Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1664 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (262 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (90 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (56 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (953 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (175 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (953 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 801 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Social History Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Inquiry : Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access  
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Social Landscape Journal     Open Access  
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Science & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Social Science Computer Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Science Protocols     Open Access  
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Social Science Spectrum     Open Access  
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Social Sciences & Humanities Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Studies and the Young Learner     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Social Studies of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Social Studies Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal  
Social, Humanities, and Educational Studies (SHEs) : Conference Series     Open Access  
Socialiniai tyrimai     Open Access  
Socialium : Revista Cientifica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift     Open Access  
Sociedad e Infancias     Open Access  
Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sociétés & Représentations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Society     Open Access  
Socio     Open Access  
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Sociología y Tecnociencia     Open Access  
Sophia Austral     Open Access  
Soshum : Jurnal Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Sosio Didaktika : Social Science Education Journal     Open Access  
SosioHumanika: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan (Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Education)     Open Access  
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics     Open Access  
Sozial Extra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Studi Magrebini : North African Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Studia Socialia Cracoviensia     Open Access  
Studies in Asian Social Science     Open Access  
Studies in Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sultan Agung Fundamental Research Journal     Open Access  
Suma de Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Survey Research Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Sustainability : Science, Practice, & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Symmetry     Open Access  
Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Søkelys på arbeidslivet (Norwegian Journal of Working Life Studies)     Open Access  
Tangent     Hybrid Journal  
Tapuya : Latin American Science, Technology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TechTrends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Teme : Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Tempo Social     Open Access  
Teoría y Praxis     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The Batuk     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
The Equilibrium     Open Access  
The EXceptional Parent     Full-text available via subscription  
The New Yorker     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Winnower     Open Access  
The Women : Annual Research Journal of Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Thesis     Open Access  
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tieteessä Tapahtuu     Open Access  
Tinkazos     Open Access  
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access  
Trama : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access  
Trans-pasando Fronteras     Open Access  
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transmotion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transtext(e)s Transcultures     Open Access  
Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales : TraHs     Open Access  
Trivium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tulane Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Twentieth Century Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Twenty-First Century Society: Journal of the Academy of Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UC Riverside Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UED Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education     Open Access  
Ultima Década     Open Access  
Uluslararası Anadolu Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / International Anatolian Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Umanistica Digitale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
Universidad de La Habana     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad, Escuela y Sociedad     Open Access  
Universitas Científica     Open Access  
Universitas-XXI, Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Mauritius Research Journal     Open Access  
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACSA     Open Access  
VA Engage Journal     Open Access  
Variations : Revue Internationale de Théorie Critique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Wani : Revista del Caribe Nicaragüense     Open Access  
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Workplace : A Journal for Academic Labor     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Social Science     Open Access  
World Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zambia Social Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Œconomia     Open Access  
Вісник ДонНУЕТ. Серія. Гуманітарні науки     Open Access  
Култура / Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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Social Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.217
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-0760
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 266: Securitization of COVID-19 as a
           Security Norm: WHO Norm Entrepreneurship and Norm Cascading

    • Authors: Christian Kaunert, Sarah Leonard, Ori Wertman
      First page: 266
      Abstract: In this article, we analyze the emergence of a global security norm of the COVID-19 epidemic as a threat to international security. This crisis is one of the gravest crises that humanity has experienced since the end of World War II in terms of the number of people infected and died, but also in terms of the economic consequences. Here, we provide a framework for understanding the securitization of the COVID-19 epidemic as an international norm defined and promoted by the World Health Organization as a norm entrepreneur, and cascaded down to the level of member states. We identify the actors who developed the main strategic prescriptions of the security norm and the international mechanisms that promoted the cascading of its contents throughout the international system. We further develop the notion of primary and secondary norms, which explain the striking differences amongst industrialized states with regard to the contents, scope, and implementation timeline of the various measures aiming to curb the spread of the virus.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11070266
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 267: Missing Children in Italy from 2000
           to 2020: A Review of the Phenomenon Reported by Newspapers

    • Authors: Jessica Burrai, Alessandra Pizzo, Beatrice Prisco, Lorenza De Filippis, Emanuela Mari, Alessandro Quaglieri, Anna Maria Giannini, Giulia Lausi
      First page: 267
      Abstract: The disappearance of children has become a public social issue that has captured the attention of many in the last two decades, especially because there is not a worldwide consensus on the definition of “missing child”. This research analyzed events of missing children from 2000 to 2020 in Italy; data were collected from the main national sources of information: the websites of two Italian press agencies (ANSA and Adnkronos) and the four main Italian newspapers (Il Messaggero, La Repubblica, Il Corriere Della Sera, La Stampa) with a double-blind procedure. Our data show that male minors disappear to a greater extent than female minors and the disappearance of Italian minors is more represented than that of foreign minors. The majority of minors are found and when they are found they are still alive often within the first week after the disappearance. Our data shows that children disappear between the ages of 0–5 more than the cases involving adolescents. Also, of 182 missing and found children, information regarding the presence of abuse was reported in only 18 cases. The data of the present study were discussed in comparison with those of the Italian Government’s Extraordinary Commissioner for Missing Persons highlighting differences between the official data on missing children and those reported by newspapers; this study is intended to highlight a growing focus on the phenomenon, not only from a media perspective but also from an institutional one.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11070267
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 268: Relationship between Emotional
           Intelligence and Optimism According to Gender and Social Context (Urban
           vs. Rural)

    • Authors: David Molero, Óscar Gavín-Chocano, Esperanza Vargas-Cuevas, Inmaculada García-Martínez
      First page: 268
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Emotional Intelligence on optimistic–pessimistic attitudes in a sample of 177 people from the Autonomous Community of Andalusia (Spain). The sample consisted of 102 women (57.60%) and 75 men (42.40%), who live in different localities depending on the number of residents (urban and rural context). The instruments used in the study were: The Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R), Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi-C), and Wong–Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS-S). The results indicated that Emotional Intelligence was positively related to optimism and negatively related to pessimism (p < 0.01). In addition, pessimism was found to be significantly related to the rural context, but not to the urban context. The multigroup Structural Equations model was developed for the gender variable, and it had good structural validity (χ2 = 96.485; RMSEA = 0.056; GFI = 0.901; CFI = 0.900; IFI = 0.907), which was greater for the female gender. The practical consequences of this study help to understand the usefulness of EQ on optimism–pessimism as an attribute between urban vs. rural areas and the effect of living in socio-culturally different environments.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11070268
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 269: Health and Environment Conscious
           Consumer Attitudes: Generation Z Segment Personas According to the LOHAS

    • Authors: Marietta Balázsné Lendvai, Ildikó Kovács, Bence Ferenc Balázs, Judit Beke
      First page: 269
      Abstract: As a lifestyle and consumer trend, the LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) has been growing in popularity worldwide. The LOHAS is followed by a consumer group that is characterised by consumer attitudes and behaviours focusing on health and sustainability, that is increasingly concerned about global problems and challenges, and that follows trends related to sustainability, such as health and environmental consciousness. In addition, this group strives for a sense of naturalness, aims to behave ethically, and seeks to hold authentic and individualistic values. The objective of this research is to explore how young people today relate to the components of the LOHAS model, how the different characters respond, and what their perceived values are. We are also looking for answers pertaining to whether clusters may be formed based on the examined factors. In our study, we surveyed 357 Hungarian respondents, who are members of Generation Z. As a method of data analysis, descriptive statistical methods, correlation analyses, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and the persona profiles were designed using the design thinking method. Based on the factors of the LOHAS model, three separate groups may be ascertained within Generation Z: personas that fit the LOHAS, personas that could fit the LOHAS, and personas that do not fit LOHAS.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11070269
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 270: School Culture, Racial Composition,
           and Preventing Violence: Evaluating Punitive and Supportive Responses to
           Improving Safety

    • Authors: Charles Crawford, Ronald Burns
      First page: 270
      Abstract: Research on the impact of school climate and culture on campus violence has yielded some promising responses for improving school safety. Evaluations of school policies and practices have shown that strict discipline and enforcement may have negative consequences and a disparate impact on students of color. Using a sample of 2092 respondents from the 2015–2016 School Survey on Crime and Safety from the Department of Education, the present research assessed the effectiveness of supportive programs and the impact of punitive responses to school violence within predominantly minority schools. Results from this study found that there were more statistically significant supportive policies that were associated with reductions in serious violence and disciplinary actions in predominately minority schools as compared to predominately white schools. Policy and research implications are discussed.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11070270
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 271: Embedding Diversity, Equity, and
           Inclusion into a Kinesiology Curriculum: A Detailed Report of a Curriculum

    • Authors: Zakkoyya H. Lewis, Ken Hansen, Mai Narasaki-Jara, Lara Killick, MinHyuk Kwon, Laura Chase, Srdjan Lemez
      First page: 271
      Abstract: Students need to be properly prepared by their education to work respectfully and effectively with diverse populations and in diverse environments. Our purpose is twofold: (i) to provide a thorough description of the curriculum redesign process for an undergraduate kinesiology and health promotion (KHP) program, and (ii) to use our experience to provide more general recommendations to other departments and universities undergoing curricular redesign. The catalyst for this redesign was the conversion from a quarter-system to a semester-system and the opportunities for improvement identified through that process. The redesign was guided by a newly created departmental strategic plan, faculty professional development trainings, student feedback, faculty hirings and their areas of expertise, and industry demands. Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) was mindfully embedded into the curriculum to reflect the department-, college-, and university-level core value of inclusivity. The redesign allows prospective KHP students to complete several courses that address DEI themes, in addition to the courses that build their technical competencies. Providing foundational exposure to DEI concepts through the undergraduate curriculum can better prepare students to work in diverse settings. As such, this report provides other programs with a framework to follow to make curriculum more DEI centric for their students.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11070271
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 272: Bibliometric Analysis of
           International Scientific Production on the Management of Happiness and
           Well-Being in Organizations

    • Authors: Carmen Jambrino-Maldonado, Dolores Rando-Cueto, José Manuel Núñez-Sánchez, Patricias P. Iglesias-Sanchez, Carlos De las Heras-Pedrosa
      First page: 272
      Abstract: The interest of the scientific community and, consequently, the scientific production of topics on happiness and well-being at work, or the management of happiness in organizations, has been increasing over the years. The main objective of this bibliometric analysis is to determine the evolution of the concepts referred to in published scientific works. Bibliometric methods and techniques are used to analyze the themes and the most relevant trends, the number of papers and their citations, and the main institutions, and to highlight areas where the most research has been done on these issues. In addition to the review of the scientific literature, 312 studies are analyzed and net-mapped. The most outstanding results are the increase in the number of papers and citations during the health pandemic caused by COVID-19; the importance given to the transversality of well-being programs in corporations; and the greater frequency of research on the benefits of promoting the improvement of quality of life for work performance and its social impact.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11070272
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 273: Making Sense of Mandatory Reporting:
           A Qualitative Study of Reporting Practices from the Perspectives of
           Schools and Child Welfare Services in Sweden

