Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1664 journals)
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SOCIAL SCIENCES (953 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access  
Društvene i Humanističke Studije     Open Access  
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E-Dimas : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access  
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-l@tina : Revista Electrónica de Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EAU Heritage Journal Social Science and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne     Open Access  
Économie et Solidarités     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad     Open Access  
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EFB Bioeconomy Journal     Open Access  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ejovoc (Electronic Journal of Vocational Colleges)     Open Access  
El Ágora USB     Open Access  
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Electronic Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Emotions : History, Culture, Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Émulations : Revue de sciences sociales     Open Access  
Encuentros : Revista de Ciencias Humanas, Teoría Social y Pensamiento Crítico     Open Access  
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enfoques     Open Access  
Enjeux et société : Approches transdisciplinaires     Open Access  
Enlace Universitario     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios del Desarrollo Social : Cuba y América Latina     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Estudios digital     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access  
Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
Etcétera : Revista del Área de Ciencias Sociales del CIFFyH     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
eTropic : electronic journal of studies in the tropics     Open Access  
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EUREKA : Social and Humanities     Open Access  
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Cooperation     Open Access  
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Fa Nuea Journal     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Family Process     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Family Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fields: Journal of Huddersfield Student Research     Open Access  
Finance and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Flaubert     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Formation emploi     Open Access  
FORO. Revista de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Nueva Época     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forskning & Forandring : Research and Change     Open Access  
Forum Ilmu Sosial     Open Access  
Forum Marsilius-Kolleg     Open Access  
Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fourth World Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science     Open Access  
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Funes. Journal of Narratives and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Gdańskie Studia Azji Wschodniej     Open Access  
Genocide Studies and Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Genocide Studies International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Géographie et cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gizarte Ekonomiaren Euskal Aldizkaria : Revista Vasca de Economía Social     Open Access  
Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences     Open Access  
Global Journal of Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Global Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Global Transitions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Graduate Journal of Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Graduate School Journal Chiang Rai Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Grafía     Open Access  
Grassroots     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of Law and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Guacamaya     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Hábitat y Sociedad     Open Access  
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hallazgos     Open Access  
Harmoni Sosial : Jurnal Pendidikan IPS     Open Access  
Hatyai Academic Journal     Open Access  
Hayula : Indonesian Journal of Multidisciplinary Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Herencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heritage     Open Access  
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Higher Education of Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homo Ludens     Open Access  
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Horizontes LatinoAmericanos     Open Access  
Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human Behavior, Development and Society     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Humanities and Social Sciences Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal of Graduate School, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies (HASSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hydra : Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
I+D Revista de Investigaciones     Open Access  
IASSIST Quarterly     Open Access  
Iberoforum. Revista de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Iberoamericana     Open Access  
Iconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Idealogando : Revista de Ciências Sociais da UFPE     Open Access  
IdeAs. Idées d'Amérique     Open Access  
Identities : Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IDS Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Illness, Crisis & Loss     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Im@go. A Journal of the Social Imaginary     Open Access  
imagonautas : Revista interdisciplinaria sobre imaginarios sociales     Open Access  
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
In Situ : Au regard des sciences sociales     Open Access  
Inclusión y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Indiana University Journal of Undergraduate Research     Open Access  
Infinitum: Revista Multidisciplinar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Informação em Pauta     Open Access  
Informes Científicos - Técnicos UNPA     Open Access  
Infrastructure Complexity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Integrated Social Science Journal : Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University     Open Access  
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Development Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences (IJASOS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business and Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Business, Humanities, Education and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Cultural and Social Studies (IntJCSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Divination and Prognostication     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Growth and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Information, Diversity, & Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Korean Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Language and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Research and Scholarly Communication     Open Access  
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies     Open Access  
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Qualitative Methods
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.367
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1609-4069 - ISSN (Online) 1609-4069
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Rethinking Oceanic-Pacific Methods of Data Collection During COVID-19:
           Insights From the Field

    • Authors: Betty Ofe-Grant
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted research regarding data collection methods during lockdowns and border closures. Consequently, online methods have become the present-day benchmark. This article shares our experiences adapting to COVID-19 while conducting focus groups and online interviews. Guided by the Samoan methodology Teu le va that recognises the special relationships between people from a Samoan context and the Talanoa method of storytelling of the Pacific people, we provide insights concerning the practical and cultural challenges of collecting data during lockdowns that strengthened the continuation and completion of the project. We demonstrate the importance of flexibility in the research design regarding apprehension, health, and research in New Zealand. We highlight the value of a multifaceted approach to recruiting participants, incorporating the services of Pacific leaders, and utilising telephone calls and letter writing for participants without digital access. Furthermore, we reveal an unexpected side-effect of COVID-19 regarding the ‘Pacific digital divide.’ The paper concludes with several avenues for future research on redesigning data collection methods during COVID-19.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T01:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221111119
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Data Analyses using the Action Project Method Coding Technique: A Guide

    • Authors: Charlotte Jensen, Matthias Hoben, Stephanie A. Chamberlain, Sheila K. Marshall, Richard A. Young, Andrea Gruneir
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The qualitative action-project method (A-PM) was developed in counseling psychology and is useful for studying human actions in various contexts. With this article we provide a guide to A-PM data analysis with a focus on the method’s coding technique. We briefly outline the theory underpinning the method as well as the different phases of data collection. The A-PM data analysis happens in parallel from a bottom-up and top-down approach, where researchers consider the data closely for what participants are doing, how they are doing it and the ways in which their actions are directed by their overall goals. We add to the existing literature by detailing the coding technique, providing examples at each stage of analysis, as well as reflect on the possibilities for adapting the protocol for different types of research. Our aim is to support researchers in their efforts to undertake the method.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T08:55:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221108035
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Exploring the Expansive Properties of Interpretive Description: An
           Invitation to Anti-oppressive Researchers

    • Authors: Mia Ocean, Rose Montgomery, Zoe Jamison, Karon Hicks, Sally Thorne
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      There is an ever-present need to challenge, create, and expand upon qualitative research approaches in the applied and practice disciplines to avoid repeating mistakes of the past and to realize a research agenda for socially just practice. Toward these goals, anti-oppressive researchers engage with a variety of methodologies to co-produce accounts that reflect a comprehensive understanding of social problems with the people who experience them and to enact solutions for real world change. In this article, we reflect on the manner in which Interpretive Description may be a useful option for anti-oppressive researchers to consider as a methodological approach in meeting these philosophical and practical aspirations. We find that Interpretive Description offers guidance toward building the foundation, bringing your whole self to the research, remaining responsive to people, valuing people’s expert perspective of their own experience, using power and privilege wisely, broadening contributors and consumers of research, embracing complications and variations, and enacting change. To illustrate this, we share examples from a participatory, anti-oppressive Interpretive Description study conducted by a team comprised of an inter-racial coalition of students, alumni, and faculty. Collectively, we investigated Black graduate student experiences of racism, inclusion, and expansion within a historically and primarily White university. This case example illustrates our contention that, as our commitment to anti-oppressive research and practice in the applied disciplines intensifies, Interpretive Description is well situated to help us advance practice knowledge in a manner that is transparent, equitable and credible.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T01:32:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221103665
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Methodological Insights From a Virtual, Team-Based Rapid Qualitative
           Method Applied to a Study of Providers’ Perspectives of the COVID-19
           Pandemic Impact on Hospital-To-Home Transitions

    • Authors: Hardeep Singh, Terence Tang, Rachel Thombs, Alana Armas, Jason X Nie, Michelle L. A. Nelson, Carolyn Steele Gray
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      BackgroundDuring the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid virtual qualitative methods have gained attention in applied health research to produce timely, actionable results while complying with the pandemic restrictions. However, rigour and analytical depth may be two areas of concern for rapid qualitative methods.MethodsIn this paper, we present an overview of a virtual team-based rapid qualitative method within a study that explored health care providers’ perspectives of how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted hospital-to-home transitions, lessons learned in applying this method, and recommendations for changes. Using this method, qualitative data were collected and analyzed using the Zoom Healthcare videoconferencing platform and telephone. Visual summary maps were iteratively created from the audio recordings of each interview through virtual analytic meetings with the team. Maps representing similar settings (e.g. hospital providers and community providers) and Sites were combined to form meta-maps representing that group’s experience. The combinations of data that best fit together were used to form the final meta-map through discussion.ResultsThis case example is used to provide a description of how to apply a virtual team-based rapid qualitative method. This paper also offers a discussion of the opportunities and challenges of applying this method, in particular how the virtual team-based rapid qualitative method could be modified to produce timely results virtually while attending to rigour and depth.ConclusionsWe contend that the virtual team-based rapid qualitative data collection and analysis method was useful for generating timely, rigorous, and in-depth knowledge about transitional care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The recommended modifications to this method may enhance its utility for researchers to apply to their qualitative research studies.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T02:02:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221107144
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Explaining Challenges Experienced and Evaluation of the Working Condition
           of Midwives: A Mixed-Method Study Protocol

    • Authors: Azita Fathnezhad-Kazemi, Nasibeh Sharifi, Anvar-Sadat Nayebinia
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The present study aims to: (a) explain challenges experienced by midwives; (b) evaluate the working condition in midwifery working settings. This exploratory sequential mixed-methods study is conducted in three stages (qualitative, quantitative, and nominal group), in Tabriz and Ilam. A qualitative study will be carried out to explain challenges experienced by midwives and the subjects selected through purposive sampling; moreover, in-depth individual interviewing will be used for data collection. The quantitative phase will be used a cross-sectional approach for evaluating the working condition in midwifery working settings. Finally, using findings of the two phases and nominal group technique some strategies will be given to reduce challenges of the midwifery working settings. The results can be used to develop strategies for creating suitable working conditions. It is hoped that the strategy proposed in the current study could lead to improvements in midwives’ satisfaction and health care services.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T01:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221108048
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Joint Displays of Integrated Data Collection in Mixed Methods Research

    • Authors: Michael D. Fetters, Chihiro Tajima
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Mixed methods researchers need tools for planning and demonstrating integration. Mixed methods joint displays have a growing presence in the literature for representing mixed methods findings, and for use as an analytic tool as in the case of joint display analysis. However, the joint display of integrated data collection represents a lesser-known application for use by mixed methods researchers. A joint display for integrated data collection links the qualitative and the quantitative data collection questions, scales, and/or items. Here we demonstrate how joint displays of integrated data collection can be used as a planning, implementation, and presentation tool to illustrate integration of the data collection process. We examine variations in joint displays of integrated data collection based on three core mixed methods designs, a convergent design, and two sequential mixed methods designs, and provide examples of each from the literature. We recommend the joint display of integrated mixed data collection as a highly effective tool for mixed methods researchers to use for planning, implementing, and representing integrated data collection in their mixed methods projects.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T05:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221104564
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Hermeneutic Phenomenology: Bridging Western and Japanese Perspectives and
           Languages

    • Authors: Keiko Doering, Judith McAra-Couper, Andrea Gilkison
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This article offers the reader methodological insights emerging from a hermeneutic phenomenological study that examined the meaning of the woman–midwife relationship in Japan. The methodology of hermeneutic phenomenology was chosen because it is well suited to reveal women’s and midwives’ lived experience that is often taken for granted in day-to-day maternity care settings. However, implementing the methodology was not without its challenges. These challenges included whether hermeneutic phenomenology, based on Western philosophy, could be appropriate for conducting a study involving a researcher and participants who identify as Japanese. Further, while the study required final write up in English, the interviews were conducted in Japanese. Utilizing hermeneutic phenomenology relies on language as the tool for accessing the phenomenon of enquiry. However, Japanese culture is less expressive and, relative to Western cultures, values non-verbal communication. Beyond verbal expression, language also conveys unique influences of each culture. Although it may be challenging to conduct research between different cultures, and their unique ways of thinking and languages, it is not an impossible situation and can be rewarding. The value of using hermeneutic phenomenology for a Japanese centered study helped to convey the meaning of the woman–midwife relationship in Japan. This article details the unique process of the study, in terms of the philosophical foundation and languages, to provide methodological insights and advances for future cross-cultural qualitative research.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T03:12:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221103667
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • From Challenge to Opportunity: Virtual Qualitative Research During
           COVID-19 and Beyond

    • Authors: Sam Keen, Martha Lomeli-Rodriguez, Helene Joffe
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      COVID-19 has required researchers to adapt methodologies for remote data collection. While virtual interviewing has traditionally received limited attention in the qualitative literature, recent adaptations to the pandemic have prompted increased discussion and adoption. Yet, current discussion has focussed on practical and ethical concerns and retained a tone of compromise, of coping in a crisis. This paper extends the nascent conversations begun prior to the pandemic to consider the wider methodological implications of video-call interviews. Beyond the short-term, practical challenges of the pandemic, these adaptations demonstrate scope for longer-term, beneficial digitalisation of both traditional and emergent interview methods. Updating traditional interview methods digitally has demonstrated how conversion to video interviewing proves beneficial in its own right. Virtual focus-group-based research during COVID-19, for example, accessed marginalised populations and elicited notable rapport and rich data, uniting people in synchronous conversation across many environments. Moreover, emergent interview methods such as the Grid Elaboration Method (a specialised free-associative method) demonstrated further digitalised enhancements, including effective online recruitment with flexible scheduling, virtual interactions with significant rapport, and valuable recording and transcription functions. This paper looks beyond the pandemic to future research contexts where such forms of virtual interviewing may confer unique advantages: supporting researcher and participant populations with mobility challenges; enhancing international research where researcher presence or travel may be problematic. When opportunities for traditional face-to-face methods return, the opportunity for virtual innovation should not be overlooked.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T03:02:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221105075
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Doing Democratic Theory Democratically

    • Authors: Hans Asenbaum
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Over centuries, democratic theory has developed emancipatory ideals of inclusion, agency and transparency. These ideals, however, have scarcely been applied to the process of theorizing itself. Democratic theory is a product of the academic ivory tower. This article sets out to confront this problem and formulates democratic theorizing as an alternative to established approaches to theorizing democracy. It does so by conceptualizing democratic theory production as a democratic innovation. Democratic theorizing needs to include affected people, empower those on the margins and facilitate transparency. The proposed approach attempts to realize these ideals by bringing together three methodological traditions: grounded theory (in its critical indigenous version), participatory research and assemblage theory. The resulting approach of democratic theorizing draws on an ongoing engagement with the Black Lives Matter movement. The article discusses nine guiding principles of democratic theorizing and presents concrete building blocks to shape a democratic theorizing project.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T09:24:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221105072
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Reflections on the Use of Synchronous Online Focus Groups in Social Care
           Research

    • Authors: Jolie R. Keemink, Rebecca J. Sharp, Alan K. Dargan, Julien E. Forder
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Focus groups are an extensively employed research method for the collection of qualitative data. Recent developments in teleconferencing platforms have produced a substantial increase in online research, including online focus groups. The current study is the first to discuss methodological reflections on the conduct of online focus groups in adult social care research. Previously reported research on the use of online focus groups in healthcare research cannot readily be applied to the significantly distinct social care sector. Unique characteristics of the social care sector, such as the dispersion of social care services, the significant funding gap, ongoing recruitment and retention issues, and an ageing population becoming increasingly reliant on social care have consequences for the design, conduct and appropriateness of the online focus group method. In this article, we review the use of synchronous online focus groups in social care research. We conducted six online focus groups with social care professionals (total N = 37). The online focus group method is evaluated by analysing and reporting data from a participant experience survey and researcher reflection logs. Additionally, this article reviews Microsoft Teams as a platform for online focus groups. It is concluded that the benefits of increased accessibility and representation significantly outweigh the limitations related to online social communication. We suggest that the use of the online focus groups method could enhance the relatively scarce research capacity in social care, and we provide practical recommendations for the design and conduct of online focus groups in social care research.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T05:43:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221095314
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Birth Mapping: A Visual Arts-Based Participatory Research Method Embedded
           in Feminist Epistemology

    • Authors: Kaveri Mayra
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Reproductive and sexual health of women are sensitive areas of enquiry characterized by strong cultural oppression of women. Body mapping, an arts-based participatory research method, has proven useful in research with such sensitive topics. In this paper, I describe my experience of researching women’s experience of childbirth through birth maps, an adaptation of body mapping. Live size maps were co-created along with birthing story and body key with women in Bihar, India. Body mapping is a very cost-effective method that ensures better recall, richer narratives, reduced power-based inequalities that enables to explore reproductive, maternal & sexual health topics respectfully. The birth map and birthing story can generate awareness about how women give birth, as an attempt to improve the quality and respectfulness in care provision during labour and childbirth.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T01:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221105382
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Theater of Qualitative Research: The Role of the Researcher/Actor

    • Authors: Christopher S. Collins, Carrie Stockton
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      If the world is a stage and life is a collection of scenes, there may be a great set of discoveries to make if a researcher thinks of society like an actor. The art of analysis and human understanding may too often be under the influence of scientific approaches to method. By applying methods of theater to that of qualitative research, we explore a set of concepts to identify the interplay between the interviewer as character and researcher as actor. Furthermore, we offer practical applications of theatrical methods to qualitative research to enhance self-awareness, understanding, and discovery that all work in tandem to enhance the art of qualitative research.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T05:39:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221103109
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • “Could You Help Me Die'”: On the Ethics of Researcher-Participant
           Relationship and the Limitations of Qualitative Research

