Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1647 journals)
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    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (262 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
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    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (90 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (56 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (936 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (175 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (936 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 801 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
SN Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Social & Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Social History Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Inquiry : Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access  
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Social Landscape Journal     Open Access  
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Science & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Social Science Computer Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Science Protocols     Open Access  
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Social Science Spectrum     Open Access  
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Social Sciences & Humanities Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Studies and the Young Learner     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Social Studies of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Social Studies Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal  
Social, Humanities, and Educational Studies (SHEs) : Conference Series     Open Access  
Socialiniai tyrimai     Open Access  
Socialium : Revista Cientifica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift     Open Access  
Sociedad e Infancias     Open Access  
Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sociétés & Représentations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Society     Open Access  
Socio     Open Access  
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Sociología y Tecnociencia     Open Access  
Sophia Austral     Open Access  
Soshum : Jurnal Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Sosio Didaktika : Social Science Education Journal     Open Access  
SosioHumanika: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan (Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Education)     Open Access  
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics     Open Access  
Sozial Extra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Studi Magrebini : North African Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Studia Socialia Cracoviensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Asian Social Science     Open Access  
Studies in Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sultan Agung Fundamental Research Journal     Open Access  
Suma de Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Survey Research Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Sustainability : Science, Practice, & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Symmetry     Open Access  
Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Søkelys på arbeidslivet (Norwegian Journal of Working Life Studies)     Open Access  
Tangent     Hybrid Journal  
Tapuya : Latin American Science, Technology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TechTrends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Teme : Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Tempo Social     Open Access  
Teoría y Praxis     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The Batuk     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
The Equilibrium     Open Access  
The EXceptional Parent     Full-text available via subscription  
The New Yorker     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Winnower     Open Access  
The Women : Annual Research Journal of Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Thesis     Open Access  
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tieteessä Tapahtuu     Open Access  
Tinkazos     Open Access  
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access  
Trama : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access  
Trans-pasando Fronteras     Open Access  
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transmotion     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Transtext(e)s Transcultures     Open Access  
Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales : TraHs     Open Access  
Trivium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tulane Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Twentieth Century Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Twenty-First Century Society: Journal of the Academy of Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UC Riverside Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UED Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education     Open Access  
Ultima Década     Open Access  
Uluslararası Anadolu Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / International Anatolian Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Umanistica Digitale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
Universidad de La Habana     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad, Escuela y Sociedad     Open Access  
Universitas Científica     Open Access  
Universitas-XXI, Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Mauritius Research Journal     Open Access  
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACSA     Open Access  
VA Engage Journal     Open Access  
Variations : Revue Internationale de Théorie Critique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Wani : Revista del Caribe Nicaragüense     Open Access  
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Workplace : A Journal for Academic Labor     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Social Science     Open Access  
World Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zambia Social Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Œconomia     Open Access  
Вісник ДонНУЕТ. Серія. Гуманітарні науки     Open Access  
Култура / Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Social Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.217
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-0760
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 378: Pandemic Portraits—An
           Intersectional Analysis of the Experiences of People with Disabilities and
           Caregivers during COVID-19 in Bangladesh and Liberia

    • Authors: Shahreen Chowdhury, Salma Akter Urme, Boakai A. Nyehn, Heylove R. Mark, Md. Tanvir Hassan, Sabina F. Rashid, Naomi B. Harris, Laura Dean
      First page: 378
      Abstract: COVID-19 significantly affected people with disabilities, with many facing additional barriers in access to services and increased risks of poor health and social outcomes. Focusing on the impact of COVID-19 in the Global South, this study took place in Bangladesh and Liberia, where 14% and 16% of the population are thought to live with disabilities. However, there is minimal research on the needs and experiences of this population group and how these are shaped by intersecting axes of inequity. Furthermore, disabled people are often excluded from being actively involved in research. To address these evidence gaps, we used the creative participatory method of photovoice remotely to document experiences of COVID-19 through the lens of people with physical and psychosocial disabilities and their caregivers as co-researchers. The findings present themes relating to inaccessibility, social connection, hopes and fears. The nexus between disability and poverty was exacerbated for many in both settings, while psychosocial impacts of COVID-19 included increased stigmatisation and isolation. However, themes of faith, support and adaptability were also highlighted in stories of community care, nature and healing. Photovoice, through imagery and storytelling, was a powerful tool in prioritising the voices of disabled people, adding to an evidence base to inform inclusive pandemic responses.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090378
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 379: Gender Equality Impact Drivers
           Revisited: Assessing Institutional Capacity in Research and Higher
           Education Institutions

    • Authors: Lut Mergaert, Marina Cacace, Marcela Linková
      First page: 379
      Abstract: This article presents the development and piloting of an innovative tool to assess the sustainability and impact of institutional change towards gender equality, termed the Impact Driver model. It provides a description of the model and the resulting tool, as well as how it has been developed, based on earlier models. It also presents the revised model following a pilot test and accompanying workshop, which were carried out to gather feedback on the use and potential of the tool. In conclusion, the article provides recommendations for the use of the tool, considering the EU context and policy framework, which pushes towards the institutionalisation of gender equality in research and innovation.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090379
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 380: New Materialism, Micropolitics and
           the Everyday Production of Gender-Related Violence

    • Authors: Nick J. Fox, Pam Alldred
      First page: 380
      Abstract: This paper assesses how a new materialist ontology can inform the sociological study of gender-related violence (GRV). The new materialisms are relational rather than essentialist; post-anthropocentric as opposed to humanist; and replace dualisms such as agency/structure, reason/emotion and micro/macro with a monist or ‘flat’ ontology. To make sense of GRV from within this ontology, we explore violence as assemblages of human and non-human matter and draw upon the DeleuzoGuattarian micropolitical concepts of ‘the war machine’ and ‘lines of flight’. While violence may supply a protagonist with new capacities (a line of flight), it typically closes down or constrains the capacities of one or more other parties in a violence-assemblage. This theoretical exploration establishes the basis for a methodological approach to studying GRV empirically, using a Deleuzian toolkit of affects, assemblages, capacities and micropolitics. The paper concludes with an assessment of what is gained from this new materialist ontology of GRV.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090380
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 381: A Study on Parenting Experiences of
           Multicultural Families with Disabled Children in Korea

    • Authors: Kim
      First page: 381
      Abstract: This paper employs a qualitative case study to investigate the parenting experiences of multicultural families with disabled children in Korea. The topic at hand focuses specifically on mothers’ experiences of raising a child with disability in a multicultural family. Participants chosen through purposive sampling method were recommended by the Korean multicultural support center. This study’s five participants are married female immigrants who are raising elementary school-age children with disabilities and who have Korean communication skills. The qualitative case study approach seeks to elicit the participants’ experiences of child nurturing. Their experiences were analyzed and categorized into two main categories: (1) hardships for mothers raising children with disabilities and (2) expectations of mothers raising children with disabilities. Such analyses lead us to understand the intricacies of motherhood for children with special needs in foreign countries. Lastly, the implications of this study aim to provide direction for effective and practical policies—including social welfare and educational support—that will meet the needs of multicultural families with disabled children.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090381
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 382: Work-Family Conflict and Mental
           Distress of Black Women in Employment in South Africa: A Template Analysis
           

    • Authors: Peter Thomas Sandy, Tebogo K. Molotsi, Margaret Rioga
      First page: 382
      Abstract: Work–family conflict causes stress, and exposure to it may lead to mental distress. Yet little is known about work–family conflict and mental distress in Africa. This study reports on the perceptions of black South African women in employment on work–family conflict and the mental distress women may experience when exposed to this conflict. The study utilised interpretative phenomenological analysis as a research design. Data were collected with the help of a semi-structured interview schedule. A total of 20 individual interviews and four focus group interviews comprising five participants each were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, and the data obtained were transcribed verbatim and analysed using template analysis. Two level-one theme codes emerged from the data analysis: antecedents of work–family conflict and work–family conflict manifestations. The findings of the study point to the need for managers to work in partnership with employees using family-friendly initiatives such as family supportive supervision for promoting mental well-being.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090382
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 383: Barriers to Governmental Income
           Supports for Sex Workers during COVID-19: Results of a Community-Based
           Cohort in Metro Vancouver

    • Authors: Jennie Pearson, Kate Shannon, Andrea Krüsi, Melissa Braschel, Jennifer McDermid, Brittany Bingham, Shira M. Goldenberg
      First page: 383
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought into stark focus the economic inequities faced by precarious, criminalized and racialized workers. Sex workers have been historically excluded from structural supports due to criminalization and occupational stigma. Given emerging concerns regarding sex workers’ inequitable access to COVID-19 income supports in Canada and elsewhere, our objective was to identify prevalence and correlates of accessing emergency income supports among women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Data were drawn from a longstanding community-based open cohort (AESHA) of cis and trans women sex workers in Metro Vancouver from April 2020–April 2021 (n = 208). We used logistic regression to model correlates of access to COVID-19 income supports. Among 208 participants, 52.9% were Indigenous, 6.3% Women of Colour (Asian, Southeast Asian, or Black), and 40.9% white. Overall, 48.6% reported accessing income supports during the pandemic. In adjusted multivariable analysis, non-injection drug use was associated with higher odds of accessing COVID-19 income supports (aOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.31–5.07), whereas Indigenous women faced reduced odds (aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–1.01). In comparison with other service workers, access to income supports among sex workers was low overall, particularly for Indigenous sex workers, demonstrating the compounding impacts of colonization and disproportionate criminalization of Indigenous sex workers. Results highlight the need for structural supports that are low-barrier and culturally-safe to support sex workers’ health, safety and dignity.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090383
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 384: Exploring the Influence of Government
           Data Performance on Knowledge Capabilities: Towards a Data-Oriented
           Political Economy

    • Authors: Daniyar Mukhametov
      First page: 384
      Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of the influence of government data performance on knowledge capabilities. Knowledge capabilities play a key role in open innovation and creation of citizen-oriented products and services. However, it is necessary to assess the role of the information environment in the development of knowledge capabilities, including government data as a product and a component of the information environment. Government data performance is expressed through the statistical capacity score and its three dimensions: periodicity assessment of statistical capacity, methodology assessment of statistical capacity, and source data assessment of statistical capacity. Knowledge capabilities are expressed through economic complexity, which reflects the diversity and uniqueness of the production capabilities inherent in each country’s exports. Econometric analysis is based on dynamic panel data models that quantify the effect of government data performance on economic complexity. The final dataset includes 94 countries and their indicators for the selected variables for 2004–2019. The models show that government data performance and its various dimensions influence economic complexity because government data provide a detailed and publicly available description of the economic space, including available resources and potential tasks. Based on these data, agents can produce dissimilar and unique products. This logic may be true in general for the influence of government data performance on knowledge capabilities: structured and complete government data reduces the cost of information analysis and provides information support for decisions. The results of the study contribute to the ideas of a data-oriented political economy. Government participation in value creation includes various forms of indirect influence. The provision of government data is one of these forms. The development of collective data governance and collaborative data projects makes it possible to create more complete datasets and stimulates citizen involvement and deliberation.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090384
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 385: Celebrating Thirty Years of Inclusive
           Research

    • Authors: Danielle Garratt, Kelley Johnson, Amanda Millear, Shaun Picken, Janice Slattery, Jan Walmsley
      First page: 385
      Abstract: Inclusive research has been an important way of increasing the understanding of the lives and issues of people with intellectual (learning) disabilities for 30 years. Three authors of this paper, Amanda, J and Kelley, are Australian and have been conducting inclusive research for much of this time. The other three, D, Shaun and Jan, are English. Jan has been doing it for a long time, while the others are relatively new to it. In this paper, we explore together what inclusive research has achieved in its original aims of supporting people with intellectual (learning) disabilities to have a heard voice and in working towards changing attitudes, policies and practices in relation to supporting them to lead good lives. Fundamental to achieving these aims was the need for active participation by people with intellectual (learning) disabilities in conducting research relevant to them. We record what we have done, how we did it and why it was important to do this work together. We focus on what inclusive research has meant to us and how it has been used to get positive change for people with intellectual disabilities. We end with a summary of what we think inclusive research can achieve and where we think it needs to go next.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090385
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 386: Cyber–Information Security
           Compliance and Violation Behaviour in Organisations: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Noor Suhani Sulaiman, Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi, Walton Wider, Jegatheesan Rajadurai, Suhaidah Hussain, Siti Aminah Harun
      First page: 386
      Abstract: Cyber and information security (CIS) is an issue of national and international interest. Despite sophisticated security systems and extensive physical countermeasures to combat cyber-attacks, organisations are vulnerable due to the involvement of the human factor. Humans are regarded as the weakest link in cybersecurity systems as development in digital technology advances. The area of cybersecurity is an extension of the previously studied fields of information and internet security. The need to understand the underlying human behavioural factors associated with CIS policy warrants further study, mainly from theoretical perspectives. Based on these underlying theoretical perspectives, this study reviews literature focusing on CIS compliance and violations by personnel within organisations. Sixty studies from the years 2008 to 2020 were reviewed. Findings suggest that several prominent theories were used extensively and integrated with another specific theory. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and General Deterrence Theory (GDT) were identified as among the most referred-to theories in this area. The use of current theories is discussed based on their emerging importance and their suitability in future CIS studies. This review lays the foundation for future researchers by determining gaps and areas within the CIS context and encompassing employee compliance and violations within an organisation.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090386
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 387: Human-Centred Design in UK Asylum
           Social Protection

    • Authors: Michelle L. James, Rachel Forrester-Jones
      First page: 387
      Abstract: This paper considers United Kingdom welfare provision for asylum seekers in the context of social protection scholarship, policy discourse more commonly associated with international development. Social protection definitions are contested, ranging from those focused on state provision to wider interpretations reflecting debates on holistic wellbeing, human rights and self-actualisation. Most recently, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has called for social protection policies for all citizens to reduce inequality among and within countries. Though there is exigency to reduce the extreme inequality existing between countries, literature is lacking on how social protection can be used to critique inequality within more economically affluent nations. Commentaries on social protection also tend to focus on economic poverty, with less attention given to vulnerabilities such as marginalisation. Literature suggests that UK asylum welfare provision is based on deterrence, control and marginalisation. In response, and to encourage equity in how all countries’ public policy is assessed, this paper utilises an international social protection framework to critique UK asylum welfare provision. It concludes by advocating for transdisciplinary, human-centred and comprehensive social protection policy design, encouraging participation by a wider range of stakeholders and a holistic understanding of wellbeing to meet asylum seekers’ needs effectively and efficiently.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090387
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 388: Towards a Conceptual Understanding of
           an Effective Rural-Based Entrepreneurial University in South Africa