    • Authors: Hanna Dahlberg, Evelyn Khoo, Viktoria Skoog
      First page: 273
      Abstract: Schools play an important role in ensuring the well-being of children, although the process of mandatory reporting of concern for children is not widely understood. This qualitative focus group study investigated the process from the perspectives of school and child welfare service professionals. Using theories of human service organizations and professional discretion, we analyzed viewpoints on an individual duty being handled by an organization. We investigated the expectations that a report be simultaneously simple and value-free, while providing depth and clear examples of concerns. Finally, we investigated the views of the supportive and protective functions supposedly underlying the duty to report. The results indicated problems associated with a collective reporting process. Ambiguity in how information in a report is communicated may also contribute to a more problematic reporting process from schools and then in interpretations and the follow up reports made by social workers.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11070273
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 228: Islam’s Perspective on
           Environmental Sustainability: A Conceptual Analysis

    • Authors: Labeeb Bsoul, Amani Omer, Lejla Kucukalic, Ricardo H. Archbold
      First page: 228
      Abstract: This paper shows that environmental protection, a primary aim of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) set forth by the United Nations in 2015, is embedded in Islam and was practiced by Prophet Muhammad centuries ago. In this study, we examined Islam’s perspective on sustainability and its relevance to these SDGs, with a particular focus on community and individual development. In this research, we address how the emphasis on the Islamic view of the contemporary environmental problems (such as depletion of natural resources, pollution, and poverty) can help improve the ethical and practical conduct toward the environment. We also elaborate on the role of education in the Islamic tradition and its connection to environmental efforts. Finally, we discuss the examples and models of environmental sustainability arising from Islamic tradition. Therefore, this paper aims to encourage consideration of Islam’s perspective in solving environmental problems, activating the role of religious and scientific institutions in preserving the environment, and providing appropriate solutions. We conclude our investigation with some findings and recommendations in this area.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060228
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 229: Social Control in the Digital
           Transformation of Society: A Case Study of the Chinese Social Credit

    • Authors: Mo Chen, Jens Grossklags
      First page: 229
      Abstract: The Chinese social credit system (SCS) is a digital sociotechnical credit system that rewards and sanctions the economic and social behaviors of individuals and companies. This article uses classic social-control theories—the shaming theory and the labeling theory—to analyze the SCS, thereby contributing to a better understanding of the Chinese social-control approach to the digital transformation of society. Our research relies not only on government documents and media reports, but also on first-hand data collected from in-depth interviews conducted in China. We found that the perceived effectiveness of the shaming and labeling mechanisms is enhanced by the design of the SCS framework and the assistance of digital technology but weakened by a lack of transparency and questionable justification criteria, as well as privacy and fairness concerns.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060229
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 230: Cultural Identity in Bicultural Young
           Adults in Ireland: A Social Representation Theory Approach

    • Authors: Mamobo Ogoro, Anca Minescu, Mairead Moriarty
      First page: 230
      Abstract: This research investigates the nature by which first- and second-generation Irish young adults of (1) African descent, (2) Asian descent, and (3) Eastern European descent explore their cultural identity(ies) through communicating and interpreting social representations relating to their ethnic and national cultures. Using Social Representation Theory (SRT) and, more widely, Proculturation Theory as the theoretical underpinning, we examine how grown children of migrants construct their cultural identity(ies) by exploring external social representations. We conducted three separate in-depth focus groups for each continental group in virtual rooms on Zoom, lasting between 60 and 90 mins. A thematic analysis was pursued to understand how the participants discussed the representation of their cultural groups both in social and media-driven situations. The results indicated the overarching themes of Anchoring Irishness and Latent Media Representation, whereby participants communicated and dialogically explored their subjective interpretations of the social representations of their cultural groups which, in turn, may have informed their cultural identity(ies). Highlighting the dynamic nature of the cultural reality of Ireland and how it impacts generations after the initial migration period, this research highlights and exemplifies the importance of external social representations that serve to construct the multiple cultural identities of first- and second-generation migrants.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060230
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 231: Analysis of Mockery and
           Discrimination towards People with Disabilities in Cartoons: The Family
           Guy Case

    • Authors: Jaime Garcia-Claro, Octavio Vazquez-Aguado, Roberto Martinez-Pecino
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Disability is a topic that arouses social interest and that has been approached and represented in different ways throughout history. Analysing media portrayals of disability is needed to ease the development of inclusive societies. This work aims to identify the social representations of people with disabilities and the cases of mockery and discrimination that appear in the well-known Family Guy cartoons. For this purpose, a mixed methodology has been chosen, extracting all possible cases of the concepts used to refer to disability. The results show that the most commonly used concepts are pejorative and typical of dispensational and medical-rehabilitative paradigms. Regarding mockery and discrimination, it is observed that when both are related to a direct interaction with people with a disability, they appear in a much higher percentage. Although Family Guy is not an educational series and is aimed at audiences over 16 years of age, the results of this work promote media education as a tool to critically analyse the representations offered by the media to promote an inclusive society.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060231
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 232: Family Education and Support
           Programme: Implementation and Cultural Adaptation in Cape Verde

    • Authors: Adriana Correia, Rafaela Matavelli, Francisca Ferreira Cunha, Victoria Hidalgo, Saul Neves de Jesus, Cristina Nunes
      First page: 232
      Abstract: This article describes some preliminary data on the implementation of the Family Education and Support Programme (FAF) on psychosocially at-risk families of Boavista Island, Cape Verde, specifically in relation to its effectiveness in parenting competences. The FAF is a family intervention programme designed to be integrated into preventive and formative actions and it has the purpose of promoting positive parenting and preventing child abuse. This study aims to (a) describe the participants’ psychosocial profile regarding sociodemographic characteristics and negative or risky life events, (b) analyse the effectiveness of the FAF on improving parenting competences, and (c) address the main procedural topics related to the implementation of the FAF in Cape Verde. An experiential and participatory methodology was used with 66 parents, who participated in 12 group sessions, with a weekly periodicity, for four months. The evaluation was performed, in the pre-test and post-test, with the control group and the intervention group. Results show the effectiveness of the FAF in an African context, including its impact. The intervention group improved their post-intervention scores on perceived efficacy and satisfaction with a moderate and high effect size, respectively. We present some recommendations to be considered in future programs to promote positive parenting, since improvements in parents’ competences, are key to reducing neglectful or abusive situations.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060232
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 233: Inclusive Research in Health,
           Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology: Beyond the Binary of the
           ‘Researcher’ and the ‘Researched’

    • Authors: Natasha Layton, Em Bould, Ricky Buchanan, Jonathon Bredin, Libby Callaway
      First page: 233
      Abstract: The principle of ‘working with, not on’ people with disabilities is widely espoused within inclusive research, yet historically such opportunities have not been fully realized. This paper speaks from the perspective of users of health, rehabilitation, assistive technology services, and the academics with whom they collaborate. We draw on Australia’s Disability Inclusive Research Principles to reflect on the practice of inclusive research across the areas of assistive technology policy, digital information, and health access, as well as the co-design of allied health resources. We consider and provide examples of how power and knowledge play out in health and rehabilitation, the developing discourse around consumer co-design and co-production, and the challenges of enacting inclusive research. This paper is about shared power in the mechanisms of research production and our journeys towards it. Engaging in inclusive research has enabled us to assume roles beyond the binary of the ‘researcher’ and the ‘researched’. We conclude by proposing an adaptation of the ladder of participation for inclusive research.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060233
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 234: Reflections on the Implementation of
           an Ongoing Inclusive Research Project

    • Authors: Isabel Bonello, Sandra Borg, Anne-Marie Callus, Cristina Grech
      First page: 234
      Abstract: This reflective piece is co-authored by four members of an inclusive research team, who have been working on a project that aims to create an online resource with a video curriculum vitae of individuals with intellectual disability to showcase their achievements and skills. Taking the view that conducting research inclusively is a dynamic and ongoing process, we discuss our experiences in implementing the project and the steps we took to ensure that the process was as inclusive as possible. We first present an overview of the aims of the project and what we have achieved so far. We then provide our individual perspectives on the experience of being involved in the project so far and how inclusive it has been. Together, we then reflect on the main outcomes of the project so far, on the factors that affected how we implemented it, and on how we plan to work towards the last phase of the project.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060234
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 235: Searching for a Definition of
           Information Literacy as a Socially Cohesive Component of Community: A
           Complementarity of Experts and Student Approach

    • Authors: Michal Černý
      First page: 235
      Abstract: Information literacy can be seen as a fundamental prerequisite for a sustainable complex information society. As a lack of information literacy, information poverty represents a significant social and educational issue. Information literacy and information poverty will be the new dividing lines of a complex world, as the “rich north and poor south” metaphor became in the 20th century. A careful study of discourses in information literacy allows for effective educational and social policies aimed at its development. The aim of this study is to present an analysis of different approaches and discourses to define the concept of information literacy based on a review of papers from Web of Science. The study identifies four important directions of definitions or new grasps of information literacy, with an emphasis on social justice, the analysis of social and technological change, and a demand for higher quality information literacy education. Based on this analysis, the discourses present in the responses of undergraduate information studies and library science students (n = 132) collected between 2019 and 2022 are studied. The qualitative study shows that these underlying discourses are present in the students’ responses but, at the same time, offer specific perspectives on their fulfilment.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060235
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 236: The Family Transmission of Ethnic
           Prejudice: A Systematic Review of Research Articles with Adolescents

    • Authors: Ioana Zagrean, Daniela Barni, Claudia Russo, Francesca Danioni
      First page: 236
      Abstract: Ethnic prejudice is one of the most studied topics in social psychology. Empirical research on its development and intergenerational transmission is increasing but still scarce. This systematic review collected and analyzed psychosocial studies focused on the transmission of ethnic prejudice within families with adolescents. Specifically, it aimed at addressing the following research questions: (a) To what extent is there a vertical (between parents and children) and horizontal (between siblings) transmission of ethnic prejudice within the family' (b) Is this process unidirectional (from parents to children) or bidirectional (between parents and children)' (c) Which individual and/or relational variables influence this process' (d) Can adolescents’ intergroup contact experiences affect the family influence on adolescents’ ethnic prejudice' The literature search of four databases (Ebsco, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science), carried out from February 2021 to May 2021, following the PRISMA guidelines, yielded 22 articles that matched the eligibility criteria. The findings highlighted a moderate bidirectional transmission of ethnic prejudice between parents and adolescents, which was influenced by several individual and relational variables (e.g., the adolescents’ age and sex and the family relationship quality). Moreover, the adolescents’ frequent and positive contacts with peers of different ethnicities reduced the parents’ influence on the adolescents’ ethnic prejudice. The findings are discussed, and their limitations and implications for intervention and future research are considered.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060236
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 237: Emancipation Life Paths of Portuguese
           Cigano/Roma Women

    • Authors: Olga Magano
      First page: 237
      Abstract: In Portuguese society, some Cigano/Roma women, during their life paths, distance themselves from the Cigano cultural tradition, particularly in regard to marriage, schooling, employment and social life. On the one hand, there is a feeling of attachment to traditional values as family pressure to marry or in relation to gender differentiation; on the other hand, these women express a desire for empowerment autonomy and emancipation in order to draw up their own trajectories and life projects. The results obtained with 21 in-depth interviews, 10 women and 11 men, indicate that Cigano women face greater difficulties with regard to early and inbred marriage and are more prone to be victims of family and domestic violence, but they are also the main drivers of change and social transformation of Cigano/Roma families.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060237
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 238: Deployments of Multiracial
           Masculinity and Anti-Black Violence: The Racial Framings of Barack Obama,
           George Zimmerman, and Daunte Wright