    • Authors: Daniel Sperling
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Qualitative research is beneficial for researchers and society, and even for the participants themselves. Yet, end-of-life qualitative research also entails unique challenges given the sensitive topic and questions relayed to the participants, and the participants’ requests of the researchers. This paper was written following ethical issues that arose while conducting in-depth interviews with Israeli members of the Swiss Dignitas Organization in 2019. The interviews enabled participants to air their thoughts on assisted suicide and gather information about related plans that were not available to the public due to various issues. Yet, during these interviews, I also found myself dealing with significant ethical dilemmas that I had not previously encountered, such as participants asking me to lie for them, or accompany them to Switzerland to fulfil their wishes. While the interviews served as a safe environment in which the participants could air their thoughts on the topic, they led me to reexamine the ethical limitations of qualitative research and the researcher-participant relationship (within and outside the research context). By analyzing three of these interviews, I attempted to answer the following research question: What do the ethics of qualitative research entail with regards to researcher-participant boundaries, as established in sensitive situations and that involve vulnerable populations in end-of-life situations' The analysis was conducted in line with the ethical mindfulness framework and combined theoretical analysis of the literature. My analysis indicates that while qualitative research encourages the establishing of a researcher-participant relationship through trust and rapport – especially on sensitive topics that involve vulnerable populations – the researcher must also ensure both participant and researcher safety, by establishing and maintaining boundaries, even post-research. Introspective ethical inquiry, triggered by participants, requires the researcher to be vulnerable, potentially resulting in emotional discomfort. It also mandates re-engaging with the participants on ethical meanings that stem from this process.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T03:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221105076
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • A Content Analysis of 100 Qualitative Health Research Articles to Examine
           Researcher-Participant Relationships and Implications for Data Sharing

    • Authors: Jessica Mozersky, Annie B. Friedrich, James M. DuBois
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      We conducted a qualitative content analysis of health science literature (N = 100) involving qualitative interviews or focus groups. Given recent data sharing mandates, our goal was to characterize the nature of relationships between the researchers and participants to inform ethical deliberations regarding qualitative data sharing and secondary analyses. Specifically, some researchers worry that data sharing might harm relationships, while others claim that data cannot be analyzed absent meaningful relationships with participants. We found little evidence of relationship building with participants. The majority of studies involve single encounters (95%), lasting less than 60 min (59%), with less than half of authors involved in primary data collection. Our findings suggest that relationships with participants might not pose a barrier to sharing some qualitative data collected in the health sciences and speak to the feasibility in principle of secondary analyses of these data.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T02:11:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221105074
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Discovering New Connections: Insights From Individual and Collective
           Reflexivity in a Mixed Methods Study

    • Authors: Ebru Cayir, Tisha M. Felder, Chigozie A. Nkwonta, Joynelle R. Jackson, Robin Dawson
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Through intentionally engaging in reflexivity, researchers can be transparent about potential areas of social inquiry and analysis that might be subject to a priori assumptions, personal biases, and interpretations that are not rooted in the data. In the context of conducting research with others, reflexivity also includes a collective dimension in which each researcher’s positionality interacts with the others and shapes research outcomes. Fostering collective reflexivity within interdisciplinary teams enables the researchers to process conflicting perspectives, allow creative and innovative approaches to emerge, and develop a shared vision of the research concepts, methods, and outcomes. Despite its acknowledged value, the integral process of reflexivity is rarely documented in mixed methods social inquiry. In this article, we describe the process of reflexivity through individual and collective team insights gained within a mixed methods study that examined the lived experiences and perceptions of breastfeeding among African American women and their support partners. We describe three components of the reflexivity practice we engaged in: 1) Self-led; 2) Relational and team-led; 3) Methods-focused and team-led. We discuss how this process challenged, shaped, and enriched data analysis, data integration, and finally, our understanding of the research findings.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T01:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221105707
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Re-Imagining the Data Collection and Analysis Research Process by
           Proposing a Rapid Qualitative Data Collection and Analytic Roadmap Applied
           to the Dynamic Context of Precision Medicine

    • Authors: James Smith, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Tracey A. O’Brien, Stephanie Smith, Vanessa J. Tyrrell, Emily V. A. Mould, Janet C. Long, Frances Rapport
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Our implementation science study focuses on implementing a new way of practice and offers methodological specificity about how to rapidly investigate an individually tailored precision medicine intervention. A qualitative study advancing a new methodology for speedily identifying barriers and enablers to implementation in the context of childhood cancer. Data were collected through rapid ethnography, coded using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, and analysed by Sentiment Analysis. Thirty-eight data collection events occurred during 14 multidisciplinary tumour board meetings, 14 curation meetings, and 10 informal conversations. Sentiment Analysis distilled Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research codes to reveal key barriers and enablers to implementation. A traffic light labelling system has been used to present levels of positivity and negativity (green for strong enablers and red for strong barriers), highlighting levels of concern regarding implementation. Within the intervention design characteristics, “Adaptability” was the strongest enabler and “Design quality and safety” the strongest barrier. Among the contextual factors: “Networks and communication” were the strongest enabler, and “Available resources” were the strongest barrier. Overall, there was a higher percentage of negative sentiment towards intervention design characteristics and contextual factors than positive sentiment, while more concerns were raised about intervention design factors than contextual factors. This study offers a rapid qualitative data collection and analytic methodological roadmap for establishing barriers and enablers to a paediatric precision medicine intervention.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T08:08:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221103097
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Interdisciplinary Research as a Complicated System

    • Authors: Amaris Dalton, Karin Wolff, Bernard Bekker
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Notwithstanding the rapidly growing body of literature on interdisciplinary research, several of the crucial dynamics in interdisciplinary research systems remain poorly understood and undertheorized. To this effect we seek to provide a ‘fundamental’ ontology of interdisciplinary research systems. We principally understand an interdisciplinary research system as a complex system consisting of researchers from different disciplines that have undergone a pseudomorphosis (i.e. a false formation) into a complicated system through the formation of a central organizing principle. The central organizing principle provides a stricter definition of the research problem and subsequently coalesces the intentionality of system agents through a unification of their disparate aims and methodologies. This pseudomorphosis is thereby associated with an exchange of individual freedom for organizational utility resulting in internal tensions which are, we argue, most prominently expressed in the interplay of epistemic incompatibilities between disciplines. We explore three frameworks for successfully navigating these incompatibilities: circumvention, which is based on avoidance of areas of disciplinary incompatibility; pragmatism, which is based on ignoring areas of compatibility; and disciplinary synthesis which involves a paradigm shift in researchers’ understanding of their disciplinary propositions resolving perceived incompatibilities. It is anticipated that this paper may be of benefit to researchers and organizers seeking to effectively structure interdisciplinary research projects, specifically in terms of framing the research problem and the modes of inquiry, and in structuring the interdisciplinary research team.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221100397
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Guest Editors’ Introduction: Special Collection on The Challenge of
           Social Impact for Research Methodologies

    • Authors: Marta Soler-Gallart, Ramon Flecha
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T12:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221103669
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • A Failed Attempt at Participatory Video With Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ People Who
           Had Experienced Homelessness

    • Authors: Brodie Fraser, Elinor Chisholm, Nevil Pierse
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper provides insights into a failed attempt at participatory video (PV). PV has long been favoured by researchers working with marginalised communities. However, there is limited discourse about when the method is and is not appropriate, and few published examples of when it has failed. It is important to critique research methods, and for researchers to be transparent about when research is not carried out as originally intended. Such reflection allows us to refine the methods we use and improve our research. This paper explores what a failed PV project with Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ people who had experienced homelessness taught us about the stigmatised nature of both homelessness and LGBTQ+ identities. Furthermore, it shows how methods that do not allow for participants to maintain their anonymity are sometimes not the right choice when researching stigmatised issues.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T02:48:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221103663
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • A Ethnographic Toolkit for Studying the Networking Pathways of
           Hard-to-Reach Populations: The Case of Cosmetic Surgery Consumers in South
           Korea

    • Authors: Anson Au
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This article develops a novel ethnographic toolkit for examining the networking pathways that hard-to-reach populations use to socially survive. The toolkit consists of two sampling strategies (snowball and purposive sampling) and three data collection practices (role shuttling, site shuttling, and autoethnography). This article illustrates the applications of the toolkit in an ethnography of South Korean cosmetic surgery clinics and digital forums from 2018 to 2019 by uncovering the role that furtive networks play in facilitating cosmetic surgery consumption. Longitudinal in nature, the toolkit excels in examining the network’s dynamism, informal hierarchy, and the meaning-making and networking pathways that allow members of a hard-to-reach population like cosmetic surgery consumers in South Korea to participate in stigmatized practices. In the hard-to-reach population of surgery enthusiasts, I find that surgery is purchased by consumers through persuasive reconstructions of the meanings of success, body, and self by an elusive network of clinicians, who are introduced by an ever-changing roster of past cosmetic surgery consumers perceived to be high-status.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-22T03:33:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221101962
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Found in Translation: Reflections and Lessons for Qualitative Research
           Collaborations Across Language and Culture

    • Authors: Patricia Rodriguez Espinosa, Nipat B. Pichayayothin, Panita Suavansri, Joanna J. French, Poonsub Areekit, Chureerat Nilchantuk, Torin S. Jones, Emily Mam, Jessie B. Moore, Catherine A. Heaney
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Qualitative scholars are increasingly engaged in global research where members of the research team are from different countries and cultures and have different primary languages. However, in-depth descriptions of how to work as a transnational team successfully and rigorously are scarce. Using a collaboration between Stanford University in the US and Chulalongkorn University in Thailand as a case example, we present the nuances and challenges experienced in this research collaboration, as well as the strategies employed to optimize the validity and reliability of the study findings. While we started our data analysis following a more typical qualitative analysis path, shortcomings of this approach brought us to explore an alternative, involving data review and coding by transnational coding sub-teams. This approach was better able to illuminate cultural nuances, address coding discrepancies, and bring forward discussions to enhance interpretation and validity of findings. We describe our collaborative and iterative approach, and highlight methodological implications around team composition, language nuances and translation challenges, our coding process involving transnational coding sub-teams, and important considerations for managing team dynamics (e.g., power and hierarchy) and the partnership process and engagement over time. Moreover, we highlight the benefits of integrating insiders and outsiders throughout the research process, from data collection to coding and interpretation. Our process can serve as a model for similar transnational teams seeking ways to fully benefit from cross-cultural research collaborations.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T05:38:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221101280
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Utility of Constructivist Grounded Theory in Critical Policy Analysis

    • Authors: Tebogo B. Sebeelo
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Constructivist grounded theory (CGT) has gained traction as a popular method across various fields in both the social and natural sciences. Its acclaim lies in its constructivist and pragmatist heritages that emphasize flexibility, co-construction and subjectivity. Despite its general appeal, CGT remain largely unexplored in the area of critical policy analysis. Using data from an alcohol policy dissertation in Botswana, this paper applies CGT to What’s the Problem Represented to Be (WPR), a Foucauldian-inspired poststructural policy analysis framework. WPR served as a framework while CGT provided strategies to do it. The paper demonstrates the utility of CGT as a useful strategy in critical policy analysis. The practice of CGT aligns with critical policy studies that consider subjectivity, temporality and reject value-free enquiry. Furthermore, CGT aligns with policy analysis studies that explicate human experience and meanings. The implications of deploying CGT to critical policy analysis are outlined in the paper.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221090057
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Lessons Learned From the Glaserian Grounded Theory Approach:
           Professionalizing as a Basic Social Process in Elite Athletes’ Lifestyle
           

    • Authors: Hamid Reza Safari Jafarloo, Ehsan Mohamadi Turkmani, Mohammad Hossein Ghorbani
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper presents a qualitative study conducted using the Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method. Glaser’s approach to GT differs from Strauss and Corbin’s method, which is more widespread. There are some differences in the focus on participants’ concerns, staying in the research environment for an extended period to discover participants’ main concerns and the emergence of a basic social process around the core category. The Glaserian GT method was used to understand elite athletes’ lifestyles. Two groups of athletes and non-athletes were recruited for the interview as the sample. The core category was determined through iterative coding, memoing, theoretical sampling, and theoretical sorting. There were overlaps in these phases; they fluctuated back and forth and were not as clear-cut as they could be. Results showed the lifestyle components of elite athletes. Besides identifying participants’ main concerns, the results also demonstrated how to address them over time. It is a category of a basic social process named “professionalizing.” Lastly, the steps of creating a concept map are explained practically, which in addition to sports science scholars, can be considered by researchers in other fields.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T09:12:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221103070
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Learning Each Other’s Language and Building Trust: Community-Engaged
           Transdisciplinary Team Building for Research on Human Trafficking
           Operations and Disruption

    • Authors: Lauren Martin, Mahima Gupta, Kayse L. Maass, Christina Melander, Emily Singerhouse, Kelle Barrick, Tariq Samad, Thomas C. Sharkey, Tonique Ayler, Teresa Forliti, Joy Friedman, Christine Nelson, Drea Sortillion
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background: Human trafficking for sexual exploitation (referred to as sex trafficking) is a complex global challenge that causes harm and violates human rights. Most research has focused on victim-level harms and experiences, with limited understanding of the networks and business functions of trafficking operations. Empirical evidence is lacking on how to disrupt trafficking operations because it is difficult to study; it is hidden and dangerous, spans academic disciplinary boundaries, and necessitates ways of knowing that include lived experience. Collaborative approaches are needed, but there is limited research on methods to best build transdisciplinary teams. Aim: The aim of this study was to understand how to form a community-engaged transdisciplinary research team that combines qualitative and operations research with a survivor-centered advisory group. Methods: We conducted a qualitative meta-study of our team that is seeking to mathematically model sex trafficking operations. Data were collected from the minutes of 16 team meetings and a survey of 13 team members. Results: Analysis of meeting minutes surfaced four themes related to content and style of communication, one related to value statements, and one capturing intentional team building efforts. Survey results highlighted respect, trust, integrity, openness and asking and answering questions as key aspects of team building. Results show that an action research approach to team building, focused on trust and communication, fostered effective collaboration among social scientists, operations researchers, and survivors of trafficking. Conclusion: Team building, shared language, and trust are essential, yet often neglected, elements of team science. This meta-study provides important methodological insights on community engaged transdisciplinary team formation to tackle vexing social challenges.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T06:37:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221101966
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Knowledge Meals, Research Relationships, and Postqualitative Offerings:
           Enacting Langar (a Sikh Tradition of a Shared Meal) as Pedagogy of
           Doctoral Supervision

    • Authors: Kanwarjeet Singh, Jane Southcott, Damien Lyons
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In research, particularly within the pedagogies of doctoral supervision, the significance of relational experiences is less explored and understood. Such relational aspects determine the nature and quality of the doctoral research output and are a crucial element of successful doctoral completions. A conscious assessment, estimation and management of the vulnerable sensibilities surrounding these relation fosters a deeper insight into the way student-researchers and supervisors experience their doctoral journeys. In this paper, to feature the importance of these relational experiences and to accentuate ideas and concepts for pedagogical change, my co-authors and I forsake the repetitious and employ Langar - a Sikh cultural practice of congregational cooking and consumption of a shared meal as a postqualitative methodological alternative. We utilise the innovative insights of Langar to reflect on our own research experiences and demonstrate the complexities of ‘becoming’ researchers to explicate how a sometimes-distant cultural practice could induce a shift in our research thinking. In context of methodological approaches, and within an educational framework, we argue that such a shift may instil freshness into the way doctoral journeys and cognate supervision pedagogies are viewed, navigated, and experienced. Methodological innovation, we submit, may occasion pedagogical transformation.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T02:24:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221097223
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Facilitators and Barriers to Recruiting Physicians for Psychological
           Research: The Personal Experience of a Graduate Student

    • Authors: Nathaniel J. Davin
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This article is a reflective piece on a master’s student’s journey, and my navigation through a perceived methodological failure. The article explores the challenges recruiting physicians as participants for psychological research, particularly when a graduate student. The interdisciplinary nature of this project bridged into the health field as the focus was on physicians’ knowledge surrounding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are unique difficulties with recruiting from a physician population. Facilitators and barriers regarding thetechniques and methods utilized are described and recommendations are made. Implications regarding conceptualizing research failures for graduate students are discussed, as well as implications for supervisors and the research population.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T01:47:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221101960
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Developing Typologies in Qualitative Research: The Use of Ideal-type
           Analysis

    • Authors: Emily Stapley, Sally O’Keeffe, Nick Midgley
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The tradition of developing typologies has been prominent in research, particularly within the fields of psychology and sociology, for decades. A typology is formed by grouping cases or participants into types on the basis of their common features. Despite the prominence of typologies in research, methodological guidance on the process of developing a typology, particularly as a qualitative method for analysing data, is scarce. Ideal-type analysis is a relatively new addition to the family of qualitative research methods, which offers a systematic, rigorous method for constructing typologies from qualitative data. In our approach to ideal-type analysis, the methodology consists of seven steps: becoming familiarised with the dataset; writing the case reconstructions; constructing the ideal types; identifying the optimal cases; forming the ideal-type descriptions; checking credibility; and making comparisons. This article is a summary of our approach to conducting ideal-type analysis. We hope that this article will help researchers to consider whether using ideal-type analysis may be a suitable approach for their own studies.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T05:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221100633
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Under the Mango Tree: Photovoice With Primary School Children in Rural
           Sierra Leone

    • Authors: Elena Samonova, Dympna Devine, Wendy Luttrell
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In recent decades, photovoice has become a popular method in research that involves children as active research participants. This paper focuses on the procedures and methods of gathering and interpretation of data from a photovoice project with children in rural Sierra Leone. Photovoice in this project was an integral part of a more wide ranging multi-modal study on gender, well-being and schooling of primary school children. The inclusion of photovoice as an additional method of data collection added another lens through which we could understand children’s everyday experiences and encourage their active involvement in the research process. The paper discusses the steps of analysis, showing the benefits of the combination of visual and textual methods and presents reflections on the work with relatively young primary school children with no prior experience with photography.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T03:20:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211053106
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Reflections on Applying Institutional Ethnography in Participatory Weight
           Stigma Research with Young Women