    • Authors: Ishmael Obaeko Iwara, Beata Mukina Kilonzo
      First page: 388
      Abstract: There is a considerable discussion about the entrepreneurial university concept in academia, likewise, debates on its different facets and overarching socio-economic benefits globally. However, the transformation pathways from traditional to entrepreneurial higher learning institutions in Africa are still under-researched. Similarly, while the concept contributes significantly to innovation and growth of developed countries, it is less clear how this can create meaningful value to stimulate local economy in developing economies on the African continent. This exploratory qualitative case study seeks to identify conditions that can serve as pathways for determining an effective rural-based entrepreneurial university with the potential to meet societal needs, as well as impact positively on local economy. A sample of 33, specifically, individuals with deep knowledge of entrepreneurial university, was drawn from diverse groups using snowball and purposive sampling techniques to co-interact the phenomenon. The data collection was performed following hybrid (physical and digital) methods. Excerpts drawn primarily from stakeholders based on semi-structured questions were fitted and modelled on Atlas-ti v8 software open coding system, for thematic data analysis. Five conditions emerged as key findings. These include (1) entrepreneurial knowledge and skills building; (2) integration of indigenous entrepreneurship systems; (3) engaged scholarship; (4) value creation and venturing, and (5) embedding resourceful stakeholders in the university value chain network. These conditions set a foundation for the systemic institutional design that follows. Future research may consider examining the conditions on a broader scale to develop an index for measuring a rural-based entrepreneurial university with the potential to foster local economic development agenda in South Africa.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090388
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 389: A Spatial Analysis of the Voting
           Patterns in the South Korean General Elections of 2016

    • Authors: Hyun-Chool Lee, Alexandre Repkine
      First page: 389
      Abstract: In this study we analyze the spatial patterns in the South Korean voting behavior in the context of the 2016 general election along with the socio-economic determinants of the South Korean voters’ choice. To this end we applied spatial econometric analysis to a unique dataset on the outcomes of the 2016 general elections in South Korea at a highly disaggregate level of 229 provinces. Our empirical model accounts for three types of spatial dependence in the data that has to do with the fact that geographic proximity may imply similar voting behavior. Our empirical findings align well with the existing evidence on South Korean voting behavior, in particular regarding the influence produced by the voters’ region of origin, and their age. Surprisingly, we do not find economic characteristics such as the regional income per capita or the rate of unemployment to produce a statistically significant effect on South Korean voters’ choice. However, our results imply that a sound fiscal policy by the local government may act as a signaling device distinguishing between a conservative and a liberal political agenda. Our finding of the older voters leaning towards the conservative edge of the political spectrum suggests that the “silver democracy” now actively discussed in the South Korean media is increasingly assuming more conservative traits.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090389
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 390: First-Year Experience in the COVID-19
           Situation and the Association between Students’ Approaches to
           Learning, Study-Related Burnout and Experiences of Online Studying

    • Authors: Henna Asikainen, Nina Katajavuori
      First page: 390
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the association between students’ approaches to learning and their experiences of study-related burnout in their first year of higher education. The objective was also to explore these association with a person-oriented approach by examining various learning profiles and their relation to experiences of study-related burnout and experiences of studying during the COVID 19-situation. The participants in this study were 384 first-year life sciences students who answered a questionnaire at the end of first year with Likert-type and open-ended questions. K-means clustering and ANOVA analyses were used to examine the profiles and differences in their perceptions of burnout. Students’ experiences of studying were analysed qualitatively and differences between profiles were examined with Chi Square analysis. The results of this study show that an unreflective approach to learning is most strongly related to experiences of burnout and that experiences of online studying differed between profiles.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090390
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 391: Notes on Developing Research Review
           in Urban Planning and Urban Design Based on PRISMA Statement

    • Authors: Hisham Abusaada, Abeer Elshater
      First page: 391
      Abstract: The point of view expressed in this article is theoretically grounded in the PRISMA statement, which is a tool for critically evaluating academic papers in public health. Bibliometrics analysis, systematic review, meta-analysis, and storytelling techniques (BSMS) were used to identify relevant studies and create a process for documented urban planning and design research. To promote the construction of new facts based on compelling evidence reported in earlier literature reviews, academics in urban planning and urban design are encouraged to build their own suitable review procedures to support the formation of conclusions based on compelling evidence. Providing a strategic approach and practice process is one of the significant contributions of this knowledge research.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090391
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 392: Learning Patterns at the Time of
           COVID-19-Induced School Closures

    • Authors: Krisztián Széll, Borbála Károlyi, Anikó Fehérvári
      First page: 392
      Abstract: Previous research has shown that COVID-19-induced school closures and the subsequent transition to online/digital distance education have had a negative effect on student achievement, and this is a negative effect particularly pronounced for students with low socioeconomic status, which foreshadows an increase in educational inequalities. In this study, we examined how students in schools at risk of dropout have adapted to this changed educational situation and what the individual, family and school-related characteristics are that differentiate their adaptation strategy. Our analysis is based on the responses of 3222 Hungarian seventh-grade students to an online survey. Cluster analysis was used to create four groups that illustrate differing perceptions of online/digital distance learning. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyse and compare the learning patterns of these student groups. Our results show that students have not responded in the same way to changes brought about by COVID-19. There are fundamental differences between the two groups facing difficulties and the two groups experiencing fewer difficulties, but the former and the latter two groups differ on several other factors too. Students with unfavourable individual and family factors were more likely to have learning difficulties. In their case, the extent of support provided by the school is very important.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090392
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 393: The Impact of COVID-19 on Health and
           Well-Being: Foreign Medical Students in Eastern Europe

    • Authors: Vsevolod Konstantinov, Valentina Gritsenko, Alexander Reznik, Richard Isralowitz
      First page: 393
      Abstract: Approximately 350,000 foreign students, mostly from India, study medicine in Eastern Europe (EE). However, there is a dearth of information about the COVID-19 impact on this population who study at universities in Eastern Europe (e.g., Russia, Ukraine and Belarus). The aim of this study was to examine the pandemic impact on such students and to generate useful information that may be applied to their health, well-being and learning experience. A cross-sectional survey of Indian students at a Russian medical university was conducted. The data collection instrument included questions about background characteristics, fear of COVID-19, burnout, mental distress, eating behavior, substance use, resilience and adherence to World Health Organization prevention recommendations. Male and female students were compared to determine the COVID-19 impact based on gender status. A total of 497 students participated in this study. Among the survey participants, 92.3% reported being vaccinated. No significant difference was found among male and female respondents regarding fear and burnout associated with COVID-19. Approximately 40% of the students reported a deterioration in psycho-emotional well-being due to COVID-19, and such students had higher levels of COVID-19-related fear, burnout, substance use and lower resilience. Nearly half of the respondents reported unhealthy eating behavior (49.7%) and weight gain (46.3%) associated with COVID-19. In addition, students who adhered to prevention measures of mask wearing and social distancing had less COVID-19 fear and burnout, as well as more resilience. This study promotes an understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on the psycho-emotional conditions of male and female medical students from India studying abroad.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090393
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 394: Perception of Community Environment,
           Satisfaction with Local Government, and Quality of Life: The Case of
           Gyeonggi, Korea

    • Authors: Kyung-Young Lee, Kwantae Park
      First page: 394
      Abstract: This study examined the relationship between the perception of community environment, local government, and quality of life (QoL). Previous studies on QoL have not comprehensively analyzed factors related to community environments or local governments. Consequently, this study examined the influence of the perception of community environment on QoL and simultaneously analyzed the mediating effect of satisfaction with local government. Furthermore, this study divided the community environment into facility, safety, medical, and social environments, which enables comparisons to be made between the influences of each factor. This study analyzed the “2020 Residents’ Quality of Life Survey in Gyeonggi, Korea”. The survey included all 31 districts in Gyeonggi Province, and the total number of samples was 16,000. Moreover, a multilevel stratified sampling method was applied on the basis of the 31 districts and the number of households. Thus, the survey properly reflects the regional characteristics of Gyeonggi Province. The analysis results were as follow: First, perception of community environment had a positive influence on QoL. In particular, the safety environment had the greatest effect on QoL. Therefore, it is necessary to focus more on improving the safety environment in the community. Second, satisfaction with local government had a mediating effect between facility environment, medical environment, social environment, and QoL. This means that satisfaction with local government is an important factor in increasing residents’ QoL. Presently, developing countries such as China, the Philippines, and Myanmar are still pursuing “rapid urbanization” while focusing only on quantitative development. However, this can generate various problems regarding social sustainability. Thus, this study provides important implications for these developing countries.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090394
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 395: Using Social Media to Monitor
           

    • Authors: Hamid Akin Unver
      First page: 395
      Abstract: Following the large-scale 2015–2016 migration crisis that shook Europe, deploying big data and social media harvesting methods became gradually popular in mass forced migration monitoring. These methods have focused on producing ‘real-time’ inferences and predictions on individual and social behavioral, preferential, and cognitive patterns of human mobility. Although the volume of such data has improved rapidly due to social media and remote sensing technologies, they have also produced biased, flawed, or otherwise invasive results that made migrants’ lives more difficult in transit. This review article explores the recent debate on the use of social media data to train machine learning classifiers and modify thresholds to help algorithmic systems monitor and predict violence and forced migration. Ultimately, it identifies and dissects five prevalent explanations in the literature on limitations for the use of such data for A.I. forecasting, namely ‘policy-engineering mismatch’, ‘accessibility/comprehensibility’, ‘legal/legislative legitimacy’, ‘poor data cleaning’, and ‘difficulty of troubleshooting’. From this review, the article suggests anonymization, distributed responsibility, and ‘right to reasonable inferences’ debates as potential solutions and next research steps to remedy these problems.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090395
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 396: The Caregiving Journey: Arts-Based
           Methods as Tools for Participatory Co-Design of Health Technologies

    • Authors: Miller, Zelenko
      First page: 396
      Abstract: Being an informal caregiver to a loved one with an illness, disease, or chronic disability is a rewarding but frequently stressful experience. In this design research project, caregivers participated in a half-day workshop to (1) share their caregiving experience, (2) reflect on the potential of a mobile smartphone ‘app’ for carers and (3) co-design this app, as well as participate in in-depth interviews. Our design research process used multiple arts-based methods, including visual experience mapping tools, storytelling, photo-elicitation, documentary photography, cartoons, drawing, and research poetry, to provide rich and empathic insight into daily life as a caregiver and illuminate the potential of technology. Workshop activities included creating a visual collage of lived experience, annotated visual maps illustrating the reality and misconceptions of caregiving, pathways of care, and mapping a day in their life using the visual metaphor of a clock. Carers then trialled and provided feedback on a prototype app, creating a collective map of desired features. This co-design feedback informed the final app design, which was formally launched at a public exhibition showcasing stories collected from our arts and design-led processes. This paper outlines the value of arts and design methods in the design of future health technologies, which provide a critical space for an informed, reflexive, and empathic dialogue about illness and caregiving, resulting in designs that truly met consumer’s needs.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090396
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 397: Building Back Better: Fostering
           Community Resilient Dynamics beyond COVID-19

    • Authors: Giulia Isetti, Linda Ghirardello, Maximilian Walder
      First page: 397
      Abstract: In light of the COVID-19 crisis and its deep impacts worldwide, questions arise of how to be prepared against and cope with pandemics in particular and disruptions in general. The coronavirus not only posed a physical health threat but caused detrimental effects on people’s social lives, adding concerns for individual and collective wellbeing. Herein, within a qualitative explorative case study from Merano (Northern Italy) combining two strands of literature, namely post-disaster recovery and community resilience, 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants. The interviews served as methodological tool to explore six dimensions (cultural, physical, economic, social, institutional, and ecological) of the local community resilience in the wake of the COVID-19 disaster, and the elements that can further strengthen it. Results show that although there are some networks in place for people to rely on and to support each other, there is still much room for improvement, especially for what concerns local institutional policies. The results are expected to be useful for policy making and for long-term, sustainable, and inclusive management of the risks posed by COVID-19 and future crises looming on the horizon, such as climate change.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090397
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 398: Development Agencies and Local
           Governments—Coexistence within the Same Territory

    • Authors: Mirtha Silvana Garat de Marin, Emmanuel Soriano Flores, Carmen Lili Rodríguez Velasco, Eduardo Silva Alvarado, Ruben Calderon Iglesias, Roberto Marcelo Álvarez, Santos Gracia Villar
      First page: 398
      Abstract: This article proposes a discussion on the form of coexistence of local Development Agencies in Uruguay, with local governments in the face of the new scenarios marked by the decentralization process, initiated in the country with the Constitutional Reform of 1996 and culminating in February 2009, with the Law of Political Decentralization and Citizen Participation. The discussion applies in particular to the local development agency of the city of Rivera (ADR), located in the northeast of the country. A descriptive, mixed, bibliographic, documentary investigation was carried out with primary data collection to internal and external references to ADR. The results show that the coexistence of both institutions has been difficult, without defining clear roles. Promoting dialogue to define the role of each seems to be the great challenge facing the sustainability of the agency.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090398
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 399: Earning Housing: Removing Barriers to
           Housing to Improve the Health and Wellbeing of Chronically Homeless Sex
           Workers

    • Authors: Claire Macon, Eden Tai
      First page: 399
      Abstract: For many sex workers, accessing and maintaining housing is one of the central reasons for engaging in sex work. Simultaneously, one of the most stringent barriers to accessible and affordable housing is the stigma and discrimination against sex work as a livelihood. This paper explores the relationship between barriers to accessing housing for sex workers and the systems that hold the barriers in place. This paper is based on qualitative research conducted by Ocean State Advocacy’s research team. Using quantitative analysis of 100 surveys and qualitative analysis of 35 interviews conducted with sex workers living in Rhode Island, this paper discusses the ways housing improves the physical health, mental health, and overall wellbeing of sex workers. By including sex workers and centering their human rights in movements around housing equity and access, sex workers’ needs are prioritized while increasing understanding of stigma and systemic disenfranchisement within the field of housing justice.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090399
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 400: The Anticipated Use of Public
           Transport in the Post-Pandemic Era: Insights from an Academic Community in
           Thessaloniki, Greece

    • Authors: Despoina Tsavdari, Vasileia Klimi, Georgios Georgiadis, Grigorios Fountas, Socrates Basbas
      First page: 400
      Abstract: This paper investigates how the travel behavior relating to Public Transport (PT) changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and which are the expectations about the extent of PT use post-pandemic. A revealed preferences questionnaire survey was distributed within an academic community in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. To understand the factors potentially determining the future PT use, hierarchical ordered probit and bivariate ordered probit models were estimated. Results showed that the frequent PT users reduced by almost 75% during the pandemic. More than 29% of the local academic community members are reluctant to resume PT use at pre-pandemic levels. Non-captive users, teleworkers and those being unsatisfied with cleanliness and safety are less willing to travelling by PT post-pandemic. Female and under-stress passengers were found to particularly appreciate the use of facemasks and the increased service frequencies as post-pandemic policy measures. The study findings can inform the recovery strategies of transport authorities in order to retain the PT ridership at levels that will not threat the long-term viability of service provision. Future research may complement these findings by examining other population segments, such as the commuters and the elderly, under more advanced modelling techniques to account for additional unobserved behavioral patterns.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090400
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 401: Investigating Configurations of
           Internal Corporate Social Responsibility for Work–Family Spillover:
           An Asymmetrical Approach in the Airline Industry