    • Authors: Jasmine Mitchell
      First page: 238
      Abstract: In this article, I examine how political and media discourses of multiraciality are deployed to justify guilt and innocence. I trace the deployment of multiraciality to determine who is deserving of life or death in media coverage, political rhetoric, and court records during Obama’s presidency, in George Zimmerman’s 2013 acquittal, and in the 2021 killing of Daunte Wright. I examine the weaponization of discourses of multiracial identities as tools of white supremacy and anti-Blackness. Through such weaponization, the construction of the multiracial man as an index of racial progress and post-racism evident in the Barack Obama era enabled the violence and miscarriages of justice in the killings of Trayvon Martin and Daunte Wright. I consider how transnational and U.S. narratives of multiraciality, joined with anti-Blackness and white supremacy, enabled the acquittal of George Zimmerman. Furthermore, I examine how white womanhood and fears of Black masculinity facilitated the sympathy garnered towards Kim Potter. In considering the killing of Daunte Wright, this paper shows how multiraciality and racial malleability are valuable only when utilized for preserving racial hierarchies.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060238
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 239: The Effects of COVID-19 on Family
           Climate: A Fuzzy Clustering Approach to Examine Spanish Households

    • Authors: Martín-Quintana, Martín, Alemán
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Spain was one of the countries in which more severe lockdown policies were imposed during the second term of 2020 to mitigate the unprecedented health crisis. The measures restricted citizens’ mobility, obliging families to stay confined at homes for 99 days since 15 March 2020. The measures created a number of challenges that affect the family climate. This paper aims to empirically analyse how the family climate in Spain has been affected by COVID-19. The family climate assessment was based on an online questionnaire answered by 2034 citizens. A multi-criteria decision-making method rooted in fuzzy logic and TOPSIS, and a fuzzy clustering method, are applied to analyse the effects of the COVID-19 on the family climate. The fuzzy clustering method reveals that there are three different family climate profiles, namely (1) extreme positive, (2) extreme negative, and (3) intermediate. Our results show that some traits affect having a more or less positive family climate. The authors discuss the main contributions and the policy implications that could provide insights into future measures.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060239
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 240: Discourse, Difference, and
           Divergence: Exploring Media Representations and Online Public Sentiments
           toward Marginalized Urban Communities in Jamaica during the COVID-19

    • Authors: Aleem Mahabir, Romario Anderson, Robert Kinlocke, Rose-Ann Smith, Kristinia Doughorty, Chandradath Madho
      First page: 240
      Abstract: Despite lacking the resources to adequately adhere to public health protocols, urban residents belonging to impoverished communities in Kingston, Jamaica were prominently featured in local news reports that highlighted their breaches of social distancing. These reports generated an overwhelmingly prejudiced online social discourse, characterized by derogatory and dehumanizing remarks. This research aims to explore the ways media representations of calls for social distancing have unearthed latent social cleavages and contributed to the othering of Kingston’s poor. A thematic analysis was used to understand the nature of the public response to these news reports. The comments were manually coded, and emergent themes were classified based on the sentiments expressed. The comments generated evoked class, place, race, and political tensions, potentially perpetuating the public perception of vulnerable groups as the ‘threatening other’. These comments possibly represent deeper problems associated with the social divergence of Jamaican society. The lack of sensitivity exhibited shows a general disregard for the stark social realities commonly experienced by subaltern groups. These findings suggest media coverage promoting public safety, while important, may inadvertently lead to heightened social tensions and perpetuate social stigmas against marginalized groups, potentially stirring social divergence and countering efforts toward inclusiveness and integration.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060240
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 241: Sports Event Image, Satisfaction,
           Motivation, Stadium Atmosphere, Environment, and Perception: A Study on
           the Biggest Multi-Sport Event in Indonesia during the Pandemic

    • Authors: Kenius Kogoya, Tri Setyo Guntoro, Miftah Fariz Prima Putra
      First page: 241
      Abstract: The National Sports Week (known in Bahasa Indonesia as Pekan Olahraga Nasional or PON) consumes a large budget as Indonesia’s largest multi-sports event. This raises the question of whether it is only a sporting event or has an impact on society. Studies related to multi-sports events, specifically in the form of local or small-scale, such as PON, are still limited in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate six important domains (constructs) of the 20th PON (PON XX) held in Papua in 2021: sports event image, motivation, satisfaction, stadium atmosphere, environment, and perception of the impacts. In addition, this study assessed the correlations between those six constructs and associations between the explanatory variables (gender, distance of residence, and involvement in the sporting event) and those six constructs. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess those six constructs and the explanatory variables. We included 675 respondents aged between 17–57 years, with a mean age of 22.87 years in the study. The results showed that the implementation of PON XX was positively received by the community and their highest motivation to watch this event was for entertainment. The involvement of the participant in the event was significantly associated with sports event image, satisfaction, motivation, stadium atmosphere, environment, and the perception of PON impact. The distance of the residence from the venues was only significantly associated with the perceived impact of PON XX on the community while gender had no association with all six constructs. There was a strong correlation between the other five investigated constructs and the perceived impact of PON XX.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060241
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 242: The “Problem” of
           Multispecies Families: Speciesism in Emergency Intimate Partner Violence
           (IPV) Shelters

    • Authors: Sarah May Lindsay
      First page: 242
      Abstract: When a woman seeks emergency shelter from an abusive relationship, she may bring her children but rarely companion animals. Through a Critical Animal Studies (CAS) lens, this article qualitatively analyzes in-depth interviews with shelter workers in Ontario, Canada, exploring the place of multispecies families in intimate partner violence (IPV) shelters. The findings indicate that companion animals are viewed as problematic, as obstacles to their clients’ safe relocation, falling outside the scope of IPV shelters (who rarely take a co-sheltering approach), and as potential strains on an already resource-stretched social institution. Addressing a gap in the literature about the effects of companion animal policies in social housing on clients and staff, the results are relevant to social service providers and policymakers working with multispecies families, including insights about women and children’s reactions to separation from companion animals, contradictions in related policies, and institutional priorities. The article concludes that multispecies families are poorly accounted for in the IPV shelter system and suggests that researchers and shelters should collaborate with their communities to advocate for resources and policies that accommodate families with companion animals.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060242
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 243: Crossing the Binaries of Mobility
           Control: Agency, Force and Freedom

    • Authors: Angelo Martins, Julia O’Connell-Davidson
      First page: 243
      Abstract: This article draws on qualitative data on journeys to Europe or Brazil undertaken by adults and teenagers from Sub-Saharan African countries to develop a conceptual analysis of the blurriness of the lines drawn between supposedly different types of movement via referencing the conceptual binary of forced/voluntary movement (such as asylum, trafficking, smuggling). It questions the liberal model of ‘agency’ that is employed not just by state actors, but also by many antislavery, anti-trafficking, child rights, and refugee rights activists, to construct boundaries between different ‘types’ of people on the move. Conceptual divisions between refugees and economic migrants, trafficked and smuggled persons, forced and voluntary labourers, child and adult migrants, and the idea of ‘modern slavery’, deflect attention from the structures that limit the choices open to people on the move. This article argues that the voluntary/forced binary encourages a tendency to falsely conflate choice with freedom and works to preserve the illusion that human freedom is a defining feature of liberal democratic societies rather than working to universally protect the freedoms of actual living human beings.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060243
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 244: Innovative ICT Based Solutions and
           (Im)migrants Integration

    • Authors: Maryam Karimi, Giuliana Costa, Grazia Concilio
      First page: 244
      Abstract: For (im)migrants, understanding how to navigate a host country and how to access the existing social systems and the public welfare ecosystem are among the most difficult and confusing tasks [...]
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060244
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 245: Institutions, Labor Market
           Insecurity, and Well-Being in Europe

    • Authors: Hande Inanc, Arne L. Kalleberg
      First page: 245
      Abstract: We examined the differences among seventeen European countries regarding the extent to which several key institutional and labor market characteristics affect the degrees of insecurity that people feel about their jobs and employment prospects, as well as their well-being (economic security and subjective well-being). We estimate how macrostructural factors affect well-being by fitting random-intercept multi-level models and decomposing the variance across national and individual levels, using data from the 2004 and 2010 European Social Surveys. We find that there is substantial country-level variation in labor market insecurity, economic security and subjective well-being. Active labor market policies, the generosity of unemployment benefits, and collective bargaining coverage explain a considerable portion of the identified differences among countries in labor market insecurity and well-being. The effects of employment protection legislation vary depending on whether the worker has a permanent or temporary contract. We did not find substantial differences between 2004 and 2010, suggesting that the effects of institutions and worker power on labor market insecurity and well-being reflect longer-term structural changes associated with the transformation of employment relations.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060245
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 246: Exploring the Interface between
           Asylum, Human Trafficking and/or ‘Modern Slavery’ within a
           Hostile Environment in the UK

    • Authors: Patricia Hynes
      First page: 246
      Abstract: While the drivers and processes of forced migration may overlap for people seeking refuge or experiencing human trafficking, responses are invariably rooted in legislation and policy rather than empirical enquiry. In the UK, tightening of legislation around asylum has, for the past three decades, resulted in a ‘hostile environment’. During this time, a discourse around human trafficking (also referred to as ‘modern slavery’ in the UK) has emerged. This paper looks at asylum and human trafficking in the UK to consider a fractioning of protection and resulting fractioning of support for basic needs and welfare provision, provided through the establishment of parallel systems of support for both populations. This paper explores the distinctions, interface, key points of contact, and disconnects between asylum and trafficking in the UK. It details the trajectory of asylum policy, provides an overview of the pre-history to the hostile environment, the impacts of fractioning refugee protection, and what this means for trust as a result. It is argued that trust is an essential component of UK government policies but that the trajectory of asylum policy from a focus on integration to a culture of hostility runs directly counter to efforts to identify ‘victims’ of ‘modern slavery’.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060246
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 247: Relationship between Emotional
           Intelligence, Victimization, and Academic Achievement in High School