    • Authors: Alexa R. Ferdinands, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, Kate Storey, Kim D. Raine
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Inspired by consciousness-raising practices of North American second-wave feminism, Dorothy Smith developed institutional ethnography (IE) as an alternative to established sociology, which she argued objectified people and their experiences. Instead, IE begins from an embodied standpoint to examine how local phenomena are coordinated to happen by ruling relations from afar. In this article, we present methodological insights from our experiences of applying IE, informed by principles of participatory research, in Alberta, Canada to examine the challenges young women (aged 15–21) in larger bodies face while navigating their everyday lives. We begin by exploring current discussions in the burgeoning field of IE, including how IE’s social ontology aligns with participatory approaches to research. Contextualized by our public health backgrounds, we then describe how we used IE to study how the work of growing up in a larger body is socially organized, interpreting work generously as any task requiring thought and intention. Between March-December 2019, we conducted 14 individual interviews and facilitated 5 working group meetings with a subset of interview participants. Discussions during the working group meetings were structured by an adapted critical analysis framework to prompt participants in questioning taken-for-granted assumptions around weight and health. As part of this working group, we developed knowledge mobilization materials (infographics and an open letter) for parents, educators, and healthcare providers about how to navigate weight-related issues with young people, grounded in participants’ experiential knowledge. We specifically reflect on how IE was a valuable tool for addressing four principles of participatory research central to this study: go beyond “do no harm”; provide opportunities for giving feedback; create space for critical engagement; and bring knowledge mobilization to the fore. Overall, our experiences suggest value in IE as a pragmatic, flexible approach to public health research, offering unique methodological tools which keep research participants in view.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T11:05:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221100939
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Doing Case Study Research Collaboratively: The Benefits for Researchers

    • Authors: Patricia Mcclunie-Trust, Virginia Jones, Rhona Winnington, Kay Shannon, Andrea E. Donaldson, Rachel Macdiarmid, Rebecca J. Jarden, Rosemary Turner, Eamon Merrick, Patrea Andersen
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Collaborative research teams are an effective strategy to combine the knowledge and skills of like-minded researchers across tertiary education settings and international borders. Research collaborations have the potential to increase research capacity for both individuals and the team alike. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of a team of seven Australasian nurse academics undertaking a longitudinal multi-site case study. We used a nominal group technique in this deductive qualitative exploratory study. The key findings from this study indicate establishing safe academic relationships is paramount to successful collaborative teams. Collaborative research teams offer opportunities to learn research processes from other members through sharing of expertise and skillsets, together with upholding a positive engagement with technology to ensure full research participation is achievable irrespective of geographical location. To conclude, in this study we have identified multi-site collaborative research teams provide an opportunity to leverage the strengths of individuals to enhance research outcomes across organisations. The synergistic effect of the team builds research blue skies thinking and capacity building through mentorship and support. The potential for positive change through mentorship and support, alongside the forged new relationships, are all key drivers of researcher wellbeing, never more important as we transition into new ways of working both now and into the future.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T08:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221096296
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Using Asynchronous Online Focus Groups to Capture Healthcare Professional
           Opinions

    • Authors: Kate LaForge, Mary Gray, Erin Stack, Catherine J. Livingston, Christi Hildebran
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      IntroductionOnline data collection methods can increase study accessibility and ease the burden of data collection for participants. Asynchronous Online Focus Groups are a promising method for data collection among healthcare professionals.MethodsIn this article, we describe the use of, and lessons learned from conducting 19 Asynchronous Online Focus Groups across four research studies.ResultsWe describe our experiences preparing for, recruiting for, and conducting Asynchronous Online Focus Groups. We highlight decision points around timeframe, eligibility, recruitment, participation, focus group assignment, moderation, and participant engagement. We found that removing geographic barriers was advantageous for collecting data, focus group attrition is a concern for asynchronous formats, and group assignment may affect data.ConclusionsAsynchronous Online Focus Groups are a promising method for data collection among healthcare professionals. When conducting Asynchronous Online Focus Groups researchers should consider the suitability and the unique implications of this data collection method for data quality.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T10:41:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221095658
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • A Methodological and Practical Guide to Study Peripheral Voices in
           Qualitative Research

    • Authors: Camelia López-Deflory, Amélie Perron, Margalida Miró-Bonet
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The selection of the voices that make up a qualitative research project is of great importance since the knowledge gained about a certain object of study depends on it. Qualitative researchers focus on the voices around which the purposes of their research explicitly revolve. However, they do not customarily pay attention to peripheral voices, which are primordial to understanding the complexity of the phenomenon studied. In this article, we fill in the literature gap regarding the inclusion of peripheral voices as participants in qualitative research. We develop a five-stage methodological and practical guide to identify who the peripheral voices are, how to plan their approach, how to listen to them and how to analyze their narratives. We illustrate its practical application using the results of doctoral research focused on the construction of the nurse’s status in healthcare organizations. We conclude by discussing the potential of their inclusion in qualitative research.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T01:04:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221100639
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Virtual Photovoice With Older Adults: Methodological Reflections during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Olivier Ferlatte, Julie Karmann, Geneviève Gariépy, Katherine L. Frohlich, Gregory Moullec, Valérie Lemieux, Réjean Hébert
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Photovoice is a participatory action research method in which participants take and narrate photographs to share their experiences and perspectives. This method is gaining in popularity among health researchers. Few studies, however, have described virtual photovoice data collection despite the growing interest among qualitative health researchers for online data collection. As such, the aim of this article is to discuss the implementation of a virtual photovoice study and presents some of the challenges of this design and potential solutions. The study examined issues of social isolation and mental health among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Canadian province of Québec. Twenty-six older adults took photographs depicting their experience of the pandemic that were then shared in virtual discussion groups. In this article, we discuss three key challenges arising from our study and how we navigated them. First, we offer insights into managing some of the technical difficulties related to using online meeting technologies. Second, we describe the adjustments we made during our study to foster and maintain positive group dynamics. Third, we share our insights into the process of building and maintaining trust between both researchers and participants, and amongst participants. Through a discussion of these challenges, we offer suggestions to guide the work of health promotion researchers wishing to conduct virtual photovoice studies, including with older adults.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T12:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221095656
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Exploring Ethical Dimensions Associated with ‘Pushing for PINs’ and
           Probing: A Critical Commentary on Key Features of the Biographical
           Narrative Interpretive Method (BNIM) with ‘Vulnerable’ and Other
           Populations

    • Authors: Lisa Moran, Lorraine Green, Lisa Warwick
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper focuses on some potential ethical dilemmas associated with the Biographical Narrative Interpretive Method (BNIM), drawing on existing BNIM literature, other qualitative research literature and insights drawn from the authors’ experiences of using the method. There are several ethical issues central to biographical interviewing, including the potential for re-traumatising participants. We argue this potential is heightened when deploying a central BNIM technique ‘Pushing for PINs’. In this article we therefore analyse the evolution, philosophical underpinnings, principles and techniques of BNIM. We evaluate BNIM’s usefulness and allure, in terms of generating vivid data which can lead to deeper knowledge and improved services for under-researched and marginalised groups, whilst stressing that more attention needs to be devoted to identifying and mitigating ethical dilemmas.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T01:05:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221085791
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Thinking With Transnational Institutional Ethnography: Moving Towards
           Spatially Conscious Methods for Studying Geographically Dispersed People
           and Institutions

    • Authors: Rachel Fishberg
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Institutional ethnography (IE) is a valuable ontological approach for investigating the coordination of social relations, both locally and trans-locally. However, much of the work utilizing IE remains within the confines of a local or national empirical field. This means there are limited accounts of IE exploring geographically dispersed institutions that cross borders and span regions. This paper makes the case for critically thinking and building on Transnational Institutional Ethnography (TIE). In it, I argue that TIE requires adapting the methodological toolbox of IE to deal with expanded geographic space and diverse bodily locations. By drawing on empirical work exploring scholarly participation in the European Union Framework Programs for research, tensions are illustrated that surfaced while working with TIE. In this discussion, I examine the ways in which interpreting an empirical field as a transnational institution, constituted of geographically dispersed people and organizations, caused a re-examination of the methods in IE to acknowledge institutional experiences shaped by diverse material surroundings and differing geopolitical locations. The paper argues that working with spatially conscious methods in TIE contributes positively to both fieldwork and analysis.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T04:08:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221097779
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Blurring Boundaries: Balancing between Distance and Proximity in
           Qualitative Research Studies With Vulnerable Participants

    • Authors: Veerle Garrels, Børge Skåland, Evi Schmid
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Qualitative researchers who conduct in-depth interviews with vulnerable participants may experience certain challenges related to the vulnerability of their research subjects. Obtaining upsetting personal narratives may be emotionally taxing for the researcher, yet little knowledge is available as to how researchers are affected by this and which support could benefit them.This article explores how qualitative researchers from diverse research fields experience and deal with their encounters with research participants in vulnerable life situations. Information about this topic may inform research institutes how they can support the emotional wellbeing of researchers. Moreover, students and junior researchers who are getting acquainted with qualitative research may find it useful to learn about some challenges that may occur when doing research on vulnerable groups.For this study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with nine researchers from various research fields within social sciences who had extensive experience in doing research with diverse vulnerable groups. We used thematic content analysis to analyze the interview data.Findings from this study illustrate how conducting interviews with vulnerable research subjects may affect researchers emotionally. Several participants described negative experiences of emotional instability, powerlessness, and lasting impressions that made it difficult to “let go” of the research subjects. Some participants also highlighted positive effects of such encounters, such as personal growth. For all researchers, boundaries of the researcher role were a point of discussion, as these boundaries may seem less clear in practice than in theory. Research institutes could safeguard research ethics and enhance the psychological wellbeing of the researcher by providing researchers with adequate support systems.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T11:40:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221095655
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Bridging Indigenous and Western Methods in Social Science Research

    • Authors: Ashley L. Quinn
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper presents a method for how grounded theory can be used to bridge Western and Indigenous approaches to research, and how these epistemologies may complement each other. The objective in presenting this method is to contribute to the ongoing conversation on how best to integrate these two frameworks. As historically in social science research western methodologies have been preferred over Indigenous methodologies, this integration serves both to further reconciliation and to enhance methodological rigour.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T11:04:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221080301
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Protocol of Process Evaluation of Secondary Prevention by Structured
           Semi-Interactive Stroke Prevention Package in India (SPRINT INDIA)Trial

    • Authors: Shweta J. Verma, Puja Gulati, Himani Khatter, Deepti Arora, Aneesh Dhasan, Meenakshi Sharma, Padmavathyamma Narayanapillai Sylaja, Jeyaraj D. Pandian
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background and aimsSecondary Prevention by Structured Semi-Interactive Stroke Prevention Package in India (SPRINT India) is a complex intervention delivered across 30 centres in 16 Indian states. The study delivers intervention in 12 languages in the form of workbook, videos and short messaging using cellular device and internet as a tool. Objectives of process evaluation are to assess whether trial was implemented as planned (fidelity and dose); whether, how and why the intervention is effective by looking at the stakeholders’ experiences (effectiveness); to assess reach of intervention in population (reach); how intervention fits into treatment plan to cause behavioural change when adopted (adoption); usefulness for target population and bring behaviour change (maintenance).MethodsSPRINT India process evaluation is a prospective, multicentre study conducted with mixed-methods approach. Sample size of centres and stakeholders will be selected by maximum variance purposive sampling strategy. Centres will be stratified primarily for representing the 11 regional language in which the intervention is delivered. Qualitative data will comprise of interviews of patients, care givers and health professionals at these centres using semi structured interview guide. Quantitative data will comprise of all the randomised patients. Process evaluation framework is based on Realist and RE-AIM evaluation models presented according to Medical Research Council’s guidance. The four sections of the framework are context, trial implementation, mechanisms of impact and trial outcomes.ResultsInterviews of approximately 100 stakeholders and focus group interviews of health professionals and SPRINT India study central coordinating staff will be conducted. Analysis will be done using triangulation methodology. It will incorporate use of both quantitative and qualitative data, data collection techniques, data sources, evaluation models, stakeholders and researchers.ConclusionsProcess evaluation will identify efficacious factors in intervention package and consolidate use of secondary stroke semi-interactive stroke prevention package into practice and policy to prevent recurrent stroke.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T03:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221093139
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Making Qualitative Research Inclusive: Methodological Insights in
           Disability Research

    • Authors: Annmaree Watharow, Sarah Wayland
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Qualitative research necessitates the representation of, and engagement with, people who the research is designed to assist. Disability research not only seeks to explore populations where lived experience of disability is distinct, it is also a field where researchers themselves have lived experience. This paper reflects on the methodological innovations between the researcher, their supervisory team and the co-created opportunities to collect qualitative experiences from participants with disabilities, acknowledging the researcher’s own disability. The purpose of the paper was to provide scope to explore the multiple provisions required to be inclusive of accessibility needs as a way to bring unique consumer perspectives to the research table. The paper demonstrates, through a narrative lens, how the research space is altered for people and researchers when disability is present; requiring ways to ensure inclusive research practices are responded to. Recommendations for future co-creation of research with disability are identified.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T02:31:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221095316
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Qualitative Research Studies Online: Using Prompted Weekly Journal Entries
           During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Sarah Rudrum, Rebecca Casey, Lesley Frank, Rachel K. Brickner, Sami MacKenzie, Jesse Carlson, Elisabeth Rondinelli
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Solicited journal entries are a qualitative research method with a fairly strong tradition in sociological research and particularly in qualitative health research. However, the practices and strengths associated with solicited journal entries have not been explored as frequently or comprehensively as more conventional qualitative research methods, such as interviews. During the COVID-19 pandemic we carried out two online studies employing solicited written journal entries and photos. One study focused on pregnancy and health care experiences during the pandemic and the other on everyday life while working from home due to public health restrictions. Here, we discuss solicited online journal entries as a qualitative method and reflect on the strengths and challenges we encountered, including those related to using the online survey tool LimeSurvey for a qualitative diary-based study. The richness of data and the ability to solicit participants’ contemporaneous reflections over the course of a set length of time, the ability to reach people across time zones and in multiple places, and the ability to adapt prompts in a quickly changing research context are major strengths of online journaling. The level of commitment required by participants, the potential for attrition, the need for literacy and technology access, and the large amount of data from each participant are potential limitations for researchers to consider.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T12:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221093138
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Reflexive Integration of Research Elements in Mixed-Method Research

    • Authors: Ajima Olaghere
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This article highlights “reflexive integration” as a methodological tool that can facilitate the explicit integration of quantitative or qualitative elements in mixed-methods research. Reflexive integration of research elements (RIRE) is advocated as a mechanism that can be used in any mixed-method study to enhance depth of inquiry and transparency of the steps involved in mixed-method research. An illustrative example is presented to show the step-by-step process of reflexive integration at various stages of a mixed-method study.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T10:42:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221093137
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Exploring How U.S. High School Staff Support, Protect, and Affirm Sexual
           and Gender Minority Youth: Methods and Lessons Learned from a Qualitative
           Interview Study

    • Authors: Robert WS Coulter, Emmett R Henderson, Stephanie L Corey, Kelly Gagnon, Carla D Chugani, James E Egan, Courtney E Murphy, Eion R Plenn, Nina Routh, Alyssa Roig, Elizabeth Miller
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Background. Sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) experience health inequities compared with cisgender heterosexuals, and these inequities are heightened in areas with high structural stigma. Quantitative research shows school assets (e.g., adult support) are associated with better health for SGMY. Though some qualitative studies elucidated how school staff support SGMY, none have triangulated such strategies in a geographically and sociodemographically diverse sample of school staff and SGMY. This paper describes a multi-perspective qualitative study design and offers lessons learned from conducting such a study. Methods. Using a novel stratified sampling frame, we interviewed 60 SGMY and 29 school staff who attended/worked at high schools in U.S. states with low, medium, and high structural stigma. To ensure sociodemographic diversity, we constructed sampling quotas, and recruited SGMY using social media and staff using a multi-pronged approach. Results. The stratified sampling strategy met our goal of enrolling diverse SGMY and staff participants. SGMY participants attended schools in low (n = 20), medium (n = 22), and high (n = 18) structural stigma states. We enrolled 18 cisgender girls, 18 cisgender boys, and 24 gender minority youth. Fifty-three percent of SGMY were youth of color, and 45% attended schools in rural areas. School staff participants worked at schools in low (n = 11), medium (n = 11), and high (n = 7) structural stigma states. School staff participants were 55% heterosexual, 91% cisgender, and had diverse roles (e.g., teacher, principal, librarian, and nurse). Conclusions. This paper describes new methods for collecting qualitative data from diverse SGMY and school staff. Some lessons learned from this study include the importance of using trauma-informed interviewing methods, having a suicidality safety protocol, establishing a priori sampling quotas, and creating tailored social media advertisements. With these data we will explore the heterogeneity of SGMY and school staff experiences across varying structural stigma levels, yielding foundational information for future school-based interventions.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T08:00:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221093132
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Virtual Qualitative Research Using Transnational Feminist Queer
           Methodology: The Challenges and Opportunities of Zoom-Based Research
           During Moments of Crisis

