitizing and ethically circulating biocultural heritage, including paleoethnobotanical resources. With this database, we aim to create access to biocultural heritage and paleoethnobotanical considerations for a variety of audiences while also respecting the protected and sensitive natures of Indigenous and local knowledges.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 311-331: Seismic Assessment of Roman Concrete
           Groin Vaults through UAV, NDT and 3D Analyses

    • Authors: Silvia Santini, Carlo Baggio, Valerio Sabbatini, Claudio Sebastiani
      First page: 311
      Abstract: In Roman Baths, the Romans employed barrel and groin vaults of great dimensions, with maximum span more than 20 m; simple tools of structural analysis of ancient wide span vaulted halls are still lacking, due to geometrical and material complexity. In this paper, we study the collapse behavior, under horizontal static action, of a corner cross vault of the Baths of Diocletian in Rome (Hall I). Two methods of analysis are here used: non-linear incremental finite element and limit analysis. In both cases, 3D models have been developed by means of UAV inspection, NDT measures, and AVT monitoring. The construction of the overall 3D geometry has been here afforded with a specific pre-processing approach. Midas commercial software has been employed for FEM analysis, assuming a constitutive law specifically developed for Roman concrete. In limit analysis, masonry is discretized as a system of interacting rigid bodies in no-tension and frictional contact. The computational code consists in a linear approach, which makes use of a series of optimization packages via lower and upper bound techniques. Finally, a strategy based on FEM analysis including discontinuities was implemented, and the results were compared with the two previous approaches.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 332-352: The Origin of Late Roman
           Period–Post-Migration Period Lithuanian Horses

    • Authors: Giedrė Piličiauskienė, Laurynas Kurila, Edvardas Simčenka, Kerstin Lidén, Ellen Kooijman, Melanie Kielman-Schmitt, Gytis Piličiauskas
      First page: 332
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the 87Sr/86Sr data of 13 samples from horses from six Lithuanian burial sites dating from the 3rd to the 7th C AD. Alongside these data, we also publish the bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr data of 15 Lithuanian archaeological sites, based on 41 animals which enabled the construction of a reliable baseline for the Southeast Baltic area. The 87Sr/86Sr values partially confirmed the hypothesis that the unusually large horses found in Late Roman Period to Post-Migration Period burials are of non-local origin. Of the three non-local horses identified, two were among the largest specimens. However, the overlap of bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr data across different European regions does not permit us to establish whether the non-local horses originated from other areas in Lithuania or from more distant regions. With regards to the 87Sr/86Sr data, the place of origin of the non-local horses could be Southern Sweden. This encourages discussions on the possible directions of migration and compels us to rethink the current models that posit South and Central Europe as the main sources of migration. The results of the 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, and δ15N analyses demonstrate that horses buried in the same cemetery had different mobility and feeding patterns. Differences could be due to the different function and sex of the horses as well as the lifestyle of their owners. The most sedentary horses were pregnant mares, while the extremely high δ15N of three horses may reflect additional fodder and probably a better diet.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 353-358: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Heritage
           in 2021

    • Authors: Heritage Office Editorial Heritage Office Editorial
      First page: 353
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 359-361: Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural
           Heritage

    • Authors: Antonio A. Fernandez-Balbuena, Daniel Vazquez-Molini
      First page: 359
      Abstract: Who knows about light [...]
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 362-377: Compositional and Morphological
           Investigations of Roman Glass from Cremation Deposits at Birdoswald Fort
           on Hadrian’s Wall, UK

    • Authors: Francesca Gherardi
      First page: 362
      Abstract: Several different types of burial were identified during the excavation of the Roman military cemetery associated with the fort at Birdoswald, on Hadrian’s Wall (UK). Fragments of glass vessels and glass beads were recovered from many of the cremation deposits, as they were commonly used during cremation rituals, and many of these had been affected by heat. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the raw materials, colorants and opacifiers employed to produce the glass assemblage. Most of the large fragments are transparent with a blue-green colour, with a composition typical of recycled glass. The smaller fragments are from beads and are coloured and sometimes opaque. Colourants and opacifiers characteristic of Roman glass were added in this glass formulation, including cobalt-based compounds (blue glass), copper alloys (green glass), white calcium antimonate, and yellow lead antimonate. The multianalytical approach of this research has allowed for the distinguishing of the extreme depletion of sodium on the surface of the melted glass fragments due to the exposure to high temperatures during the cremation process, followed by surface weathering in a burial environment. Based on the chemical composition of the bulk of the samples, a model of high temperature viscosity of glass was applied in order to assess the cremation temperature in the pyre, providing relevant information about funerary rituals and cremation technology in Roman Britain.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 378-401: The Impact of Clay Minerals on the
           