    • Authors: Ana María Martínez-Martínez, Christian Roith, José M. Aguilar-Parra, Ana Manzano-León, José M. Rodríguez-Ferrer, Remedios López-Liria
      First page: 247
      Abstract: The study of bullying implies analyzing the emotional competences of students, and it has been demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the poor management of emotions. This study explores whether high scores in Emotional Intelligence (EI) are positively related to academic performance and negatively to bullying. The sample composition focused on students of Compulsory Secondary Education, formed by 3451 subjects aged between 11 and 18 years (50.88% women and 49.12% men). The selection of the high schools was made for non-random convenience, administering Peer Bullying Questionnaire (CAI), TMM-24 and school grades. To analyze the results, a model of structural equations was used by estimating the maximum likelihood together with the bootstrapping procedure. We concluded that EI stands as a protector against bullying and has a positive impact on academic performance. This infers that having greater clarity, repair and emotional attention correlates with a lower possibility of being bullied, at the same time, a school climate without aggressiveness generates positive links towards the school and towards optimal learning environments.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060247
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 248: Is a Good Boss Always a Plus'
           LMX, Family–Work Conflict, and Remote Working Satisfaction during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Ferdinando Toscano, Salvatore Zappalà, Teresa Galanti
      First page: 248
      Abstract: This study investigated the relationships between leader–member exchange (LMX) and workers’ perceptions of family–work conflict (FWC) and between LMX and satisfaction with remote working (SRW). It also assessed the moderating effect of employees’ ability to cope (AC) with the work in the interaction between LMX and FWC. Using a cross-sectional design, this study tested a moderated mediation model using Model 7 of Macro “PROCESS” for SPSS. The study sample consisted of 455 employees engaged in remote working activities during the COVID-19 health emergency. Surprisingly, the results showed that LMX was positively associated with FWC, while the latter was negatively associated with SWR. There were neither direct nor indirect effects of LMX on SRW, but the moderation of the AC with work on the relationship between LMX and FWC was significant and negative. In particular, the results showed that, in workers who reported lower values of AC, the increase in the quality of LMX also corresponded to an increase in FWC. Conversely, in employees with very high AC, as LMX increased, FWC decreased. Good relationships with the boss in a new and challenging situation such as remote working during COVID-19 threatens employees’ well-being when accompanied by poor coping skills. This study sheds light on these mechanisms and opens new questions in the literature about family–work conflict and remote working.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060248
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 249: Overcoming Identity Threat: Using
           Persona Pedagogy in Intersectionality and Inclusion Training

    • Authors: Cate Thomas
      First page: 249
      Abstract: There are many efforts and strategies in place to increase the inclusivity of workplaces which is a positive approach, but little thought is provided to the personal cost of participants in undertaking some of these initiatives. Often due to the choice of pedagogy, participants may be placed in the situation to reveal hidden parts of their identity which leads to vulnerability and unpredicted exposure in the workplace and organisation. The paper examines the key issue of identity threat whilst undertaking inclusion and intersectional-type training. The paper highlights the continued need to challenge bias and other forms of exclusionary behavioural and cultural practices, however, this must be carried out in a cautious manner to uphold the safety of well-being of all individuals. A solution to minimize or overcome identity threat is offered via the use of persona pedagogy where personas are used expands one’s own world views and limits vulnerability exposure. The persona approach initiates experiences different to an individual’s lived experience which evokes critical reflection of one’s own positionality by taking on another persona. The paper concludes that the use of persona pedagogy leads to true transformative learning in the workplace whilst protecting the identity of individuals.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060249
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 250: ‘We Are Family’—How
           Urban Specialty Shops Portray the Consumers of Rural Provenance Foods

    • Authors: Teresa Forte, Elisabete Figueiredo
      First page: 250
      Abstract: The literature on food consumption and marketing has been mainly concerned with identifying the appeal of the physical and sensorial features of food products, consumer choice determinants and their profiling according to socioeconomic characteristics, and perceptions and practices. This paper takes a different approach by analyzing how consumers are being represented and engaged with in the promotion of rural provenance foods, an overlooked topic within the literature. For this purpose, a content analysis was conducted on promotional materials (printed materials—including brochures, business cards and leaflets), website publications and social media (Facebook and Instagram) posts issued by 30 specialty shops located in three Portuguese cities (Aveiro, Lisbon and Porto). A total of 7491 files were analyzed. Empirical evidence shows that consumers are mainly portrayed through references to their symbolic features or as elements of a connection established and nurtured by the shops. Sociodemographic features lack relevance in opposition to the relevance attributed to the interaction between the shops and the consumers. All in all, the analysis highlights the significance of the interaction between the shops and the consumers in the promotion of products, fostering close and familiar relationships attentive to consumer preferences, emotions and values.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060250
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 251: What Works' How Combining Equal
           Opportunity and Work–Life Measures Relates to the Within-Firm Gender
           Wage Gap

    • Authors: Charlotte K. Marx, Martin Diewald
      First page: 251
      Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how organizational equal opportunity and work–life measures when combined are associated with the gender wage gap within large German establishments. By looking at both kinds of measures as parts of a comprehensive personnel strategy, we provide a novel way to distinguish between a career-supportive implementation of work–life measures versus implementation as a compensating differential. Using a linked employer–employee dataset, we performed a cross-sectional multilevel regression analysis with fixed effects for 6439 respondents within 122 establishments. The results indicate that work–life measures that support employees in their parenthood responsibilities are linked to a significantly higher GWG, particularly for parents. Our results indicate that the implementation of work–life measures is used as compensating differentials, primarily for mothers. Particularly, this can be found when looking at the combination of multiple measures. In combination with equal opportunity measures for women, work–life measures that highlight the long-term absence from the workplace are associated with a higher GWG for parents.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060251
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 252: Podcasting: The Radio of Generation Z
           in Spain

    • Authors: Rafael Galán-Arribas, Francisco-Javier Herrero-Gutiérrez, Francisco-Javier Frutos-Esteban
      First page: 252
      Abstract: The fact that traditional radio is synchronous and unidirectional, with little or no room for interaction and content selection, is one of the main reasons why young people have turned their backs on it. In retrospect, conventional radio never cared for the younger generation, never designing strategies to bring them in. As a result, radio lost its relevance and it does not feature as part of young people’s digital diet. Over the last year, the number of podcast consumers has steadily increased, which is causing this format to become more and more cemented in society. It could be a way to gain younger listeners, an opportunity not to be missed by the radio industry. In the past, young people continued to listen to the radio as they got older, but that is no longer the case nor is radio seen as the go-to resource for new musical content. The challenge for radio is clear: regaining its influence through proposals with added value to differentiate itself from global platforms. In order to carry out this research, a total of 410 young university students were surveyed. The results show what the current picture is in such a changing atmosphere. It has been observed that this audience bases their audio consumption on personal preferences, they mainly access it via social media and they would find it useful and interesting to create their own podcast. This paper includes a podcast where academic experts and audio professionals, interviewed for the doctoral thesis “xxx (anonymity for review)”, reflect on the strategies that radio should adopt in order to gain young listeners.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060252
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 253: Barriers That Keep Vulnerable People
           as NEETs

    • Authors: Carlos Pesquera Alonso, Almudena Iniesta Martínez, Práxedes Muñoz Sánchez
      First page: 253
      Abstract: The rates of young people Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) in the Mediterranean European Economic Area (MED EEA) are high. Hence, the European Union and national governments have developed and implemented different policies aimed to tackle the NEET situation. In this article, we try to identify and understand the most relevant barriers that keep vulnerable people as NEETs. We focused on youth as being at the highest risk of becoming NEETs: migrant women aged 25–29. By using semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders and NEETs in the Spanish region of Murcia, we collected their views on and experiences with different programs and strategies. We conclude that this group is exposed to additional barriers due to the intersectionality of their characteristics. There are structural and contextual aspects, such as motherhood, a lack of social networks, or not knowing the language, which NEET policies do not address. We highlight the need of (i) improving the adaptiveness of relevant policies by being tailored to specific problems NEETs face, (ii) expanding the focus of NEET policies, and (iii) including the regional perspective in NEET policy design. In our comprehensive approach, we stress that the NEET policy alone cannot solve the NEET problem.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060253
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 254: Hannah’s Suffering: The
           Power of Voice

    • Authors: Stephanie M. House-Niamke
      First page: 254
      Abstract: Hannah’s story in the Old Testament has been written about considerably by Jewish feminists, womanist theologians, and other biblical scholars. This paper strives to build upon these works in asking the reader to consider Hannah’s story from a liberatory theological theory of suffering by Sölle, as well as a postmodern and non-religious lens as discussed by Sandoval’s Theory of Oppositional Consciousness in Methodology of the Oppressed and Lorde’s “Transformation of Silence into Language and Action.” This paper asks if this narrative can serve as an example of taking back one’s power by confronting a complex system of power and oppression for Black women. Intercessory prayer aptly defines the personal as political, especially with the multiple minoritized identities of Hannah. I argue that Hannah’s story can serve as a complex narrative of differential consciousness and the reclamation of one’s own power, by using her voice. Her audacity to correct a prophet, fight for her valid desire of motherhood, and determine her own happiness is evidence of an empowerment ethic that is necessary for minoritized women in a post-modern era and political climate where the erasure of all forms of difference and consciousness is the priority.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060254
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 255: Criminal Legal Systems and the
           Disability Community: An Overview

    • Authors: Sandra M. Leotti, Elspeth Slayter
      First page: 255
      Abstract: While the scale and scope of the criminal legal system is often discussed with attention to racial disproportionalities, the fact that disabled people are overrepresented at all points in the system is less discussed by social workers. Disabled people come into contact with the criminal legal system as suspects, defendants, incarcerated persons, victims, and witnesses. Compared to people without disabilities, disabled people are more likely to experience victimization, be arrested, be charged with a crime, and serve longer prison sentences once convicted. These trends are even more profound for disabled people with intersecting marginalized identities, such as people of color, women, poor people, and those who identify as LGBTQ. This article provides an overview of the connections between disability, law enforcement, and practices of imprisonment in the United States. We provide a historical overview of the involvement of disabled people in the criminal legal system, review the prevalence of disability in the criminal legal system, and then discuss the unique ways in which disabled people are impacted by the criminal legal system. We conclude by providing recommendations for social work practice and advocacy based in disability justice.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060255
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 256: Educating in History: Thinking
           Historically through Historical Reenactment

    • Authors: José-Manuel González-González, Jesús-Gerardo Franco-Calvo, Darío Español-Solana
      First page: 256
      Abstract: This paper aimed to identify trends in the scientific literature that relate the link between two concepts: historical thinking and historical reenactment. The definition of both concepts and their commonalities were examined. Convinced that History instruction and Heritage education could improve new methods and techniques, and aware of the benefits of reenactments in active learning and participation in and outside the classroom, we came to the obvious conclusion that merging both aspects is a must and should be disseminated. We also analyzed the presence of second-order concepts in reenactment practices and how they are addressed by actors and spectators. Reenactments foster the acquisition of critical thinking by citizens through education; their quality, however, must be improved through research and didactics—didactics based on reenactment that help us value the past and the traces still present in local areas. Local and global identity and heritage, emotions, reproduction of objects, the use of sources, relevance, empathy, multiperspectives, causation, communication, the relationship between past and present, and the sustainable economy proposed by the 2030 Agenda, are all aspects that should take center stage in turning this phenomenon into a living and lasting history as an experience.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060256
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 257: Comparing the Effects of Class
           Origins versus Race in the Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty

    • Authors: Sakamoto, Hsu, Jalufka
      First page: 257
      Abstract: Building upon prior research on intergenerational income mobility, we assess class effects versus racial effects on the probability of becoming a poor adult, broken down by gender. We define the class effect (for each race-and-gender group) as the difference between the probability that a person who was born into the lowest income quintile becomes poor and the probability that a person who was born into the highest income quintile becomes poor. For each minority-by-gender group, using Whites as the baseline, the racial effect is defined as the average racial differential in the probability of becoming a poor adult, irrespective of class origins. The results indicate that, for all minority-by-gender groups, the class effect is larger than the racial effect. Our findings underscore the continuing significance of the comparatively large effects of class origins, which have not been adequately acknowledged in recent research.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060257
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 258: Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on
           the Lives of Women with Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds and
           Victimization Experiences in Portugal

