Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1700 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (262 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (90 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (56 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (989 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (175 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (989 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
(En)clave Comahue. Revista Patagónica de Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AAS Open Research     Open Access  
Abant Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actes de la Journée des Sciences et Savoirs     Open Access  
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 145)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Afrika Focus     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik Hassasiyetler     Open Access  
AKADEMOS     Open Access  
Al Farabi Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access  
AL-Qadissiya Magzine for Human Sciences     Open Access  
Aleph : UCLA Undergraduate Research Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aletheia : Revista de Desarrollo Humano, Educativo y Social Contemporáneo     Open Access  
Algarrobo-MEL     Open Access  
Alinteri Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Alliage     Free  
Ambigua : Revista de Investigaciones sobre Género y Estudios Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Anais Eletrônicos do Congresso Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access  
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Análisis     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anduli : Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbejdspapirer : Professionshøjskolen Metropol     Open Access  
Arbetsliv i omvandling     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Argumentos : Revista do Departamento de Ciências Sociais da Unimontes     Open Access  
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription  
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences     Open Access  
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Astrolabio, Nueva Época     Open Access  
Ateneo Chinese Studies Program Lecture Series     Open Access  
Aurum Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Population Studies     Open Access  
Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies     Open Access  
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bingöl Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Public and Social Science     Open Access  
Black Women, Gender & Families     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Borderlands Journal : Culture, Politics, Law and Earth     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BU Academic Review     Open Access  
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Búsqueda     Open Access  
Cadernos de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas     Open Access  
Cadernos de Estudos Sociais     Open Access  
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access  
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambio : Rivista sulle Trasformazioni Sociali     Open Access  
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Campos en Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Caradde : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chandrakasem Rajabhat University Journal of Graduate School     Open Access  
Changing Societies & Personalities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Social Science and Management     Open Access  
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cidadania em Ação : Revista de Extensão e Cultura: Notícias     Open Access  
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencia, Técnica y Mainstreaming Social     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Sociales y Religión/Ciências Sociais e Religião     Open Access  
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Científic@ : Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
Circular Economy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CMU Journal of Law and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Community Empowerment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Connections     Open Access  
Conocimiento, Investigación y Educación CIE     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CONTRA : RELATOS desde el Sur     Open Access  
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Cooperativismo y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cultura Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura y Representaciones Sociales     Open Access  
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture e Studi del Sociale - CuSSoc     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Social Sciences     Open Access  
Cywilizacja i Polityka     Open Access  
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desde El Sur     Open Access  
Desde la patagonia : Difundiendo saberes     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)

        1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2006-6996
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [263 journals]
  • Heavy metals in contaminated soil: source, accumulation, health risk and
           remediation process

    • Authors: A. Abdullahi, M. A. Lawal, A. M. Salisu
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Heavy metals contamination of soil is an issue of global concern that ultimately results in toxicity and diseases in humans and animals through consumption of food crops from contaminated soil. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning. Heavy metals in the soil refers to some significant heavy metals of biological toxicity, including Cobalt (Co), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), and Arsenic (As) etc. With the development of the global economy, both type and content of heavy metals in the soil caused by indiscriminate use for human purposes has altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. There are many known sources of harmful metals, including the earth, which releases them into food, air, and water, and anthropogenic activities, such as the application of fertilizer in agriculture, the use of pesticides and herbicides, and irrigation. Other sources are automobile emissions, paints, cigarette smoking, industries, and sewage and waste disposal. This review gives details about some heavy metals their toxicity, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, mobility and solubility in contaminated soil along with their health effects. Remediation of heavy metal in contaminated soils is necessary to reduce the associated risks, make the available soil safe for agricultural production, enhance food security and scale down land tenure problems arising from changes in the land use pattern the review recommends regular monitoring of heavy metals in soil, vegetables and foodstuffs to prevent excessive accrual in food chain.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.1
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of aqueous extract of Irvengia gabonensis on acetaminophen induced
           Nephrototoxicity in rats

    • Authors: I.U. Muhammad, A. Idi, A.B. Ibrahim, B.M. Abubakar
      Pages: 13 - 16
      Abstract: The use of medicinal plant to prevent and/or cure liver problems is a practice not peculiar to developing countries. This research work evaluated the nephrocurative ability of aqueous seed extract of Irvengia gabonensis on Acetaminophen Induced Nephrotoxicity. A total of thirty albino rats were grouped into six groups (GI – GVI) of five rats each. GI served as normal control, GII served as positive control, GIII, GIV and GV were administered with the extract at a dose of 50mg/Kg, 100mg/Kg and 150mg/Kg respectively while GVI rats were administered with standard drug (Vit E) at a dose of 10mg/Kg. Kidney damage was induced in groups (II-VI) using 800mg/Kg of acetaminophen administered orally, rats from group I and II were euthanized24 hours after acetaminophen administration to confirm inducement of kidney damage. Groups III, IV, V and VI were administered with the respective doses for two weeks. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in mean serum level of Urea, Potassium (K+), Chloride (Clˉ) and Creatinine with a significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of serum Sodium (Na+) and Bicarbonate (HCO3ˉ) was observed when compared with positive control. The nephrocurative effect of the plant could be due to its reported secondary metabolites contents.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.2
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Short communication extraction and phytochemical analysis of Hyptis
           spicigera leaves

    • Authors: A. Idi, I.U. Muhammad
      Pages: 17 - 20
      Abstract: Plants are recognized in the pharmaceutical industry for their broad structural diversity as well as their wide range of pharmacological activities, which is due to their biologically active compounds known as phytochemicals. The present study reports the extraction, thin layer chromatography and screening of phytochemical constituent of Hyptis spicigera leaves. The thin layer chromatography of the leave extract shows 11 bands with Rf values of 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.17, 0.19, 0.20, 0.23 and 0.31 respectively. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, emodins, and cardiac glycoside while phenols, tannins, terpenoids, tri terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. The presences of these phytochemicals showed that Hyptis spicigera leaves may be useful for medicinal purpose.