    • Authors: Hubert Feiglstorfer, Franz Ottner
      First page: 378
      Abstract: The vernacular architecture in many regions in Eastern Austria was characterized by the use of unfired clay, at least until the 19th century, and in some areas until the 20th century. Farmhouses and associated farm buildings, such as storage buildings or press houses for the production of wine and cider, were erected using different earth construction techniques. The study area stretches from the Weinviertel, a region located in the province of Lower Austria in the north-east of Austria, to the Burgenland, a region located in the south-east of Austria, which belonged to Western Hungary until 1921. From a geological point of view, in the east of Austria—in the Vienna Basin and the Molasse Zone—huge areas of Tertiary clay are covered with loess deposits, which is the best-known basic material used in local earth-building traditions. A core question in the research on vernacular earthen heritage focuses on the impact of the geological conditions in Eastern Austria on the local earth-building techniques. The mineralogical composition of the different clays had an impact on the local building techniques. From a material-culture point of view, research on the relationship between the mineralogical properties of clay resources and local building techniques sheds light on the factors which influenced the evolution of certain vernacular building features. Tertiary clays and loess from the Pleistocene favoured the making of earth lumps, cob walls and adobe bricks over the whole Eastern Austrian region. Contrarily, regions in Burgenland with a high amount of gravel preferred, by tradition, to make walls by ramming. The clay mineral smectite acts as a binding agent in earth-building techniques over the whole investigated region—Weinviertel, Burgenland and Western Hungary.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 402-408: Essays in Archaeology and Archaeometry
           and the Hellenic Contribution to Egyptology

    • Authors: Nikolaos Lazaridis, Omar Abdel-Kareem, Grigorios Tsokas
      First page: 402
      Abstract: The contemporary trend of research projects and works are presented on selective issues of archaeometry, archaeology and Egyptology. The current status in research in the area of SE Mediterranean on cultural heritage and archaeological/historical reflections alone and/or coupled with archaeological sciences of eleven papers are placed within an updated frame. The results concern a variety of selected topics critically presented. The topics touch on the cultural astronomy, the ancient textiles and masonries and the physico-chemical and biological investigations, the socio-political issues of Egyptian Ramesside era, revisiting the inscription of an Egyptian statuette, and the valuable information extracted from rock graffiti in north Kharga, Egypt.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 409-430: Lost Heritage. Architectural Replacement
           of an Atrium and a Courtyard of the Roman Houses of Armea (Allariz,
           Ourense)

    • Authors: Marta Lago Cerviño, Adolfo Fernández Fernández, Alba Antía Rodríguez Nóvoa, Patricia Valle Abad
      First page: 409
      Abstract: Francisco Conde-Valvís’s so-called “stone treasure” is a set of unique carved stone pieces, such as bases, column shafts, a mortar, and decorated fragments (trisqueles and rosettes), found during the 2018 excavation campaign in the Cibdá de Armea (Allariz, Ourense). They had been piled up and re-buried—no records existed as to where—at the western end of the Finca de A Atalaia, which was excavated in the 1950s under the direction of Conde-Valvís and began to be excavated again in 2011. The thorough review of the graphic and textual material available from the old excavations allowed us to determine the original archaeological context of the pieces. Most of these elements belonged to the atria of the so-called “Domus of Hexasquel” (North house) and “Domus of the Rosette” (South house). Once we established the origin of all the elements, especially with the aid of the old photographs, it was decided to reintegrate them into the site, to increase the educational and interpretive value of Armea, instead of burying them indefinitely in the warehouses of a museum.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 431-459: Traditional Craft Training and
           Demonstration in Museums