    • Authors: Ana Lúcia Teixeira, Dalila Cerejo, Maria do Rosário Rosa, Manuel Lisboa
      First page: 258
      Abstract: The heavy economic, social, and psychological toll of pandemic lockdowns around the world and their disproportionate effect on women are widely acknowledged, but different socioeconomic backgrounds and contexts may influence the degree to which stay-at-home measures impact their lives. Additionally, knowing that violence against women tends to increase during times of crisis, we are testing if the additional burden of victimization represents an added load to the perceived social impacts of the lockdown. Using 2021 survey data from a random sample of 1541 Portuguese women, the paper explores, through logistic regression models, the social impact of the lockdown on the lives of women, its socioeconomic determinants, and the role played by violence against women during the pandemic. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown did not equally affect all facets of women’s social lives, and women with higher education status and that experienced income reductions due to the measures taken to control the pandemic are more prone to experience a more severe negative impact of the lockdown on the various facets of their lives. Additionally, having been a victim during the pandemic partially mediates the effect of education and income reduction on the social outcomes of the lockdown.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060258
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 259: International Health Cooperation in
           the Post-Pandemic Era: Possibilities for and Limitations of Middle Powers
           in International Cooperation

    • Authors: Yongmin Kim, Youngdeuk Park
      First page: 259
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has left international cooperation and liberalistic values in crisis. As liberalism’s downfall is widely discussed, international collaborations like the European Union are criticised for their inability to operate adequately during the pandemic. The four examples in this paper are middle power countries (South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore) in terms of economic scale and influence. The purpose of this study was to uncover possibilities for and limitations of these middle powers within international cooperative efforts during and after the pandemic. The unknown factor is the path the post-pandemic world will follow. Will nations focus on independent survival' Or will international cooperation shape the new world' Globalisation already seems to have progressed too far for the national egoism of the great powers to prevail. Even if face-to-face is replaced by virtual and offline meetings move online, the social nature of humans remains unchanged, and international cooperation remains valid. The four middle power countries in Asia, which are included among the most economically successful countries, are important to international society based on their relatively excellent quarantine performance. What is important in the diplomacy of middle power countries is not traditional security and hard power but the soft power of international law, human rights, health security, and international cooperation.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060259
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 260: Urban Living Lab: An Experimental
           Co-Production Tool to Foster the Circular Economy

    • Authors: Federico Cuomo
      First page: 260
      Abstract: In recent decades; the balance of power between institutional and economic actors has radically changed; with a significant impact on the modes and dynamics of governance. In the broad array of experimental practices of co-production; Living Labs (LLs) represent a promising mode of collaboration among public bodies; research centres; private companies and citizens. By means of LLs; public actors aim to co-produce experimental policies; breaking out of traditional policy schemes to find new solutions to collective problems. On an urban scale; such tools have come to be known as Urban Living Labs (ULLs), and they are increasingly used by local governments to tackle complex problems such us stimulating the circular economy to tackle climate change. This paper provides a systematic review of case studies to understand whether and how the ULLs can represent an effective policy tool to foster the circular economy on an urban scale.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060260
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 261: Emotional Capital and Its Uses in
           Lithuanian Middle-Class Fathers’ Narratives

    • Authors: Arturas Tereskinas
      First page: 261
      Abstract: The article examines Lithuanian middle-class fathers’ uses of emotional capital to learn which patterns of emotional engagement with children they employ in their fathering. Emotional capital is defined, in the article, as a type of interpersonal resource that consists of emotion-based knowledge and emotion-management abilities that can lead to social benefits. The 24 in-depth interviews with 35- to 48-year-old fathers show that males believe they are emotionally prepared to cope with their children’s concerns and challenges. The use of emotional capital is an attempt to strengthen their standing as fathers and gain pleasure. Emotional capital is activated by fathers regulating negative emotions and using positive emotions to speak with their children and form friendship bonds. Emotion-based knowledge, management abilities, and capacities to feel provide fathers with a sense of authority and pride. Importantly, in the interviews, it is indicated that men and women have similar emotional resources. Compared to their female partners or wives, men generally consider themselves capable of skillfully enacting emotional capital in their interactions with children.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060261
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 262: Does Income Class Affect Life
           Satisfaction' New Evidence from Cross-Country Microdata

    • Authors: Joanne Haddad, Jad Chaaban, Ali Chalak, Hala Ghattas
      First page: 262
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of income class on subjective wellbeing. Using rich data from the Gallup World Poll, we investigate whether belonging to locally (both country- and time-specific) defined income classes influences individuals’ life satisfaction. We rely on a latent class analysis estimation method, using individual income proxied by household income divided by household size, as an observable characteristic to hypothesize the income classes. We fit a model with one categorical latent variable with three unobserved groupings, here: income classes, which we interpret as lower, middle and upper classes. Our estimates suggest that individuals in the low and middle income classes are, respectively, about 30 and 17 percent of a standard deviation less likely to report a higher life satisfaction in comparison to individuals belonging to the upper income class. The effect of income classes remains robust to the inclusion of standard explanatory variables in this literature.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060262
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 263: When Helping Hurts: A Zemiological
           Analysis of a Child Protection Intervention in
           Adolescence—Implications for a Critical Child Protection Studies

    • Authors: Lauren Elizabeth Wroe
      First page: 263
      Abstract: This paper presents data from a three-year, mixed methods study into the rate and impact of ‘relocation’ as a response to extra-familial harm in adolescence by children’s social care teams. Participatory approaches to research design, data collection and analysis are used to gain insights from young people, parents/carers and professionals about the impact of relocations on safety. Professionals and young people report a range of harms implicated in the use of relocations, whilst sharing that the intervention often increases safety. Data are analysed zemiologically to understand this ambivalence, connecting micro accounts of harm with meso, institutional and macro structures that determine child protection intervention. Zemiology is put forward as a promising approach for a Critical Child Protection Studies.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060263
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 264: Young Women, Employment and
           Precarity: The Face of Two Periods of Crisis in Spain (2008–2021)

    • Authors: M. Àngels Cabasés, Miquel Úbeda
      First page: 264
      Abstract: Youth employment in Spain is characterised by temporary contracts, part-time jobs, and low wages, a long-standing situation that has been further accentuated since the 2008 crisis, placing young people, especially women, in a position of vulnerability at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through different data, this article argues that young women’s working conditions have deteriorated in comparison to those of previous generations and young men, in a period in which there have been two crises that have affected youth employment. Linking the results with the main youth employment policies allows us to observe why the precarisation of Spanish youth has not been stopped.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060264
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 265: Health, Functional Ability, and
           Environmental Quality as Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Physically
           Active Older Adults

    • Authors: Rafael Zapata-Lamana, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Andres Ledezma-Dames, Patricia Pavón-León, Ana María Leiva, María Trinidad Fuentes-Alvarez, Igor Cigarroa, María Antonia Parra-Rizo
      First page: 265
      Abstract: The factors that make physically active older people feel more satisfied in adulthood have not been extensively studied. For this reason, the aim of this work has been to evaluate, among physically active older adults, whether the level of physical activity they perform and the factors that foster their quality of life can be predictors of their satisfaction with life. For this, the IPAQ, CUBRECAVI and LSI-A scales were applied to a sample of 397 people between 61 and 93 years old (M = 69.65, SD = 4.71). The results show that health (β = 0.373), functional abilities (β = 0.159) and environmental quality (β = 0.105) are predictors of satisfaction in the most active adults. In conclusion, neither physical activity (to a greater or lesser extent) nor income are predictive variables of satisfaction with life but, rather, predict some of the components that cement their quality of life (health, fending for themselves and the home environment).
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11060265
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 182: Reflections on Working Together in an
           Inclusive Research Team

    • Authors: Phillippa Carnemolla, Jack Kelly, Catherine Donnelley, Aine Healy
      First page: 182
      Abstract: The funding of a research project working with local governments and people with intellectual disabilities led to the establishment of an inclusive research team within a university faculty. The core team consisted of four people, including a design researcher, an architect, a disability advocate and a community researcher/self-advocate. Though there are ample attention and resources devoted to the front-facing parts of a university being visibly inclusive—mostly from a physical access perspective or focussed on the student experience—less attention has been directed to what it means to develop and support inclusive research and aligned work opportunities for people with intellectual disabilities within a university campus. For this reason, the paper explores what it was like for our team that included non-traditional academics and people with intellectual disabilities to work at a university in a design school (not a disability-related research centre). We employ a process of collaborative autoethnography to reflect on how different team members took the lead across different parts of the study. We conclude with a set of tips for the development of more inclusive research teams within university settings.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050182
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 183: Walking to Build a Critical
           Community-Engaged Project: Collaborative Observations of Neighborhood
           Change in Long Beach, California

    • Authors: Claudia Maria López, R. Varisa Patraporn, Kelliana Lim, Kylee Khan
      First page: 183
      Abstract: Academic and community research partnerships have gained traction as a potential bridge between the university and local area to address pressing social issues. A key question for developing justice-oriented research is how to integrate best practices for creating genuine, authentic research partnerships. In this paper, we discuss the process of building a critical community-engaged project that examines how urban redevelopment changes neighborhoods within immigrant and/or communities of color. Focusing on Long Beach, California, in this article, we detail the development of a mixed-methods study that involves undergraduate students and community members as co-collaborators. We discuss the use and outcomes of co-walking as method, emphasizing observational findings, as well as the process of building team collaboration. We find that neighborhoods in Long Beach are changing rapidly in terms of the use of greening, increased technology integration within neighborhoods, and modern aesthetics, revealing that new residents will likely be younger and single residents with disposable income and no children. From this process, we identified a more critical question for the research project: “Development for whom'”. We argue that co-walking as method is an observational and relational process that assists with the foundational steps of building a critical community-engaged research project.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050183
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 184: Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in
           Portugal in Times of Pandemic Crisis

    • Authors: Inês Casquilho-Martins, Helena Belchior-Rocha, David Ramalho Alves
      First page: 184
      Abstract: During the last two years, the pandemic has dominated the public attention and debate around the world, centering on socio-economic aspects and having camouflaged other social, cultural and even environmental issues. This study sought to analyze ethno-racial discrimination processes, identifying significant events in Portugal during the period of the current global crisis. We utilized document analysis of national and international reports produced in the last five years, complementing with secondary statistical data and the analysis of online news and users’ comments published in national media during the last two years. The results show that, although there has been a development in Portuguese legislation and in anti-discrimination measures, there has been an increase in racist and xenophobic phenomena in Portugal. Citizens’ perceptions, indicators and reports from official bodies show evidence of discriminatory behavior. Additionally, within this framework, we see a greater political presence of extreme right-wing movements, as well as an increase in hate speech in online news comments. Thus, although there is an awareness of the seriousness of these phenomena, there is an urgent need for actions against racial and ethnic intolerance and greater effective measures for ideological crimes.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050184
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 185: On the Road Together: Issues Observed
           in the Process of a Research Duo Working Together in a Long-Term and
           Intense Collaboration in an Inclusive Research Project