    • Authors: Chen, Huang, Tang, Ilkhanizadeh
      First page: 401
      Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and work–family interface have attracted considerable scientific interest; however, their relationship has not been considered yet. Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study fills this gap by examining the relationship between internal CSR and work to family spillover. While most previous CSR studies widely examined the net effect of a single CSR dimension, this study discovers configurations of five different internal CSR dimensions (internal dissemination, compensation, occupational health and safety, training, and legal employment) in explaining positive and negative work to family spillover. Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), this study examines a primary database of 136 flight attendants working for Asian airline companies; results reveal that the combination of internal dissemination and compensation creates the most driving power in leading to positive spillover. The absence of internal dissemination, occupational health and safety, and legal employment leads to high negative spillover regardless of the presence of compensation. This study broadens the literature by linking internal CSR to employees’ perceptions of work–family spillover. FsQCA findings also make a methodological contribution to prior CSR research by indicating three configurations that explain positive and negative work–family spillover. Findings provide airline companies with practical guidelines that are useful to enhance positive spillover and reduce negative spillover from work to family domains among their flight attendants.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090401
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 402: COVID-19 and Microcredit: Dissecting
           an NGO’s Training, Financial Support, and Women Empowerment
           Programmes

    • Authors: Senyo Dotsey
      First page: 402
      Abstract: This paper reports the findings from a microcredit (financial inclusion) scheme that has been operated by a non-governmental organization since 2012 in a local community in Ghana, and sustained through the COVID-19 pandemic. It first examines microfinance, women’s empowerment and third-sector organizational dynamics. It then provides an overview of microfinance in Ghana within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by dissecting the organization’s microcredit, training and women’s empowerment programmes. The following part documents the findings, with brief concluding thoughts and policy implications appearing in the last section. It is argued here that financial schemes, particularly those operated by third-sector organizations, can play a significant role in helping women in particular to deal with the secondary effects of COVID-19 by providing improved non-financial services and easy access to microfinance at low, sustainable interest rates. These findings have implications for policy formulation and sustainable development.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090402
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 403: Dual Vocational Education and
           Training Systems’ Governance Model and Policy Transfer: The Role of
           the European Union in Its Diffusion

    • Authors: Luis Martínez-Izquierdo, Mónica Torres Sánchez
      First page: 403
      Abstract: Some southern member states have undertaken the reform of their vocational education and training (VET) systems so as to promote dual apprenticeship, such as that which is promoted in Germany. During this process, the European Union (EU) has exercised an extensive influence. This paper advances the analysis of the role exercised by the EU in this stage of cross-national attraction by analysing the model of VET governance promoted by European institutions. The methodology consists of a reflexive thematic analysis of the EU VET texts. A total of 35 texts from the EU institutions was analysed by using NVivo. This produced three themes under the overarching theme of fostering a more pluralistic governance system: promoting cooperation among stakeholders in the design, management and financing of the system, enhancing social dialogue and strengthening responsiveness to change in the world of work. This analysis concludes that the EU, as an agent of the policy transfer process, encourages the implementation of a cooperative governance model of VET systems, such as that present in the dual VET systems of certain member states with collective skill formation governance regimens such as Germany, Austria and Denmark.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090403
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 404: Use of Twitter among College Students
           for Academics: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    • Authors: Stefanie Amiruzzaman, Md Amiruzzaman
      First page: 404
      Abstract: For almost a decade, Twitter use and its impact on students’ academic performance have been explored by many researchers. Despite growing scholarly interest, studies have been mostly quantitative in nature. The findings of previous studies are conflicting; thus, an in-depth study is needed to determine how and what impacts college students’ academic performance (i.e., GPA) when they spend time on Twitter. The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of Twitter use on college students’ academic performance. The present study shows that individual analysis techniques, such as quantitative or qualitative tools, are not enough to understand the underlying relationship. Therefore, a mixed-method approach (i.e., correlation and discourse analysis) was used to analyze the research data. Undergraduate students responded (N = 498) to a set of items along with some open-ended questions (n = 121). The results of this study indicate that how students use Twitter matters more than the amount of time they spend using it for their studies.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090404
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 405: “These Girls Never Give
           Statements”: Anti-Trafficking Interventions and Victim-Witness
           Testimony in India

    • Authors: Vibhuti Ramachandran
      First page: 405
      Abstract: Framing sex trafficking as primarily a law enforcement and criminal justice issue, the U.S. State Department funds global South NGOs to work with the Indian legal system to strengthen prosecutions of sex trafficking cases. Though rescuing sex workers and training them to testify against alleged traffickers is key to these interventions, and though rescued sex workers do sometimes testify, my ethnographic research and interviews with NGOs, legal actors, and sex workers in India revealed that this is a rare occurrence. This article explores the reasons behind this reported pattern, as well as the challenges faced by those who do testify. Through these findings, it critically examines the possibilities and limitations of the prosecutorial focus of U.S.-driven, NGO-mediated anti-trafficking interventions. It situates anti-trafficking interventions centered on “victim-witness testimony” in the Indian socio-legal context, demonstrating how prosecution is shaped by a range of factors, circumstances, and contingencies involving foreign-funded NGOs, the procedures, political economy and culture of the Indian legal system, individual legal actors’ motivations, and rescued sex workers’ complex subjectivities, experiences, choices, and perceptions of justice. It draws upon and contextualizes these findings to challenge prevalent assumptions about the victimhood of global South sex workers, about global South legal systems necessarily lacking resources and commitment, and about anti-trafficking solutions rooted in criminal justice incontrovertibly benefiting trafficked sex workers.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090405
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 406: Exploring the Direct and Indirect
           Influence of Perceived Organizational Support on Affective Organizational
           Commitment

    • Authors: Rui Silva, Álvaro Dias, Leandro Pereira, Renato Lopes da Costa, Rui Gonçalves
      First page: 406
      Abstract: As a result of the pandemic and the consequent changes in labor market patterns, firms are facing a difficult moment in attracting and retaining talented employees. In these new patterns, remuneration factors are increasingly a necessary but not sufficient condition to address this challenge. Given this background, this study seeks to identify the role of perceived organizational support in affective organizational commitment. In order to achieve this objective, structural equation models were used based on survey data from a sample of 333 respondents. The findings of this study reveal that perceived organizational support positively influences affective organizational commitment, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Furthermore, job involvement and job satisfaction were found to play a mediating effect in the relation between perceived organizational support and affective organizational commitment.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090406
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 407: Introduction to Special Issue
           “Gender, Politics, and Everyday Life: Power, Resistance, and
           Representation”

    • Authors: Dawn Hutchinson, Lori Underwood
      First page: 407
      Abstract: The conference theme this year was “Gender, Politics, and Everyday Life: Power, Resistance and Representation.” [...]
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090407
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 408: Expert and Diffuse Design of a
           Sustainable Circular Economy in Two German Circular Roadmap Projects

    • Authors: Gavin Melles, Christian Wölfel, Jens Krzywinski, Lenard Opeskin
      First page: 408
      Abstract: According to sustainability transitions theory, socio-technical change requires a convergence of politics, social change, technology, and niche innovations. Recently, a circular economy has been proposed as the engine of such change in the EU New Green Deal and Germany. Mainstream circular economy emphasizes the closing of material loops as the way to ensure green growth, and there is a key role for design to achieve such change. According to reports, however, the global appetite for a circular economy remains limited and critics have pointed to several contradictions between the rhetoric and reality of the circular economy and sustainable development. In addition, current formulations of circular economy misrepresent the plurality of discourses for a sustainable circular economy and the role of expert and diffuse circular design. In this study, we employ the recently articulated ten principles for a sustainable circular economy and society to analyze two contrasting circular roadmap projects in Germany, which reflect two contrasting technical and reformist circular discourses, and understandings of the role of design. We find that there are narrow and broad interpretations of design inherent in these circular policies as well as the exemplification of the difference between a technical circular economy and reformist circular society discourses. The practical applied value of this analysis is that the framework can be employed to analyze other policies.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090408
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 409: Fertility Decision-Making in the UK:
           Insights from a Qualitative Study among British Men and Women

    • Authors: Mikaela Brough, Paula Sheppard
      First page: 409
      Abstract: Scholars are interested in better understanding the low fertility observed in higher income countries. While some people are choosing to have smaller families, countries also report a ‘fertility gap’, which is the proportion of people who end up with fewer children than originally desired. This paper investigates some causes of the fertility gap in the UK. We amassed qualitative data from seven focus groups conducted among men and women of reproductive age with different educational backgrounds. These focus groups suggest that social support is an influential factor for Britons thinking about having children, although discussions differed in terms of whether this was support from partners or parents. Discussions with university-educated women featured themes of career opportunity costs, and non-university men contributed insights on the financial burden of parenthood. This exploratory study provides up-to-date material on unwanted childlessness and the low fertility in the UK, and highlights the merit of using qualitative methods in understanding the fertility gap.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090409
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 410: The Social and Cultural Dimensions
           Associated with Death in Muslim Communities, a Case Study Khartoum City

    • Authors: Osman Sirajeldeen Ahmed, Elsayed Abdalrahman, Alaa Zuhir Al Rawashdeh, Asma Rebhi Al Arab
      First page: 410
      Abstract: In Arab universities, sociologists rarely discuss the sociology of death. By studying social and cultural variables along with subjective and objective meanings of death, this paper contributes to filling this gap in research on death in a Sudanese urban area. Furthermore, the study examines the relationship between the burial of the dead and the time and place of their burial, social status, relatives, and religious affiliation as they relate to their burial. A major objective of the research is to explore the social and cultural dimensions of death in Sudanese communities. Data were collected using interviews and observations in the field using the descriptive method. Death is more of a social than a biological fact; therefore, the general findings of this research are about declaration of death, and what it implies about social cohesion. Burial and social acts following death are acts that express social meanings, and further, indicate how biological death has occurred. Based on variables such as social status, family relationship, and religious affiliation, it can be seen that the deceased person and/or family holds these beliefs.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090410
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 411: The High Note of Meaning: A Case
           Study of Public Service Motivation of Local Government Officials

    • Authors: Forte, Santinha, Oliveira, Patrão
      First page: 411
      Abstract: Public service motivation (PSM) has provided a new breadth to the study of what attracts and retains workers in public organizations committed to the public mission. The present research contributes to the topic by exploring local government workers’ motivation for public service, the meaning they attribute to their activity as public servants, and the relations between PSM and the meaning of work (MOW). An adaptation of the PSM scale to the Portuguese language and context and the local level of public administration is proposed based on a sample of seventeen surveyed municipalities involving 252 participants. Within the analyzed context, dedication to the public interest is the most important factor of public service motivation and, alongside self-sacrifice, more common in older public servants and those with higher educational degrees. Workers with temporary job contracts rank higher in indifference and disbelief in politics as opposed to those workers with tenure who show a higher dedication to the public interest. The majority of the participants consider their work to be purposeful and meaningful, a state that is significantly positively correlated with the more altruistic dimensions of PSM, self-sacrifice and dedication to the public interest, suggesting a profitable venue of organizational research and work policy benchmarking.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090411
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 412: Comparative Study of the Information
           about the COVID-19 Pandemic and COVID-19 Vaccines on the Covers of United
           Kingdom, France, Spain and United States’ Main Newspapers

    • Authors: Santiago Tejedor, Laura Cervi, Fernanda Tusa, Mónica Gracia Villar
      First page: 412
      Abstract: This study compares the information coverage of the vaccine against the information of the COVID-19 pandemic in eight newspapers (two per country) from the United Kingdom, France, Spain and the United States. The newspapers analyzed are The Times and The Guardian (United Kingdom), Le Monde and Le Figaro (France), El País and El Mundo (Spain), and The New York Times and The Washington Post (United States). On a methodological level, the work uses a descriptive approach of hemerographic analysis. As a result, it is observed—in the case of coverage of the pandemic—that the presence of affected persons and health personnel in the front-page information was negligible, with a predominance of news journalistic genres (brief and newsworthy, especially), evidencing a leading role of political figures and the high degree of politicization of the crisis. In addition, the visual frames in the analyzed newspapers tended to promote humanization through emotional representation. On the other hand, the results of the news coverage of the vaccine showed a predominance of news journalistic genres, wherein supranational entities and pharmaceutical companies starred in the front pages to a greater extent. The study denotes the importance of media literacy among citizens, especially in the face of this type of informational events of global significance.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090412
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 413: Classification of Determinants of
           Burnout Syndrome in Terms of Personality Traits of Public Administration
           Managers

    • Authors: Eva Brijová, Veronika Mlynárová, Peter Mlynár, Zuzana Birknerová, Ivan Uher
      First page: 413
      Abstract: Burnout syndrome is considered a disease of modern societies. Research has shown that burnout is related to reduced performance in the workplace. Many times, burnout syndrome occurs in helping professions, such as healthcare or social services. The aim of this explanatory research is to determine the relationship between the degree of burnout syndrome, personality traits, and determinants of burnout syndrome of managers in public administration. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) has been used to measure burnout syndrome. Personality traits, i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, five-factor inverters (NEO FFI), and assessing the determinants of burnout syndrome (PDSV) have been considered. The research sample consisted of (n = 226) managers in public administration. Based on the determined three hypotheses, we brought together sufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative conclusion that there is a positive association between NEO FFI and PDSV, MBI and PDSV, as well as MBI and NEO FFI. It can be inferred that a high workload and a lack of resources are some of the most compelling aspects that can instigate burnout. In addition to what has been assumed, there is argumentation among professionals about what is burnout, its symptoms, diagnostic criteria, environment of its occurrence, which demands further investigation to waive the vagueness and ambiguity of the concept of burnout syndrome.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090413
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 414: Applications of Big Data in Media
           Organizations