    • Authors: Christodoulos Ringas, Eleana Tasiopoulou, Danae Kaplanidi, Nikolaos Partarakis, Xenophon Zabulis, Emmanouil Zidianakis, Andreas Patakos, Nikolaos Patsiouras, Effie Karuzaki, Michalis Foukarakis, Ilia Adami, Nedjma Cadi, Evangelia Baka, Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Dimitrios Makrygiannis, Alina Glushkova, Sotirios Manitsaris, Vito Nitti, Lucia Panesse
      First page: 431
      Abstract: This work regards the representation of handicrafts for craft training and demonstration in the environment of an ethnographic heritage museum. The craft of mastic cultivation is chosen as a use case. This paper presents the process of representation and presentation of this craft, following an articulated pipeline approach for data collection, annotation, and semantic representation. The outcomes were used to implement an exhibition that targets the presentation of craft context and craft training, through interactive experiences, mobile applications, and a hands-on training where users reenact the gestures of a mastic cultivator. Preliminary evaluation results show high acceptance for the installation and increased user interest.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 460: Correction: Haddad et al. Reviving Alexander
           Calder’s Man-Eater with Pennants: A Technical Examination of the
           Original Paint Palette. Heritage 2021, 4, 1920–1937

    • Authors: Abed Haddad, Megan Randall, Lynda Zycherman, Ana Martins
      First page: 460
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...]
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 461-487: Multimodal Narratives for the
           Presentation of Silk Heritage in the Museum

    • Authors: Hansgeorg Hauser, Cynthia Beisswenger, Nikolaos Partarakis, Xenophon Zabulis, Ilia Adami, Emmanouil Zidianakis, Andreas Patakos, Nikolaos Patsiouras, Effie Karuzaki, Michalis Foukarakis, Aggeliki Tsoli, Ammar Qammaz, Antonis Argyros, Nedjma Cadi, Evangelia Baka, Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Brenda Olivias, Dimitrios Makrygiannis, Alina Glushkova, Sotirios Manitsaris, Vito Nitti, Lucia Panesse
      First page: 461
      Abstract: In this paper, a representation based on digital assets and semantic annotations is established for Traditional Craft instances, in a way that captures their socio-historic context and preserves both their tangible and intangible Cultural Heritage dimensions. These meaningful and documented experiential presentations are delivered to the target audience through narratives that address a range of uses, including personalized storytelling, interactive Augmented Reality (AR), augmented physical artifacts, Mixed Reality (MR) exhibitions, and the Web. The provided engaging cultural experiences have the potential to have an impact on interest growth and tourism, which can support Traditional Craft communities and institutions. A secondary impact is the attraction of new apprentices through training and demonstrations that guarantee long-term preservation. The proposed approach is demonstrated in the context of textile manufacturing as practiced by the community of the Haus der Seidenkultur, a former silk factory that was turned into a museum where the traditional craft of Jacquard weaving is still practiced.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 488-508: An Insight into Gandharan Art: Materials
           and Techniques of Polychrome Decoration

    • Authors: Anna Lluveras-Tenorio, Alessia Andreotti, Fabio Talarico, Stefano Legnaioli, Luca M. Olivieri, Maria Perla Colombini, Ilaria Bonaduce, Simona Pannuzi
      First page: 488
      Abstract: Gandharan art developed in the Himalayan area in the early centuries CE. It has been investigated mostly from an iconographic point of view, missing, until very recently, a systematic technical investigation of materials and techniques. Recently our team began performing chemical analyses of the traces of the polychromy originally covering statues, reliefs and architectural decorations, to discover the ancient painting techniques and artistic technologies. This paper presents the results of the analytical investigation (optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry) of pigments, ground layers and binders of a new group of samples taken from stucco architectural decorations (2nd–3rd/4th centuries CE). The samples were collected directly at an archaeological site in the Swat Valley, ensuring the exact knowledge of their stratigraphic provenance, as well as the absence of any restoration treatment applied prior sampling. The results are discussed in the wider context of Gandharan polychromy investigated so far by our team, as found in sculptures and architectural decorations preserved in museums (in Italy and France) and in archaeological excavations in Pakistan. The aim of this research is to shed light on the materials and techniques of this Buddhist ancient art from this region and on the influences exerted on it from Eastern and Western artistic traditions.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 509-525: Austrian Stained Glass in the Interplay
           of Research and Conservation: Reflections on How to Preserve an Endangered
           Art Genre