    • Authors: Ethel Tungohan, John Paul Catungal
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this paper, we discussed our experiences with Zoom-based virtual qualitative research with Asian international students attending Canadian universities. When reflecting on our study, we drew inspiration from Roberts et al., (2020) who highlight the ethical challenges that emerge when conducting virtual qualitative research with a community that is experiencing the harrowing effects of COVID-19 in real time. Yet we also departed from such work by considering the added ethical complexity of conducting research during COVID-19 with research participants and with research team members who have transnational lives. In answering the question, “how do you design a virtual qualitative research project with research participants and with a research team whose lives are transnational,” we discussed how our use of transnational feminist queer methodology allows us to emphasize accountability and flexibility and recognize the multiple-and-varied social locations of our research participants and our research team members. We realized that working with research participants who have transnational lives means that notions of risk and consent cannot only be considered from the standpoint of the individual who is participating in the project. Instead, it is paramount that risk and consent be considered from the standpoint of the individual’s larger, transnational community and location in global, geopolitical contexts. Transnational feminist queer methodology also allowed us to see the challenges and possibilities of virtual qualitative research. While Zoom presented challenges (namely, that our participants were concerned about their privacy), we found the functionalities of Zoom to enhance our research. Specifically, we found that the chatbox deepened participant engagement through the sharing of memes and GIFs, allowing more rapport to develop. Ultimately, we argue that virtual qualitative research is not an inferior alternative to in-person research but should instead be seen as a different way of doing research, one necessitating distinct methodologies and methods.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T12:00:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221090062
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Development of Individual Add-On Interventions for Patients With
           Depression Who are Persistently Not on Track in Group Cognitive
           Behavioural Therapy: A Protocol for a Treatment Development and
           Feasibility Study

    • Authors: Jasmin Rejaye Gryesten, Stig Poulsen, Sidse Marie Arnfred
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Introduction: Only about half of the patients treated with Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for depression are in remission after treatment. Progress monitoring during therapy, supplemented with clinical support tools, has shown promising results with regard to improving outcome, but results for group psychotherapy are less favourable. Therefore, we propose supplementary individual therapy as a possible solution to lack of progress in group CBT. The current study seeks to develop a brief add-on course of personalized individual therapy for patients showing lack of improvement during CBT group therapy. Methods and analysis: We aim to develop an intervention that includes progress monitoring, clinical support tools and a selection of patient-centred add-on interventions. An initial multiple case study will involve patients treated for depression in group CBT. The patients will perform progress monitoring every week, and therapists will receive alerts when a patient is not improving. Analyses will integrate qualitative data on the experiences of therapists and patients, quantitative tracking data, and initial clinical assessments. Based on these analyses, the proposed add-on interventions will be further developed and offered to the patients who are persistently not improving (pNOT) in three new CBT groups, which will be monitored as described above. Interviews will be performed with patients and therapists to explore their experiences of the new interventions. Qualitative data will be analysed through thematic analysis, and Single Case Experimental Design analyses will be made based on daily tracking of WHO-5.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T11:48:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221084786
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Developing Grounded Theory Systematic Approach for Public Policy
           Researches

    • Authors: Hosein Aslipour, Mohamad Reza Zargar
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper seeks to facilitate the use of grounded theory (GT) methodology by novice researchers and PhD students of public policy discipline. The GT is widely used in social sciences research. This methodology has different variations, while Strauss and Corbin’s systematic approach is more pragmatic than others due to the introduction of a staged process known as axial coding. Regarding the fact that applying this method is largely dependent on the context of the research area, the main question is, what would be the elements of a systematic approach specifically customized for the public policy research domain' This paper is an analytical review of the research literature in 3 areas: variants of grounded theory approaches, soft systems models in social science, and public policy subsystem elements. This research suggests the use of 6 categories of context and discourse, content and ideas, participants, structure, policy process, and outputs and effects as a substitute for the three categories of Strauss and Corbin’s axial coding paradigm of GT.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T06:32:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221090357
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Artful Engagement with the Concept of Identity: Using Poetic Transcription
           to Reimagine Participant Voices

    • Authors: Catherine E. Sanders, Alexa J. Lamm
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this article, the primary author explores the use of poetic transcriptions as a method to enhance evaluation and social impact assessment data analysis and dissemination. The construction of the poetic transcriptions and the artful method of analysis allows for a more explicit acknowledgment of the researchers’ entanglements with both the data and the program being evaluated. Using a specific lens of identity, the authors posit that a culturally responsive approach to evaluation using arts-based analyses may reveal methodological and empirical insights overlooked in previous engagements with qualitative evaluation data.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T05:59:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221091662
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Implementation of Whole-School Approaches to Transform Mental Health
           in UK Schools: A Realist Evaluation Protocol

    • Authors: Liam P Spencer, Darren Flynn, Amy Johnson, Gregory Maniatopoulos, James J Newham, Neil Perkins, Markku Wood, Helen Woodley, Emily J Henderson
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Evidence suggests that mental health interventions are more effective when they consider the whole context of schools; addressing the needs of all students, their families, and staff; otherwise known as a whole-school approach (WSA). The UK Government is piloting WSAs to transform mental health and wellbeing by locating educational mental health practitioners in educational settings across England. This study aims to develop a ‘bottom-up’ understanding of the contextual factors and mechanisms that underlie WSAs in Trailblazer schools in the North East and North Cumbria, to gain insight into the facilitators and barriers of delivering a WSA, and optimal evaluation methods. To undertake a realist evaluation, we included the generation of initial programme theories from existing academic literature and policy documents; ‘theory gleaning’ interviews with NHS/local authority stakeholders, Trailblazer staff and school senior leaders; refining and development of theories; and individual interviews and focus groups with pupils, parent/carers and school staff. The findings will enable Trailblazer partners to better understand how their WSAs to mental health contain the essential components for transformation in schools in the region. This will contribute to the embedding of continuous evaluation into regional Trailblazers’ practice for participating schools, for subsequent annual waves and producing relevant findings for non-Trailblazer schools. Complementing the national evaluation of all 25 Wave 1 Trailblazer pilot sites, this study will generate an explanatory theoretical account of how to optimally design, implement and evaluate WSAs by exploring the contextual factors associated with implementation of WSAs.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T05:09:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221082360
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Walking Interview: A Promising Method for Promoting the Participation
           of Autistic People in Research Projects

    • Authors: Justine Marcotte, Marie Grandisson, Élise Milot, Sophie Dupéré
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Walking interviews are increasingly used in the field of health to understand the relationship between individuals and places. With this method, the interviewer and the participant move from place to place within an environment and use it to enrich the discussion. Several advantages have been reported concerning its use, such as the richness of the data it provides and that it allows interviewers to immerse themselves in the participant’s world.This article is based on the experience of using walking interviews in an innovative context, with 10 autistic adolescents and adults and 13 parents. The method was used in the participants’ home environment, as part of study conducted in Québec (Canada) on home environment factors that influence autistic people’s independence at home. It was chosen to meet the study objectives, but also to support the participation of autistic people in research interviews. These people’s participation in research can be a challenge when data collection methods are not adapted, given the difficulties that some have communicating and interacting socially, as well as discussing abstract topics.In this article, the advantages, limitations and suggestions related to the use of walking interviews are reported from the participants’ and interviewer’s perspectives. The authors also discuss the potential for using walking interviews to collect the perspectives of other populations, especially those with difficulties expressing themselves, such as allophones or people with language disorders.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T04:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221090065
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Towards Culturally Sensitive Shared Decision-Making in Oncology A Study
           Protocol Integrating Bioethical Qualitative Research on Shared
           Decision-Making Among Ethnic Minorities With Ethical Reflection

    • Authors: Roukayya Oueslati, Ria Reis, Martine C. de Vries, Meralda T. Slager, Joost R. M. van der Sijp, Anne M. Stiggelbout, Dorothea P. Touwen
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      BackgroundShared decision-making (SDM) is often considered the ideal for decision-making in oncology. Views of specific groups such as ethnic minorities have seldom been considered in its development.AimIn this study we seek to assess in oncology if there is a need for adaptation of the current SDM model to ethnic minorities and to formulate possible adjustments.DesignThis study is embedded in empirical bioethics, an interdisciplinary approach integrating empirical data with ethical reasoning to formulate normative conclusions regarding a practice. For the empirical social scientific part, a cross-sectional qualitative study will be conducted; for the ethical reflection the Reflective Equilibrium will be used to develop a coherent view on the application of SDM among ethnic minorities in oncology.MethodSemi-structured interviews combined with visual methods (timelines and relational maps) will be held with healthcare professionals (HCPs), ethnic minority patients, and their relatives to identify values steering the behavior of these actors in SDM. In addition, focus groups (FGs) will be held with ethnic minority community members to identify value structures at the group level. Respondents will be recruited through organizations with access to ethnic minorities and collaborating hospitals. Data will be analyzed using a reflexive thematic analysis through the lens of Schwartz’s value theory. The results of the empirical phase will be included in the RE to formulate possible adjustments of the SDM model, if needed.DiscussionThe integration of empirical data with ethical reflection is an innovative method in decision-making. This method enables a systematic and profound assessment of the need for adaptation of SDM and the formulation of theoretically and empirically based suggestions for adaptations of the model. Findings of this study may enrich the SDM model.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T04:48:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221086731
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • An Alternative Method of Interviewing: Critical Reflections on
           Videoconference Interviews for Qualitative Data Collection

    • Authors: Tauhid Hossain Khan, Ellen MacEachen
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Qualitative research is an increasingly popular research approach for tackling the evolving complexity of social issues. With this rise in use, methods of qualitative data collection are becoming highly diverse, moving away from conventional approaches and welcoming more innovative and creative methods of data collection in a quest to produce critically and theoretically engaged new knowledge. Although traditional face-to-face interviews remain a compelling and popular means, modern innovative technology-based interviewing, such as videoconference interviews, can play a pivotal role in qualitative research. This article argues that this approach is pragmatic because video conferencing interviews are relatively affordable for research teams and, for many research participants, they are more accessible than face-to-face interviews. On the other hand, it provides a unique opportunity for researchers and participants by compressing the time-space divide, facilitating safety, reducing travel-related expenses, accessing transnational participants, maintaining social distance, and protecting personal space and privacy. Yet, this article also argues that videoconferencing can be dogged by practical challenges that might conflict with the holistic quality of qualitative research, such as dropped calls and loss of intimacy compared to traditional in-person interviews. This article presents the experiences of a young researcher, who reflects on how and why he conducted Skype interviews in his research. The article concludes that, despite the relative merits and demerits, videoconference interviews can be a useful supplement or replacement for traditional face-to-face interviews. However, more research is needed to gain a robust understanding of how this type of interview meets basic assumptions about the quality of interviews and affects the overall rigor of qualitative research.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T03:07:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221090063
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Using WhatsApp Focus Group Discussions to Collect Qualitative Data
           Collection During a Pandemic: Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes, and
           Perceptions of COVID-19 in Singapore

    • Authors: Pearlyn HM Neo, Jane M Lim, Rayner KJ Tan, Suan Ee Ong
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This qualitative study aimed to explore Singapore residents’ knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors around COVID-19 as shaped by different information sources. Through utilizing WhatsApp as a means of conducting digital focus group discussions (FGDs), participants were involved in five consecutive days of discussions through both synchronous and asynchronous means. We found that the use of WhatsApp as a means of conducting FGDs not only served as a means of generating essential, time-sensitive data in the community, but also advanced the quality and quantity of data generated, democratized, and enhanced the participatory nature of FGDs, and facilitated the communication of potential issues around data privacy between facilitators and participants. Although challenges around privacy and confidentiality remain, this means of collecting data is novel in terms of providing timely and relevant data during a pandemic and would be appropriate to be further utilized in the context of other health-related research beyond a public health emergency.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T01:45:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221090355
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Moving From Co-Design to Co-Research: Engaging Youth Participation in
           Guided Qualitative Inquiry

    • Authors: Adam T. Clark, Ishrat Ahmed, Stefania Metzger, Erin Walker, Ruth Wylie
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The inclusion of community voices in research is important. Over the years, research training programs have continued to emphasize that engagement with communities at the focus of research can promote thoughtful, sensitive designs (Rivera et al., 2004). In this paper, we discuss a method for youth participation in the research process. In an attempt to move beyond “staged and superficial” participation in gathering youth perspectives, we advocate for including co-researchers in the development and modification of fundamental aspects of the research process, from data analysis to the development of additional research questions and collection methods (Guishard & Tuck, 2013). In the course of a study designed to enroll middle school students in participatory co-design sessions (Cahill, 2007) to aid in the development of educational technologies, it became apparent that our youth participants, as co-researchers, could also aid in the development, analysis, and coding of anonymized interview transcripts; development of themes; and creation of models for behaviors found in the transcripts (Docan-Morgan, 2010; Luchtenberg et al., 2020). Thus, this paper presents a practical example of a co-research process that includes youth participants, with an emphasis on training in qualitative coding and the fundamentals of research design.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T02:52:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221084793
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Courtroom Ethnography in the Context of Terrorism: A Multi-Level Approach

    • Authors: Nicole Bögelein, Kerstin Eppert, Viktoria Roth, Anja Schmidt-Kleinert
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper addresses terrorism trials as sites of research and proposes an approach for the analysis of ethnographic data collected during these trials. The suggested approach offers multi-level analytical access, it centers around interactionist conceptions and knowledge discourses. The conceptual framework we suggest is spelled out in terms of how to observe and being sensitive of (re-)production of power structures inside the courtroom as well as in regard to relations imported into the courtroom. For this purpose, we integrate (i) the micro-level of courtroom interactions and (ii) (self-)presentation, (iii) the meso-level of knowledge (re)production and the establishment of knowledge orders and (iv) an intersectional perspective on gender, race, and class in knowledge discourses. By applying a multi-level approach, we open up new explanatory avenues to understand the constitution of terrorism as a socio-legal object. The methodical framework connects hitherto unconnected elements, that is, participants’ interactions and negotiation, their (self-)representations, ascriptions and narrative performances, and knowledge (re-)production in order to establish or maintain political and social orders.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T01:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221090059
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • From a Distance: The ‘New Normal’ for Researchers and Research
           Assistants Engaged in Remote Fieldwork

    • Authors: Phuong Nguyen, Regina Scheyvens, Alice Beban, Samantha Gardyne
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Doing remote fieldwork is a ‘new normal’ in the COVID-19 pandemic era. It is challenging, but not impossible. With planning and preparation, comprehensive training and ongoing support for Research Assistants (RAs), researchers can overcome the challenges of remote fieldwork. In this article, we reflect on the experience of employing local RAs to support doctoral research involving in-depth household interviews and focus group discussions with ethnic minority people in upland Vietnam. The challenge of adapting to this ‘new normal’ provided us with an opportunity for a critical appraisal of the researcher–RA relationship. The approach to remote fieldwork we developed centres on frequent communication, feedback and building trusting team dynamics. We argue that this approach can overcome some of the power hierarchies between global north researchers and local RAs, and therefore, should not simply be seen as a temporary or inferior ‘Plan B’ for researchers, but should be embraced as a way of reimagining knowledge production. We discuss lessons learned in how to carry out remote fieldwork, present practical strategies and recommendations, and consider the strengths of this approach for knowledge production and the empowerment of researchers in the global south.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T05:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221089108
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Critical Narrative Inquiry: An Examination of a Methodological Approach

    • Authors: Lisbeth A. Pino Gavidia, Joseph Adu
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      While stories are a central focus in narrative inquiry to examine phenomena, storytelling deconstruct values, assumptions, and beliefs to challenge taken-for-granted meanings. The objective of this paper is to examine storytelling from the perspective of knowledge paradigms, methodology, quality criteria, and reflexivity. By recognizing the elements of stories sociality, temporality, and place, the scope of a qualitative narrative study is framed where factors are expressed, shaped, and enacted. Considerations of these elements can be linked with the critical paradigm and self-reflexivity for representing and designing narrative inquiry grounded in a set of ontological and epistemological assumptions. A significant contribution of this paper is to address a methodological approach in the form of narrative inquiry to better understand the meaning of stories as rooted expressions of participants’ lived experiences. The implications of this study are to bring critical lens to worldviews that would better inform policy.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T01:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221081594
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Innovative Methodological Approach to Analyze Innovation and Social Impact

    • Authors: Joan Bellavista, Carmen Elboj-Saso, Carme García Yeste, Beatriz Villarejo-Carballido
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The scientific literature has presented evidence of the links between innovation and change and has published excellent methodologies to analyze them. Nowadays, international scientific programs like Horizon Europe prioritize social impact and co-creation; researchers need to develop methodologies to analyze the link of innovation with change and new knowledge and specially with social impact. This paper presents an innovative methodological approach to this endeavor using Social Media Analytics to investigate citizens' participation in paying attention to and differentiating between innovations with social impact and innovations without social impact. The method used to address this aim is Social Media Analytics, specifically through a Twitter sample on innovation and social impact composed of 16,794 tweets obtained during January–June 2021. The result obtained indicates that the definition of methodologies to capture citizens’ participation in paying attention to and differentiating between innovation and social impact is crucial for advancing this innovative methodological approach to analyze innovation with social impact.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-02T09:04:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221083373
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Researching With Villagers: Applying Transformative and Indigenous
           Approaches at a Private Wildlife Boundary in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Svongwa Nemadire
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Transformative and indigenous research frameworks can help facilitate social change; however, few studies have demonstrated their application to the study of the injustices of wildlife conservation in neo-colonial African contexts. This study illustrates the opportunities and limitations presented by these frameworks through a reflexive account of a PhD research journey at a conflict and private wildlife border in Zimbabwe. Villagers rescued the study from failing by steering it toward a research design that mixed different forms of knowledge, frameworks, and methods that were responsive to their research questions and complex political situations. The study concludes that transformative and indigenous researchers at sensitive wildlife boundaries in Africa should work with suffering villagers in teams without power hierarchies. Team membership should reflect different races, genders, and proximity to certain powerful actors. Such a research process may result in the transformation of both the researchers and the suffering villagers, although to achieve policy transformation, they must engage politically based on the research findings.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T06:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221088649
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Coding Qualitative Data at Scale: Guidance for Large Coder Teams Based on
           18 Studies