    • Authors: Sofie Sergeant, Henriëtte Sandvoort, Geert Van Hove, Petri Embregts, Kim van den Bogaard, Elsbeth Taminiau, Alice Schippers
      First page: 185
      Abstract: Inclusive research practices can lead to progress towards an inclusive society. With this study, we aimed to gain insight into dilemmas and catalysing processes within the long-term collaboration of an inclusive research duo: one non-academic researcher who lives with the label of intellectual disabilities and visual impairment, and one academic researcher. Both researchers kept personal diaries about their collaboration process. Inductive thematic analysis, individually and as a group of authors, was employed. Our findings reveal six necessary conditions for diversity-sensitive work in inclusive research: (a) experiencing belonging within the research group, (b) empowering people in a team through growing self-awareness and competence-building, (c) having room for reflection and searching for various ways of communication, (d) sharing power and ownership of research processes, (e) having enough time to foster the above conditions, and (f) joining in a mutual engagement in accommodating vulnerability in dialogue and collaborative work. Awareness of stigma-related issues and the risk of tokenism is also required.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050185
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 186: A Closer Look at the Quest for an
           Inclusive Research Project: ‘I Had No Experience with Scientific
           Research, and then the Ball of Cooperation Started Rolling’

    • Authors: Miriam Zaagsma, Mark Koning, Christien van Andel, Karin Volkers, Alice Schippers, Geert van Hove
      First page: 186
      Abstract: The original adage of the movement of people with disabilities ‘Nothing about us without us’ is fortunately more and more adopted in the research world. There is, for example, increasing recognition of the importance and value of actively involving people with intellectual disabilities in research projects on topics that are relevant to them. In a current doctoral research project, a co-researcher with an intellectual disability was recruited to work together with the doctoral researcher. Now that this project is nearing completion, it is time to look at some aspects of their collaboration and see what we can learn from this process. In several (joint) meetings, the researchers reflected on their personal experiences with working and researching together. Our reflections are presented using three overarching themes: preparations for the collaboration, collaborating as a complex process, and conducting research together. The discussion focuses on what can be inferred from these personal experiences with regard to the following three topics: how inclusive research can be organised best, the possible benefits of the collaboration for the researchers involved, and the possible impact of the collaboration on the quality of the research.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050186
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 187: Exploring UTAUT Model in Mobile 4.5G

    • Authors: Sara Mehrab Daniali, Sergey Evgenievich Barykin, Marzieh Zendehdel, Olga Vladimirovna Kalinina, Valeriia Vadimovna Kulibanova, Tatiana Robertovna Teor, Irina Anatolyevna Ilyina, Natalia Sergeevna Alekseeva, Anton Lisin, Nikita Moiseev, Tomonobu Senjyu
      First page: 187
      Abstract: The current study aims to examine how students’ intentions to use 4.5G mobile phones are affected by the social-economic factors of performance expectancy, cost, effort expectancy, and social influence. This study is based on the perspectives of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The central assumption of this study is that when students use 4.5G mobile services to source information at university, their academic performance is likely to improve. From eight private and public universities in Malaysia, 2117 students were enrolled in this study. We investigated the effects of gender and awareness as moderators on the relationships among the variables of interest. The findings showed that social influence and performance expectancy positively affected university students’ intentions to use 4.5G mobile phones. The researchers conducted a multigroup analysis to confirm the moderating effect of gender among the underlying relationships in the model. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that, unlike awareness, gender did not moderate social influence, effort expectancy, performance expectancy, or the cost of students’ intentions to use 4.5G mobile phones. The implications of the proposed approach, considering the digital transformation concept, could be a topic for future research.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050187
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 188: The Sociocultural Dimensions of
           Gender-Based Violence in Afro-Mexican Communities in the Coastal Region of
           Oaxaca, Mexico

    • Authors: Ilaria Sartini
      First page: 188
      Abstract: In Mexico, as part of the historical and political context, race heavily influences a person’s opportunities. Moreover, the data refer to a scenario of normalized gender-based violence caused by sociocultural practices, the lack of application of the laws, and structural discrimination. Given this precedent, the purpose of this study is to analyze the social and physical dimensions of gender-based violence in an Afro-Mexican community in the south of Mexico. The techniques used to gather data for this study consist of a variety of styles of interviews with a group of Afro-Mexican women from the Costa Chica of Oaxaca, who are survivors of gender-based violence, and participant observation obtained through conducting ethnographic fieldwork in Oaxaca. The social phenomena of emigration and alcohol and drug consumption, in combination with the cultural dimensions of the machista practices in this region of Mexico, are the material and immaterial spaces where GBV is produced and reproduced daily. An intersectional perspective of the context can be helpful when collecting data for effective and well-grounded public policies and intervention projects established on a feminist and women-centered perspective.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050188
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 189: Differentiated Primary Healthcare in
           the Pataxó Indigenous Communities in Bahia, Brazil: Polyphonic
           Ethnography of Healthcare Practices from an Intercultural Perspective

    • Authors: Leo Pedrana, Leny Alves Bomfim Trad
      First page: 189
      Abstract: A lack of culturally appropriate healthcare is a common problem for colonial nations, and this can explain the different patterns of health in indigenous populations worldwide. Our study is the first ethnography realized with the neglected Pataxó indigenous people from the south of the state of Bahia, Brazil, that analyzes the representations and practices of “differentiated” public healthcare. The polysemic conceptualization and polymorphism of the healthcare practices highlight some spontaneous intercultural competences, particularly those of the indigenous professionals, within the hegemony of non-indigenous health knowledge and the lack of awareness of intercultural healthcare. Intercultural training and empowerment still remain a priority.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050189
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 190: The Introduction of the Special
           Issue: Asian Perspectives on Active Aging: Meaning, Purpose and Hope

    • Authors: Kalyani K. Mehta, Leng Leng Thang
      First page: 190
      Abstract: This Special Issue focuses on the value of active ageing and its beneficial impact on mental and physical health [...]
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050190
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 191: Technological Utopias: Loneliness and
           Rural Contexts in Western Iberia

    • Authors: Borja Rivero Jiménez, David Conde-Caballero, Lorenzo Mariano Juárez
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Background: Urbanisation and rural migration in some areas of Spain and Portugal have given rise to rural contexts largely defined by ageing and depopulation. Rural populations have suffered from increasing social isolation, with older people living alone in villages with very few inhabitants and limited access to services. The aim of this study is to analyse the extent to which technology serve as a strategy to improve social relations and how technology influences older adults’ loneliness, its uses, meanings, experiences, and perceptions. Methods: Ethnographic research is conducted in several locations in the border area between Spain and Portugal, supported by semi-structured interviews with 17 rural subjects aged 65 years and older. Results: The results underline two main points. Participants’ definitions point to loneliness as an experience built around nostalgia for those who are no longer there, where the disappearance of rituals in the community also leads to a lack of “social happiness”. Conclusions: We note low levels of digital literacy skills and competence among our participants, with most of them rejecting any technology beyond analogue devices.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050191
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 192: The Hard Skills Bases in Digital
           Academic Entrepreneurship in Relation to Digital Transformation

    • Authors: Ana Garcez, Ricardo Silva, Mário Franco
      First page: 192
      Abstract: Digital transformation (DT) has changed the means and mechanisms for acquiring knowledge, meaning that higher education institutions (HEI) have changed the form of student-lecturer and teaching-learning interaction. Digital transformation must have a relevant role in building the hard skills (HS) necessary for academic entrepreneurship, where HS are easily taught and measured. This study analyses the basis of HS for digital academic entrepreneurship, answering the following research hypothesis: What are the hard skills—entrepreneurial education—for digital academic entrepreneurship and how are they formed' An extensive, inclusive literature review revealed that, due to the possibility of editing, reprogramming and generating digital technology, the basis of DT can support the development of HS in higher education students. The results show that HS can be developed considering three major pillars: (i) Management Tools, (ii) Digital Process, and (iii) Digital Products. Since HS are easily taught, this study shows how the use of digital technology can transform this scalable teaching process in order to reach the maximum number of students. It is therefore suggested that those in charge of HEIs use the pillars presented here in the framework proposed to guide their institutions’ strategic planning. With these pillars in mind, the aim is to stimulate the development of innovative business proposals developed in the academic environment and promote digital academic entrepreneurship.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050192
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 193: Becoming ‘Homo
           Economicus’ as Learned Behavior among Numerate Greek University

    • Authors: Michail Chouzouris, Panos Xenos, Platon Tinios
      First page: 193
      Abstract: In this study, we use experimental methods to probe how far individuals depart from choices consistent with “Rational Economic Man” and whether these departures are associated with financial and numeric literature on the one hand, and, more fundamentally, with impulsive or analytical thinking—i.e., with cognitive reflection. We examine a purposely biased sample of Greek undergraduates enrolled in a course heavy on statistics and probability who participated in a battery of tests. Specifically, we use the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) jointly with numeric and financial literacy tools to understand how “irrational choices” result. Despite the expected bias, responders with lower CRT are more likely to be susceptible to behavioral biases, even when controlling for numeracy and financial literacy. In agreement with other studies, gender is associated with significance differences, which operate both independently and through the mediation of CRT.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050193
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 194: Hukou System Influencing the
           Structural, Institutional Inequalities in China: The Multifaceted
           Disadvantages Rural Hukou Holders Face

    • Authors: Jason Hung
      First page: 194
      Abstract: In this paper, the author investigates rural Chinese citizens’ encounters of structural and institutional inequalities and social (im)mobility. The author addresses social (im)mobility from a holistic perspective (i.e., in institutional, occupational, social, educational, cultural and political dimensions). In this regard, the author explores if a range of parental disadvantages serve as significant hindrances to the acquisition of social mobilising opportunities among the next generations in rural Chinese contexts. Here a holistic presentation helps understand the nuanced relationship between institutional barriers (i.e., rural hukou status) and alternative obstacles to social mobility; and explore, in part, how parental inheritance of rural hukou status would bar individuals’ from socially mobilising and result in some forms of unsustainability. Previous research on China restrictively measures social (im)mobility from limited perspectives, failing to fully and accurately reflect the extent of social (im)mobility Chinese populations face. This paper is a comprehensive literature review where relevant Chinese literature, exclusively found in the e-library system of the University of Cambridge, is included and thoroughly discussed. Articles that include the keywords of “hukou”, “China”, “social mobility” and (a) “economic”, (b) “social”, (c) “cultural”, (d) “linguistic” or (e) “political” are extensively studied, in a hope to understand the existing scholarship on multifaceted social (im)mobility in Chinese contexts. The author argues that, despite the 2014 hukou reform, further loosening the requirements for rural-to-urban hukou conversion should be prioritised by the Central Government of China in order to ensure the rural-urban divide and structural and institutional inequalities rural hukou holders face can curtain.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050194
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 195: Towards Community Rooted Research and
           Praxis: Reflections on the BSS Safety and Youth Justice Project