    • Authors: Andreas Veglis, Theodora Saridou, Kosmas Panagiotidis, Christina Karypidou, Efthimis Kotenidis
      First page: 414
      Abstract: The exploitation of data in the media industry has always played a significant role. This is especially evident today, since data (and in many cases big data) are generated through various activities that relate to the production and also consumption of news. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of big data utilization in the media industry. Specifically, it discusses cases of big data exploitation, such as media content consumption and management, data journalism production, social content utilization, and participatory journalism applications. The study also examines the changes that big data has introduced in all stages of the journalism practice, from news production to news distribution, by utilizing the available tools. Finally, it discusses new developments that relate to semantic web (Web 3.0) technologies, which have already started to be adopted by media organizations around the world.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090414
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 415: The Gendered Experience of Close to
           Community Providers during COVID-19 Response in Fragile Settings: A
           Multi-Country Analysis

    • Authors: Raven, Arjyal, Baral, Chand, Hawkins, Kallon, Mansour, Parajuli, Than, Wurie, Yamout, Theobald
      First page: 415
      Abstract: Many countries, and particularly those including fragile contexts, have a shortage of formal health workers and are increasingly looking to close-to-community (CTC) providers to fill the gap. The experiences of CTC providers are shaped by context-embedded gender roles and relations. This qualitative research study in Lebanon, Nepal, Myanmar and Sierra Leone explored the gendered experiences of CTC providers during the COVID-19 pandemic in fragile settings. We used document review, in-depth interviews or focus group discussions with CTC providers, and key informant interviews with local stakeholders to generate in-depth and contextual information. The COVID-19-associated lockdowns and school closures brought additional stresses, with a gendered division of labour acutely felt by women CTC providers. Their work is poorly or not remunerated and is seen as risky. CTC providers are embedded within their communities with a strong willingness to serve. However, they experienced fractures in community trust and were sometimes viewed as a COVID-19 risk. During COVID-19, CTC providers experienced additional responsibilities on top of their routine work and family commitments, shaped by gender, and were not always receiving the support required. Understanding their experience through a gender lens is critical to developing equitable and inclusive approaches to support the COVID-19 response and future crises.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090415
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 416: Family Resilience and the COVID-19
           Pandemic: A South African Study

    • Authors: Edna G. Rich, Letitia Butler-Kruger, Inge K. Sonn, Zainab Kader, Nicolette V. Roman
      First page: 416
      Abstract: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic created various challenges for individuals and families across the globe. Many countries went into a state of disaster and applied strict lockdown regulations to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus. Although the sudden changes in livelihoods impacted families globally, this research is limited to understanding how families connected and resolved conflict during the pandemic. The current study therefore aimed at exploring how family dynamics and resilience in South African families were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted qualitatively in the Western Cape, South Africa, with 31 participants. The results indicated that families in the Western Cape had trouble adjusting to the imposed restrictions; however, some of these families used the time they had together to adapt and find new ways of building their relationships and strengthening their bonds. The main themes indicated that the most difficult challenges were the children’s schooling, financial impact from job losses, and separation from extended family members due to restrictions on movement. Furthermore, familial support and connecting as a family through open and honest communication helped the families remain resilient and fostered positive relationships.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090416
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 417: Can the Sick Speak' Global Health
           Governance and Health Subalternity

    • Authors: Tammam Aloudat
      First page: 417
      Abstract: Global Health Governance (GHG) uses a set of financial, normative, and epistemic arguments to retain and amplify its influence. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the GHG regime used its own successes and failures to prescribe more of itself while demanding further resources. However, the consistent failures of this form governance and its appeasement to a dominant neoliberal ideology lead to the following question: Is the global health governance regime failing at its goal of improving health or succeeding at other political and ideological goals that necessitate such failures' Using concepts and ideas from social theory and post-colonial studies; I examine the definitions, epistemic basis, and drivers of GHG and propose certain conditions for the legitimacy of a global health governance system. Examining historical and current cases, I find that the GHG regime currently fails to fulfil such conditions of legitimacy and instead creates spaces that limit rather than help many populations it purports to serve. Those spaces of sickness confine people and reduce them into a state of health subalternity. In being health subalterns, people’s voices are neither sought nor heard in formulating the policies that determine their health. Finally, I argue that research and policymaking on global health should not be confined to the current accepted frameworks that assumes legitimacy and benevolence of GHG, and propose steps to establish an alternative, emancipatory model of understanding and governing global health.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090417
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 418: Licensed Professionals and
           Intergenerational Big-, Meso- and Micro-Class Immobility within the Upper
           Class; Social Closure and Gendered Outcomes among Italian Graduates

    • Authors: Lucia Ruggera, Jani Erola
      First page: 418
      Abstract: This article examines how processes of social closure promote persistence at the top of the occupational hierarchy and how they vary by gender. We focus on the links between professional closure strategies and intergenerational immobility in professional employment among Italian graduates. Italy displays the highest levels of service market regulation across Europe, and professionals are the largest occupational group within the upper class; therefore, it is crucial to analyse the link between professional closure and labour market outcomes among Italian graduates. Using ISTAT’s survey on Italian graduates’ labour outcomes and replicating the analyses of men in the ILFI survey, the origin-destination association is investigated at the big-, meso-, and micro-levels. We employ log-linear nested models and logistic regressions. The SPL sample offers a unique opportunity to analyse social mobility at the beginning of professionals’ careers and provide in-depth explanations of the micro-level dynamics of social reproduction. The analyses indicate that children of regulated professionals have a higher propensity to follow in their parents’ footsteps (micro-classes). Self-employment among professionals strongly increases intergenerational immobility at the top of the occupational hierarchy. The findings demonstrate that the combination of specific parental resources strongly helps professionals’ sons and daughters to avoid social demotion.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090418
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 419: Social Distancing Impact on Higher
           Education during COVID-19 Lockdown

    • Authors: Ionel N. Sava
      First page: 419
      Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, education online meant limited or no in-person interaction with professors and peers. In this article, research questions look for social distancing impact on subjects attending computer-mediated education. Educational technology factors were selected and exposed to students’ evaluation in a semi-structured questionnaire. Results confirm that online education increased students’ acceptance and positive attitude towards digital learning for 8 out of 10 subjects. On the other hand, factors that drive motivation showed diminished satisfaction with content for 4 out of 10 students and reduced capacity to stay focused for 7 out of 10 students. This research points toward factors that convert interaction with peers and instructors to such an extent that they impact basic educational fields such as motivation and satisfaction. There were interrogated social interactivity factors, as half of the subjects reported missing learner–learner and learner–instructor interaction. Results showed that up to one third of surveyed students showed diminished motivation alongside less satisfaction with content. The article concludes that digital education should multiply and adapt its own content and delivery routines and it suggests that the online education experience should serve development of computer-mediated learning as well augmenting of in-person education.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090419
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 420: Banishment through Branding: From
           Montréal’s Red Light District to Quartier des Spectacles

    • Authors: Rhianne Fiolka, Zack Marshall, Anna Kramer
      First page: 420
      Abstract: This paper analyzes how the City of Montréal employed tools of urban planning—including a district plan, street redesign, rezoning, selective public consultation, expropriation, policing and surveillance—to spatially banish sex work from its historic district, using the red light symbol as a branding strategy. This coincided with a change in federal law (Bill C-36) and a policy shift to reposition sex workers as passive victims of sex trafficking. Using a case study design, this work explores the state’s refusal to recognize the agency of those engaged in embodied socio-economic exchanges and the safety and solidarity possible in public space. In interviews, sex workers described strategies of collective organizing, resistance and protest to hold the city accountable during this process of displacement. We consider how urban planning might support sex work, sex workers and economic autonomy.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090420
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 421: Online and Offline Coordination in
           Australia’s Far-Right: A Study of True Blue Crew

    • Authors: Jade Hutchinson, Muhammad Iqbal, Mario Peucker, Debra Smith
      First page: 421
      Abstract: Far-right extremism transpires in virtual and physical space. In this study, we examine how the Australian far-right extremist group ‘True Blue Crew’ attempted to coordinate their offline activities with their social media activism. To this end, we conducted a thematic content analysis of administrator posts and user comments present on the group’s Facebook page prior to and following an organised street rally in June 2017. This online analysis was partnered with ethnographic field work to gauge the perceptions of group members and supporters during the rally in Melbourne, Victoria. The results highlight the multi-dimensional and intimate manner in which online and offline contexts are coordinated to support far-right activism and mobilisation. This study offers an empirical account of how far-right attitudes, activism, and mobilisation transpired in Australia in the years prior to an Australian committing the Christchurch terror attack. It reveals a growing frustration within the broader far-right movement, leading to later strategic adaptation that can be interpreted as an early warning sign of an environment increasingly conducive to violence. This provides a more nuanced understanding of the context from which far-right terrorism emerges, and speaks to the importance of maintaining a level of analysis that transverses the social and the individual, as well as the online and the offline spaces. Implications for security and government agencies responses are discussed.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090421
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 422: Failed Mimicry: The Thai
           Government’s Attempts to Combat Labor Trafficking Using
           Perpetrators’ Means

    • Authors: Naparat Kranrattanasuit, Yanuar Sumarlan
      First page: 422
      Abstract: (1) Background: This research paper examines the prevention measures, i.e., the application of technologies such as those abused by “traffickers”, used by government and non-government agencies to combat “internal trafficking” in Samut Sakhon province. The authors review numerous research papers and documents at international and national levels. (2) Methods: the authors use in-depth interviews to relate the anti-internal trafficking measures of the government and non-government agencies. (3) The findings show that these government and non-government agencies have attempted to combat “inter-border” trafficking and internal trafficking. However, limited information and communication gaps in the application of IT-based technology and other media for communication have caused unsatisfactory preventive results and responses against such phenomena. (4) Some findings point to the limited success of an NGO (the Labor Protection Network) whose leader decided to recruit Burmese- and Lao-speaking staff to reach out to potential and actual victims among Burmese and Laotian people. (5) The authors suggest that government agencies learned from this failure and then collaborated more with non-government and migrant worker organizations to provide sufficient information and efficient communication channels to ensure migrant workers’ safety in Thailand’s territory.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090422
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 423: Employee Involvement and Commitment
           in Internal Communication

    • Authors: Galvão Meirinhos, António Cardoso, Rui Silva, Reiville Rêgo, Márcio Oliveira
      First page: 423
      Abstract: This research project aims to analyze the importance of internal communication in organizations in Benguela (Angola) and to determine its impact on employee engagement and commitment to the organization. To this end, an exploratory study was conducted using a quantitative methodology. In this scope, a questionnaire was applied to 250 employees of the organizations, seeking to evaluate employees as internal consumers; internal communication in terms of tools, means and communicative effectiveness, as well as internal communication management and employee satisfaction. The results demonstrate the need for internal communication to engage and commit the company’s employees, where organizations are increasingly concerned with the management of their human resources.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090423
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 424: ESG Investing Issues in Food Industry
           Enterprises: Focusing on On-the-Job Training in Waste Management

    • Authors: Gunta Grinberga-Zalite, Andra Zvirbule
      First page: 424
      Abstract: Recently, there is a growing interest in investing in ways that might eliminate global warming; therefore, a number of studies promote the idea of ESG investing. The current study presents the latest discourses on the interpretation of investment and the role of social aspects in terms of investing in ESG. The topicality of the particular study is justified by the fact that food sector investors and other market participants use ESG information through ESG ratings, which, among social factors, include on-the-job training as an important indicator of a company’s sustainability. This study was based on a mixed-methods methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative research methods in consistent methodological steps. Based on the research of a wide range of scientific literature and the results of focus group interviews with industry practitioners, the authors have explored ESG implementation issues in European food sector enterprises to identify how food sector companies can strengthen their ESG performance by developing practical on-the-job training in waste management. This study has posed a research question: What skills should be integrated in on-the-job training programs in contemporary waste management in food industry enterprises' The research results present a systematized structure that integrates explicit and tacit knowledge, skills and competence that were acknowledged as topical in developing on-the-job training programs for food industry enterprises.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090424
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 425: Examining Differences, Relationships,
           and Predictors for Loneliness in an Adult Population: The Roles of
           Personal Characteristics, Place of Residence, Leisure Activities, Mental
           Health, and Social Outcomes

    • Authors: Vasiliki Tzouvara, Pinar Kupdere
      First page: 425
      Abstract: Loneliness is associated with poor mental and social outcomes globally. The literature suggests an association between loneliness and personal characteristics, place of residence, and leisure activities. However, the current literature has produced inconsistent findings and has focused largely on older adults. This study is one of the first to examine the differences, relationships, and predictors of loneliness in an adult population, and the roles of personal characteristics, place of residence, leisure activities, mental health, and social outcomes. A cross-sectional online survey was undertaken. A sample of 155 adults responded, with a mean age of 34.5 years (SD = 13.2), and with 54.1% identifying as female. An analysis revealed experiences of loneliness across the sample. In addition, age was moderately associated with loneliness, while psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and social networks were significantly associated with loneliness. Depressive symptoms were a positive predictor for loneliness, and social networks were a negative predictor for loneliness. This study has confirmed findings from previous research and provided new information on loneliness, which can guide future research and interventions to prevent or support people who suffer from loneliness.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11090425
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 356: A Literature Review on the Usage of
           Agent-Based Modelling to Study Policies for Managing International
           Migration

    • Authors: Gabriele De Luca, Thomas J. Lampoltshammer, Shahanaz Parven, Johannes Scholz
      First page: 356
      Abstract: This literature review is dedicated to the subject of agent-based modelling for the system of international migration, and of the modelling of policies that are known to aid in its management. The reason for the selection of agent-based modelling as a framework for studying international migration is that the system of international migration presents the characteristics of a complex system: notably, its property of emergence, which therefore imposes the usage of a methodology for its modelling that is capable of reflecting its emergent traits. The policies that we study are those that intervene in the country of origin of emigrants and that are aimed at decreasing the aggregate volume of emigrants from that country. The reason for this choice is that policies in the countries of origin have become particularly attractive today, especially in European countries, under the assumption that it should be possible to prevent the migrants from reaching the point of destination of their journey if some kind of action is undertaken before the migrants arrive. We start by discussing the theoretical constraints that suggest how this approach may only partially be valid. Then, to assist the development of future agent-based models that study migration, we identify via topic mining the ten topics that are most commonly discussed in the literature on the application to the international migration of agent-based models; this lets us highlight the characteristics of an agent-based model that should be included when the research task relates to the usage of ABM to study international migration and its associated policies. Finally, we indicate why the existing literature on the modelling of international migration is missing a key aspect that is required to correctly model policies: the integration between agent-based approaches and systems dynamics.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080356
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 357: Sovereign Surfing in the Society of
           