    • Authors: Melissa Beresford, Amber Wutich, Margaret V. du Bray, Alissa Ruth, Rhian Stotts, Cindi SturtzSreetharan, Alexandra Brewis
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      We outline a process for using large coder teams (10 + coders) to code large-scale qualitative data sets. The process reflects experience recruiting and managing large teams of novice and trainee coders for 18 projects in the last decade, each engaging a coding team of 12 (minimum) to 54 (maximum) coders. We identify four unique challenges to large coder teams that are not presently discussed in the methodological literature: (1) recruiting and training coders, (2) providing coder compensation and incentives, (3) maintaining data quality and ensuring coding reliability at scale, and (4) building team cohesion and morale. For each challenge, we provide associated guidance. We conclude with a discussion of advantages and disadvantages of large coder teams for qualitative research and provide notes of caution for anyone considering hiring and/or managing large coder teams for research (whether in academia, government and non-profit sectors, or industry).
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T01:17:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221075860
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Highs and Lows of Interviewing Legal Elites

    • Authors: Surabhi Gupta, William S. Harvey
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This article addresses some of the challenges faced by researchers who are seeking to identify, gain access to, conduct interviews with, and analyze data from elites. Drawing on the first author’s experience of conducting elite interviews as a source of social research regarding laws and legal processes, this article offers both theoretical and practical insights. Theoretically, we examine interviews with senior legal experts as a particular form of elite interviewing. Interviewing legal elites poses its own set of challenges that at times relate to and sometimes depart from other experiences of interviewing elite groups. Practically, we provide suggestions for how researchers new to elite interviewing and those more experienced can reflect on and navigate different stages of their field research to help capture novel insights. Paradoxically, we show that while an uncomfortable conversation can appear to the researcher that it has not gone well, often it can be a sign of a high quality elite interview.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T01:14:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221078733
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • “Doors Started to Appear:” A Methodological Framework for Analyzing
           Visuo-Verbal Data Drawing on Roland Barthes’s Classification of
           Text-Image Relations

    • Authors: Huw Grange, Olaug S. Lian
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Following a “visual turn” in qualitative methods, photographs and other forms of visual expression are increasingly used in conjunction with verbal data in social science research. According equal status to visual and verbal artifacts, however, poses significant methodological challenges. “Photo elicitation” methods, which typically privilege participants’ interpretations of photographs over the photographs themselves, have dominated. This article answers calls for greater reflection on and transparency in the analysis of data across multiple modes of expression. Building on previous approaches, we propose an analytical framework for interpreting visuo-verbal research data that draws on Roland Barthes’s tripartite classification of text-image relations into “illustration,” “anchorage,” and “relay.” We explore how our framework can be put into practice by applying it to photographs and written texts generated as part of the “Living with an eating disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic” project, focusing on three settings represented by participants: the hospital ward, the home, and natural environments. We subsequently reflect on some of the strengths and limitations of our framework in light of its application and with respect to established approaches to analyzing visuo-verbal data. Our framework of Text-Image Relations Analysis enables researchers to explore text-image relations as constitutive of meaning without privileging one semiotic mode over the other. As with all qualitative researcher, however, careful delineation of the meaning-making roles of participants and researchers is key.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T09:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221084433
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Using Diaries With Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: Guidelines
           From a Study of Children Whose Parents Have Mental Illness

    • Authors: Ebenezer Cudjoe
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) first appeared in publication in 1996 but was introduced as a comprehensive methodology in a first published book in 2009 by Smith, Flowers and Larkin. Since its publication, IPA has seen tremendous application in psychology and cognate social science disciplines. Most IPA studies have used interviews as their primary data collection tool. This is not surprising as semi-structured interviews fit the theoretical foundations of IPA and the authors of the IPA book themselves dedicated a chapter to interviewing. However, the authors have also lamented the lack of the use of diaries in the methodology. Yet, there are scarce IPA studies (or even phenomenological studies in general) using diaries as data collection tool. This is surprising as diaries are amenable with some core elements of phenomenology which IPA ascribes to. The inadequate use of diaries within IPA may be due to the lack of practical insights into what diaries could look like, how they can be obtained or whether they can fit with phenomenology. In this article, I reflect on how diaries can be administered and what kind of information can be accessed as part of a study involving children whose parents have mental illness. The article shows that diaries have strong connections with the theoretical foundations of IPA. Also, because diaries offer adequate time and space for participants to reflect on their lifeworld, it enables participants to talk in-depth about experiences of significance to them. The article can provide lessons for researchers hoping to employ diaries in their IPA studies or other phenomenological approaches.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T11:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221084435
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Qualitative Methodology Innovation That Promotes Educational Success of
           Children of Immigrant Families in Disadvantaged Contexts

    • Authors: Rosa Valls, Olga Serradell, Roger Campdepadrós, Lena de Botton
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Most of the qualitative research aimed at diagnosing the educational performance of children of immigrant families in disadvantaged contexts does not address how such research can contribute to social impact. However, some research oriented to social impact has collected evidence of achieving improvement in schools implementing actions to promote educational success. This study is a qualitative meta-analysis of a line of research aimed at social impact to contribute to enhancing the educational success of children of immigrant families. Within the framework of this research line, the analysis focuses on three research projects, from the Spanish Research, Development and Innovation plans. These three research projects have analysed 23 case studies of schools in different disadvantaged contexts of Spain from 2009 to 2017. The main findings show that these research focused on social impact and included in their methodologies a category related to the improvement of educational achievement. Including the category of improvement of educational achievement allows qualitative research to obtain evidence of whether the educational actions implemented in those schools contribute to the educational success of children of immigrant families.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T04:12:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221078735
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Navigating Through the Narrative Montages: Including Voices of Older
           Adults With Dementia Through Collaborative Narrative Inquiry

    • Authors: Bingyu Li
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Having the opportunity to express oneself is an important right to every human being. However, narratives of older adults with moderate to severe dementia are constantly ignored for their incoherence and inaccuracy. In most studies, their narratives were solely collected to measure their cognitive function, rendering their lived stories untold, unheard and undocumented. To include voices of older adults with moderate to severe dementia in research and liberate them from the patient identity, this article proposes collaborative narrative inquiry as a method to explore the meaning-making mechanisms and selfhood construction processes embedded in their incoherent narratives. Integrating narrative inquiry and collaborative analysis, collaborative narrative inquiry aims to collect, construct and deconstruct narratives of participants through an iterative and reflective way, in collaboration with caregivers. This method requires a paradigm shift from generating one essential truth of people’s lived experience to co-creating plural lived truths situated in different temporal, social and cultural backgrounds. Facilitating the proliferation of identities beyond the patient identity among older adults with moderate to severe dementia, collaborative narrative inquiry generates counter narratives against a single disease narrative. It de-marginalizes this group by inviting their voices back into the society, and destigmatises them by creating a new way to engage with them.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221083368
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The “Recreated Experiences” Approach: Exploring the Experiences of
           Persons Previously Excluded in Research

    • Authors: Samantha Noyek, Theresa C. Davies, Beata Batorowicz, Elizabeth Delarosa, Nora Fayed
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Individuals with profound motor, communication, and/or cognitive impairments may face difficulties describing subjective or experiential information through (i) speech, (ii) writing using a pencil and paper, and (iii) typing using a standard computer keyboard. Although patient-reported outcome measures and patient-reported experience measures can capture information about this group through proxy-report, we cannot solely rely on the responses of a single proxy for experiential information. Research methods to understand the experiences of individuals with profound motor, communication and cognitive impairments are not well defined in the literature. Purpose: To provide guidance to disability researchers on how to explore the subjective and personal experiences, of individuals with profound, motor, communication, and/or cognitive impairments. Three axes are proposed as important to the structure of the “recreated experiences” method: (i) informants, (ii) data collection methods, and (iii) analyses and reflexivity. Different types of information can be gained by involving different informant groups in research about the central person’s experience. Primary guardians can provide information about interpreting central persons’ indicators of expression and broad assessments of their personal life. Other adults can provide insight relative to the central person’s capacities outside of the primary guardian-central person dyad. Peers can provide insight about personal characteristics (i.e., personality traits). Utilizing different data collection methods can foster manifest and latent content to emerge. Analyses and reflexivity which involve diverse perspectives are essential to ensure findings are grounded in lived experience and professional lenses. The method highlights the importance of furthering research to understand the experiences of individuals who cannot traditionally self-express, which may influence possibilities for enhancing care, participation opportunities, and overall well-being.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T09:25:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221086733
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Process of Using Participatory Action Research when Trying out an ICT
           Solution in Home-Based Rehabilitation

    • Authors: Anneli Nyman, Stina Rutberg, Margareta Lilja, Gunilla Isaksson
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This article describes the process of using PAR and discusses the strengths and challenges of adopting it as a methodology. With a pilot project “the rehabilitation journey” as a showcase, we share experiences of how we co-created knowledge and illustrate the actions taken and participants’ involvement in the process. This pilot project aimed to explore how ICT solutions can create new ways to deliver home-based rehabilitation that meet the needs of the organization, rehabilitation professionals, and older persons. Our experience is that using PAR as a research method had several strengths. Our project stemmed from demographic and epidemiological trends in society viewed as a “real life problem” experienced on different levels in the organization of home-based rehabilitation. At the same time, PAR was a challenging research method to use, as it was time-consuming and required the commitment and contribution over time of the different participants involved. There were also specific challenges that had to be considered regarding routines and regulations, as the pilot project was conducted in a health care context. This article aspires to offer methodological guidelines by using a six-step method to illustrate a PAR process. We propose that these guidelines can act as a tool to guide researchers in carrying out PAR.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T07:53:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221084791
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Sociological Confessional: A Reflexive Process in the Transformation
           From Face-To-Face to Online Interview

    • Authors: Magdalena Żadkowska, Bogna Dowgiałło, Magdalena Gajewska, Magdalena Herzberg-Kurasz, Marianna Kostecka
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This aim of the article is to reflect on a new quality in the researcher-participant relationship caused by the transformation from a face-to-face to an online interview (on the Zoom platform during two first waves of the COVID-19 pandemic). It reports methodological learnings from autoethnography. The concept of an interaction order (Goffman) provides a theoretical lens through which the researcher-participant encounter is being analysed. The study is based on the reflections referring to 31 online in-depth interviews with women (mothers in an ‘empty nest’) conducted by a team of five female researchers. Online research was depicted in literature as an option of a second choice for conducting qualitative studies before 2020 and an online methodology as one in need to be tested. In order to provide the context of our methodological learnings, we will present an overview of our study. Our study consisted of 31 online in-depth interviews with women (mothers in an ‘empty nest’) and was conducted by a team of five female researchers. After having reflected on our experience from the field, called ‘the sociological confessional’, we claim that online interviews have potential to be the option of the first choice to conduct in-depth interviews. We do not see the lack of immediate presence in remote interviews as a setback. On the contrary, we believe that thanks to introducing practices of care about the participant, the revised methodology not only meets the criteria of the qualitative IDI standards, but diminishes emotion work (Hochschild, 1983) on the part of the researcher as well. We find our ‘report from the field’ unique: (1) our study was not planned to be conducted online and (2) it has succeeded in gathering equivalent data during the first stage of the pandemic.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T07:34:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221084785
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Confronting the Discomfort: A Critical Analysis of Privilege and
           Positionality in Development

    • Authors: Dr Madeleine Le Bourdon
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This autoethnographic piece seeks to demonstrate the continuous reflexive journey of researchers in acknowledging and addressing their privileges. Through reflections on fieldnotes and a subsequent paper written during my own doctoral research, I will explore how my immersion within postcolonial scholarship forced me to address how my own positionality in the field has re-enacted colonial dynamics in the field of global education. Thus, the paper will argue that in the same vein that we call on learners and educators to reflect on their privileges and positionality through pedagogical practices, we too as researchers must consider how the privileges we hold impacts our epistemological and methodological approach to study.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T12:15:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221081362
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Using Informal Conversations in Qualitative Research

    • Authors: Jon Swain, Brendan King
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The aim of this paper is to promote a greater use of informal conversations in qualitative research. Although not a new innovation, we posit that they are a neglected innovation and a method that should become more widely employed. We argue that these conversations create a greater ease of communication and often produce more naturalistic data. While many researchers have written about the use of informal conversations in ethnography, as part of participant observation, we are advocating that these conversations have an application beyond ethnography and can be used in more general qualitative exploration that occurs in everyday settings where talking is involved. They can be used as the main method but also to complement and add to more formal types of data created through interview. Sometimes informal conversations are not only the best way, they are the only way to generate data. We use examples to show how we have used informal conversations in our research, which we interrogate and use to raise a number of, mainly ethical and methodological, issues. We discuss the main advantages and disadvantages of using this method, including the status and validity of data produced.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T06:37:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221085056
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Going Nativist. How to Interview the Radical Right'

    • Authors: Koen Damhuis, Léonie de Jonge
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Interviewing different social groups comes with specific challenges. This article focuses on the question of how to interview people who vote or work for the radical right. Over the past decades, radical right-wing movements and parties have become important political forces. Their rise has led to a proliferation of academic publications that have sought to shed light on this renewed swing to the right. In this ever-growing field of research, studies employing qualitative interviews have proven to be of invaluable importance. To date, however, there is no comprehensive, practical guidebook on how to interview the radical right. This article seeks to redress this gap. Drawing on existing studies and personal insights acquired over the course of our own PhD research, during which we interviewed over one hundred radical right respondents ranging from voters and grassroots activists to party elites, this article provides a comprehensive guide for in-depth, interview-based research on the radical right. Specifically, the article discusses a range of practical considerations, including how to find respondents, how to gain access, how to prepare for the interview and how to build rapport during the interview. The insights are useful to early career researchers who rely on qualitative methods when collecting data, as well as scholars from different fields, including political science, public administration and sociology, who are interested in understanding the perspectives and lived realities of the radical right.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T01:39:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221077761
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Conducting Focus Groups in Multicultural Educational Contexts: Lessons
           Learned and Methodological Insights

    • Authors: Anna CohenMiller, Naureen Durrani, Zumrad Kataeva, Zhadyra Makhmetova
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      What happens when focus groups are conducted in challenging situations across languages, cultures, and educational settings' What adjustments might need to be made' How can adaptations be made while still maintaining the integrity of the research' Drawing on a multi-year study of gender and schooling in post-Soviet Kazakhstan, this article brings together researcher data from (1) informal discussion occurring after each focus group between the researchers, (2) reflections and observations from notes written during the research process, and (3) individual reflexivity on the topic of conducting focus groups in multicultural contexts written retrospectively. Using a practical iterative framework, this work adds an important contribution to the qualitative research literature by leading the reader through our processes, considerations, and lessons learned for improving culturally relevant and inclusive focus groups in multicultural educational contexts.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T10:41:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221076928
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Art of Arriving: A New Methodological Approach to Reframing
           “Refugee Integration”

    • Authors: Ana Mijić, Michael Parzer
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The main objective of the transdisciplinary and arts-based research project “The Art of Arriving: Reframing ‘Refugee Integration’” is to explore the transformative potential of the arts for the sociology of migration and integration. By creating a real-world laboratory where sociologists accompany artists as they create, and recipients while they interpret aesthetic expressions, the project focuses on the process of refugees’ arriving. The aim is to examine if and how the meaning-making processes involved in creating and interpreting art can foster alternative views about “refugee integration” and extend or even revise the traditional sociological toolkit for understanding integration. The article discusses the methodological implications of the planned transdisciplinary multimethod approach by paying particular attention to the different logics of knowledge production in science and the arts. Additionally, it sheds light on the benefits associated with the mutual translation between sociology and various fields of art, which is mediated through the process of creating and interpreting aesthetic expressions in the context of refugee migration.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T10:37:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211066374
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Remote Fieldwork in Homes During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Video-Call
           Ethnography and Map Drawing Methods

    • Authors: Ash Watson, Deborah Lupton
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Restrictions on physical movements and in-person encounters during the COVID-19 crisis confronted many qualitative researchers with challenges in conducting and completing projects requiring face-to-face fieldwork. An exploration of engaging in what we term ‘agile research’ in such circumstances can offer novel methodological insights for researching the social world. In this article, we discuss the changes we made to our ethnographic fieldwork in response to the introduction of a national lockdown to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus. The ‘Living with Personal Data’ project, based in Sydney, Australia, and designed well before the advent of COVID-19, explores a diverse range of people’s feelings, practices and understandings concerning home-based digital devices and the personal digital data generated with their use. Using a video ethnography ‘home tour’ and an elicitation technique involving hand-drawn maps of people’s homes, digital devices and the personal data generated with and through these devices, this approach was designed to elicit the sensory, affective and relational elements of people’s digital device and personal data use at home. The fieldwork had just commenced when stay-at-home and physical distancing orders were suddenly introduced. Our article builds on and extends a growing body of literature on conducting fieldwork in the difficult conditions of the extended COVID-19 crisis by detailing our experiences of very quickly converting an ethnographic study that was planned to be in-person to a remote approach. We describe the adaptations we made to the project using video-call software and discuss the limits and opportunities presented by this significant modification.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T05:47:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221078376
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Negotiating Research Participant Consent With, for and by Adults With
           Developmental Disabilities in Interaction With Their Third-Party Consent
           Providers