    • Authors: Christina Wais-Wolf, Petra Weiss, Christoph Tinzl
      First page: 509
      Abstract: In 2021, two projects for the protection and preservation of Austrian stained glass were performed in close cooperation between the Federal Monuments Authority Austria and active members of the Corpus Vitrearum Austria. Both projects are dedicated to difficult topics that will increasingly challenge how we tackle the preservation of monuments in the coming decades. There are questions regarding the correct conservation and restoration treatment of stained glass from the late 19th and early 20th century (stained glass from the so-called art period of Historicism), which, despite all the Guidelines for the Conservation and Restoration of this endangered genre of art, is still far from being treated with the necessary care throughout the country. The protection and preservation of the original substance—the glass, the leading and the painting—are the primary focus of interest here. Using the example of the restoration campaign currently being conducted on the windows of St. Mary’s Cathedral, Linz, a cultural monument of particular importance for Austria, work is being undertaken to elaborate the feasibility of a concept that can be easily implemented in the future at other construction sites and by all the stakeholders involved. The second monitoring project presented concerns the equally important area of “preventive conservation” of medieval and modern stained glass. The focus of the work that took place here was on checking the condition of stained glass from the Middle Ages to the 20th century (with and without exterior protective glazing) and the general identification of damage and determination of the urgency of measures for conservation (using a “traffic light system” developed for this purpose).
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 526-544: Scouting for Food Heritage for Achieving
           Sustainable Development: The Methodological Approach of the Atlas of the
           Ark of Taste

    • Authors: Michele F. Fontefrancesco, Dauro M. Zocchi, Andrea Pieroni
      First page: 526
      Abstract: Over the last two decades, scholars and organizations across the world have carried out research projects and promoted dissemination tools aimed at promoting food and food-related elements embedded in local and traditional foodways. In this regard, the documentation of food and biocultural heritage has been seen as the starting point of processes directed toward their safeguarding and promotion. Drawing from this premise, the paper presents an original methodological approach, designed within the framework of the Ark of Taste project, to map, inventory, and document food and food-related resources to produce a comprehensive dissemination tool for the promotion of local food and biocultural heritage. To this end, the paper discusses the case study of the Atlas of the Ark of Taste in Tanzania, looking at the approach used, and the challenges faced, in undertaking field and desk activities aimed at inventorying Tanzanian food products and in the creating of the gastronomic atlas of this country. Drawing from this experience, the paper highlights the potentially crucial role that food and gastronomic inventories may have in achieving UN Sustainable Development Goals from a grassroots perspective. Acknowledging the limitations and possible unintended effects of these initiatives on the protection of food and biocultural resources, the authors recognize the promising role that these tools could have in fostering the achievement of environmental (SDGs 13, 14, 15) and social sustainability (SDGs 1, 2, 3, 10) objectives.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 545-566: An Introduction to the Electron
           Paramagnetic Resonance Spectral Library of Pigments

    • Authors: Olivia R. Kuzio, Joseph P. Hornak
      First page: 545
      Abstract: A library cataloguing the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of artists’ pigments has been created. It contains spectral data collected using several spectrometers that operate at different frequencies for, currently, 51 pigments. The library is intended to serve as an open-access reference database for the scientific studies of cultural heritage objects that utilize this analytical technique. Furthermore, it is a living repository, in that entries will be added as more pigments found to have EPR signals at room temperature are studied. Because EPR is less well established in the field of heritage science than some other common spectroscopies, this companion paper serves as an educational supplement to the library. It focuses on first, describing the theory of EPR to the level necessary to understand the origins of spectral features and to utilize these for pigment identification, and then, on discussing the organization of the library to facilitate the navigation of its contents.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Heritage, Vol. 5, Pages 567-580: Archaeological Attractions Marketing:
           Some Current Thoughts on Heritage Tourism in Mexico

    • Authors: Emiliano Gallaga, Jorge Trujillo, Berislav Andrlić
      First page: 567
      Abstract: Tourism activity in general, with the heritage tourism sector in particular, represented the second inflow of foreign currency to Mexico in 2019 (pre-pandemic), with more than USD 24 million. According to local polls, the main purpose of travel is leisure. However, more than half of tourists (local and foreigner) who visit Mexico enjoy/visit an archaeological site, a museum, and/or a local community. The latter illustrates that the heritage tourism sector is a vital axis within the national and local economy, as well as to promote its research, conservation, and diffusion. Researchers claim that it can also be an important component for the cultural revitalization of communities. However, how well does a community benefit from the tourist activity of any particular heritage/archaeological site' Can they feel any connection with it if only a handful of community members benefit from it' Using the Cancun example, we will talk about the concept of “heritage tourism”, not only for its economic value but also for its potential for social/cultural assessments for local heritage. Secondly, we talk about how archaeology is performed and how pre-Hispanic sites play along as a tourist attraction, particularly from the Mexican perspective.
      Citation: Heritage
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/heritage5010032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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