    • Authors: Kalle Jonasson, Jonnie Eriksson
      First page: 357
      Abstract: In “Postscript on Societies of Control”, French philosopher Gilles Deleuze proclaimed that “Everywhere surfing has replaced the older sports”. By this, he alluded to Foucault’s thoughts on older societal regimes and power diagrams of sovereignty and discipline, and that now such models have been supplemented with governance through control and allegations of increased freedom. This article has as its point of departure the potential of sports to reflect social change. Contemporaneously to the coining of Deleuze’s surfing sentence, a new sport emerges: parkour, in which practitioners “surf” the urban realm. This practice gained attention globally when it was featured in the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale. The analysis in this article revolves around the different ways of moving in and through the environment in the renowned parkour chase in the beginning of the movie. How do different kinds of displacement in the parkour chase of Casino Royale relate to the transition between the societies described by Deleuze, and what new adaptations emerge and what old logics and models return' It is concluded that the older forms of power prevail and that the ideal of the society of control cannot be realised.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080357
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 358: Narrating Resistant Citizenships
           through Two Pandemics

    • Authors: Corinne Squire, Jamilson Bernardo de Lemos
      First page: 358
      Abstract: Covid has intensified inequalities in the UK, particularly for those already living with structural disadvantage, and despite community and popular resistance to those losses. Covid has also disproportionately affected people with HIV, especially those already living with multi-dimensional inequalities. However, many people with HIV have, as they have done before, made strong and often successful efforts to resist and to restore or reconstruct their citizenships, in opposition to dominant, dispossessing discourses during Covid times. A narrative approach offers a means of mapping these citizenly technologies. This article draws on a 2020 study conducted with 16 people living with HIV in the UK. The study explored, through telephone semi-structured interviews, the health, economic, and psychosocial resources with which these participants lived with HIV and how Covid has impacted those resources. Narrative analysis showed losses of HIV and other health resources, constituting reductions in health citizenship, resisted largely by reconstitutions of alternatives within the HIV sector; losses of economic citizenship, despite oppositional, anti-political attempts to retain it, and of psychosocial citizenship, in spite of family and friendship networks; resistant, ‘alter’ development of renewed HIV citizenships; and across fields, resistance by complaint. This study indicates that ‘de-citizening’ citizenship losses are likely to also affect other groups with long-term conditions, illnesses, and disabilities. Resistant ‘re-citizening’ technologies, while important, had limited effects. The study suggests potential future resistant effects of repeated ‘complaint’ about Covid-era citizenship losses, and the more general significance of histories of dissent for future effective resistance.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080358
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 359: Perceptions of Trust in the Context
           of Social Cohesion in Selected Rural Communities of South Africa

    • Authors: Fundiswa T. Khaile, Nicolette V. Roman, Kezia R. October, Maria Van Staden, Tolulope V. Balogun
      First page: 359
      Abstract: Although nuances around the definitions and contextualization of social cohesion subsist, this paper views social cohesion through the lens of social cooperation and togetherness within a collective in geopolitical terms, expressed in the attitudes and behaviours of its members. In many countries, including South Africa, social cohesion remains an ideal to strive for and achieve. Extant studies suggest that trust is one of the key factors in building social cohesion. As such, this paper aims to explore trust in the context of social cohesion. This study attempts to address the knowledge gaps regarding the views, feelings, and experiences around trust and also make a contribution to the qualitative inquiry of trust in the context of social cohesion in rural communities of South Africa. Accordingly, the perceptions and experiences of people in two rural communities (Lambert’s Bay and Philippolis) regarding trust in the context of social cohesion were explored. A qualitative methodology was employed in order to gain a deeper understanding of the perceptions of trust. A total of 19 participants were interviewed, comprising of community stakeholders and parents. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect data in face-to-face interviews with participants. Data collected were analysed using Braun and Clark’s thematic analysis. The study found that trust among community members in both Lambert’s Bay and Philippolis was limited. In instances where there was trust, it was mainly amongst participants who know each other compared to individuals who do not know each other. Thus, in both communities, generalised trust continues to be a challenge.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080359
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 360: Importance of Skills Development for
           Ensuring Graduates Employability: The Case of Bangladesh

    • Authors: Md Jahangir Alam, Keiichi Ogawa, Sheikh Rashid Bin Islam
      First page: 360
      Abstract: Graduate employability is a multifaceted concept considering the Sustainable Development Goals. Graduate employability and skills development are also significant determinants for future career success. Graduate employability has seen more sweeping emphasis and concerns in national and global job markets, due to the ever-rising number of unemployed people, which has increased even more due to COVID-19. Due to its importance, this study investigates the current state of skill development initiatives in Bangladesh and the perceptions of university graduates regarding skill development for their future employability. This study uses mixed-method research. Data was collected through surveys and in-depth interviews; various probabilistic and non-probabilistic sample selection methods were used. A total of 437 participants responded to this study. After analysis, the data was shown descriptively. The empirical findings of this study demonstrated that university graduates are well-aware of the skill development requirements for their future employability. However, university graduates face many obstacles in acquiring these necessary skill development opportunities. Therefore, the government and relevant stakeholders must work together to alleviate the obstacles. Furthermore, this study includes recommendations that can assist in developing a model for skill development programs and initiatives in the country for university graduates to ensure their future employability.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080360
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 361: Clientelism, Turnout and
           Incumbents’ Performance in Chilean Local Government Elections

    • Authors: Mauricio Morales, Fabián Belmar
      First page: 361
      Abstract: Parties and their leaders are linked programmatically and non-programmatically with citizens, incentivising the latter to vote in elections and seeking to influence their choices. In this paper, we analyse the effects of politician–voter linkages on the electoral performance of incumbent mayors in Chile and on electoral turnout in their municipalities. To measure the linkages, we use personal meetings that mayors hold with citizens. While some mayors use this mechanism to solve problems of general interest (programmatic meetings), others do so to provide bureaucratic advantages or benefits for their constituents (non-programmatic meetings). We use a database of 44,162 personal meetings aggregated from Chile’s 345 municipalities. We argue that increases in the number of meetings positively impact electoral turnout and increase the chances of success for incumbent mayors when they compete for re-election. This effect is particularly significant in the case of electoral performance and the re-election of mayors in municipalities with high levels of rurality. Finally, we report that the meetings not only help mayors to link with their constituents but also help them to publicise their political work.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080361
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 362: Rapid Evidence Assessment Protocol
           for the Meta-Analysis of Initiatives, Interventions and Programmes That
           Target Rural NEETs

    • Authors: Paul Flynn, Veronica McCauley, Alen Mujčinović, Vesela Radović, Stefan Bojnec, Francisco Simões
      First page: 362
      Abstract: The acronym NEET refers to youths aged between 15 and 34 years old who are excluded from employment, education or training. However, historically, the NEET demographic has been depicted as a largely homogenous group. Against this backdrop and given the dependency of rural economies on agricultural practices for survival, such practices have been in decline for a number of years, seriously threatening rural communities’ sustainability. While these rural NEETs can present as registered unemployed and also within the reporting statistics of various different state-funded initiatives, interventions and programmes, in the case of Rural NEETs, there is a dearth of reporting categories that highlight the specificity of this group resulting in their presence being largely overlooked within official dissemination. In order to advance this emergent field of research, presented here is a Rapid Evidence Assessment protocol that will aid future work of the authors and for others to adapt and/or adopt.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080362
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 363: Perceived Organizational Culture and
           Turnover Intentions: The Serial Mediating Effect of Perceived
           Organizational Support and Job Insecurity

    • Authors: Mónica Salvador, Ana Moreira, Liliana Pitacho
      First page: 363
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze the relationship between perceived organizational culture (POC) and turnover intentions (TI) and if this relationship is mediated by perceived organizational support (POS) and job insecurity (JI). For this purpose, the following hypotheses were formulated: (1) POC (support, goals, innovation, and rules) has a negative and significant relationship with TI; (2) POC (support, goals, innovation, and rules) has a positive and significant relationship with POS (affective and cognitive); (3) POS (affective and cognitive) has a negative and significant relationship with TI; (4) POS (affective and cognitive) has a negative and significant relationship with JI; (5) JI has a positive and significant relationship with TI; and (6) POS (affective and cognitive) and JI both represent a serial indirect effect in the relationship between POC (support, goals, innovation and rules) and the TI. This study’s sample includes 661 participants working in organizations based in Portugal. The results indicate that only the perception of supportive and goal culture has a negative and significant association with TI; POC has a positive and significant association with POS; POS has a negative and significant association with JI and TI; JI has a positive and significant association with TI; affective POS and JI have a serial mediation effect in the relationship between supportive and goal POC and TI; cognitive POS and JI have a serial mediation effect in the relationship between goal POC and TI.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080363
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 364: Possibilities of Strengthening the
           Independence of the Public Prosecutor’s Office of the Slovak
           Republic: A System of Appointment of the Prosecutor General to the Office
           as a Key Element'

    • Authors: Bystrík Šramel
      First page: 364
      Abstract: This paper deals with the issue of the independence of the Prosecutor’s Office of the Slovak Republic as an attribute that allows the Prosecutor’s Office to actually carry out its mission, regardless of the individual interests of the parties concerned and regardless of the government’s political goals and basic beliefs. In the first chapter, the paper deals with the current constitutional regulation of the Prosecutor’s Office of the Slovak Republic in the context of the legal regulation of its independence. The author points out the problems that arise from the absence of granting the attribute of independence to the Slovak Prosecutor’s Office and emphasizes the need for its legislative anchoring. Subsequently, the paper deals with the issue of external independence, which allows the public prosecution office to carry out its tasks without being influenced by various entities from the external (political) environment. In the last chapter, the paper presents the possibilities for strengthening the current degree of external independence of the Slovak Prosecutor’s Office. The author considers it crucial to reconsider and redefine the current system of appointing the Prosecutor General and to remove political ties in the creation of this function. The author of the paper considers two variants of the system of selecting a suitable candidate for the Prosecutor General. First, it is possible to strengthen the existing system of self-government of prosecutors and to increase the scope of the powers of authorities of prosecutorial self-government, the current task of which is to ensure the protection of the rights and legitimate interests of prosecutors. The second possibility for strengthening the external independence of the Prosecutor’s Office of the Slovak Republic could be the creation of another type of Council of Prosecutors, the composition of which would be balanced and would not represent a closed system accessible only to prosecutors.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080364
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 365: The Uses of Coffee in Highly
           Demanding Work Contexts: Managing Rhythms, Sleep, and Performance

    • Authors: Elsa Pegado, Carla Rodrigues, Hélder Raposo, Ana I. Fernandes
      First page: 365
      Abstract: This paper presents a sociological approach to coffee consumption as a performance management strategy in work contexts, particularly in professions with intense work rhythms and highly responsive demands. Focusing on the daily work of three professional groups (nurses, police officers, and journalists), we analyze the social expression of coffee and how it is mobilized to deal with sleep problems, fatigue, concentration, or stress. For this purpose, three intertwined dimensions are explored: (1) the nature of these professionals’ work and the pressures for certain forms and levels of performance; (2) sleep problems as both a result of those work characteristics and a constraint on performance; and (3) the role of coffee in managing professional imperatives. The use of coffee appears as a legitimate practice in everyday working routines, due to its socializing markers, whereas additional benefits are attributed to the pharmacological properties of caffeine, given the perceived improvement in performance. The empirical data derive from a study carried out in Portugal on the use of medicines and food supplements for performance management, following a mixed methods approach. In particular, data from a questionnaire survey in a sample of 539 workers and information collected through seven focus groups with a total of 33 participants were used.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080365
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 366: “We Knew No One Else Had Our
           Back except Us”: Recommendations for Creating an Accountability Care
           Framework with Sex Workers in Eastern Canada

    • Authors: Kathleen C. Sitter, Alison Grittner, Mica R. Pabia, Heather Jarvis
      First page: 366
      Abstract: The authors report findings from a 15-month project that focused on the experiences of sex workers who live and work in an Eastern Canadian province. As part of a larger multi-phased study, 15 adults who identified as women, transgender, or non-binary, and received money or goods for sexual services, participated in photo-elicitation interviews. Drawing on a critical framing analysis, findings indicated supports—as identified and experienced by sex workers—encompassed three categories of care: self, community, and collective. These categories are described, with a particular focus on the latter two. Continuing with the care-based framework, recommendations to structure interventions draw on the role of accountability care in identifying how best to operationalize policies that promote health, well-being, and dignity of Canadian sex workers. The paper begins with a brief overview of the Canadian context and the role of supports. It follows with a discussion on the materials and methods and the results. It concludes with recommendations, limitations, and future considerations.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080366
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 367: How Has the Gender Earnings Gap in
           Ireland Changed in Thirty Years'

    • Authors: Michelle Barrett, Karina Doorley, Paul Redmond, Barra Roantree
      First page: 367
      Abstract: Since 1987, the wages of women in Ireland have been growing faster than those of men. This, coupled with a decrease in the average hours worked by men, has resulted in a reduction in the gender earnings gap in Ireland, most notably at the bottom of the earnings distribution. This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the growth of male and female wages, weekly earnings, and differences in working patterns across the wage and earnings distribution in Ireland over the last three decades, using detailed microdata covering the period 1987–2019. Using a Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition approach, based on unconditional quantile regressions for each time period, we also show how the explained and unexplained components of the gender wage gap have changed across the wage distribution. We find that the mean and median gender gap in earnings fell by one-sixth and one-quarter, respectively, between 1987 and 2019. This change is attributable to the faster growth of women’s wages compared to men’s and some convergence in the average hours worked by men and women. However, there has been relatively stable structural inequality at the top of the wage and earnings distribution over the past three decades, which points towards a persistent glass ceiling in Ireland.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080367
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 368: Post-Intervention Reconstruction and
           the Responsibility to Rebuild

    • Authors: Athanasios Stathopoulos
      First page: 368
      Abstract: This article examines the relationship between the responsibility to rebuild and post-intervention reconstruction. It aims to determine whether the current interpretation of the responsibility to rebuild is the appropriate framework for attaining the goals of post-intervention reconstruction. The article argues that, despite the urgent need for a post-intervention strategy in the aftermath of humanitarian interventions, the responsibility to rebuild, as it is currently being framed, can end up undermining the goals of post-conflict reconstruction by dissuading states from participating in atrocity prevention, inadvertently increasing atrocity crimes and delegitimizing military humanitarian interventions. The analysis identifies the need for the responsibility to rebuild to incorporate an increased respect for post bellum proportionality and self-determination.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080368
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 369: Exploring the Dynamic Shock of
           Unconventional Monetary Policy Channels on Income Inequality: A Panel VAR
           Approach