      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.3
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Molecular modeling and docking analysis of bis-indolymethanes derivatives
           as human β-glucuronidase enzyme inhibitors

    • Authors: M.T. Ibrahim, U. Muhammad
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: β-glucuronidase enzyme is present mostly in mammals’ tissues. β-glucuronidase is present in kidney, bile, serum, urine and spleen. In eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, it is important in the process of breaking down of β-glucuronide. It also helps in the neutralization of reactivity of some metabolites that are associated to many diseases. The most stable geometry of the dataset were obtained adopting DFT method at B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. The model was developed using MLR analysis adopting GFA method. Molecular docking was also performed to portray the binding mode of these bis-indolymethanes derivatives in the binding pocket of their target receptor (human β-glucuronidase). The selected model was assessed and chosen based on its statistical fitness with R2trng=0.907233, R2adj=0.881465,  Qcv2=0.833795, and R2test=0.609841. And also, the significance and impart of each physicochemical parameters to the selected model were determine by their ME values. Molecular docking analysis revealed that amino acid such as ALA49, SER52, ASP53, PHE51, VAL96, LEU92, TYR188, TYR199 and PHE200 might be responsible for the most promised binding affinity of the reported docked ligands. The molecular docking results showed that the reported compounds were better than the standard β-glucuronidase inhibitor. The results of this findings paved way for designing novel β-lucuronidase inhibitors.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.4
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of Tamarindus indica juice intake on some oxidative stress markers
           in carbon tetrachloride induced rats

    • Authors: N.S. Sadi, S.M. Abubakar, A. Ibrahim, A.M. Umar, A.M. Gadanya, B.G. Kurfi
      Pages: 31 - 37
      Abstract: Tamarind tree is a multipurpose tree of which almost every part finds at least some use, either nutritional or medicinal. Due to its pleasant acidic taste and rich aroma, the pulp is widely used for domestic and industrial purpose. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Tamarind juice intake in CCl4 induced oxidative stress albino rats. The Proximate, antinutrient, and Phytochemical contents of tamarind juice were analyzed using standard AOAC methods while mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Oxidative stress markers were also analyzed using colorimetric assay kit. The serum levels of oxidative stress markers were compared between the normal and test groups. Experimental rats were divided into five groups: Normal control group, negative control (CCl4) group, standard drug (Vitamin C) group, tamarind low and high dose group. At the end of the experiment, significant increase in malondialdehyde level and decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione Peroxidase activities were recorded in CCl4-exposed rats as compared to normal control group. In the tamarind supplemented groups, the level of MDA along with the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH and GPx were comparable with the normal control rats (p>0.05). Thus, it appears that tamarind juice ameliorate the effect of CCl4; suggesting that consumption of natural compounds with an antioxidant profile may be a preventive alternative to those diseases associated with oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.5
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • In-vitro antibacterial activity of cinnamon bark extracts on clinical
           multi-drug resistant (mdr) Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae
           and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates

    • Authors: F.Z. Idris, U.A. Habibu
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial activity of ethanol, dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts of Cinnamomum verum stem bark against Multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. C. verum bark powder was extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane respectively using Soxhlet extractor for 6 hrs. at temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the respective solvents. The extracts were further subjected to phytochemical screening as well as antimicrobial tests against clinical isolates of confirmed multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also determined. The extracts yield 11.8g, 10.2g and 9.0g for ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane respectively. The results of phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, anthraquinones and tannins in the extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed the highest antimicrobial activity of 12.3±0.5mm against P. aeruginosa and 15.3±1.3mm against K. pneumoniae at 100mg/ml and antibacterial activities of 11.3±0.5mm against K. pneumoniae followed by 9.0±0.4mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the least 8.0±0.0mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 20mg/ml concentration. While hexane extract of the plant has the highest activity of 9.0±0.0mm against Staphylococcus aureus isolates but less active against the remaining isolates at 20mg/ml concentration. Dichloromethane extract was less active against all the MDR isolates. The results showed that the MICs of C. verum ranged from 5-20 mg/ml while the MBCs ranged from 10-40 mg/ml. Thus C. verum could be used as potential source of antibacterial agents against MDR microbes.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.6
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Experimental assessment on preparation of biodegradable
           polythylene/polylatic acid-chithosan composite from renewable resources

    • Authors: B.U. Gumel , S.M. Gumel, A.A. Bawa, A.S. Auwal
      Pages: 45 - 53
      Abstract: Due to poor degradability and contamination risk of synthetic plastics, utilization of renewable resources is encouraged. Biobased thermoplastic polymers from renewable resource that is inexpensive, biodegradable, compostable and renewably non-toxic, is focused. In this paper mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers were used as a potential option to reduce pollution by plastic waste. The study is aimed at assessing utilization of sweet potato waste as a source of bioplastic for package application, the polymer was modified with a biopolymer chitosan to obtain polylactic acid-chitosan plastic. The developed polymer matrix was blended with polyethylene to obtain biodegradable packaging material. The bioplastic was characterized using Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and scaning electron microscope (SEM). Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by measuring enzymatic degradation, tensile strength, and elongation at break. The results have shown that the film obtained have homogeneous surface by (SEM). Mechanical properties of the bio plastics revealed that tensile strength increases with increases in the concentration of chitosan and hence, the elongation at break decreases with increase in chitosan content. While the fastest enzymatic degradation was observed to have high microbial growth on the bio plastics with high content of Chitosan-Polylactic acid.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.7
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Stability constants of complexes of metal ions with peatsoil humic acids
           under non-acid-conditions

    • Authors: Yusuf Sabo, W.L.O. Jimoh, Isa Baba Koki, Q.O. Sholadoye
      Pages: 54 - 63
      Abstract: Stability constants of complexes of four divalent metal ions viz. Cu2+, Pb2+,Mg2+ and Cd2+  with humic acids (HA) were determined by potentiometric titration of humic acids with the corresponding salt of the divalent metals in aqueous media under non-acid-condition. The log K (logarithm of the stability constant) ranged from 1.0942 to 2.7471 for metal-humic acid complexes were determined using point-wise computational method. The order of stability constants were obtained as follows: Cu >Pb> Cd > Mg for metal -HA complexes respectively, indicating a higher degree of complexation with Cu metal ion. 
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.8
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Solid state synthesis, characterization and anti- microbial studies of
           some transition metal complexes of a schiff base ligand derived from
           parabenzoquinone and glycine