    • Authors: Uriel Serrano, David C. Turner, Gabriel Regalado, Alejandro Banuelos
      First page: 195
      Abstract: This article focuses on the Brothers, Sons, Selves (BSS) Safety and Youth Justice project to describe what we refer to as a Community Rooted and Research Praxis (CRRP) approach. BSS is an organizing coalition for boys, young men, and masculine-identifying youth of color that works to decriminalize communities of color. In 2018, BSS developed a survey to capture how safety and justice is experienced by youth of color across multiple contexts and institutions in Los Angeles County. With over 3000 surveys collected, the findings have now been used to promote racial equity and decriminalize youth at the local and state level. Building on a Black Radical Tradition, including abolitionists struggles against the carceral state, in this paper, we name CRRP as a framework to describe BSS’s community engaged scholarship. In other words, we contend that the CRRP approach is a mode of community engaged scholarship that brings together youth, university affiliated adults, and community organizations to engage in youth participatory action, research, political education, and collective struggle.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050195
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 196: Perspectives of Adolescents, Parents,
           Service Providers, and Teachers on Mobile Phone Use for Sexual
           Reproductive Health Education

    • Authors: Beverly M. Ochieng, Lesley Smith, Bev Orton, Mark Hayter, Margaret Kaseje, Charles O. Wafula, Penina Ocholla, Franklin Onukwugha, Dan C. O. Kaseje
      First page: 196
      Abstract: Mobile health (mHealth) programs offer opportunities to improve the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of adolescents by providing information. This paper reports the findings of a study carried out in Homabay County, Kenya, to assess stakeholders’ perspectives on access to and use of mobile phones by adolescents for SRH education. We aimed to establish whether mobile phones could facilitate access to SRH information by adolescents and the barriers to be addressed. This was a qualitative exploratory study involving adolescents, parents, teachers, health care workers, and community health volunteers. Data were collected through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs), and were analyzed through thematic and content analysis. Respondents lauded mHealth as an effective and efficient approach to adolescent SRH education with a potential to promote the learning of useful SRH information to influence their behavior formation. Respondents pointed out bottlenecks such as the limited ownership of and inequitable access to phones among adolescents, logistical barriers such as lack of electricity, internet connectivity, and the impact of phones on school performance, which must be addressed. The usefulness of mHealth in adolescent SRH education can be enhanced through inclusive program formulation and co-creation, implemented through safe spaces where adolescents would access information in groups, and supported by trained counselors.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050196
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 197: Increasing Refugees’ Work and
           Job Search Self-Efficacy Perceptions by Developing Career Adaptability

    • Authors: Roberta Morici, Davide Massaro, Federico Brajda Bruno, Diego Boerchi
      First page: 197
      Abstract: Today’s unstable labor market increasingly requires flexibility and adaptability to cope with the threat of unemployment. Though this threat can cause distress in many people, its negative impact is even more significant on vulnerable workers such as refugees. This study aimed to explore if a career counseling intervention designed for refugees (CCfR) preceded increases in career adaptability and, therefore, perceptions of both work self-efficacy (WSe) and job search self-efficacy (JSSe). The study was conducted in Italy and involved a sample of 233 refugees, who were asked to respond to a questionnaire available in three languages (Italian, French, and English). Data analysis showed that improvement was demonstrated in all the variables considered, namely, career adaptability (composed by concern, control, confidence, and curiosity), WSe, and JSSe. In addition, the increase in career adaptability explained the increase in refugees’ WSe and JSSe; at the opposite, only the initial level of curiosity was found to explain the increase in WSe, while JSSe was completely independent from the initial level of the career adaptability.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050197
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 198: Relationships of People with
           Intellectual Disabilities in Times of Pandemic: An Inclusive Study

    • Authors: Carolina Puyaltó, Maialen Beltran, Tània Coll, Gemma Diaz-Garolera, Marta Figueras, Judit Fullana, Cristina González, Maria Pallisera, Joan Pujolar, Ana Rey
      First page: 198
      Abstract: (1) Background: Since 2012, our Inclusive Research Team has developed several studies on various topics that interest the co-researchers with intellectual disabilities. In 2021, throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the co-researchers decided to investigate the impact of the pandemic on the relationships of people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this article is to disseminate how this inclusive study was developed and to explain its results; (2) Methods: Co-researchers and academic researchers met six times to make different decisions: decide on the research topic; discuss the topic; prepare an interview script for people with intellectual disabilities; analyse the data obtained; and decide how to disseminate the results of the research. The co-researchers interviewed 10 people with intellectual disabilities and participated as facilitators in 3 focus groups; (3) Results: During the pandemic, digital devices have enabled people with intellectual disabilities to maintain their social relationships. However, the lack of access or support in using them, as well as the restrictions imposed on people with intellectual disabilities living in institutions, have presented significant barriers to maintaining their social relationships; (4) Conclusions: This article shows the difficulties people with intellectual disabilities face in maintaining successful social relationships in times of pandemic, and how we undertook research in an inclusive, virtual manner.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050198
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 199: Prostitution and Deservingness in
           Times of Pandemic: State (Non) Protection of Sex Workers in Spain

    • Authors: Estefanía Acién González, Ángeles Arjona Garrido
      First page: 199
      Abstract: During the COVID-19 health crisis, the Spanish Government launched a series of urgent measures to protect the population from its economic effects. At first, it seemed that sex workers would have access to this protection, given that, technically, their access to the star measure, the IMV (anagram in Spanish for Ingreso Mínimo Vital) (minimum living income), was explicitly expressed. However, in the end, this group was excluded as the final text specified that only those deemed to be victims of gender violence, sexual exploitation, or trafficking could access said measure. We propose to study the usefulness of the concept of deservingness of social benefits to explain this lack of protection in a framework that takes into account political power contexts, the empirical observations of sex workers on their level of access to the IMV, and an exploration of its association with the theoretical construct of deservingness. Through a revision of secondary sources, interviews with key informants, and applying discourse analysis, we found these connections and the evident exclusion of sex workers from the social benefit. Likewise, we found that social stigma and moral and ideological judgments are behind this undeservingness and confirm a process of “NGOization” of care for this group that implies the depoliticization and professionalization of civil society entities such as NGOs.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050199
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 200: Method for Detecting Far-Right
           Extremist Communities on Social Media

    • Authors: Anna Karpova, Aleksei Savelev, Alexander Vilnin, Sergey Kuznetsov
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Far-right extremist communities actively promote their ideological preferences on social media. This provides researchers with opportunities to study these communities online. However, to explore these opportunities one requires a way to identify the far-right extremists’ communities in an automated way. Having analyzed the subject area of far-right extremist communities, we identified three groups of factors that influence the effectiveness of the research work. These are a group of theoretical, methodological, and instrumental factors. We developed and implemented a unique algorithm of calendar-correlation analysis (CCA) to search for specific online communities. We based CCA on a hybrid calendar correlation approach identifying potential far-right communities by characteristic changes in group activity around key dates of events that are historically crucial to those communities. The developed software module includes several functions designed to automatically search, process, and analyze social media data. In the current paper we present a process diagram showing CCA’s mechanism of operation and its relationship to elements of automated search software. Furthermore, we outline the limiting factors of the developed algorithm. The algorithm was tested on data from the Russian social network VKontakte. Two experimental data sets were formed: 259 far-right communities and the 49 most popular (not far-right) communities. In both cases, we calculated the type II error for two mutually exclusive hypotheses—far-right affiliation and no affiliation. Accordingly, for the first sample, β = 0.81. For the second sample, β = 0.02. The presented CCA algorithm was more effective at identifying far-right communities belonging to the alt-right and Nazi ideologies compared to the neo-pagan or manosphere communities. We expect that the CCA algorithm can be effectively used to identify other movements within far-right extremist communities when an appropriate foundation of expert knowledge is provided to the algorithm.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050200
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 201: “God Helped Us”:
           Resilience, Religion and Experiences of Gender-Based Violence and
           Trafficking among African Forced Migrant Women

    • Authors: Sandra Iman Pertek
      First page: 201
      Abstract: In this article, I explore how faith and religion shaped the resilience of forced migrant women subjected to intersecting gender-based violence (GBV) and trafficking. Adopting a social constructivist perspective, I draw upon interviews with 11 Christian and 4 Muslim displaced survivors of 10 African nationalities temporarily residing in Tunisia. I first outline the experiences of intersecting violence to understand what displaced survivors were resilient to, and then describe faith pathways to resilience, sometimes with spiritual struggles and unmet religious needs. I delineate ways in which personal prayers and cooperating with God enabled all but one survivor to cope with exploitation and perilous journeys toward imagined refuge. I offer insights for practitioners working with forced migrants on the move and highlight the importance of spiritual support for displaced survivors who are religious. I discuss the findings and offer implications for future research and practice.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050201
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 202: Introduction to Special Issue on
           “Divorce and the Life Course”

    • Authors: Teresa M. Cooney
      First page: 202
      Abstract: With the severe upswing in divorce experienced by developed nations in the last fifty years, social scientists in many disciplines are intensifying their focus on marital dissolution and its implications for society, families, and individuals [...]
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050202
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 203: Unmarried Adolescents’
           Experiences of Using Reproductive and Maternal Health Services in Nigeria
           and Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Franklin Onukwugha, Peninah Agaba, Mark Hayter, Bev Orton
      First page: 203
      Abstract: Adolescents’ access and use of reproductive and maternal health (RMH) services is a critical part of the global strategy for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, previous studies have shown that a complex range of factors, including restrictive policies and punitive laws, limit adolescents from accessing a full range of RMH services in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Our study explores the experiences of unmarried adolescents’ access and use of RMH services in Nigeria and Uganda to understand the extent to which the diverse policy environment in both countries enables or hinders adolescents’ access to and use of RMH services. Our qualitative research design involved eight focus group discussions (FGDs) in Nigeria and in Uganda, 14 in-depth interviews, and eight FGDs among adolescents. The data were analysed thematically and organised according to the WHO’s five broad dimensions for assessing youth-friendly health services. Our findings show that RMH services were inequitably delivered in both countries. Adolescents were restricted from accessing services based on age and marital status. Being unmarried and having no partner, especially in Uganda, was a cause for discrimination during antenatal appointments. We also observed that the expectations of adolescents were not adequately met. Service providers tended to be impolite, judgemental, and unwilling to provide services, especially contraceptives, to younger and unmarried adolescents. Our findings suggest that the existence of a youth-friendly health policy does not translate into effective youth-friendly service provision. This underscores the need for further studies to understand the complexities surrounding this by using a realist evaluation method to examine how adolescent and youth-friendly health services can be designed to improve uptake of reproductive and maternal health services among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050203
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 204: Multiracial Identities in the United
           States: Towards the Brazilian or South African Paths'