    • Authors: Lindokuhle Talent Zungu, Lorraine Greyling
      First page: 369
      Abstract: In response to the “Great Recession and Global Financial Crisis”, central banks had to deploy unconventional monetary policies (UMP) in order to fight the severe impact of the crisis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the dynamic shock of unconventional monetary policies through earning heterogeneity, income composition, and portfolio channels on income inequality in emerging economies covering the period 2000–2019, using the panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) model. A PVAR model was designed for this study because of its ability to address the dynamics of numerous entities considered in parallel. The findings suggest that the UMPs used by these countries’ central banks may have increased income inequality through all of the channels investigated in this study, as a shock to unconventional monetary policy results in a positive response in income inequality. Even when pre-tax income, held by the top 10%, is adopted to measure income inequality, the study yields similar results. It is evident that a central bank’s objective is and should be to fulfil its mandate of achieving maximum employment and price stability, thus bringing wide economic benefits. Thus, some forms of policies are more appropriate for addressing concerns about inequality (income policy or fiscal policy) than others. However, the current study alerts the central bank to the fact that monetary policies may have a wounding impact on income inequality. Therefore, the central banks should consider the cost of monetary policies on income inequality when drafting or implementing these kinds of policies.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080369
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 370: Social Media and Cross-Border
           Political Participation: A Case Study of Kyrgyz Migrants’ Online
           Activism

    • Authors: Ajar Chekirova
      First page: 370
      Abstract: In an attempt to address the debate among social science scholars regarding whether or not online political engagement is a legitimate form of political participation, this study investigates the conditions under which migrants engage politically with virtual communities, and when and how online participation spills over to real-world social mobilization. The case study of Kyrgyz migrants’ online activism in virtual social media groups and pages on Facebook and its Russian equivalents VKontakte and Odnoklassniki demonstrates that, although migrants are not likely to routinely participate in, initiate, or continuously engage with political conversations on these platforms, crisis conditions, such as the October revolution in 2020, the first COVID wave the summer of that same year, and the Kyrgyz–Tajik border conflict in April–May 2021, trigger bursts of political activism on social media which carry over to the real-world in the form of fundraising and protest mobilization.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080370
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 371: Emerging Themes on Factors
           Influencing Career and Employment Decisions: Voices of Individuals with
           Disabilities from Four Gulf Countries

    • Authors: Maha Al-Hendawi, Colleen A. Thoma, Hawraa Habeeb, Muhammad Salman Khair
      First page: 371
      Abstract: Understanding the range of factors influencing career and employment decisions of individuals with disabilities is crucial for policy makers, businesses, and other stakeholders to support and integrate individuals with disabilities in the economic and social capital of the Arab-Gulf. The purpose of this sttudy was to investigate the factors that influence individuals with disabilities in making decisions about their career and employment. We explore how Arab adults with disabilities explain their career and employment decisions experiences, challenges, and barriers. We interviewed 15 adults with disabilities from four Arab-Gulf countries: Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. Our findings reveal eight factors that influence individuals with disabilities in their decision-making process about work and their future goals. Two distinct emerging themes were identified as influencing career and employment decisions for individuals with disabilities: individual attributes and environmental factors. Self-determination theory guided our analysis for this research study. The study provided in-depth understanding of the factors that impact employment persistence and individuals with disabilities in the Gulf region. The findings from this base-line study has implications for transition and self-determination. Thus, the study discusses ways to improve the quality of services and supports for individuals with disabilities in the Arab-Gulf and their families.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080371
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 372: Examining the Role of Source
           Evaluation in Athlete Advocacy: How Can Advocate Athletes Inspire Public
           Involvement in Racial Issues'

    • Authors: Waku Ogiso, Hiroaki Funahashi, Yoshiyuki Mano
      First page: 372
      Abstract: Athlete advocacy is recognized as an important method of persuading the public on social issues, and it demonstrates the role of athletes in achieving racial justice. However, how athlete advocacy can gain the persuasiveness to encourage public involvement remains unclear. This study investigates how the evaluation of an advocate athlete functions to encourage public issue involvement, focusing on Naomi Osaka’s racial advocacy. In particular, driven by balance theory and attribution theory, this study examines the effects of five sociopsychological factors on public involvement in racial issues: perceived credibility, hypocrisy, cause fit, effort expended, and role model status of advocate athletes. Data were collected from a cross-sectional online survey of 855 Japanese adults who were aware of Osaka’s advocacy. The findings highlight that public involvement in racial issues is significantly associated with the evaluations of the athlete’s credibility and hypocrisy. These evaluations are further influenced by perceptions of the athlete’s cause fit and role model status. This study enriches the literature on the management of sports for social change by demonstrating the importance of source evaluation in athlete advocacy in achieving advocacy outcomes. Our evidence implies that athletes looking to promote racial justice issues should effectively be seen as credible, knowledgeable, and non-hypocritical in their issue advocacy.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080372
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 373: Researching Students’
           Experiences of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Harassment:
           Reflections and Recommendations from Surveys of Three UK HEIs

    • Authors: Anna Bull, Marian Duggan, Louise Livesey
      First page: 373
      Abstract: In the US, ‘campus climate surveys’ are an established measure of the prevalence of, and students’ awareness of and attitudes to sexual and gender-based violence and harassment (SGBVH). They are regularly carried out by universities to assist SGBVH prevention and responses. Such surveys have only recently started to be carried out within UK higher education institutions (HEIs) and the three authors of this article all independently undertook such surveys in different HEIs. Comparing our experiences of undertaking these surveys across three HEIs allows us to explore similarities and differences in our experiences of this type of research, in particular the challenges which arose in carrying out such research in three very different types of HEI. This article presents reflections on the methodological and political challenges of such work. We discuss our rationales for initiating these projects, the methodological approaches we employed, the governance structures navigated in pursuing the research and the difficulties that arose in conducting and reporting on the research. This article will be of interest to academics, activists, and policy-makers—domestically and internationally—who wish to carry out such research. By comparing approaches, we draw attention to issues and potential impediments of relevance to others wanting to embark on similar work within their own HEI.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080373
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 374: The Political Significance of
           Overeducation: Status Inconsistency, Attitudes towards the Political
           System and Political Participation in a High-Overeducation Context

    • Authors: Carmen Voces, Miguel Caínzos
      First page: 374
      Abstract: This article examines the impact of overeducation on attitudes towards the political system and political participation. Using survey data from Spain, diagonal reference models were estimated to contrast hypotheses based on the theory of status inconsistency. The evidence links overeducation to political attitudes (lower satisfaction with the functioning of democracy, lower external political efficacy) and political participation (greater participation in protests, higher membership in associations). Most of these effects are modest and some of them are moderated by age. Overall, the findings indicate that overeducation has relevant political consequences, mainly among young, university-educated workers doing jobs with low educational requirements. However, overeducation does not pose a major threat to political stability.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080374
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 375: Reported User-Generated Online Hate
           Speech: The ‘Ecosystem’, Frames, and Ideologies

    • Authors: Iztok Šori, Vasja Vehovar
      First page: 375
      Abstract: The spread of hate speech challenges the health of democracy and media systems in contemporary societies. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of user-generated online hate speech reported by Internet users to national monitoring organizations, in particular its ‘ecosystem‘, discursive elements, and links to political discourses. First, we analyzed the main characteristics of the reported statements (source, removal rate, and targets) to reveal the media and political context of reported user-generated online hate speech. Next, we focused on hate speech statements against migrants and analyzed their discursive elements with the method of critical frame analysis (frames, actors, metaphors, and references) to understand the corresponding discourse. The main discursive feature of these statements is the prognosis, which calls for death and violence, so we could label this communication as ‘executive speech.’ Other key features are references to weapons and Nazi crimes from WWII, indicating the authors’ extreme-right ideological convictions, and the metaphors, employed to provoke disgust from migrants, present them as culturally inferior and raise fears about their supposed violent behavior. The corresponding diagnoses frame migrants as a threat in a similar way to populist political discourses of othering and complement these in providing ‘final’ solutions in prognoses.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080375
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 376: Correlates of Acquiring a Traumatic
           Brain Injury before Experiencing Homelessness: An Exploratory Study

    • Authors: Stephanie Chassman, Katie Calhoun, Blair Bacon, Sara Chaparro Rucobo, Emily Goodwin, Kim Gorgens, Daniel Brisson
      First page: 376
      Abstract: The rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are significantly higher among individuals experiencing homelessness compared to the general population. The relationship between TBI and homelessness is likely bi-directional as factors associated with homelessness may increase the risk of acquiring a TBI, and factors associated with TBI could lead to homelessness. This study builds upon previous research by investigating the following research questions: (1) What are the rates of TBI among a sample of individuals experiencing homelessness' (2) Does a TBI experience precede or follow an initial period of homelessness' And, (3) What are the correlates of TBI prior to homelessness including self-reported mental health variables' A cross-sectional study design and purposive sampling were utilized to interview 115 English-speaking adults (ages 18–73) in two Colorado cities. Results show, 71% of total participants reported a significant history of TBI, and of those, 74% reported a TBI prior to experiencing homelessness. Our logistic regression models reveal a significant relationship between mental health and acquiring a TBI prior to experiencing homelessness. Implications include prioritizing permanent supportive housing followed by other supportive services.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080376
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 377: Volunteer Working during COVID-19 in
           Jordanian Community: Advantages and Challenges

    • Authors: Huda A. Alhajjaj, Hana H. Al Nabulsi
      First page: 377
      Abstract: This study deals with the crisis volunteering during the lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan. This study aims to identify the skills that volunteers acquire during voluntary work. Moreover, it aims to identify whether there are significant differences for volunteer difficulties and advantages regarding gender, age, and education level. Researchers employed a quantitative method, using a questionnaire to achieve the goals of this study. The sample was 121 voluntary people (females and males) during the pandemic in a Jordanian community. The results of this study have shown that volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic has had a positive impact on volunteers during this period in terms of acquiring a variety of skills. Furthermore, there were numerous difficulties faced by volunteers, and there were no statistically significant differences in the level of skills acquired by volunteers as a result of their participation in volunteering.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11080377
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 426: Asylum, Racism, and the Structural
           Production of Sexual Violence against Racialised Women in Exile in Paris

    • Authors: Jane Freedman, Nina Sahraoui, Elsa Tyszler
      First page: 426
      Abstract: The recent arrival of refugees from Ukraine has thrown into sharp focus the racialised colonial underpinnings of the French asylum and refugee system, as the open-door welcome afforded to Ukrainians, supposedly “closer” to the French population, highlights the rejection and marginalisation of “others” who seek refuge in the country. The current situation lays bare not only the “double standards” applied to refugees depending on their country of origin and race, but also the colonial foundations of the French asylum system as a whole. This might be seen as particularly significant in a country where even within academic research on asylum and refugees the racial and colonial foundations of the current system are rarely mentioned, and where the principle of Republican universalism has been consistently used to both hide and justify racialised and gendered forms of inequality and discrimination. In this contribution we wish to explore the ways in which the coloniality of the French asylum system works to deny exiled women access to welfare and social services, creating systems of racialised and gendered violence against them. We highlight the ways in which the State not only neglects these women, but actively contributes to violence through its racialised neo-liberal policies. The withdrawal of access to welfare and social services, including housing, welfare payments or health services, all form a part of this system of structural violence which leads to increasing levels of harm. Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Paris region, our article aims to emphasise that the structural production of gendered violence, particularly sexual violence against racialised exiled women, illustrates the coloniality of the asylum system and more broadly of the migration regime, which manifests itself in policies of exclusion, neglect and endangerment—including death.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100426
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 427: Just Chill! An Experimental Approach
           to Stereotypical Attributions Regarding Young Activists

    • Authors: Catarina Farinha, Miriam Rosa
      First page: 427
      Abstract: Climate change is a crucial issue, which is mobilized by activists. However, activists are targeted with negative stereotypes, hindering their influence. Young activists are environmentally conscious, but the stereotypical attributions assigned to them are unknown, with competing predictions in the literature (for being activist vs being young). In two studies, we aimed at experimentally examining the stereotypical dimensions that are ascribed to activists (youth vs adult) based on the Stereotype Content Model (SCM), as well as a morality/trustworthiness dimension. Considering that activists are generally considered as high-competent, but low-warm, while youth are considered the opposite (low-competence and high-warmth), we hypothesized the impacts on morality/trustworthiness. Greta Thunberg and Jane Fonda were the personalities used in Study 1 (N = 276), randomly assigned to participants while keeping the same discourse excerpt. Thunberg was penalized in all stereotypical dimensions. In Study 2 (N = 228), fictional characters (teenager or adult) were used instead. As hypothesized, no differences were found in the warmth or competence dimensions, only in the morality/trustworthiness dimension, penalizing the young activist. These results highlight the importance of studying environmental activists considering different social categories in stereotypical appraisals. They also contribute to a better understanding of general resistance towards activists, as well as the factors that are detrimental to their social influence.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100427
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 428: Backlash by Men against the
           Socio-Economic and Political Promotion of Women in Europe

    • Authors: Anne-Marie Parth
      First page: 428
      Abstract: The gender gap in voting for far-right parties is significant in many European countries. While most studies focus on how men and women differ in their nationalist and populist attitudes, it is unknown how the socio-economic and political promotion of women is associated with the gender gap in far-right political orientation. The following paper compares the effect of four different spheres of gender equality on this gender gap. By estimating multilevel logit models for more than 25 European countries and testing the mechanism via a socially conservative attitude toward gendered division of work, I find that the visible field of representation in particular—measured by the share of women in parliament and women on boards—is associated with a gender gap in far-right orientation. This paper contributes to the literature in two important ways: first, it combines policy feedback with cultural backlash theory, enlarging the scope of both theories; second, it demonstrates the importance of gender equality policies for the study of the far-right gender gap.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100428
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 429: Trans Territorialization: Building
           Empowerment beyond Identity Politics

    • Authors: Stathis G. Yeros, Leonardo Chiesi
      First page: 429
      Abstract: Transgender/gender non-conforming (TGNC) people and especially people of color face homelessness and housing precarity in the United States at much higher rates than other LGBTQ+ people. In response, during the past decade, TGNC-centered organizations have spearheaded new forms of housing activism, such as cooperatives and Community Land Trusts, building spaces with distinct spatial and aesthetic characteristics. This paper situates those spaces within histories of LGBTQ+ placemaking. It advances the notion of trans territorialization through the analysis of a case study, My Sistah’s House, an organization led by TGNC people of color in Memphis, Tennessee. We analyze trans territorialization as an activist form of spatial appropriation distinct from the better-studied gayborhood model. We assess its generalizable characteristics at three distinct but interrelated scales: dwelling units, community, and cultural embodiment.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100429
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 430: Engineers and Social Responsibility:
           Influence of Social Work Experience, Hope and Empathic Concern on Social
           Entrepreneurship Intentions among Graduate Students