    • Authors: M.A. Kurawa, J. Jaafar
      Pages: 64 - 70
      Abstract: Schiff base was synthesized by mixing parabenzoquinone and glycine mechanochemically. Its corresponding complexes of Cu, Co and Mn were synthesized by grinding metal (II) carbonates. The synthesized compound were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, melting/decomposition temperature determination and conductivity measurements .
      The infrared spectroscopic analysis of the ligand shows a peak at 1620cm-1 confirm the presence of azomethane while the shift to 1602 cm-1,1623.15cm-1, 1635.69cm-1 in Mn, Cu, Co complexes respectively confirmed bond formation from azo-group to metal. The melting point temperature of the ligand at 128.20oC show that it is stable at low temperature while the decomposition temperature of Mn, Cu, Co complexes at 1900C,188.40C,2050C shows that they are stable conductivity measurement shows that the complexes were found to be non-electrolytic as compared with the theoretical values. The ligand and its respective complexes showed antimicrobial activities against some bacteria and fungi at high concentrations
      (1000 μg/disc and 500μg/disc) respectively while some showed no activity at all concentrations. However, Co complex shows significant activity against all the species at low concentration (250μ/disc).
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.9
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Intracranial compartment volumes and their distribution among clinically
           diagnosed patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and brain atrophy in
           a Nigerian population

    • Authors: A. Mohammed, C. U. Anthony
      Pages: 71 - 78
      Abstract: Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a form of non-obstructive hydrocephalus characterized by the triad of symptoms. These symptoms are typical or atypical. Because of its potential reversibility, researchers have paid attention to its diagnosis and in differentiating it with other forms of dementia such as brain atrophy. To determine the intracranial compartment volumes and their differences among patients with NPH and Brain Atrophy (BA). This was a cross-sectional study involving consenting patients diagnosed with NPH and BA who were referred for routine brain CT. Medical conditions known to influence intracranial volume were excluded. Age -matched normal control were clinically and radiologically confirmed
      normal and were also recruited. Intracranial volumes and CSF distribution determination was based on Cavalieri test point computation principle. Test point summation was on a locally developed software for this purpose. Overall, the values of BA recorded higher mean values for most of the intracranial compartment volumes. Intraventricular volume was consistently higher in NPH groups. Statistical difference exists among intraventricular and total intracranial CSF volume across patients with BA, NPH and control. A post hoc test revealed control-NPH comparison across these variables. Control-BA comparison was evident in total intracranial CSF volume only. Higher mean values of intracranial
      compartment volumes were observed in patients with BA than among patients with NPH and their control. Anthropometric indices did not show any difference between patients with BA, NPH and their control. These indices can be used as basis in objectively differentiating NPH from BA.
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.10
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effect of citric acid at different pH on the survival of Escherichia
           coli

    • Authors: A. Mahe, B. Sabiu , A.A. Adam, U.Z. Abdullahi
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Microorganisms are included among the major spoilers of food, they achieve this by using the nutrients present in food material. Susceptibility of microorganisms to the most currently used preservatives has been decreasing. Organic acids have been considered as valuable food preservatives. This study aimed to isolate, identify and determine the effect of citric acid at different pH levels on the survival of E. coli. The E. coli was isolated and a pure culture was obtained after series of sub-ulturing on Eosine Methylene Blue agar. The biochemical tests known as IMViC were performed to confirm the presence of the organism. The organism was also identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in which the DNA was extracted, amplified and viewed by gel electrophoresis. The organism was then inoculated in nutrient broth containing citric acid at pH levels of 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 in different test tubes. Negative controls were included. Results were analyzed using one way ANOVA to compare the means obtained. Results obtained was positive for indole and methyl red tests but negative for Voges
      Proskauer and citrate tests which confirmed the organism. After 24 hours of inoculation, the results of spectrophotometry showed that at pH level of 3.0, the absorbance was lower than the results obtained at pH level of 4.5 and 6.0. This is an indication of higher reduction in the count of the organism at pH of 3.0. There was significant difference between the control and the test groups (p<0.05) but the difference obtained between the test groups were not significant (p>0.05). Results from this study showed that citric acid could not eliminate the whole organism but was effective in inhibiting the growth of the organism dependent on pH level. This indicates that a pH dependent citric acid can be used as a good preservative.
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.11
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities of indigenous
           chewing stick (Anogeissus leiocarpus) stem

    • Authors: M.M. Namadina, A.U. Mukhtar, S.I. Karaye, F.M. Musa, I.H. Bah, F.Y. Maitama
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: The stems from Anogeissus leiocarpus are commonly used as chewing sticks in Northern Nigeria. If properly used, the chewing sticks have proven to be effective in removing dental plaque due to mechanical cleaning and enhanced salivation. Chewing sticks from other plants have been shown to display antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. However, there is limited information available in Northern Nigeria on the chemical composition, antimicrobial properties and the ability of the plants under study to prevent bacterial adhesion to tooth surface. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the phytochemical and antibacterial properties of Anogeissus leiocarpus and correlate the results obtained to their ethnomedicinal uses as chewing sticks. Powdered stem was exhaustively extracted using methanol at room temperature for 72 hours. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extract was assessed using the agar well diffusion methods against the oral pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. Acute toxicity study was achieved using Lorke method. Phytochemicals which include flavonoid, steroid, triterpenes, alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrate, glycoside, phenols were detected in the extracts while anthraquinones was absent. The antibacterial results revealed that, the methanol extract had promising antibacterial activity. S. aureuswas found to be the most susceptible bacteria at 500mg/ml with inhibition of 22 mm, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus sanguinis were inhibited at 16 mm while Streptococcus mutans showed inhibition of 14 mm. The extract have MIC and MBC of 31.25 mg/ml and 62.5 mg/ml respectively against all the tested clinical isolates. The LD50 of Anogeissus leiocarpus was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg and could be considered safe for consumption.
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.12
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The micronutrient status of some soil supporting oil palm plantationin
           Nifor, Benin City, Benin