    • Authors: Nick Boettcher, Camille Duque, Bonnie M. Lashewicz
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      We illuminate third-party research participant consent with, for, and by adults with developmental disabilities by examining consent as an iterative, ongoing process. We use an instrumental case study of three adults with developmental disabilities who, together with their third-party consent providing parents, participated in a broader conversation and video analysis study of how family members are part of decision-making by adults with developmental disabilities. Adults with developmental disabilities comprising our case demonstrated discomfort that left us with questions about the relational nature of third-party consent. We performed a directed content analysis of transcripts and video data corresponding to moments of discomfort, resulting in categories of one- distress, two- non-disclosure, and three- evasion. Our findings illustrate ambiguities where consent was at stake and where there appeared to be no ultimate “Yes” or “No” interpretation. We conclude that expressions of resistance to research participation by adults with developmental disabilities displayed in our data were assertions of autonomy that occurred in relation, yet ran counter to, the agendas of researchers and third-party consent providing parents. We offer recommendations for researchers in the developmental disability field and for qualitative researchers more broadly who might encounter similar ambiguities amidst the relational workings of consent. Greater analytic attention to the relational dynamics of consent has potential to expand ethical commitments of qualitative researchers beyond the limited range of meanings offered in ethics board approvals and signed consent forms.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T01:45:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211054941
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Developing Poetry as a Research Methodology with Rarer Forms of Dementia:
           Four Research Protocols

    • Authors: Paul M. Camic, Emma Harding, Mary Pat Sullivan, Adetola Grillo, Roberta McKee-Jackson, Lawrence Wilson, Nikki Zimmermann, Emilie V. Brotherhood, Sebastian J. Crutch
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      People living with rarer forms of dementia tend to have progressive cognitive symptoms affecting skills other than memory and/or onset before the age of 65 years. They are often misdiagnosed and due to symptom profile or age of onset, do not usually fit well with care pathways designed for older people with typical Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia. Although the arts have been increasingly used as interventions to support people with dementia, there is very little attention given to rarer dementia forms in arts and health research or practice. The objective of the present international study seeks to systematically explore four diverse forms of poetry writing within this population through virtual and in-person small and large group formats. Our approach includes investigating poetic processes as methodology through the lens of an arts-based methodological approach in order to explore how poems construct knowledge and a felt experience. We will also use more traditional qualitative approaches to understand the experience of writing, reading and listening to poetry as an intervention that can be used with different rarer forms of dementia. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first study to explore poetry using multiple research protocols. The results will have implications for methodology development, co-constructed poetic inquiry and multiple opportunities for involving poetry in supporting people with dementia and family members.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T01:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221081377
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Volunteering for Research in Prison: Issues of Access, Rapport and Ethics
           and Emotions During Ethnography

    • Authors: Daniel Martos-Garcia, José Devís-Devís, Andrew C. Sparkes
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Gaining access to formal institutions can be problematic for ethnographers. This is especially so when it comes to prisons where people are incarcerated by the state against their will for various crimes committed by them. Here, in such highly controlled environments, some authors have pointed out the lack of openness of correctional facilities to inquiry and the limited cooperation forthcoming from the various authorities that oversee them. Accordingly, this article examines the difficult processes undertaken to negotiate access to a high-security prison in Spain, and then maintain his role there for a 2-year period as a volunteer sports educator in order to explore the multiple meanings given to sport and physical activity in the prison setting by the prisoners, educational staff and the guards. The emotional costs and ethical dilemmas of sustaining working relationships with these different groups over time in order to achieve specific research goals are highlighted and reflections for future studies of prison life are offered.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-13T06:19:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221086096
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • How Can Video-Reflexive Ethnographers Anticipate Positive Impact on
           Healthcare Practice'

    • Authors: Rebecca E. Olson, Ann Dadich
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Evidence suggests that studies aiming to improve healthcare practice should be flexible and prioritise patient, family and clinician engagement. Video-reflexive ethnography (VRE), a form of qualitative research often employed in healthcare settings, is well-suited to these aims. VRE supplements ethnographic techniques with video-recordings of in situ practices, allowing practitioners to reflect on taken-for-granted practices. Its prioritisation of collaboration, affective entanglement, theory-driven analysis and flexibility – aligned with participatory and post-qualitative inquiry (PQI) – can facilitate reflexivity among researchers and participants for local practice improvement. Yet paradoxically, flexibility can hinder the predictability of impact, and demonstrating likely impact is crucial to securing research funding. This article offers practical advice to qualitative researchers facing this methodological challenge. Using three exemplars, we examine how differing onto-epistemological groundings, conceptualisations of participant engagement and researcher positionings affect the timing, predictability, scalability and transferability of each study’s impact. We show how prioritising affective engagement, flexible goals and collaboration can enable local healthcare practice improvement; prioritising theory generation via consultation can lead to traditional, more transferable, forms of impact. We share insights for researchers seeking to improve healthcare using methods inspired by PQI such as VRE. While predicting impact is fraught, optimising conditions for impactful VRE research can be accomplished by: foregrounding epistemology; prioritising affective engagement; aligning research and stakeholder goals; assessing timing and organisational readiness; and considering researcher and participant positioning.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-13T05:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221083370
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • A Collaborative Multi-Method Approach to Evaluating Indigenous Land-Based
           Learning With Men

    • Authors: Candice Waddell-Henowitch, Jason Gobeil, Frank Tacan, Marti Ford, Rachel V. Herron, Jonathan A. Allan, Madeleine L. Kruth, Stephanie Spence
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In Canada, a vast majority of urban Indigenous people face distinct challenges accessing and connecting to Indigenous cultural practices. Research has found that colonial policies and practices continue to disrupt and fracture traditional methods of passing down cultural teachings, including dispossession from traditional lands in which cultural practices are rooted. This disruption continues to affect the availability of educational programming by and with Indigenous people and in Indigenous languages. This research involves a multi-method approach to observe and engage with a land-based traditional drum-making program for Indigenous men in an urban center in Southwestern Manitoba. By participating, watching, and listening to the men within the workshops through unstructured observation, Sharing Circles, individual interviews, and photovoice, we aim to understand the impacts of land-based learning on Indigenous men’s well-being. The study is designed in accordance with University and Tri-Agency ethical guidelines, integrating ownership, control, access and possession (OCAP), as well as the principles of respect, relevance, reciprocity, and responsibility within all phases of the research. The research is co-created by the university researchers, community collaborators, and other relevant stakeholders.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-12T08:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221082359
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Researchers’ Perceptions About Methodological Innovations in Research
           Oriented to Social Impact: Citizen Evaluation of Social Impact

    • Authors: Marta Soler-Gallart, Ramon Flecha
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Current scientific literature is outlining a profound and accelerated transformation in the relationships between qualitative methodologies of research, citizens, society and social theories. The evolution towards a more dialogic society has led to a less talked about methodological advancement: Citizen participation in the evaluation of the social impact of research. Social impact is a priority of the current scientific research programs that also emphasize co-creation. The co-creation of the evaluation of this social impact requires both, qualitative methodologies and innovation, in order to make them able to optimize the social impact of research. This study, aimed at presenting the first meta-analysis of such methodological innovation from researchers’ view, includes interviews with seven researchers conducting research with social impact. In order to contrast citizens’ voices, results from the interviews have been validated by seven citizens who have participated in the dialogic citizen evaluation of the social impact of research. Findings can be summarized in three main categories: first, that the participation of citizens in the evaluation of the social impact of research is possible when researchers develop their contributions within the international scientific community and by integrating the voices of citizens, which facilitates the identification of transformative realities, as well as of pseudoscientific theories that have negative consequences for society. Second, that such evaluation is grounded on dialogic interactions open to everyone and based on arguments rather than on power interactions. Third, that both citizens and researchers report impacts of participating in the dialogic evaluation of social impact, such as modifying the way in which interviews are conducted, demanding more scientific evidence, or transforming their professional practice and lives.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T11:54:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211067654
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Ethical Dilemmas in Qualitative Research: A Critical Literature Review

    • Authors: Stella R. Taquette, Luciana Maria Borges da Matta Souza
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The respect for ethical principles is required during the entire scientific research process, including the dissemination phase. Due to the dynamism of qualitative studies, there are often adverse ethical situations. The aim of this integrative review was to analyze and synthetize ethical dilemmas that occur during the progress of qualitative investigation and the strategies proposed to face them. The search for studies used LILACS and MEDLINE databases with descriptors “research ethics” and “qualitative research”, originating 108 titles. Upon reading all titles, 42 articles were elected according to the inclusion criteria. The main conflicts were related to confidentiality breach, disregard of autonomy, potential damages, confusion about the roles of researcher/therapist/friend, and impasses in the Research Ethics Committees. Various types of conflicts may occur in a research. The solutions proposed are based on self-awareness, reflexivity, continuous consent, and ethical mindfulness.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T09:35:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221078731
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • “Will You Work with Me'”: Visual Worksheets as Facilitators of
           Inclusive, Collaborative, and Empowering Interviews with Vulnerable
           Populations

    • Authors: Kateřina Čanigová
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Vulnerable populations are often excluded from research interviews, as they are considered too difficult to reach. If included, they often face barriers that obstruct active participation and collaboration among participants, such as low literacy levels, a lack of confidence, and mistrust. Based on a body of texts that deal with the inclusion of vulnerable participants, I have developed a methodology aimed at promoting substantive social impact on researched communities. I propose visually based worksheets as a tool to give voice to often silenced individuals, to contribute to social change and justice. In this article, I explore the possibilities of visual methods to facilitate interviews and encourage greater levels of participation. With the use of selected visual methods—image elicitation, drawings, diagrams, and card-based games incorporated into graphic worksheets—I demonstrate how to address low levels of participant cooperation and understanding of interview tasks. This article is based on extensive fieldwork in the form of interviews with people living in poverty in the Czech Republic. Through the example of five of the 17 worksheets I designed, I illustrate the motivations and thought processes that stand behind their creation. The worksheets are aimed at the inclusion of vulnerable populations and bringing their voices into the research while focusing on crucial topics such as housing history, debts and obligations, debt repayment, and financial distress.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T03:23:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211069444
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Egalitarian Dialogue Enriches Both Social Impact and Research
           Methodologies

    • Authors: Esther Roca, Guiomar Meridio, Aitor Gomez, Alfonso Rodriguez-Oramas
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      For decades, qualitative research methodologies have incorporated the voice of the participants in their designs and developments. Now, the increasing importance of social impact of the research worldwide has created a new scenario for qualitative researchers, in which the egalitarian dialogue could be one of the key elements. The traditional incorporation of participants into research process is not enough; we need to incorporate new components as the egalitarian dialogue in the research process to assure the social impact of the research. In this article, we first situate the concept of egalitarian dialogue and how it has been used in a great diversity of situation and areas, and second how when we use it, we can obtain both, a greater social impact, and an enrichment of the qualitative methodological research process. We based our work in a literature review in both, the main journals included in ISI Web of Science and Scopus, highlighting the journals on qualitative methodologies and revising Horizon 2020 and Seventh Framework Projects included in the CORDIS database. This literature review presents how different research groups and researchers have used egalitarian dialogue, mainly in the last decade, as an important element to reach social impact with their research.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T01:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221074442
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Methodological and Ethical Considerations when Conducting Qualitative
           Interview Research With Healthcare Professionals: Reflections and
           Recommendations as a Result of a Pandemic

    • Authors: Caitlin Pilbeam, Sibyl Anthierens, Samantha Vanderslott, Sarah Tonkin-Crine, Marta Wanat
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The impacts of healthcare professionals (HCPs) being research participants are often neglected. As professionals, they tend to be perceived as ‘immune’ to many negative effects of sharing their experiences. However, in the context of an ongoing global pandemic such as COVID-19, these assumptions can be clearly challenged. This article draws on researchers’ experiences of conducting single and longitudinal qualitative interviews with HCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe during 2020. Reflecting on the methodological and ethical implications of doing such research during a pandemic allows researchers to surface assumptions about and question categories of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘sensitivity’. We explore these categories in relation to three issues we have identified: (i) Blurred boundaries in researcher-participant relationships; (ii) Interviews as spaces to process experiences; and (iii) Motivations to conduct and participate in research. We demonstrate that qualitative interviews during a pandemic are embedded in sense-making processes for both the interviewer and participant, and as such may play an important role in coping and resilience. We therefore argue for ethically active research that critically engages with the concepts of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘sensitivity’, and underpinning assumptions, in context over time throughout the research process for current and future research with HCPs and other groups beyond pandemic situations. We thus aim to prepare researchers for managing these potential facets during the research process. We conclude with practical implications for managing emerging ethical tensions, methodological challenges and the wide-ranging possibilities and responsibilities for research with HCPs, urging researchers to consider the issues in advance.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T01:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221077763
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Critical Inquiry With Children as an Unlearning Process: A South Korean
           Case of Critical Inquiry Centering Learning From Children

    • Authors: Yeonghwi Ryu
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Critical inquiries with children have been increasingly conducted in various educational settings. However, valuing children’s way of knowing while keeping inquiries critical remains an ongoing issue. This study aims to understand what can be learned about the design, conduct, and interpretation of critical inquiry from children’s engagement. I present a case of critical inquiries that I conducted with five fifth-grade migrant Joseonjok children in an after-school class in South Korea. By documenting the moments when the children’s engagement in critical inquiries raised methodological dilemmas, as well as the moments that allowed me to learn, this study provides concrete examples of how children instilled unexpected complexity into the critical inquiries and how the inquiries continued to change over time. The findings suggest critical inquiry with children can be a process of unlearning in which teachers and researchers acknowledge that what they believed they knew could be wrong and reconstruct their knowledge about children and children’s way of knowing by learning from them.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T01:03:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221075442
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Illuminating the Role of Reflexivity Within Qualitative Pilot Studies:
           Experiences From a Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Project

    • Authors: Amanda B. Lees, Simon Walters, Rosemary Godbold
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Pilot studies within qualitative inquiry are crucial yet often hidden aspects of research design. In this article, we argue for pilots to have greater visibility. We explore the role of a pilot in providing a foundation for enhancing ethical reflexivity, drawing on a recent pilot study within a tertiary healthcare education setting. The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) presents a unique environment with complex stakeholder relationships. There is a lack of consensus nationally and internationally on whether all SoTL projects require consideration by institutional ethics review bodies. A pilot study offers an opportunity for ethical steerage of a research project, reflecting ethics in practice whilst augmenting any procedural ethics review requirements. We propose that a qualitative pilot study, as a design strategy, can enhance ethical conduct by researchers. Within SoTL specifically, the pilot can provide an opportunity for researchers to demonstrate a commitment to a pedagogy of care spanning the project’s duration, signifying a commitment to enduring teacher-student relationships within the broader learning environment. Beyond tertiary settings, we believe the pilot study, as a space for ethical reflexivity, has applicability to research settings where caring for and being seen to care for the wider participant community is a critical ethical consideration.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T10:35:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221076933
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Sequential Research to Evaluate the Impact of Patient and Public
           Involvement on Cancer Research Outcomes: Using Interviews, Stimulus
           Material and a Modified Delphi Technique

    • Authors: Raksha Pandya-Wood
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Evaluating patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare research continues to attract international interest. This article discusses how one exemplar study evaluated the impact of PPI on cancer research outcomes, with user involvement sewn into the design. The research aligned to interpretivist and pragmatist paradigms and resulted in a mixed methods sequential design. Phase 1 involved 23 in-depth interviews to explore perceptions of impact of PPI on cancer research outcomes with patients, researchers and stakeholders. Analysis from Phase 1 formed the basis of a ‘stimulus paper’ to use in Phase 2. Phase 2 adopted the modified Delphi technique with a virtual panel of 35 experts. This research found several factors shaped the impact of PPI on cancer research outcomes. However, the data itself are not the foci of this article, the methodological process, theoretical decisions, limitations and lessons learned across the research are.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T01:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221081606
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Race, Gender, and Positionality in Urban Planning Research

    • Authors: Yasminah Beebeejaun
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Reflexivity within planning research has emerged as central to a series of epistemological and methodological debates. There has been less discussion, however, about how research positionalities might intersect with assumptions regarding gendered and raced identities. Writing from within the field of urban planning I consider how a pervasive inattentiveness to the racial and gendered dynamics of the wider field obscures the articulation of the complexities of positionality and reflexivity within the research process. I call for a greater engagement with positionality within disciplinary debates in order to engage with the differential demands placed on feminist scholars of color.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T10:35:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211066167
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Snail Meat Consumption in Buea, Cameroon: The Methodological Challenges in
           Exploring Its Public Health Risks

    • Authors: Mary Nkongho Tanyitiku, Graeme Nicholas, Jon J. Sullivan, Igor C. Njombissie Petcheu, Stephen L.W. On
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying health risks that could arise from consuming terrestrial snails infested with pathogenic microorganisms. In Cameroon, snails remain an inexpensive protein source and are collected from free-living environments termed “farms.” Our focus has been on understanding health risks due to the handling and consumption of snails collected from locations that include decaying vegetation and untreated human and household wastes. To complement preliminary field observations and get more in-depth understanding of the existing situation, we adopted a qualitative approach using lived experiences, participant observation, in-depth interviews, and a focus group. We made use of informal settings where snail vendors and consumers narrated their routines and experiences from snail harvesting to consumption and the strategies they use to keep their families safe from foodborne illnesses. The study adopted two frameworks: Soft Systems Methodology to explore and model the “messy” nature of the social system and Social Practice Theory to explore the local practices identified through systemic model. The challenges discussed are set in the context of conducting social research in a developing world situation in a time of social and political tension and a global pandemic (COVID-19). With this in mind, the methodological decisions discussed include the type of enquiry and selection of frameworks, selection of field sites, recruitment and engagement with participants, design of interview instruments, interpretation, and trustworthiness of the study findings. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of using our approach.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T08:01:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221078132
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Relational Agency and Identity Navigation in Life Stories on Addiction:
           Developing Narrative Tools to Analyze the Interplay Between Multiple
           Selves