    • Authors: Anasuya K. Lingappa, Aditi Kamath, Asish Oommen Mathew
      First page: 430
      Abstract: The synergy of technology-based innovative solutions and Social Entrepreneurship carries an immense potential to provide solutions for numerous environmental, social, and economic issues faced by an emerging economy like India. For an engineering professional, a commitment to society is regarded as integral and can be thought of as being impelled by involvement in various social causes. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze the influence of the social work experience of engineering students on Empathic Concern and the newly identified construct, Hope. Additionally, the effect of Empathic Concern and Hope on Social Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Social Entrepreneurship Intention (SEI) is examined. Through a questionnaire survey of undergraduate students from 49 engineering and technical institutions across the country, 243 responses were collected. The research employed the Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) to test the proposed hypotheses. This study found that students’ involvement and experience in social activities significantly influenced both Empathic Concern and Hope. Empathic Concern and Hope, the newly introduced antecedent, significantly influenced Social Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy. In line with the previous studies, self-efficacy positively and significantly influenced SEI. The establishment of Hope as an antecedent to study SEI is particularly novel and contributes to future Social Entrepreneurship research. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge on SEI of engineering students in an emerging nation where studies are particularly scarce, and techno-Social Entrepreneurship may be the ray of hope to address social, environmental, and economic concerns.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100430
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 431: Adaptation and Distribution of a
           Complex Sensitivity-Training Program in the Eastern European Region

    • Authors: Katalin Orbán-Sebestyén, Viktória Pázmány, Zsuzsanna Sáringerné Szilárd, Judit Farkas, Csaba Ökrös, Glenn M. Roswal
      First page: 431
      Abstract: Research has shown that an inclusive way of thinking helps to promote social interactions on and off the sports field. The most important process of accepting differences is sensitization, which is to achieve the positive change of an understanding and accepting environment through purposeful effort and involvement. The role of teachers of people with disabilities is significant in this process. The KézenFogva Foundation has applied this to develop an inclusive pedagogical, theoretical, and practical pilot project, the “SHAPE Complex Sensitisation Programme”, an innovative special pedagogy infrastructure which highlighted all practices promoting the realization of inclusion. After their training, teachers (majority educators) participating in the project (N = 26) applied the acquired knowledge in theme weeks among their students (N = 191), extending sensitization by further dissemination. Besides showing the direction and extent of changes in the sensitivities of teachers and their students (emotional, intellectual, and behavioral) with the help of the attitude scale, CATCH, the research was designed to introduce an innovative way of inducement of non-disabled athletes as well as special sport professionals. Although only a limited number of teachers could participate in the training, the success and effectiveness of the program was illustrated that even with this small sample, changes in the attitudes of the participants could be detected and that the training held by the foundation and its partners was effective, along with a noticeable change in the attitude of students.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100431
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 432: Legacies of British Imperialism in
           the Contemporary UK Asylum–Welfare Nexus

    • Authors: Rachel Humphris
      First page: 432
      Abstract: This article traces the imperial roots of the contemporary asylum–welfare nexus. It explores how English colonial governance exported Poor Law legislation firstly to colonial America (USA) and secondly to British North America (Canada). It argues that these three countries are an Anglophone shared moral space of law and governance, revealing the common unresolved contradictions underpinning contemporary debates about who ‘deserves’ entry, under what conditions, and why. Historical perspectives unsettle assumptions about the primacy of national geopolitical borders and the exceptionalism of contemporary migration. This article uses historical sociology to trace why and how national sovereignty took primacy over municipalities in controlling the mobility of people and the concomitant moral underpinnings. It then draws on new empirical research in three pioneering ‘sanctuary cities’ to explore how cities contest the entwining of welfare and migration governance. However, the article explores how these initiatives often reproduce justifications based on ‘deservingness’ and ‘contribution’. Through tracing the common threads that led to these forms of governance, we can understand they are not self-evident. A historical perspective allows us to ask different questions and open realms of alternative possibilities.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100432
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 433: Perceptions of Colombian Teachers
           about the Didactics of Social Sciences

    • Authors: Nancy Palacios Mena, Diego García Monteagudo, Liliana Pizzinato
      First page: 433
      Abstract: The article seeks to answer the question about the perceptions that teachers have in training and in practice on the didactics of the social sciences in Colombia. To this end, a method with an interpretative approach with a mixed design is used to integrate the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data produced on these perceptions in the context of basic and secondary education. The results present from the perceptions of teachers some correlations between the didactics they claim to use and the way in which it is expressed in their pedagogical practice. The conclusions contribute to the design, implementation, and evaluation of educational policies in education, especially those aimed at improving the teaching and learning processes of the social sciences at different educational levels.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100433
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 434: 2.0 Society Convergences:
           Coexistence, Otherness, Communication and Edutainment

    • Authors: Cirit Mateus De Oro, Rodrigo Mario Campis Carrillo, Ignacio Aguaded, Daladier Jabba Molinares, Ana María Erazo Coronado
      First page: 434
      Abstract: The research finds justification given the incidence and magnitude they currently have in the human social sphere in the framework of the so-called Society 2.0. Derived from this framework, this approach must specially consider education as a vital social process. The same happens with information and communication technologies since they are frequently and increasingly used as mediation in educational contexts and because of their undeniable mediation in human interactions. Consequently, one of the most relevant questions tackled in this research refers to the disciplines required to provide a sufficiently broad theoretical and conceptual background for the scientific basis of the convergence between communication, edutainment, coexistence and otherness to effectively transform the last two concepts into measurable variables. The paper results from the content and a systemic analysis using ATLAS.ti software of published scientific documents for the last two decades about the phenomena of coexistence and otherness. As a main result, the researchers present a taxonomy that includes dimensions and indicators that enable the conversion of both constructs into measurable variables. Thus, a convergence to address the scientific study of coexistence and otherness from communication and edutainment emerged. The review also provides a theoretical basis for designing intervention models aimed at promoting coexistence. Edutainment is also incorporated as a novel tool to promote pro-social attitudes.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100434
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 435: Comparison of the World’s Best
           Pension Systems: The Lesson for Indonesia

    • Authors: Abdul Hadi, Emese Bruder, Widhayani Puri Setioningtyas
      First page: 435
      Abstract: Iceland and the Netherlands presently have the best pension systems in the world, according to the Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index 2021. In the meantime, Indonesia ranked 35th. This study compares and analyzes Iceland’s and the Netherlands’ current pension systems as the finest in the world, as well as the future threats to their pension systems, and applies the lessons learned from both nations to Indonesia, which intends to alter its public pension system. According to a comparative analysis of Iceland, the Netherlands, and Indonesia, the overall pension systems of Iceland and the Netherlands are advantageous for ensuring adequacy and sustainability of the pension system. However, Iceland and the Netherlands may suffer adequacy and sustainability issues in the long run. As a result, they should continue to evaluate their own countries’ present structures, notably in demographics. Concerning the Indonesia pension system, Indonesia policymakers should consider enforcing the social security system, since these systems have enabled Iceland and the Netherlands to have lower poverty rates. Furthermore, the Indonesian government should strengthen the existing PAYG and DB pension systems, raise the minimum pension eligibility age, contribute to the system regularly, and apply the cost-of-living adjustments to improve the adequacy and sustainability of the civil service pension system. Simultaneously, civil servants should contribute more to ensure the long-term viability of this pension system. The Indonesian government should implement such adjustments, as they would enhance budgetary sustainability in the long run.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100435
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 436: Beyond Usual Suspects' Inclusion
           and Influence of Non-State Actors in Online Public Consultations in
           Croatia

    • Authors: Igor Vidačak
      First page: 436
      Abstract: Despite the increasing use of various e-democracy tools in shaping new policies, there is still a general lack of empirical studies on the influence of non-state actors in online public consultations. This article addresses this gap in the academic literature by focusing on the case of Croatia, which may have relevant broader practical and theoretical implications due to the legally binding rules of institutional responsiveness to individual policy inputs received during e-consultations and the growing interest of citizens and various interest groups to get engaged in this form of policy dialogue. Drawing on the novel data set that includes the responses of 39 government bodies to 51,250 policy inputs of interest groups and individual citizens to online consultations during the first three years since the launch of the government consultation platform, the paper seeks to analyse the influence of different types of non-state actors on the outcomes of government-led online public consultations. Contrary to general expectations about the predominance of more resourceful interest groups, it is argued that individual citizens exert a noticeable influence on the results of online policy consultations of Croatian government bodies. It is also claimed that the specific design and patterns of online public consultations, especially improved responsiveness of government bodies, contribute to the pluralisation of interests, equalizing political representation, and empowering individual citizens and other new actors, beyond traditional interest groups and “usual suspects” in national decision-making processes.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100436
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 437: Social Support and Self-Efficacy on
           Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Conflict and Commitment

    • Authors: Marina Mondo, Jessica Pileri, Federica Carta, Silvia De Simone
      First page: 437
      Abstract: Turnover intentions are a phenomenon that affects the life of organizations and causes highly negative consequences. Based on previous studies, it is possible to consider antecedents to turnover in terms of both individual and social perceived resources, which previous research does not usually examine simultaneously. The aim of this study was to explore the role of both resources (individual and social) on turnover intentions. Thus, we hypothesized that perceived social support and self-efficacy have an impact on turnover intentions and that this relationship is mediated by interpersonal conflict and Affective Commitment. A total of 392 Italian employees completed a self-report questionnaire. A structural equation model was tested. The results showed that interpersonal conflict and Affective Commitment fully mediated the relationship between social support, self-efficacy and turnover intentions. Practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100437
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 438: Which Skills Are the Most Absent
           among University Graduates in the Labour Market' Evidence from
           Slovakia

    • Authors: Jarmila Lazíková, Ivan Takáč, Ľubica Rumanovská, Tomáš Michalička, Michal Palko
      First page: 438
      Abstract: The most important purposes of Slovakian universities are research and education. The main goal of university education is to prepare highly skilled graduates to be employed in the labour market either at home or abroad. To achieve this goal, universities need to receive feedback from their graduates as to whether they are satisfied with their education and whether their employers are satisfied with their skills. The results obtained in this study show that, except for graduates from technical sciences, most graduates of Slovakian universities are not satisfied with the study programmes they chose. There are various factors affecting the satisfaction of graduates with their study programme; however, the most important ones were related to their employability and their employment in their field of study. Moreover, potential employers have greater expectations in relation to soft skills than graduates have acquired. The greatest differences between the required and acquired skills were seen in soft skills, such as the ability to take responsibility, to communicate with people, to negotiate, and to adapt to change, regardless of the field of study. Other than foreign language skills, the level of required hard skills was only slightly higher than the level acquired. According to these results, we make recommendations for universities, politicians, and potential employers; however, only reasonable cooperation among them can lead to graduates being satisfied with their chosen study programme.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100438
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 439: Moral Panic over Fake Service Animals

    • Authors: John Sorenson, Atsuko Matsuoka
      First page: 439
      Abstract: We use Stanley Cohen’s moral panic framework to examine concerns about fake service animals and to illuminate processes of intersectionality that shape our social relations and systems. Applying Critical Animal Studies and Critical Disability Theory, we examine media reports about fake service animals in North America to explore how these anxieties constitute a moral panic, the interests at work, and underlying ideology that motivates outrage about animals considered to be out of place. We found that classifying other animals as legitimate or not affects those animals but also impacts humans. The findings indicate that speciesist representations and restrictions imposed on nonhuman animals maintain ongoing discrimination against humans with disabilities. The study reveals how speciesism sustains ableism and advances particular economic interests. Thus, we encourage expanding research ontology to examine speciesist power relations in intersectional analysis to dismantle ableist oppressive relationships and achieve trans-species social justice (social justice beyond humans).
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100439
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 440: The Gokteik Viaduct: A Tale of
           Gentlemanly Capitalists, Unseen People, and a Bridge to Nowhere

    • Authors: David C. Wohlers, Tony Waters
      First page: 440
      Abstract: This article explores technical and socio-political factors that impacted construction of the Gokteik Viaduct railway bridge in Shan State, Burma, and the recurring failure of political powers to complete a continuous railway between Rangoon (Yangon) and Yunnan. Under rather contentious circumstances, the British government awarded an American steel company with the contract to construct what would become the world’s longest railway trestle bridge at the time of its completion in 1900. As an engineering marvel of its era, the Gokteik Viaduct is in the same category as the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Until now, however, scarce research has explored the Gokteik Viaduct in terms of historicity and factors that ultimately prevented this structure from fulfilling its intended purpose of transporting trainloads of marketable goods between Burma and Yunnan. This raises an ironic question: How could engineers construct such a remarkable bridge to service a railway that was never finished' Furthermore, why does the Gokteik Viaduct largely remain unexamined in terms of its noteworthy place in the geopolitics of Southeast Asia' In answering such questions, the authors conclude that the “unseen” story of the Gokteik Viaduct is not only about engineering prowess but of a political and social environment that continues to bedevil massive infrastructure projects in Upper Burma today.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100440
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 441: Tourism Vulnerability Amid the
           Pandemic Crisis: Impacts and Implications for Rebuilding Resilience of a
           Local Tourism System in Vietnam

    • Authors: Da Van Huynh, Long Hai Duong, Nhan Trong Nguyen, Thuy Thi Kim Truong
      First page: 441
      Abstract: Despite the devastating impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the global tourism industry, a few countries have attempted to foster their local tourism economies’ recovery by offering distinctive mechanisms which facilitate their safe tourism destinations to restart domestic tourism operations during the pandemic waves. However, there has been little research investigating how different sectors of a local tourism system, particularly in a developing country, seriously suffer from the pandemic crisis but gain encouraging revitalization from the pandemic shocks. Therefore, this study employed Can Tho city as a case study to examine the holistic impact of COVID-19 on different sectors of the local tourism industry and explore the key factors/players contributing to the resilience empowerment and adaptive recovery of the local tourism system. As such, a semi-structured interview approach was employed in this study to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The study recruited 40 representatives of tourism-related authorities at different levels and 280 managers of different tourism sectors in the local tourism industry. The findings generally reveal the disastrous impacts of the pandemic on the local tourism industry across all tourism sectors but show an unexpected recovery of tourism businesses during the pandemic crisis. The integrated findings also highlight the pivotal role of local governments in crisis governance and destination recovery support during and after the pandemic waves. Similarly, the proactive engagement of local enterprises was found critical toward rebuilding their organizational resilience, and such adaptive transformations were essential for tourism business recovery in new normal conditions. The economic policy response and effective financial schemes were common expected measures toward the tourism industry’s recovery in the post-pandemic crisis.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100441
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 442: An Exploratory Study of Digital
           Inequities and Work in the Redevelopment of a Southeastern American City