    • Authors: J.S. Ogeh, A.E. Imogie, C.S. Maduakor
      Pages: 95 - 99
      Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the micronutrient status of soils under three different management practices at the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR), Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from three different fields Research (NIFOR), Benin City, Edo with different management practices. The samples were air dried and analyzed for Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn contents using standard method. Data was subjected to ANOVA and correlation studies. Result showed that soil micronutrient status was generally low as revealed by their estimated levels of availability: field 53 (Mn = 0.0333; Zn = 3.723; Cu = 2.04; Fe = 6.4), field 56 (Mn = 0.0367; Zn = 3.737; Cu = 1.12; Fe = 7.0939), field 71 (Mn = 0.0167; Zn = 3.860; Cu = 2.89; Fe = 7.243). Fe and Zn were above critical level for the 3 fields. Mn was below the critical level for the 3 fields and was significantly higher in field 56 (Orlu and Kulfo series) (p≤ 0.05). They were all similar. Fe was significantly different in field 53 (Kulfo and Alagba series) but similar in fields 56 and 71 (p≤ 0.05). Cu was significantly different in the 3 fields tested with field 71 (Orlu and Alagba series) higher than the critical level. Correlation studies showed that pH had a positive and significant correlation with Fe and Zn as observed in fields 71 and 56 (r = 0.9934, P≤ 0.05) and (r = 0.9997, P ≤ 0.05) respectively. Cu was the only micronutrient that has correlation with clay on each of the fields: 53, 56 and 71 (r = 0.9929, P≤0.05) (r = 0.9988, P≤ 0.05) and (r = 0.9967, P ≤ 0.05) respectively. Strong correlation existed between clay and Fe in field 53 (r = 1, P≤ 0.05). The concentration of the micronutrients (Fe, Mn,Zn Cu), in field 53 were not extreme (neither the highest nor lowest) when comparing the three fields indicating that BMP (Best Management Practice) may be the best for maintaining good micronutrient level in soils supporting oil palm. Fields 53 and 56 is adequate in Fe and Zn but not adequate in Mn and Cu while field 71 was adequate in Zn, Fe, and Cu but not in Mn. Based on the result of this experiment, adequate fertilizers of these micronutrients as their respective sulphates or impurities should be added to maintain proper micronutrient level. 
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.13
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of health risks from consumption of food crops fumigated with
           metal based pesticides in Gwadam, Gombe State, Nigeria

    • Authors: U. Bawa, A. Ahmad, J.N. Ahmad, A.G. Ezra
      Pages: 100 - 110
      Abstract: Intensive use of agrochemicals has led to build of heavy metals in the soil ecosystem and their transfer to edible parts of crops. This study was aimed to determine the heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn) concentrations in some twenty commonly used pesticides in northern Nigeria, and health risk associated from the consumption of food crops fumigated with these pesticides as the only source of metal contamination. Heavy metals content in pesticides, food crops and soils were analyzed after acid digestion using atomic absorption spectrometry. Traces of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn) were detected in most of the pesticides. The concentrations of heavy metals in crops fumigated with pesticides ranged from 0.33-4.68, 1.75-38.08, 0.67-16.83, 9.01-436.75, 0.17-20.80mg/kg for Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn respectively. The mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cr in all the crops were above WHO, (2019) permissible limit. Heavy metals in soils of corresponding crops were below the permissible limits by UNEP, (2013) and NESREA, (2011). Bioaccumulation factor BAF showed high BAF>1 for Cu and Pb in all the studied crops,while pollution index value revealed contamination for Cd and Pb in all the studied crops. Hazard quotient showed potential health risk from the consumption of only Capsicumannuum for Pb. However, consumers may experience advance health risk through the consumption of Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Solanumlycopersicum, Capsicumfrustescens for all metals (Hazard index). Hence, there is the need for screening of heavy metals in pesticides and monitoring of metals contents in food crops.
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.14
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Pharmacognostic, antioxidant and acute toxicity studies of Vitellaria
           paradoxa stem bark and root extracts

    • Authors: Y. Nuhu, H. Haruna , M.M. Namadina, S. Haruna, M.H. Abdulrazak, B.D. Yakasai, M.M. Adamu , F.Y. Maitama, S.I. Karaye , A. Muttaka
      Pages: 111 - 119
      Abstract: Most of biochemical reactions in the body generates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
      which are involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related disorders like diabetes,
      nephrotoxicity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, inflammation and neurological isorders. Antioxidants are used to protect the cells or tissues against potential attack by ROS. Most medicinal plants possess a rich source of antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids among others. These phytochemicals are currently pursued as an alternative and complimentary drug. The study was carried out to ROS. Most medicinal plants possess a rich source of antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids among others. These phytochemicals are currently pursued as an alternative and complimentary drug. The study was carried out to determine Pharmacognostic, antioxidant and acute toxicity of Vitellaria paradoxa root and stem bark. The Vitellaria paradoxa was extracted with water and methanol, screened for their phytochemical properties and antioxidant effects. Chemo-microscopical studies revealed the presence of cellulose cell wall, lignin, calcium oxalate crystals, tannins, starch and mucilage while calcium carbonate was absent in the stem bark but present in the root. The average moisture contents were 7.30% and 6.80% in stem bark and root respectively. The water and ethanol/alcohol extractives were 24.0% and 20.0% for stem while 25.50% and 19.0% for the root respectively. Alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, carbohydrate and phenols were detected in both aqueous and methanol extracts while anthraquinones was absent in all the extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the extract showed the following trend Ascorbic acid ˃ Stem bark extract˃ Root extract. Toxicity of the samples was expressed as LD50, it was found above 5000 mg/kg and did not cause mortality in all the tested rats. These results suggested that Vitellaria paradoxa root and stem bark have moderate antioxidant potentials. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of active antioxidant agents which can be used to treat various oxidative stress related diseases.
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.15
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Radio frequency identification (RFID) and database- based attendance
           management system