    • Authors: Jukka Törrönen
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In life stories on addiction, in which dependence is experienced as an antagonistic force, agency manifests as enigmatic. As narrators in these stories usually describe how they lost their agency to a substance, we may ask who then takes over the agency and is the actor. Can material things act with agency' By taking influences from actor–network theory, Bambergs’ narrative positioning theory, Greimas’ narrative semiotics, symbolic interactionism, and critical discourse studies, I propose that addiction stories can be productively approached with an ontology that conceptualizes actors’ agency as relational. According to this ontology, individuals develop addiction in relation to heterogeneous attachments that form an enabling assemblage. Moreover, I propose that life stories on addiction are narratives in which narrators navigate their addiction by negotiating with multiple selves. These selves can be productively identified and analyzed from the perspectives of “story,” “interaction,” and “identity claim.” As a story, in which actors are positioned vis-à-vis one another, life stories on addiction can be approached as narratives that describe the confrontation between the trajectory of the self that is driven by addiction and the trajectory of the self that seeks mastery over one’s life. As an interaction between narrators and interlocutors, life stories on addiction can be examined as performances of interactive selves who do positive face-work to neutralize, rationalize, and justify their “deviant” behavior. And as identity claims, life stories on addiction can be considered embodiments of ideal or normative selves that are articulated in relation to the dominant discourses and master narratives of surrounding culture. By using examples from life stories on addiction, the article aims to clarify with what kinds of concepts and narrative tools we can analyze the interplay between multiple selves in addiction stories.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T01:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221078378
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Engaging Stakeholders in Realist Programme Theory Building: Insights from
           the Prospective Phase of a Primary Care Dementia Support Study

    • Authors: Sarah Griffiths, Lauren Weston, Sarah Morgan-Trimmer, Hannah Wheat, Alex Gude, Lorna Manger, Tomasina M. Oh, Paul Clarkson, Cath Quinn, Rod Sheaff, Mike Clark, Ian Sherriff, Richard Byng
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      ‘Dementia - Personalised Care Team’ (D-PACT) is a five-year NIHR funded programme, using realist methods to develop and evaluate a complex, person-centred intervention for people with dementia and their carers. During the early project stages, we engaged with multiple stakeholders, including people with dementia and their carers, to develop an initial programme theory (IPT) – into an elaborated programme theory (EPT), by helping to uncover intervention mechanisms leading to outcomes in specific contexts. Realist research methods for developing programme theories are under-reported. In addition, there is a paucity of practical guidance on how to engage underserved and vulnerable populations in complex interventions programme theory development. We attend to these gaps, providing a worked example of how we meaningfully engaged people living with dementia and carers, alongside field experts, as stakeholders in this process. Our IPT theory building included multi-stakeholder primary research exercises and meetings with PPI contributors and an Expert Reference Group. We adapted interview schedules, and used visual resources and scenario-based activities, to support stakeholders to think in a ‘realist’ way. Using realist and thematic analyses led to hypothesis-building of causal mechanisms. Sharing findings with stakeholders led to further refinement of the intervention design, ready for testing in a subsequent feasibility study. We found that, despite the cognitive challenges associated with dementia, innovative methods of engagement can enable this stakeholder group to understand the realist approach and provide a platform through which to share their experiences. Taking a highly flexible and unhurried approach, led to novel insights into the complexities of person-centred dementia support. We argue for more detailed methodological guidance, based on realist principles, on how to collaborate with underrepresented populations to rigorously gain insights as to what is likely to make a difference and refine initial programme theory.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-27T03:39:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221077521
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Qualitative
           Evidence Syntheses, Differences From Reviews of Intervention Effectiveness
           and Implications for Guidance

    • Authors: Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Soo Downe, Elizabeth Paulsen, Susan Munabi-Babigumira, Smisha Agarwal, Heather Ames, Sara Cooper, Karen Daniels, Catherine Houghton, Akram Karimi‐Shahanjarini, Hlengiwe Moloi, Willem Odendaal, Elham Shakibazadeh, Lavanya Vasudevan, Andreas Xyrichis, Meghan A. Bohren
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Systematic reviews of qualitative research (‘qualitative evidence syntheses’) are increasingly popular and represent a potentially important source of information about people’s views, needs and experiences. Since 2013, Cochrane has published qualitative evidence syntheses, and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care group has been involved in the majority of these reviews. But more guidance is needed on how to prepare these reviews in an environment that is more familiar with reviews of quantitative research. In this paper, we describe and reflect on how Cochrane qualitative evidence syntheses differ from reviews of intervention effectiveness and how these differences have influenced the guidance developed by the EPOC group. In particular, we discuss how it has been important to display to end users, firstly, that qualitative evidence syntheses are carried out with rigour and transparency, and secondly, that these quality standards need to reflect qualitative research traditions. We also discuss lessons that reviews of effectiveness might learn from qualitative research.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-27T03:28:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211061950
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Constructivist Grounded Theory or Interpretive Phenomenology'
           Methodological Choices Within Specific Study Contexts

    • Authors: Margie Burns, Jill Bally, Meridith Burles, Lorraine Holtslander, Shelley Peacock
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Constructivist research methodologies are useful in discerning meanings of experience to subsequently inform and improve healthcare practice. For researchers who philosophically align with the constructivist paradigm, numerous methodologies are available from which to choose to address research questions. However, it can be challenging for researchers, especially novice ones, to choose the most appropriate methodology that aligns with the current state of knowledge of the identified topic, proposed research question, and the study purpose. To reduce the confusion faced by health researchers when choosing an appropriate methodology for a specific study, this paper compares two popular qualitative health research approaches: constructivist grounded theory and interpretive phenomenology. Philosophical underpinnings and the epistemological and ontological evolution of each methodology are explored with similarities and differences highlighted. Manifestation of the philosophical foundations of constructivist grounded theory and interpretive phenomenology are described in relation to data collection, analysis, and the research findings. To illustrate distinctions of each approach and support researchers in the navigation of methodological decision-making, a specific healthcare study context is presented: the rural family members’ experiences of a relative’s interhospital transfer for advanced critical care services. This study context is increasingly being recognized as an important area of healthcare research and practice. However, gaps in knowledge persist, specifically in relation to the experiences of rural family members when a critically ill relative requires an interhospital transfer to a distant urban center for advanced critical care services. Improved understanding of such experiences is necessary to inform the care provided to rural family members, potentially mitigating short and long-term negative consequences for these individuals. Within this example, the importance of the research purpose and research question within a specific study context is underscored as central to appropriate methodological decision-making.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T11:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221077758
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Knowing the Unknown: Application of Qualitative-Vignette Method in the
           Social-Political Sensitive Business Environment

    • Authors: Chee Wei; CHEAH, Kian Yeik, KOAY
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study demonstrates that vignette, when added to the in-depth interview, is a useful data collection method to uncover the hidden truths in the socio-political sensitive business environment. The vignette method’s “less personal” nature motivates the participants, who initially declined to be interviewed, to accept the interview invitation. This study showcases how the vignette is designed, constructed, and applied in empirical research. It also demonstrates the types of cognitive questions that can be incorporated in the vignette to uncover the social norms in practice that are silently known as the rules of the game. This study provides methodological considerations in constructing the vignette that may impact its success. Using the empirical data from the Malaysian housing sector, the thematic analysis shows that the vignette method: (i) stimulates participants to provide in-depth interpretation, (ii) uncovers the hidden information, and can (iii) fill in the missing details that participants initially reluctant to disclose. The findings are discussed, along with the limitations of using the qualitative-vignette method. Some critical suggestions for future research are also included.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T08:23:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221074495
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • How can Story Completion be Used in Culturally Safe Ways'

    • Authors: Caroline Lenette, Priya Vaughan, Katherine Boydell
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Story completion is a narrative inquiry method where participants complete a story from an opening hypothetical scenario or ‘stem’ that researchers create. While interest in this method is growing across disciplines due to its emancipatory potential, the literature fails to address how story completion can be used in culturally safe ways. Cultural safety in research means that it is the participants who determine whether the process values and privileges their unique standpoints and perspectives. Culturally safe research approaches and methods are crucial to decolonisation efforts in the academy. To illustrate this topic, we draw from our experience using a digital version of story completion in May 2020 to prompt thoughts on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We received 52 responses from Australian residents using a stem relating to a pandemic-related scenario. When we noted the lack of diversity in ethnic backgrounds in participant demographic information, we wondered whether story completion was reinforcing rather than disrupting norms about narrative inquiry and what constitutes a story, and we questioned our recruitment strategy. In this paper, we highlight the importance of decolonising research methodologies rather than merely adapting or validating methods by using them across different cultural contexts. We explain how our story completion project led to reflections on western constructions of storytelling, how to create the stem, and how to improve our recruitment approach. In response, we propose a rhizomatic perspective, which values multiple entry and exit points in research, to frame practical strategies that can improve the potential of using story completion in culturally safe ways. These include: embracing messy stories; exploring diverse notions of storytelling; favouring story fragments (rather than stems) and story assemblage (rather than completion); co-designing story fragments with target groups; and collaborating with local communities to co-design culturally appropriate and sensitive recruitment strategies and projects.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T04:30:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221077764
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Applying Joint Painting Procedure to Understand Implicit Mother–Child
           Relationship in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    • Authors: Anne Chun Miao Wong, Rainbow Tin Hung Ho
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a severe and prevalent global problem. It can damage women who survive it and children who witness it. Nurturing the mother–child relationship is critical to support mothers’ and children’s recovery. Research to date has mainly reflected information captured from conscious, verbal accounts by women and their children of explicit relationships. There is a lack of research on implicit relationships involving nonverbal and unconscious interactions that can be difficult to verbalize, especially for children. This is the first paper that describes the application of an art-based method, Joint Painting Procedure (JPP) with Chinese mother–child dyads who survived IPV to study their implicit relationship. It was conducted in a shelter for abused women in Hong Kong. Mother–child dyad was considered “partners,” and JPP was used in novel ways of promoting their agency and strengths, which became the key to turning difficulties in the data collection process into advantages. The dyads mutually enjoyed their co-creation process; however, this did not guarantee their engagement in the post-painting discussion. To facilitate this, a post-painting discussion guide was co-developed to encourage dyads to exercise their agency and strengths, decide what to present in their discussions, and how to do this. JPP and the discussion guide created a synergistic way to optimize children’s active participation, uncover mothers' needs of personal space boundaries and encourage children to learn to respect it, facilitate open dyadic dialogues, and allow reflection in a relaxed setting. Dyads’ participation in JPP and the post-painting discussions elicited information that would have been otherwise challenging to obtain. This approach can improve understanding of the mother–child relationship in the context of IPV that may imply that the art-based dyadic process can be an effective approach to rebuild and restrengthen the mother–child relationship in the post-separation stage of IPV.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T06:17:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221078759
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Advancing the Impact of Critical Qualitative Research on Policy, Practice,
           and Science

    • Authors: James Shaw, Monica Gagnon, Andrea Carson, Denise Gastaldo, Brenda Gladstone, Fiona Webster, Joan Eakin
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Discourses of research impact shape the ways in which critical qualitative research and researchers are evaluated in contemporary academic environments. Mainstream conceptualizations of research impact arise from a positivist perspective that challenges the aims and approaches of critical qualitative research. In this paper, we propose a framework for conceptualizing the impact of critical qualitative research on policy, practice, and science. After critiquing literature that presents mainstream views on research impact, we summarize a recent framework for conceptualizing the impact of critical research specifically. We then add to the Machen framework by highlighting the impacts of critical qualitative research on the institutions and practices of science. We provide examples of ways in which researchers at the Centre for Critical Qualitative Health Research at the University of Toronto have made contributions to the impact of critical qualitative research on science, and conclude by addressing implications of this framework for the ways in which critical qualitative researchers can plan and evidence the impact of their work.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T03:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221076929
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Collaborative Zoom Coding—A Novel Approach to Qualitative Analysis

    • Authors: Gayathri Naganathan, Sinthu Srikanthan, Abhirami Balachandran, Angel Gladdy, Vasuki Shanmuganathan
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      During the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, web conferencing became a staple in professional communication, with new and evolving applications amidst unique social distancing measures mandated across the globe. In this article, we describe Collaborative Zoom Coding (CZC) as an adaptive approach to qualitative data analysis that our research team developed in light of social distancing measures imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CZC uses the web conferencing platform Zoom, to help analyze data. Our team used CZC to develop a code book for the community-based research (CBR) project, Sexual Health and Diasporic Experiences of Shadeism (SHADES). CZC enabled all team members to participate in data analysis by providing opportunities for group training and real-time collaborative data analysis, irrespective of team members’ location and level of experience with research. This article describes our specific processes for CZC and outlines its advantages as well as challenges. We conclude with a discussion of how researchers can conduct collaborative coding using Zoom and other conferencing technologies to further democratize the research process, particularly for community-based research endeavors.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T12:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221075862
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Recruiting Men for a Study Exploring First-Time Father’s Involvement in
           

    • Authors: Chiemeka Onyeze-Joe, Isabelle Godin
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      While participant recruitment and qualitative interviewing are very crucial in data collection, researchers must be mindful of cultural contexts to ensure quality outcomes. This article explores the methodological and personal challenges encountered while recruiting and interviewing men in a research study. It addresses the influence of ‘who you know’ and researcher’s flexibility in negotiating one’s way while conducting fieldwork in African contexts. I describe the initial plan to recruit men only from health settings and why that failed. Then I outline other options explored and describe my encounters entering male-dominated workspaces. Additionally, I describe the recruitment strategy in the rural communities that resulted in my locating more engaged participants and having more extended interviews. Finally, I draw on my experiences to share some lessons learnt in the process and coping strategies that may be interesting for social researchers in similar dilemmas.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T01:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221075436
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Experiencing “Paragliding”: A Student-Teacher Perspective on Doing
           Qualitative Research in a Chinese University

    • Authors: Hua Yu, Bin Ai
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this article, I (the first author) explore my qualitative research teaching for a cohort of Chinese students and their interactions in the classroom. These students reported experiencing feelings of paragliding from unsafe distrust to enjoyment through writings, drawings, questionings, feelings, reflections, and struggles. By graphic elicitation, I unfold a cartography of becoming a qualitative researcher and describe lines of becoming-events that entangle with rhizomatic relationships of self and language, self and other, and self and knowledge. The process of learning and teaching qualitative research involved multiple interactions, connections, reflections on the contingencies along the way, and searching for the meanings of life and research under the governance of audit culture. This paper contributes to qualitative research teaching and unpacks its impacts on learners, and it also calls for scholars, particularly those from China, to reassess the value of qualitative research in the academic field.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T01:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211070443
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Togetherness in Separation: Practical Considerations for Doing Remote
           Qualitative Interviews Ethically

    • Authors: Hilary Engward, Sally Goldspink, Maria Iancu, Thomas Kersey, Abigail Wood
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This discussion paper considers some of the practical and ethical aspects of doing qualitative interviews using synchronous online visual technologies within a shifting research context. It is argued that the immediate access to potential participants and subsequent data collection necessitate adjustment to the ways in which qualitative researchers understand and apply ethics, accountability, and responsibility in their data collection processes. We examine the parallels between interviewing face-to-face and interviewing using technology from a practical and integral perspective. In the online environment researchers require a heightened sensitivity and awareness of their attitudes, knowledge, and skills before, during and after the interview to ensure that the process is safe, rigorous and meaningful for collecting comprehensive qualitative data. To do this, we consider how to plan, conduct and end online interviews using voice over internet protocol.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T05:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211073212
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Opportunities and Challenges for Visual Qualitative Intervention Research
           on Facebook

    • Authors: Abigail J. Rolbiecki, Michelle Teti, Christine Lero, Jacquelyn J. Benson, Karla T. Washington
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T05:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221074445
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • ‘I Enjoy Having Someone to Rant to, I Feel Like Someone is Listening to
           Me’: Exploring Emotion in the Use of Qualitative, Longitudinal
           Diary-Based Methods

    • Authors: Stephanie Scott
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Emotions and the emotional labour of researchers have been increasingly recognised in social science disciplines, with many researchers providing personal and reflexive accounts. Such debates are less well recognised in health-related disciplines, particularly public health, who remain at earlier stages of valuing and understanding qualitative research. Drawing on personal experiences and methodological reflections gathered from a qualitative study, undertaken with young people over the course of 16 months during the COVID-19 pandemic in England, UK, the aim of this article is to offer further insight into the impact of researcher emotion, by specifically focussing on longitudinal, diary-based methods. My reflections are framed as three overlapping and intersecting themes. First, that qualitative longitudinal methods (and diary studies in particular) have enormous potential to curate rich emotional narratives. Second, that despite these positives, there are tensions or conflicting dynamics in using a method which helps to explore young people’s emotions but also involves emotional labour for the researcher. Third, that greater attention should be paid to ensuring ethical care for researchers, particularly those engaging with qualitative longitudinal and/or creative methods. Such strategies should not solely rely on self-care and must be considered at institutional or funding body level. To this end, my personal experiences and reflections, as well as those from previous offerings, are used here to underpin a framework for researchers or research teams embarking upon novel qualitative longitudinal methods: 1. Do not underestimate emotional burden. 2. Ensure meaningful debriefing is available. 3. Establish boundaries. 4. Make space for emotion throughout fieldwork as well as during analysis and writing (‘entering and exiting the field’).
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T06:03:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069221074444
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Contributions of Social Research Methodologies to Social Change: Giving
           Voice to the Voiceless