    • Authors: Tianca Crocker, Clysha Whitlow, Haley Cooper, Claire Patrick, Avangelyne Padilla, Mia Jammal, Rebecca Ince
      First page: 442
      Abstract: Nearly 6 million workers support the multi-billion-dollar digital economy as one of the fastest-growing sectors in the U.S. labor market. Middle-skill jobs in the digital economy sector that pay higher wages and do not require a bachelor’s degree are underrepresented people of intersectional marginalized identities. This exploratory study builds upon previous research on digital inequities by examining the digital economy values, behavior, and interests of a small sample of residents in an area of Charlotte, North Carolina with known digital, social, and economic inequities. Analyses included descriptive and bivariate statistics. Given the exploratory nature of the study, no causal inferences are made, however, preliminary findings suggest a need for further research on digital skills training that addresses the intersectional barriers experienced in marginalized communities, and the need for place-based interventions that leverage localized policies in the areas of affordable housing, workforce development, and economic development. Implications and limitations are discussed.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100442
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 443: Crime Analysis of the Metropolitan
           Region of Santiago de Chile: A Spatial Panel Data Approach

    • Authors: Pablo Cadena-Urzúa, Álvaro Briz-Redón, Francisco Montes
      First page: 443
      Abstract: The aim of our work is to determine the influence that socio-economic and demographic factors have had on crimes that have taken place during the period 2010–2018 in the communes of the Metropolitan Region of Chile, as well as the existence of possible spatial or temporal effects. We address 12 kinds of crime that we have grouped into two main types: against people and against property. Our interest focuses on crimes against people, using crimes against property as an additional covariate in order to investigate the existence of the broken-windows phenomenon in this context. The model chosen for our analysis is a spatial panel model with fixed effects. The results highlight that covariates such as infant mortality, birth rate, poverty and green areas have a significant influence on crimes against people. Regarding the spatio-temporal covariates, one effect observed is that there is a displacement of crime towards neighbouring communes, leaving open a new line of study to discover the causes of this displacement.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100443
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 444: Critical Child Protection Studies: An
           Introduction

    • Authors: Nigel Ashmore Parton
      First page: 444
      Abstract: Until the last few years of the twentieth century, there was very little critical analysis surrounding child protection policies and practices [...]
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100444
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 445: Trainee Teachers’ Perceptions
           of Socio-Environmental Problems for Curriculum Development

    • Authors: Roberto García-Morís, Ramón Martínez-Medina
      First page: 445
      Abstract: Socio-environmental problems are some of the major concerns of today’s society, and education is an essential area to raise awareness and mould future citizens who will be committed to sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how future primary and secondary education teachers in the area of social sciences perceive the socio-environmental problems that affect today’s society, for their subsequent inclusion in the curriculum. To this end, a study was carried out by means of a questionnaire, which showed that trainee primary and secondary teachers have a high consideration of these environmental problems, with hardly any differences noted according to sex or type of degree studied. This perception is positive in terms of the subsequent inclusion of socio-environmental problems in the development of the curriculum by the participating trainee teachers, who largely prefer an autonomous model for curricular implementation.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100445
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 446: Workshop Schools: From Employment
           Creation to Employability

    • Authors: Domingo Barroso-Hurtado, Laura M. Guerrero-Puerta, Mónica Torres Sánchez
      First page: 446
      Abstract: Workshop Schools are an alternance scheme which combines periods of education and training in educational institutions or training centres for young people at risk of social exclusion between the ages of 16 and 25. The present work of research aims to analyse the logic models underlying the design of these schemes from a historical perspective, specifically from their formation in 1985 up until the year 2020, paying special attention to both individual and structural aspects. Methodology: A qualitative study is carried out based on the analysis of 58 policy documents. Results: The results establish three different phases since the creation of the scheme (employment creation, lifelong learning and employability), analysing the changes produced in the design and relating them to international trends. A progressive self-responsibility forced upon young people rather than a concern on structural problems and barriers characterising the current labour market is also highlighted. Conclusions: Different international trends, such as job creation and the promotion of lifelong learning and employability, have had an influence in the logical models underlying the regulatory documents of the Workshop Schools and, therefore, the social problems and solutions the scheme seeks to provide.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100446
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 447: The World of Reciprocity: Forms of
           Social Capital among the Indigenous Totonacs of the Sierra Norte de Puebla
           

    • Authors: Diosey Ramon Lugo-Morin, Ivan Gerardo Deance Bravo y Troncoso, Luis Roberto Canto Valdez, Jorge Luis Mendoza Valladares, Jose Santiago Francisco
      First page: 447
      Abstract: The aim was to explore social capital in the Totonac ethnic group with the idea of identifying its sources and proposing how social capital is perceived and understood from a different centre of knowledge than the Western one. Methodologically, the study was based on a qualitative approach using the following research techniques: semi-structured interview and ethnographic work from a participant observation perspective. The results allowed us to observe, at least in the Totonac culture, changes in the way of understanding and practicing some relationships, including reciprocity, which in the study were approached from two analytical axes, namely, from the interpersonal relationships of the Totonacs and from the relationships with nature. We can conclude that from the Totonac culture, the perception and operation of social capital responds to a different logic. We can confirm this from the experiences narrated by the Totonac group of the Sierra Norte de Puebla, who from their cosmovision possess a social dynamic where reciprocity unfolds in their different social practices and acquires meaning from their roots, nuanced through their own cultural expressions and manifestations. Finally, a research agenda is proposed to explore social capital in the rest of the native cultures.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100447
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 448: A Review of Mechanisms Used to
           Improve Community Participation in the Integrated Development Planning
           Process in South Africa: An Empirical Review

    • Authors: John Mamokhere, Daniel Francois Meyer
      First page: 448
      Abstract: In 1996, the government of South Africa introduced the Integrated Development Plan (IDP) policy process to transform municipal administration, integrated planning and service delivery. One of the IDP policy’s key aspects is community participation in the planning process. South Africa is still struggling to achieve their duty of delivering basic services due to ineffective community participation. The article primarily appraises the mechanisms for improved community participation in the IDP process. It is underpinned by the New Public Management (NPM) theory, which promotes management reforms, participatory planning, and decentralising power among municipalities and communities. This study adopted a mixed-methods research approach. It is conducted in the Tzaneen municipal area in Limpopo Province. It is also found that some of the mechanisms to facilitate community participation are no longer relevant and effective in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Public meetings are no longer seen as an effective and safe means of public discussion due to the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Disaster Management Act: Amendment of Regulation (Act 57 of 2002) that restricts the physical contact of large groups of people, which has implications for public meeting attendance. The study concludes by recommending that the Tzaneen municipal area should design mechanisms that make it easier for marginalised and previously disadvantaged people to participate in municipal planning and decision-making processes freely and without prejudice. Lastly, the study recommends that the municipality adopt the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) and E-participation to facilitate effective community participation in the IDP process.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100448
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 449: Gender-Balanced Seats, Equal Power
           and Greater Gender Equality' Zooming into the Boardroom of Companies
           Bound by the Portuguese Gender Quota Law

    • Authors: Sara Falcão Casaca, Susana Ramalho Marques, Maria João Guedes, Cathrine Seierstad
      First page: 449
      Abstract: This paper seeks to analyse the potential for change in the gender quota law on corporate boards in Portugal. This is achieved by incorporating concepts and insights drawn from political science and the study of quotas in politics and adjusting these to the boardroom context. It adds to the literature on women on boards by shedding light on the importance of looking at descriptive representation, substantive representation, substantive equality and transformative institutional change, in order to understand a quota law’s potential for eliciting gender balance in the boardroom, as well as greater gender equality in directorship positions, in board dynamics and at the workplace level. This study uses multi-strategy research methods. Evidence provided by the quantitative analysis of survey data, combined with the qualitative analysis of interviews undertaken with female and male board members and the contents of Gender Equality Action Plans (GEAPs), shows that there have been some changes in terms of descriptive representation, but fewer in relation to substantive equality, as men are still largely over-represented in positions associated with effective power and influence over decision-making. Moreover, although the promotion of gender equality at the workplace is valued by both groups, and particularly so by women, weaknesses have been found in the materialisation of such a commitment (substantive representation) through the adoption of GEAPs designed to tackle gendered patterns at the workplace (transformative institutional change).
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100449
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 450: Siberian Cedar in Russian Business
           Naming: A Case Study

    • Authors: Vladimir A. Ermolaev, Dmitry A. Ruban
      First page: 450
      Abstract: Business naming is important in the modern economy, but it can differ between countries. This makes it urgent to pay attention to representative examples of business naming (to be distinguished from brand naming) from different countries. This case study focuses on the usage of Siberian cedar in the names of Russian firms. This huge tree from taiga forests is not a true cedar, but pine. The national database permits the identification of 87 organizations named after Siberian cedar. Their geographical distribution is mapped, and their relation to industries is established. It is found that the considered firms are registered in 19 regions of Russia. A total of 42% of these regions are not Siberian, and they host 18% of the firms. A total of 16 types of activities characterize the considered firms, and more than half of the industries are not related to the usage of this tree. Hypothetically, these findings can be explained by the general interest of Russians in Siberia and their awareness of Siberian cedar coupled with the symbolic potential of this tree, which is able to symbolize stability and power. The studied principle of business naming contributes to the environmental knowledge of the public.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100450
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 451: Design for Climate Change in the
           Neoliberal Present: Gentrification, Ecocide, and the Loss of Urbanity in
           New York City

    • Authors: Leonardo Chiesi, Giuseppina Forte
      First page: 451
      Abstract: Climate urbanism is an emerging field of action that aims to adapt to or mitigate the impacts of climate change on cities. These interventions are often framed by narratives of climate collapse, implying that there is not enough time to engage citizens in participatory planning processes. Some scholars have argued that this may also enable the realization of urban interventions that would otherwise be difficult to implement under ordinary circumstances. At the same time, research has demonstrated that mitigation and adaptation policies and projects may result in the displacement of vulnerable populations. To avoid this scenario, city governments must ensure vulnerability assessments, transparency, and accountability to all affected communities throughout the design process, and examination of projects proposed by residents and developed by the city government. Based on interviews, fieldwork observation, and secondary analysis of open-source documents, this article examines the complexity of appropriate urban climate planning through a comparative analysis. Taking the East Side Coast Resilience (ESCR) project in New York as an exemplary case study, we analyze multiple perspectives, expertise, and rights involved in climate urbanism in global cities under the neoliberal present. We conclude that democratic city planning for climate change cannot be separated from questions of climate justice, which concerns democratic decision making and the impact of interventions on local communities and ecosystems.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100451
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 452: Unpacking the Land and Socio-Economic
           Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Rural Kenya

    • Authors: James Wangu, Fridah Githuku
      First page: 452
      Abstract: Following its outbreak in late 2019, the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been reported to have had devastating human health, health systems, and socioeconomic impacts across the globe. Countries in the Global South are known to have been hit harder given the low level of resilience to crises amid high levels of poverty and limited social protection programmes. This includes countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Most of the existing studies on the COVID-19 pandemic in SSA, however, have focused on the puzzling nature of the considerably low rate at which the virus spread over the continent, the low level of hospitalisation, and the corresponding low morbidity rate. As such, little focus has been given to the social and economic effects of the pandemic in the local communities. Carried out in two rural communities in Kenya—Kilifi and Murang’a—the present study adopts a case study approach for an in-depth, real-life context and explores the socioeconomic (including land-related) effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the vulnerable rural population and the social group of smallholder farmers. Outcomes of the study show that the local effects of the pandemic are context specific. The findings demonstrate that the pandemic has had far-reaching impact on access to and control over land for some households in the rural communities. It was also accompanied with other negative social and economic effects, including a notable rise in teenage pregnancy, intra-household conflicts, job losses, and businesses closures. Positively, it is also claimed to have contributed to food and nutrition security in some rural regions, following increased availability of nutritious food that could have, otherwise, been sold.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100452
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 453: Teachers’ Work-Related
           Well-Being in Times of COVID-19: The Effects of Technostress and Online
           Teaching

    • Authors: Francesco Pace, Giulia Sciotto, Naomi Alexia Randazzo, Vincenza Macaluso
      First page: 453
      Abstract: Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the first measures implemented in Italy was the transition from frontal teaching to online teaching. The sudden need to use technologies to perform their job has added a source of stress to teachers’ work: so-called technostress. The difficulties experienced in this transition may also have affected the perception of work-related well-being, although other variables, such as the perception of the meaningfulness of work, could alleviate this sense of uneasiness. The study aims to examine the relationships between technostress, online teaching, pleasure in working, and meaningful work perceptions among 219 teachers from different school grades through a moderated mediation model. The results confirm negative associations between technostress and pleasure in working, although this relationship varies according to the levels of perceived meaningfulness. Analyzing the factors related to teachers’ perceptions of their work, both in general and during the pandemic situation, is useful for tracing new coping strategies and planning interventions to implement new teaching methods. Further implications concerning the protective role of meaningful work are discussed.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100453
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 454: Does the Number of Publications
           Matter for Academic Promotion in Higher Education' Evidence from
           Lebanon

    • Authors: Pierre Boutros, Ali Fakih, Sara Kassab, Zeina Lizzaik
      First page: 454
      Abstract: This paper uses unique data from Lebanon to explore the factors affecting promotion in academia. We use the Ordered Probit model to answer the research question empirically. The results indicate that the number of publications is an essential factor affecting promotion decisions. Moreover, our findings indicate a quadratic relationship between age and promotion, reaching a peak at 62 years. After this turning point, age and promotion become negatively correlated. When dividing our sample by academic generations, we find that the number of publications is an important determinant for promotion only for the cohort who graduated after the year 2000. Finally, after dividing by gender, the results suggest that males and females who publish more have equal chances of earning a promotion.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100454
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 455: Spatial Bodies: Vulnerable
           Inclusiveness within Gyms and Fitness Venues in Sweden

    • Authors: Bladh
      First page: 455
      Abstract: Today, gyms and fitness venues set out, on a superficial level at least, to cater to the individual, no matter what their gender and are therefore often seen as inclusive spaces for physical activity and its concomitant health benefits. However, previous research has shown that gyms as such, as well as certain areas within gyms, are perceived as specifically masculine spaces, often referring to a contextually contingent hegemonic masculinity, thereby deterring those who do not align with this image, especially women, but also certain men. Even when these dividing lines are crossed, a gendered movement schema remains, because there are different social expectations of what, how, and where men and women should exercise. As we will see in this paper, these movement schemas are produced and reproduced through discursive spatial linkages within the gym and fitness culture. In addition to investigating in what ways gendered norms are implicated within the very architecture of gyms in general, one gym, in particular, is used as an example since it is written into its statutes that it should work in a norm-critical way, providing a case study that shows an attempt to disrupt this inhibiting gendered spatial discourse and, thereby, possibly creating a more inclusive gym space.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11100455
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 10 (2022)
       
 
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