    • Authors: U.S. Ahmad, A.A. Bisu, F.A. Umar, U. Balarabe
      Pages: 120 - 129
      Abstract: Effective record and management of students and staff attendance of academic and non academic activities/events are vital for the smooth functioning of the educational system. This is still a difficult task in most institutions, particularly in Nigeria with a large number of staff and students attending different academic and non-academic functions. This is even more difficult to manage when the traditional method of paper and pen is used to record attendance, prone to errors, and in most cases lack integrity due to manual handling of the record. Electronics and Information Communications Technologies (ICT) can be deployed to help mitigate these problems and improve reliability, ease, speed, efficiency, effectiveness, and integrity of recording and managing attendance. In this work, we used Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and database management to provide an alternative solution that addresses issues of objects (humans and non-humans) authentication, authorization, and record management with high accuracy, reliability, and integrity using RFID-Arduino technology. The system works by 
      reading staff’s and/or student’s details stored in a unique RF tag wirelessly through the
      RF reader and then matched and stored the record in the system’s database. Attendance
      marking was achieved by matching the scanned ID with the database record. The system was successfully implemented and tested with 10 students and staff participants with the feature of exporting the records into excel format for statistical analysis and performance evaluation.
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.16
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Health risk assessment of heavy metals from pesticides use in Plateau
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: U. Bawa , A. Ahmad, J.N. Ahmad, A. G. Ezra
      Pages: 130 - 141
      Abstract: Heavy metals bioaccumulation in agricultural crops fumigated with pesticides has grown
      into a major concern globally. This study assessed heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn) in commonly consumed crops and their corresponding soil from agricultural farm lands in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the studied crops ranged from 0.17-100.75, 0.17-54.33, 0.83-28.75, 0.17-5.50, 0.5-0.5mg/kg for Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd respectively. The trend of heavy metals in the crops were in decreasing order of Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd and their concentrations varied in different parts of the crops. The mean concentration of Cd, Pb, and Cr in the studied
      crops were above the WHO, (2019) permissible limits and therefore a call for concern. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soil varied from 0.5-0.5, 2.50-13.83, 3.67-5.75, 11.83-26.33, and 41-89.50 mg/kg for Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn respectively and were below the UNEP, (2013) permissible limits for agricultural soil. The result showed that Pb had the highest transfer factor (1.91) in (Capsicum annuum) and Zn had the
      least. Similarly, the result revealed high Pollution index value for Pb compared to other metals. Hazard quotient and Hazard index of all the crops were less than 1; thus the consumption of these crops is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population. However, the result showed health risk from daily intake of some of the studied crops for Pb ((Brassica oleracea, Lactucasativus, Zea mays, Spinaciaoleracea, and Capsicum annuum). Hence, regular monitoring and screening of pesticides for heavy metals should be employed by government agencies.
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.17
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Effects of salicylic and benzoic acid on yield and yield components of
           moisture stressed tomato (solanum lycopersicun l.) at Kadawa Sudan
           Savannah

    • Authors: H.M. Isa, A.A. Manga
      Pages: 142 - 151
      Abstract: Salicylic acid and Benzoic acids are antitranpirants usually used to reduce the rate of moisture loss and increase productivity of irrigated crops. To test antitranspiracy of Salicylic and Benzoic acids, field experiments were conducted during the two successive dry Seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 at the Agricultural Research Station Farm, Kadawa (11̊ 38ʹ 40.3ʺ N,8̊ 25ʹ3.9ʺ E) 498m elevation above sea level. The aim was to study the effects of antitranspirants and moisture stress on crop growth and development stages of tomato. The treatments consisted of two antitranspirants at four different concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 600 ppm, and three moisture stress stages, vegetative, flowering and fruit setting. Antitranspirants and moisture stresses were assigned to the main plot and concentrations were used as sub–plot treatment. These were replicated three times and laid out in a split-plot design. The gross plot size was 3.6m x 3.0m (10.8m2) consisting of 6 rows of 3m length, while the net plot size was 1.2m 1.8m (2.16 m2) consisting of 2 inner most rows. Data were taken on tomato growth and yield attributes. Data generated were analysed using statistical analytics software (SAS). The results of the study revealed that application of both Antitranspirants enhanced growth and yield components such as fruit diameter, number of fruits plant1, average fruit weight, marketable fruit yield and total fruit yield of tomato. Significant interactions between and among the factors were also recorded for fruit diameter, number of fruits plant-1 marketable fruit yield and the total fruit yield. Application of 200 and 400 ppm of of Salicylic acid at fruit setting produced the highest total fruit yield (6.66 tha-1) which was statistically similar to 600 ppm of Benzoic (6.10 t ha-1) at flowering while the control had the lowest. Total fruit yield was positively and significantly correlated with number of fruit plant-1 and average fruit weight. Number of fruits plant-1 was found to have the highest direct contribution to the yield. Flowering and fruiting stages were found to be the critical growth stages for moisture stress of tomato. Foliar application of 400 ppm of Salicylic acid at fruit setting stage appeared to promote tomato yield in the study area.