    • Authors: Mazvita Cecilia Tawodzera, Layane Thomas Mabasa, Mahlapahlapana Themane
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Historically, social research methodologies have been construed as being less significant in their contribution to social change. This perception emanates from those who view social research methodologies as an accessory to the natural sciences. Contrary to this view, this article, on the schooling experiences of children who have been left behind by their parents in Zimbabwe, is used to contribute to the debate. It seeks to present our experiences in the application of social research methodologies, including challenges and their contribution to social change. However, this change remains a contested issue in research because there is no consensus on how to measure it. The study followed a qualitative research approach, using an interpretive phenomenological study design. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select 12 secondary school children (12–18 years old). Data were constructed through two methods, interviews and document analysis. The overall finding of the study revealed that social sciences methodologies can make a contribution to social change. This was illustrated by the fact that when social methodological approaches were used, children were enabled to confidently express their lived experiences by creating a child-friendly environment such as child-centeredness, democratic participation and inclusivity. Consequently, the findings have shed some light on the way in which policy makers should develop policies with regard to left-behind children (LBC). On the basis of these findings, the article argues that social research methodologies can make a difference in social change, despite challenges that may emerge. The findings may have implications for social researchers and for our study. For example, the findings could minimise hermeneutics injustice by mediating what the marginalised groups, such as children, may express despite scepticism about their authenticity which is important for social change.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T01:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211072417
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Situating Sensitizing Concepts in the Constructivist-Critical Grounded
           Theory Method

    • Authors: Shehr Bano Zaidi
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study reimagines the use of sensitizing concepts in a grounded theory variant titled as the Constructivist-Critical Grounded Theory Method. Generally taken as one of the starting points of a research inquiry, employing sensitizing concepts is one of the initial strategies that grounded theorists (and by extension qualitative researchers) rely on; the underlying assumption being that researchers do not enter a research site tabula rasa. The approach becomes problematic when grounded theory is used in the critical paradigm. Most literature (on grounded theory or qualitative research methodology) skims over sensitizing concepts. By foregrounding the same, this paper endeavors to achieve three main objectives: it points to the oft neglected paradigmatic genesis of the device and situates it within the qualitative approach before contextualizing it in grounded theory. In doing so, a close epistemological and methodological link with in vivo codes is made; this is done by teasing out the language aspect. Finally, a reference to two broad strands in the way that sensitizing concepts are used, caps the argument; one conforms to the Blumerian version and the other one to the Bulmerian. This paper shows that the former is suitable for acritical grounded theory research, whereas the latter for critical under which Constructivist-Critical Grounded Theory falls. The paper argues for grounded theory working in the critical paradigm to enter the site with an informed theoretical perspective rather than loosely framed sensitizing concepts.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T03:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211061957
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Conducting Research Six Feet Apart: The Feasibility of Transitioning
           Qualitative Research to Meet the Emerging Research Needs During a Pandemic
           

    • Authors: Chinyere Y. Eigege, Sajeevika S. Daundasekara, Mayra L. Gomez, Quenette L. Walton, Daphne C. Hernandez
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The county-wide lockdowns that were implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some in-person qualitative research studies needing to be transitioned online using a video conferencing platform. However, evaluating the feasibility of transitioning an ongoing qualitative research study focused on low-income, racial/ethnic minorities had not been performed. Orsmond and Cohn’s feasibility framework was used to evaluate this study in three primary areas: recruitment capability, data collection procedures, and evaluation of relevant resources. Recruitment efforts for the in-person focus groups (January–March 2020) and online focus groups (March–April 2020), along with data collection procedures, were measured through various counts. To gauge the resources needed to transition a study from in-person to online, the administrative capacity, the space, technology, and funds necessary to support the research study were recorded. Sample characteristics were extracted from administrative and survey data. To estimate the differences in the sample characteristics, recruitment efforts and the length of the focus groups before and during the lockdown, independent sample t-tests, or proportion tests were conducted. The sociodemographic characteristics of participants pre-lockdown and during the lockdown were similar between the two groups with most participants identifying as female, Black, single, unemployed. The average number of participants recruited, confirmed, and attended per focus group, along with the total number of contact attempts remained similar before and during the lockdown. The length of the focus groups before and during the lockdown also remained similar. The in-person focus groups did require more financial resources for their successful execution than the online focus groups. It is feasible to sustain a research study focused on low-income, racial/ethnic minorities by transitioning the study from in-person to online using a video conferencing platform. This approach should be considered from the onset of qualitative research studies to increase reach to low-income, racial/ethnic minorities.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T05:30:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211069442
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Artistic Sensibility is Inherent to Research

    • Authors: Benjamin C. Ingman
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Artistic sensibility is defined in this work as the sensitivity and capacity to appreciate and act upon concerns of or pertaining to art and its production. This article contends that artistic sensibility is inherent to research. This contention is supported through three points which reveal a fourth: (1) Research requires dissemination. (2) Dissemination requires representation. (3) Representation requires artistic sensibility. These three points considered in conjunction illustrate a fourth: (4) Research requires artistic sensibility. This argument has implications for research venues, evaluations of research, and the preparation of researchers in all research disciplines. Namely, certain tenets of arts-based research may be applied to a much broader array of research methodologies. Identifying, honoring, and harnessing artistic sensibility in research has the potential to improve research products and enrich discourse.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T12:09:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211069267
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Stepping Into the Participants’ Shoes: The Trans-Positional
           Cognition Approach

    • Authors: Obafemi Olekanma, Viktor Dörfler, Farhad Shafti
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      To conduct a phenomenological study, researchers often follow the principles from either the descriptive or interpretive phenomenological schools of thought. This constrains researchers within the domain and limits the potentials of their data set. This paper introduces the Trans-Positional Cognition Approach (TPCA) as a novel synthesised phenomenological research method for conducting qualitative research to address this challenge. The TPCA synthesises the principles of the descriptive and interpretive phenomenological schools and helps to bridge the divide occasioned by polemical arguments between them. At the heart of TPCA is the process of trans-positional cognition or, in simple words, ‘stepping into the participants’ shoes’. TPCA, within the phenomenological tradition, proposes a structured methodological approach as a way to reduce the complexity of the extant methods, which novice researchers associate with phenomenology. The purpose of TPCA is not to pit one phenomenological research approach against another but to elucidate an inclusive approach to phenomenological research that can serve as a methodological alternative. A set of dimensions is used to compare TPCA with extant descriptive and interpretive phenomenological approaches in order to demonstrate its distinctiveness. Furthermore, an implementation study illustrates the use of the TPCA. Hence, the TPCA, by bridging the divide between the phenomenological schools of thought, could potentially help sustain the growing interest of researchers in phenomenological research.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T05:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211072413
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Audio Diaries: A Novel Method for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene-Related
           Maternal Stress Research

    • Authors: Kathleen O’Reilly, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, William T. Story, Nancy Angeline Gnanaselvam, Kelly K. Baker, L. Troy Cunningham, Aparna Mukherjee, Ashwini Pujar
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Previous studies have identified both physical and psychosocial forms of stress among newly married women due to inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) access. However, methodologies used to identify stress have relied on surveys and interviews, which have limitations for eliciting situated information regarding stress. Prior public health studies indicate that, together with other qualitative methods, audio diaries provide rich data sets of participants’ everyday practices, and their interactions with their physical and social environment. In this research, our interdisciplinary team collaborated to explore the feasibility of making audio diary recordings from prompts in a rural, Indian context where many women are illiterate. Three pregnant women living in rural Karnataka (India) were trained on the prompts and audio recorders, and were asked to make audio entries over two weeks. Midterm and exit interviews were used to ascertain women’s thoughts and experiences making audio diary entries. Each woman successfully recorded, on average, 27 minutes per week, demonstrating the feasibility of audio diaries in rural India. While the recruitment and training process was labor intensive and required follow-up visits, trust-building between participants and researchers over time facilitated discussions about the contextual and experiential details of making recordings that will improve data collection through this method. We concluded that when used with other qualitative methods, audio diaries offer a unique opportunity to collect participants’ practices, feelings, reflections, and interactions with their physical and social environment in real time.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T04:46:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211073222
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Digital Competences for Improving Digital Inclusion in E-Government
           Services: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review Protocol

    • Authors: Tamara Morte-Nadal, Miguel Angel Esteban-Navarro
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The e-government requires citizens that have a certain level of digital skills. Contact restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the digital transformation of Public Administration in most countries and has increased the social digital divide. Therefore, the training of citizens in digital competences is one of the main challenges of the knowledge society. This mixed-methods systematic review protocol aims to synthesize quantitative and qualitative findings about conditioning factors of digital inclusion, in a multidimensional perspective, related with the education, healthcare and welfare sectors and the political actions involved to improve the digital competences of citizenship for allowing and enhancing their interactions with these online public services. The protocol has been written following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Nine databases including Web of Science, Scopus, Educational Resources Information Center Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA), ProQuest, MEDLINE, PubMed, SocINDEX and Cairn.info will be searched for peer-reviewed empirical studies published from 2011 or later. Grey literature and citation chaining will be undertaken. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies will be included. Data items will be extracted and coded in a standardized format. A convergent segregated approach to synthesis and integration will be used. The results will be of interest to educational policymakers who want to take into account citizens’ digital skills in the design of online services and lifelong learning programs.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T08:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211070935
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • “Part of Something Larger than Myself”: Lessons Learned From a
           Multidisciplinary, Multicultural, and Multilingual International Research
           Team of Academic Women

    • Authors: Kristina S. Brown, Tricia M. Farwell, Sara Bender, Alpha A. Martinez-Suarez, Stefani Boutelier, Agata A. Lambrechts, Iwona Leonowicz-Bukała, Pipiet Larasatie
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Bringing our collective experiences of past collaborations through a virtual connection, we created an international research team of 16 multidiscipline, multicultural, and multilingual academic women called “COVID GAP” (Gendered Academic Productivity) to explore the ongoing challenges and effects of COVID-19. Identifying as insider researchers, we engaged in a two-phase, primarily qualitative research project to better understand the lived experiences of academics during the pandemic. Our past individual experiences with cooperative research informed our roles and responsibilities and how we organized and communicated. This article is a reflection of how COVID GAP has refined our collaborative process in response to an evolving comprehension of our own lessons learned including understanding the nature of cooperative research and that it takes time and effort. From our experience, we provide specific recommendations for group collaborations emphasizing the need to identify a team coordinator to organize efforts, the establishment of a safe and equitable working environment for all involved, and the explicit attention to building a network for research partnerships.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T04:06:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211073209
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Whose Voice is It Really' Ethics of Photovoice With Children in Health
           Promotion

    • Authors: Tineke Abma, Marieke Breed, Sarah Lips, Janine Schrijver
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Photovoice, a way of conducting research through pictures, is considered a child-friendly method to engage children in participatory research and social change but this practice can raise ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have rarely been discussed in the literature. The aim of this article is to provide insight into the ethical dilemmas we faced using photovoice with children. It is grounded in a 4-year participatory health research project in two primary schools where we used photovoice alongside other creative and arts-based methods. We reflect critically on pressing ethical tensions and how we dealt with these dilemmas. Our logbooks and reflexive conversations were used as data sources. The findings reveal that everyday ethical dilemmas occurred throughout the project. These were sometimes anticipated but were often unexpected. Questions that arose included: ‘Who controls the outcome'’; ‘Photos to assess needs or to give voice'’; ‘Giving voice or aesthetics'’; ‘Who decides who is visible'’ and ‘Disrespectful and stereotypical representations'’ We conclude that ethical dilemmas in using photovoice with children deserve more attention to sensitize researchers and help them live up to the ideals of voice and empowerment.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T02:03:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211072419
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • If we can imagine it, we can build it: Developing Complexity
           Theory-Informed Methodologies

    • Authors: Claire Gear, Elizabeth Eppel, Jane Koziol-McLain
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Seemingly intractable or ‘wicked’ problems are often characterised by the complexity and uncertainty involved. However, these characteristics are not always accounted for within research design. How health care systems may effectively respond to intimate partner violence presents a complex research problem. Researchers have been challenged to account for contextual influences when responding to intimate partner violence. However, theoretical perspectives and methodologies have not sufficiently evolved to account for the multi-layered complexity and uncertainty involved. Recognising and responding to this challenge offers opportunities to innovate methodologies and methods capable of evolving alongside learning. We present a complexity-led research design to study improving primary care service delivery to those impacted by intimate partner violence in Aotearoa New Zealand.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T06:59:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211070936
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • But is It Hermeneutic Enough': Reading for Methodological Salience in
           a Scoping Review of Hermeneutics and Implementation Science

    • Authors: Graham McCaffrey, Erin Wilson, Steinunn Jonatansdottir, Lela Zimmer, Peter Zimmer, Ian Graham, David Snadden, Martha MacLeod
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Hermeneutic methods have been widely used in health research. Through conducting a scoping review of hermeneutic studies related to implementation in healthcare, we identified various approaches and common strengths across studies. The review was part of a larger study exploring how hermeneutics could contribute fresh perspectives to implementation science. We looked at a large number of studies that reported some use of hermeneutics with a focus on what they had to say about processes of implementation in health care environments. While meeting our primary goal of identifying what was salient to implementation, we came up against the question of what made for a strong hermeneutic study. Through an extensive process of evaluation and discussion, several common elements emerged across studies that used hermeneutics: participatory conversations, reflective spaces, attention to alterity, and close-up granular detail. In this article, we outline the review process, then focus on six articles that met our criteria for relevance to implementation and hermeneutic strength. We discuss how some or all the common elements appeared in the articles, despite wide variations in topic and in how hermeneutics was applied. We argue that strength in hermeneutic research stems from a dialectic between applied principles and outcomes.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T04:09:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211070408
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Research in the Religious Realm: Intersectional Diversification and
           Dynamic Variances of Insider/Outsider Perspectives

    • Authors: Ellen Decoo
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This article discusses insider/outsider perspectives in qualitative research among religious people. Focus is on the insider researcher. Even if researcher and participants share the same overall religious adherence or are members of the same denomination, various factors can differentiate them substantially, affecting insider/outsider perspectives. The methodological implications of this phenomenon are drawn from research on the perception of gender roles among Mormon women in Belgium. The mutual perception of researcher and participant can influence the data collection phase as value-laden issues are being discussed. To ensure the validity and objectivity of research in this context, positionalities of researcher and participants need to be clearly defined and methodological safeguards put into place. The analysis of the interactions between researcher and participants led to the identification of seven intersecting insider/outsider perspectives: denominational, congregational, social, religious, topical, lingual, and academic. Moreover, as compound insider/outsider positions move on several continua, various factors can change the perspectives during interviews. This article adds to the methodology of qualitative research by uncovering perspectives which researchers can consider or adapt when interviewing religious participants.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T08:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211063706
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Social Impact Indicators in the Context of the Roma Community:
           Contributions to the Debate on Methodological Implications

    • Authors: Ariadna Munté-Pascual, Andrea Khalfaoui, Diana Valero, Gisela Redondo-Sama
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Researching with methodologies focused on social impact in line with the SDGs is one of the priority orientations of the Horizon Europe program, as shown in the official European Commission document on impacts for this program. In this sense, researchers must forecast how their project will improve citizens' lives. Until now, many investigations showed the evaluation of the social impact through knowledge transfer activities that, although undoubtedly important, are not enough since the social impact is defined as the improvements derived from using the knowledge transferred to society. The search for the social impact of new research requires the introduction of impact indicators from the design, throughout the project development, and when the project ends. The introduction of indicators, in particular if they are decided in dialogue with the participants, allows not only to foresee a greater social impact but also to improve and adjust the methodology to be used. We explore this aspect in the context of research with social impact that starts from how the COVID-19 pandemic is increasing the inequalities suffered by the Roma population, causing the aggravation and creation of new problems and needs. Thus, we explain in detail how the selection of indicators that monitor the social impact, in dialogue with the Roma population, allows the design of research projects that are more appropriate to the current context.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T11:12:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211064668
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Family Socialization and Experiences of Early Childhood Programs in the
           Rohingya Camps: Study Protocol

    • Authors: Yeshim Iqbal, Shikhty Sunny, Ahmed Alif, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Mehzabeen A. Shorna
      Abstract: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Volume 21, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Objective of Protocol: The primary objective of this protocol is to record the process of conceptualizing a semi-structured interview protocol, training enumerators on the protocol, collecting data, translating findings into English, and analyzing data in English and Bengali, in a study of family socialization among a stateless and conflict-affected population, Rohingya refugees, in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. Research Questions of Study: (1) What are the socialization goals that mothers have for their children, and how do they perceive these goals in relation to their future or current roles as caregivers' (2) What are parents’ experiences with their children’s participation in Humanitarian Play Labs (education/child care provisions in the camps), and what are their perceptions of how their child’s participation in the programs has influenced their child/family' (3) What were the experiences of parents with their children as they migrated from Myanmar to Bangladesh' Design of Study: The design of the study involved a qualitative grounded theory approach based on an analysis of the participants’ responses to a semi-structured interview protocol. Study population: Participants included a purposive sample of 28 mother/father dyads in the Rohingya camps in Cox’s Bazar.
      Citation: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T05:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/16094069211062419
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
 
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