      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.18
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Anti-trypanosomal activity of crude and nano-conjugated ethanol stem bark
           extracts of Sterculia setigera in mice

    • Authors: M.O. Abdulrazaq, H.Y. Adeyemi, A.S. Abdulkareem; , M.T. Bankole, A. Abubakar
      Pages: 152 - 166
      Abstract: This study was carried out to screen for anti-trypanosomal activities of Sterculia setigera crude and nano-conjugated ethanol extracts of synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Fresh stem bark of S. setigera was separately extracted with ethanol (ES) and aqueous (AS) followed by green synthesis/reduction of ethanol extract with AuNPs, and its formulation into nano-conjugate with the addition of standard drug Diminazine aceturate (berenil). The synthesized AuNPs were also characterized. Both the extracts and drug were separately administered to
      Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected animals orally at 200mg/kg bodyweight for 12 consecutive days. Two separate groups were infected untreated and infected treated with Diminazine aceturate (Berenil) to serve as positive and negative controls respectively. Similarly nano conjugates of S. satigera conjugate with the addition of standard drug Diminazine aceturate
      (berenil). The synthesized AuNPs were also characterized. Both the extracts and drug were separately administered to Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected animals orally at
      200mg/kg bodyweight for 12 consecutive days. Two separate groups were infected untreated and infected treated with Diminazine aceturate (Berenil) to serve as positive and negative controls respectively. Similarly nanoconjugates of S. satigera conjugate with the addition of standard drug Diminazine aceturate (berenil). The synthesized AuNPs were also characterized. Both the extracts and drug were separately administered to Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected animals orally at 200mg/kg bodyweight for 12 consecutive days. Two separate groups were infected untreated and infected treated with Diminazine aceturate (Berenil) to serve as positive and negative controls respectively. Similarly nanoconjugates of S. satigera and berenil were also orally administered to different groups of rats for 12 days consecutively. The
      results showed that the ethanol extract treated group recorded significant decrease in parasitaemia than the aqueous treated group when compared with the untreated control
      groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with both the nanoconjugates effectively cleared the parasites from the blood circulation of the infected animal (p<0.05). Bodyweight and PCV of treated groups improved significantly in all the treated animals (p<0.05). The ethanol extract of
      S. setigera exhibited trypanostatic activity while its nano-conjugated was trypanocidal.
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.19
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessing the potential of Khayasenegalensis in phytoremediation of heavy
           metals under borehole water and tannery effluent irrigation

    • Authors: A. Zakari, A.A. Audu
      Pages: 167 - 176
      Abstract: Khayasenegalensis was planted on soil irrigated with tannery effluent and borehole water for duration of three months. Plant samples were collected after harvest and soil samples were collected before planting and after harvesting. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the planting media and plant tissues. The aim was to establish the phytoremediation potential of Khayasenegalensis under these conditions. After harvesting, a noticeable decrease in the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu Ni, Pb and Zn in the media was observed from the initial values. The highest levels of Cd (5.53±0.56mg/kg), Cr (13.99±0.82mg/kg), Pb(10.6110.61±0.57mg/kg, Ni (8.33±2.78mg/kg)and Zn(25.72±0.00 mg/kg) accumulation were found in the roots, whereas the highest Cu (7.29±1.80mg/kg) concentrations was observed in the shoot. The roots of Khayasenegalensis were found to be suitable for the phytostabilization heavy metals in both the tannery effluent and borehole water irrigated media. In addition, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb mainly accumulated in the Khayasenegalensisroots. The results of translocation factors (TF) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Khayasenegalensis for heavy metals revealed that Khayasenegalensis is an excluder plant for Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn and a potential accumulator plant for Cu serving as an ideal remediation plant for this metal. Furthermore, the increasing heavy metal contents in soil that have been irrigated with tannery effluent resulted in the accumulation of these metals in
      Khayasenegalensis.
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.20
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Resettlement pattern model of internally displaced persons due to
           insurgency

    • Authors: B. Luka , A. Tahir
      Pages: 177 - 188
      Abstract: In this paper, the derivation and analysis of a model is considered for resettlement pattern of internally displaced persons due to insurgency. In the derived model, a number of homeless people at some initial time after the insurgency attack are considered. The flow of the population to a temporary state until their final resettlement  is analyzed. The analytic solution for the stability analysis is obtained using Routh Harwitz Criterion and the behavior of the model is obtained numerically, using MATLAB R2010a. The result obtained indicates that majority of displaced persons get resettled after a long period of time.
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.21
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of
           Albizia ferruginea (Fabaceae) leaves extract

    • Authors: A.L. Yusuf, B. Abdullahi, I. Abdulaziz
      Pages: 189 - 192
      Abstract: Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of Albizia ferruginea (Guill and Perr) which belongs to the family of Fabaceae were studied. Phytochemical studies on the plant leaves showed that they contained alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycoside and carbohydrate. Methanol extract of Albizia ferruginea showed growth inhibitory effects of varying degrees on S. feacalis, S. typhi, S. paratyphi, Shigella dysentriae and Klebsiella pneumonia but was not active on Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was determined for the organisms whose growths were inhibited. The extract had MIC of 3.25mg/ml for S. feacalis, S. paratyphi, S. dysentriae and K. pneumoniae respectively. The antimicrobial studies of the extracts really justify the numerous folkloric uses of the plant parts in the treatment of some common ailments such as diarrhea, dysentery, fever, cough, pain and skin infections.
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.22
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Field accumulation and translocation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs)
           from industrial soil by the biodiesel plant, Jatropha curcas

    • Authors: Z. Abdullahi, A.A. Abdulrahman
      Pages: 195 - 206
      Abstract: Samples of Jatropha curcas, a non-edible biodiesel plant, which tolerates harsh environments was collected from an industrial area with high anthropogenic activities (Challawa Industrial area, Kano, Nigeria)and sorted into leaves, stems and roots. The aim is to assess the potentials of Jatropha curcas in accumulation and translocation of six Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) (Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) from the soil media. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used to assess the concentrations. The bioaccumulation/ transfer of metals from roots to shoots and from soil to roots were evaluated in terms of translocation (TF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF). TF values of 1.02, 4.92, 2.68, 3.73, 1.5 and 3.19 for Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni respectively indicate that J. curcas was efficient in translocation of PTEs from roots to shoots. This is an indication that the plant is therefore suitable for phytoextraction of Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. But CF value of 0.66 and 0.70 for Cu and Pb on the other hand shows that J. curcas is less able to translocate these two metals (Cu and Pb) indicating ineffective transfer. This show that J. curcas may be suitable a candidate for phytostabilization of Copper and lead in contaminated soils in the study area.
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.23
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of selected heavy metals concentrations in Mairua Reservoir,
           Funtua, Katsina State, Nigeria for fishing purposes

    • Authors: M.Z. Karkarna, Z.M. Dabo
      Pages: 207 - 213
      Abstract: An assessment of selected heavy metal concentrations for fishing purposes was conducted at Mairua Reservoir, Funtua, Katsina State, Nigeria. This study aimed at assessing the selected heavy metal concentrations to enable the and sustainable use of the reservoir. Fishing is the major activity of the dwellers throughout the year, but there is less attention in considering the water quality in the reservoir. Eating fish harvested from polluted aquatic habitats could endanger the health Eating fish harvested from polluted aquatic habitats could endanger the health of the consumer. As such, there is the need of this research now if not continuously.
      Water samples were taken in five sampling points and the procedural plan was the monthly sampling of the water from February-April and June-August 2020. The heavy metals include Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb). Laboratory procedures include sample digestions in preparation for spectrophotometric analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS).  Data were analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent t-test and related with FAO standard for fishing. The finding shows that most of the parameters like Cd, Zn and Pb are more in concentration at SPIII (downstream), i.e. the outlet of the water in the reservoir. It can also be seen that two parameters Fe and Ni are more concentrated at SPIV (middle towards east) and only Mn is higher at SPI (upstream). Furthermore, the analysis of variance revealed no significant difference (p >0.05) in the values of all the parameters across the five sampled collection points. The results of this study show that with the exception of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), the heavy metal concentrations in water did not exceed FAO (2006) standards. However, Cd and Pb exceeded the FAO standard.  The level of heavy metal concentrations was compared based on seasons (wet and dry) using independent t-test at the 0.05 level of significance. The result shows no significant difference at 0.05 between the wet and dry season values of Fe (P value 0.106), Cd (P value 0.614) Zn (P value 0.700), Mn (P value 0.950), and Ni (P value 0.937). Study on Pb concentrations revealed that the metal was affected by seasonal variation (P value 0.047). Dumping waste very close to the reservoir should be discouraged. Farmers around the reservoir should be enlightened on the negative effects of their activities into the body of the water. More studies should be carried out on physico-chemical, microbial and other heavy metal concentrations in order to provide baseline information on the ecological status of the reservoir. In line with the finding, it is recommended that for effective fishing activities in the reservoir, the use of agrochemicals and dumping municipal waste very close to the reservoir, which could be the possible sources of Cd and Pb, should be discouraged.
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.24
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Antibacterial activity and toxicological evaluation of
           Anogeissusleiocarpus and Psidium guajava on Escherichia coli and
           Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: S.A. Yabo , S.B. Manga, A.S. Baki, R.F. Atata , S. Gambo, H. Tahir
      Pages: 214 - 220
      Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activities and toxicological evaluation of Anogeissusleiocarpus and Psidiumguajava on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples. The plants leaves were extracted using Hexane, Methanol, Ethanol and Water. Various concentrations (50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25mg/ml) of the crude extract of the plants were prepared and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli was determined using Agar well (Diffusion) method. Toxicity of the plants was evaluated, acute toxicity test, kidney and liver function tests. The result revealed that at 50mg/ml concentration, the leaf extract of Psidiumguajava was active against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli exhibiting the highest zones of inhibition of 19mm and 9mm respectively. Whereas The leaf extract of Anogeissusleiocarpus only inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus recording highest zone of inhibition of 15mm at a concentration of 50mg/ml. The plant extracts were found to be non-toxic as the LD50  was above 5000mg/kg and the biochemical parameters evaluated for both liver and kidney function tests revealed values that are within normal range. Hence the study established that consumption of the leaves of P.guajava for medicinal purpose can be said to be innocuous, as such the plant could be regarded as a potential candidate in the search of potent and harmless plants of therapeutic value.
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.25
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Integrating information and communication technology (ICT) in social
           interaction spaces of proposed public library Gwagwalada, Abuja- Nigeria

    • Authors: M. M. Yahaya, A. Abdullahi
      Pages: 221 - 229
      Abstract: This work focuses on preference of Public Library users on information and communication technology (ICT) facilities that matches user social activities in the library. It also proffers means of integrating such factors in social interaction spaces of proposed Public library Gwagwalada, Abuja to enhance user experience and meet the digital age. Libraries began incorporating ICT facilities since the advent of technology but without considering the facilities that matches user activity in such spaces. The analysis is based on data collected through observation and questionnaire survey addressed to users and staff of three public libraries and analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel analytical software. The results show that Group Creative Collaborative space is more preferred by users while very few users prefer Small Group Collaborative space. Responses indicate that users prefer group studies to interact. Also “Between Individual and Individual spaces”, majority of public library users prefer Internet Facilities which appears to have mean of (3.8371) while very few prefer Video Conferencing with mean of (2.8708).  It also reveals that, in “Between Group and Group space” majority of public library users prefer Mailing List with mean of (3.7247) while very few users prefer Video Conferencing with mean of (3.0955) and “Between Group and Object space” majority of the users prefer Digitalized Library Structure with mean 0f (3.6180) while very few users prefer interactive floor (iFloor) with mean of (3.1292).In conclusion ICT has high potential for encouraging social interaction, in public spaces, thus connecting the society and provides access points to information and supports education. The study revealed the current situation on the issues investigated which can be relied on in future studies or decision making. Essentially, the study produced findings that researchers can apply or validate subsequent similar researches.
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.26
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Influence of compost and irrigation systems on the growth indices and
           yield of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    • Authors: H. M. Isa, M.A. Waiya
      Pages: 230 - 236
      Abstract: Field trial was conducted during the 2017 dry season from March to June at Bayero University, Kano and Birji village both in Sudan savannah to determine the effect of compost rates and irrigation intervals on the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) The treatments were conducted in five rates of compost (0 t ha-1, 5 t ha-1, 10 t ha-1,15 t ha -1 and 20 t ha-1) and three irrigation intervals (5, 10 and 15 days). The treatments were laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. Irrigation intervals were assigned to the main plot while compost rates were assigned to the sub plot. The gross plot size was 1.5 m x 2.0 m (3.0 m2) consisting of 10 rows of 2 m length. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected, weighed and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Treatment means were separated using Student-Newman-Keuls Test. The result ssize was 1.5 m x 2.0 m (3.0 m2) consisting of 10 rows of 2 m length. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected, weighed and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Treatment means were separated using Student-Newman-Keuls Test. The result showed that compost rates and irrigation intervals had significant effect on crop
      growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and cured bulb yield. Application of 10 t ha-1 of compost had the heaviest cured bulb yield. Interactions between compost rates and irrigation intervals were significant on all the measured parameters as well as the cured bulb yield of onion at both locations. The optimum rate of compost was 15 t ha1 at both locations, while that of irrigation intervals were 10 and 5 days for BUK and Birji village, respectively. Therefore, these levels were recommended to be used by farmers of the study areas.
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.27
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of thermal- nuclear effects from pair-creation in the final
           fate very-massive stars

    • Authors: L. Garba, E. A. Chidi, F.S. Koki
      Pages: 237 - 250
      Abstract: Thermonuclear conditions found in explosive massive-stars requirethe use of not only efficient, accurate but thermodynamically consistent stellar equation of state (EOS) routines.The use of tables to describe EoS involved in stellar models is very much needed in understanding the final fate of massive stars. Many massive-low metallicity stars end their life as pair creation supernova (PCSN) through the creation of electron-positron pairs.We used thermodynamically consistent EoS tables to numerically evaluate the thermonuclear effects of the electron electron-positron pair creation in rotating 150 and 200 Massive starsat SMC and rotating and non-rotating 500 M⊙at LMC.As expected, the effect of rotationofreducing the oxygen core masshad increasedthe thermal energy within the threshold of the pair-creation instability.Similarly, lower mass loss stars with SMC model produced higher thermal energies,which can cmpletely explode the stars as PCSNe without remnant.On the other hand, the non-rotating 500 M⊙ might have only reached the instability region due to its lower metallicity (compared to solar metallicity) that is
      capable of suppressing the mass loss such that the thermonuclear energy maintains certain amount of elements into the pair creation region. At the final explosion of the stars, the helium core mass educed the thermal energies in trying to avoid the pair-creation region. Many implications of these results for the evolution and explosion of massive stars are discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.28
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of lipid profile in-patients with Nephrotic syndrome in Kano
           Metropolis

    • Authors: S.Y. Isah, S.L. Abubakar, S.B. Danladi, B.A. Gwaram, M. Akram, J. Nnodim, P.A. Okafor
      Pages: 251 - 257
      Abstract: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a complex kidney disease associated with numerous complications which can subsequently lead to cardiovascular disease among others. This study was aimed at assessing the lipid profile, serum and urinary proteins of patients with Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Kano metropolis. A total of 50 NS patients and 25  apparently healthy volunteers(controls) were recruited for the study, made up of 32 males and 18 females with the age range of 4-70 years. Blood and urine sample were collected from the participants. Serum urea and creatinine were determined using urease  berthelot’s reaction and Alkaline picrate methods. Serum total protein and albumin were assayed using Biuret and bromocresol green binding method through the manual colorimetrictechnique. Serum lipid profile were measured by an enzymatic spectrophotomeric method and the precipitation enzymatic method was specifically used for evaluating the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Urine protein was determined using sulphur salicylic acid test. SPSS software package version 21 was used for the analysis of data. High frequency of NS of 40(80%) was observed in patients of <18 years while patient of >46 years had a lower frequency of 4(8%). Males recorded higher frequency of 32(64%) and the frequency of NS among females was 18(36%), thus the male to female ratio for NS was 1.78:1. The mean values of serum creatinine, urea, urinary protein (UP), total cholesterol (T.C), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), T.C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL/HDL-C ratio were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with NS than the healthy volunteers. Total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin, HDL-C ratio were significantly lower (p<0.05) in NS when compared to healthy volunteers. There was positive correlation between UP and TC, TG and LDL, however, negative correlation was observed between UP and HDL-C with no statistical significance. Dyslipidemia, decreased serum protein and increase serum creatinine, Urea as well as UP were associated with NS. In conclusion, lipid profile and UP analysis may be a useful tool for diagnosis of NS and early diagnosis can reduce the disease morbidity.
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.29
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Comparative bacteriological analysis of frozen and fresh chicken meats
           sold around old site Bayero University Kano

    • Authors: Habibu Usman Abdu, Aisha Mustapha Abubakar
      Pages: 258 - 262
      Abstract: Foodborne pathogens are serious public health
      problems that greatly affect the cost of food production and healthcare while poultry are often associated with foodborne disease outbreaks. This study aimed at investigating the occurrence and distribution of bacterial pathogens associated with chicken meats sold around Bayero University, Kano old site. A total of twenty (20) meat samples comprised of 10 frozen and ten freshly slaughtered chicken were purchased from different selling outlets around the study area. The samples were processed using standard cultural and biochemical procedures. The results of the study showed the mean aerobic mesophilic bacterial count of 5.93 x 106 CFU/g and 3.12 x 106  CFU/g for frozen and freshly slaughtered chicken meat samples respectively. The coliform counts were 420.1 and 347.7 CFU/100g for frozen and freshly slaughtered chicken meat samples respectively. The distribution of different bacterial species revealed E. coli (26.0%), Klebsiella spp (4.0%), Salmonella spp (19.5%), Campylobacter spp. (14.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (30%) in frozen chicken meat samples while freshly slaughtered chicken meat samples revealed E. coli (21.0%), Klebsiella spp (8.9%), Salmonella spp (30%), Campylobacter spp. (15.0%) and Staphylococcus aureus (24.0%). This showed that frozen chicken meats were more contaminated than freshly slaughtered chicken meats which might be associated with poor handling and storage conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v14i1.30
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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