    • Authors: G. Reginald Daniel
      First page: 204
      Abstract: Multiracial identities in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States all formed within White supremacist, White racist, and anti-Black social orders. Brazil and South Africa historically acknowledged multiracials in ternary racial orders with a structurally intermediate status somewhat higher than that of other nonWhites, particularly Blacks, but significantly lower than that of Whites. In contrast, in the United States, multiracial identities have historically been prohibited due to hypodescent and the monoracial imperative, which categorize multiracials according to their most subaltern racial background and necessitate single-racial identification. In the 1980s and 1990s, a U.S. multiracial movement challenged these norms. This article compares the multiracial phenomenon in the United States with historical formations in Brazil and South Africa using data from published literature, censuses, written correspondence with activists, and observations of public behavior in the United States. The objective is to theorize whether and to what extent U.S. multiracial identities function in ways similar to the historical formations of Brazil and South Africa, particularly with regards to questions of collective identity, anti-Blackness, and White adjacency.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050204
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 205: Dominant Narratives of Whiteness in
           Identity Construction of Mixed-Race Young Adults in Post-Apartheid South

    • Authors: Jody Metcalfe
      First page: 205
      Abstract: Despite the relative freedoms gained after the transition to democracy in 1994 in South Africa, dominant narratives of Whiteness stemming from settler-colonial and apartheid legacies of White supremacy remain pervasive within all structures of post-apartheid society, including the identity construction and racialisation of first-generation mixed-race people. This research explored how dominant narratives of Whiteness influence the construction of identity among mixed-race youth in post-apartheid South Africa. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 participants who have one White parent and one parent of colour and were considered ‘born frees’, as they were born during or after the transition to democracy. Guided by critical race theory, through thematic analysis, three main themes emerged: defying Rainbowism, rejecting Whiteness, and policing identity. Ultimately, this research critically investigates how mixed-race people have constructed their identities while navigating pervasive power structures of White supremacy that continue to shape the rigid racial categorisations in post-apartheid South Africa.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050205
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 206: Relationship of Work-Related Stress
           and Offline Social Leisure on Political Participation of Voters in the
           United States

    • Authors: Oldřich Šubrt
      First page: 206
      Abstract: In the United States (US), citizens’ political participation is 15%. Contemporary psychological models explaining political participation are based on education and socioeconomic status, which are unable to explain the overall low political participation figures. The study suggests a holistic approach, with two societal tendencies: increasing work-related stress and diminishing offline social leisure, together with a mediating effect of participatory efficacy to assess associations with the political participation of US voters. The quantitative correlational study uses structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis on the General Social Survey representative sample of US voters (N = 295, Mage = 44.49, SD = 13.43), controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Work-related stress was not significantly associated with political participation (β = 0.08, p = 0.09). Offline social leisure was positively associated with political participation (β = 0.28, p < 0.001). The mediating effect of participatory efficacy on the relationship between offline social leisure and political participation was positive and significant (β = 0.05, p < 0.001). Additional analyses, regression and SEM on the European Social Survey sample (N = 27,604) boosted internal and external validity. Results indicate that offline social leisure is more predictive than education and socioeconomic status, showing that examining societal trends leads to a better understanding of political participation.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050206
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 207: Mapping the Cyber Interpersonal
           Violence among Young Populations: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Bárbara Machado, Sónia Caridade, Isabel Araújo, Paula Lobato Faria
      First page: 207
      Abstract: The increase in digital practices and networking has introduced important changes to social interactions. The extensive use of technology among young people has allowed for cyber communication, which has numerous benefits but can also trigger violence in relationships. Interpersonal violence affecting young people is becoming more widely recognized as a public health issue. The aim of this scoping review is to map and systematize the published academic literature on Cyber Interpersonal Violence (CIV) amongst young people, following the methodological approach proposed by Arksey and O’Malley. Five databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Science Direct and Social Sciences Citation Index. Eighteen studies in English, Portuguese, Spanish and French, published from 2004 onwards, were included. Three main areas arose in the CIV: cyber dating abuse, cyberbullying and cyber-harassment. Investing in prevention is the key to preventing cyber violence.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050207
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 208: Patterning of Sexual Violence against
           Women across US Cities and Counties

    • Authors: Jennifer Pabst, Scott M. Walfield, Ryan Schacht
      First page: 208
      Abstract: Sexual violence against women is a global public health concern; yet, determining its patterning is still largely understudied. An excess of males has emerged as a central concern given that men are the primary perpetrators of violent behavior, particularly against women. However, it is increasingly unclear as to whether an excess or, rather, a shortage of men drives purported negative social outcomes. To address these conflicting expectations, we target data from the U.S. Census and the National Incident-Based Reporting System to explore the patterning of sexual violence against women across cities and counties in the United States. Through the use of generalized linear mixed models, we assess the role of adult sex ratio imbalance, along with measures of gender inequality, on sexual violence. Our results indicate mixed support for competing predictions. Violence does not simply increase by way of male surplus or shortage, but instead with increasing skew in the sex ratio. That is, balanced sex ratios exhibit the lowest rates of violence. However, rates of sexual violence against women increase more quickly with increasing male scarcity and are lowest at low levels of male excess (51%). Thus, our findings are particularly challenging to interpret from a ‘more males = more violence’ framework because violence increases more quickly with female excess and is rarest with a slight male bias in the population. We argue that these results highlight a need to target the specific types of violent behaviors expected to be motivated by partner availability, rather than overly simplistic predictions of male surfeit or deficit leading to an excess of violence.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050208
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 209: Minding Mental Health:
           Clinicians’ Engagement with Youth Suicide Prevention

    • Authors: Katherine Klee, John P. Bartkowski
      First page: 209
      Abstract: Suicidal ideation and deaths among children and adolescents have seen an unprecedented rise over the last ten years, recently further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores mental health professionals’ approaches to delivering suicide prevention treatment services. Using insights from Giddens’ structuration theory, the study examines licensed mental health professionals’ (1) reflections on suicide prevention trainings for those in their profession, (2) appraisals of available treatment options, and (3) assessments of postvention services provided to professionals who encounter a client suicide. Additional attention was given to the structural impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on intervention services. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with youth mental health clinicians in the state of Texas. Results underscore the interplay between structural influences and practitioner innovations in the delivery of these essential services to a vulnerable population. This study underscores the agency of mental health professionals in navigating the demands of a difficult profession.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050209
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 210: Muted Voices: The Underrepresentation
           of Women in COVID-19 News in Portugal

    • Authors: Rita Araújo, Felisbela Lopes, Olga Magalhães, Carla Cerqueira
      First page: 210
      Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Portuguese media seemed to contribute to the symbolic annihilation of women. In spite of the fact that women play leading political roles as the Minister of Health and the Directorate-General of Health, women were almost mute in the COVID-19 news that was published in the Portuguese daily national press. In a sample of more than 6000 news sources, women account for less than 20% of them. Their lack of visibility in the news deepens the existing asymmetries of gender and amplifies the glass ceiling. The aim of this study was to analyze the media coverage of COVID-19 through a content analysis of the news that was published in two Portuguese daily newspapers with different editorial lines. Our period of analysis corresponds to the emergency-state periods (18 March to 2 May 2020; 9 November to 23 December 2020; 15 January to 28 February 2021).
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050210
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 211: Who Are the People at Socio-Economic
           Risk' Socio-Demographical Analysis of the Czech People in Specific
           Economical Situations Recognized in Value-Based Risk Prediction Model

    • Authors: Jiří Pospíšil, Ivana Olecká, Nataša Matulayová, Helena Pospíšilová, Pavlína Jurníčková, Pavla Macháčková
      First page: 211
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the dependence of personal economic situation on gender, age, education, occupational status, field of work or study, family situation, and number of children in the family. The research was designed as cross-sectional ex post facto. The survey examined data collected through a structured questionnaire completed and returned by a total of 5175 respondents aged 15+ selected from the general population of the Czech Republic. The statistical significance of hypotheses was tested using χ2 statistics, and the adjusted residuals z in each cell were calculated. The impacts of socio-demographic factors on specific economic situation were recognized and statistically confirmed. Compared to women, men show higher financial knowledge, which benefits them significantly. Economic situation worsens with increasing age. As education increases, the level of vulnerability decreases, and the individual’s economic situation improves. Protective factors include cohabitation with a partner and having a complete family. People without children are in the best financial situation. The situation gradually worsens with the number of children, and families with five or more children are typically in a negative economic situation with a high level of vulnerability. The specific contribution of our research lies in the inclusion of potential financial risks in the identification of people at risk. We recognized a high-risk group of people—women in a positive economic situation with a high level of risk.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050211
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 212: Building China’s Eldercare
           Market: The Imperatives of Capital Accumulation and Social Stability

    • Authors: Feng Xu
      First page: 212
      Abstract: The paper investigates China’s effort to create an eldercare market to shed light on how China’s economic reform entailed the creation of new institutions (e.g., eldercare market including eldercare labour market) and the reconfiguration of existing institutions (e.g., governance and regulation, the family, and the community). All this was needed for the market to flourish while maintaining and strengthening the regime. An urban eldercare market, including an eldercare labour market, was created by local governments (i.e., municipalities, districts, counties, and towns) with central government policy directives, in order to address China’s demographic aging and care crisis. However, once enough demand and supply were created, local governments turned to New Public Management (NPM) to operate publicly funded eldercare institutions. The paper argues that NPM has different rationalities in China than in liberal democracies; in China, they strengthen the Party and contribute to the durability of the authoritarian rule, rather than “shrink the state”. However, in China as in the West, bureaucratic logic hampers the implementation of NPM and the governance of the eldercare sector. The implication of bureaucratic logic driving the regulation of the eldercare sector is that care is not at the centre of eldercare. The paper also argues that the commodification and privatization of eldercare, in line with the global trend, was a deliberate government policy aimed at creating a positive condition for the market economy to flourish, but at the expense of social reproduction/care. Unlike many Western transitions to market provision, this one entailed the decline in the extended family as the main eldercare institution of the immediate past. However, the commodification and privatization of social reproduction have been incomplete and met with resistance, prompting the state to invest more in the sector to maintain social stability. Data for this paper derive from personal interviews with key informants and eldercare workers, official document analysis, and secondary literature analysis from Chinese scholars in mainland China.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050212
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 213: Brothers in Arms' How
           Neoliberalism Connects North and South Higher Education: Finland and
           Portugal in Perspective

    • Authors: Sara Margarida Diogo, Teresa Carvalho
      First page: 213
      Abstract: This paper puts in perspective the reforms of the Portuguese and Finnish higher education (HE) sectors in the light of the role intergovernmental organisations have—especially the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)—in influencing neoliberal public policies in these countries. On the year that the OECD celebrates its 62nd anniversary, (the OECD was founded with this name on 14 December 1960 by 20 countries, following the establishment of the former European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) in April 1948) and by comparing two different countries, this article analyses the extent to which the OECD has been and is an “imperial agent” in Portuguese and Finnish HE policies. By cross-comparing the OECD reports of both HE systems, the empirical data shows how the OECD proposes neoliberal reforms based on three main components of neoliberalism: market, management and performativity in different countries. Taking these proposals into account, Portugal and Finland undertook similar HE legislative reforms despite their geographical, historical, cultural and economic differences. The data reveal a convergence in HE policies in these countries, anticipating the reinforcement of neoliberal policies at the national level.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050213
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 214: Characterisation of Contemporary
           Slavery through the Analysis of Accommodation Conditions

    • Authors: Gairo Garreto, João Santos Baptista, Antônia Mota
      First page: 214
      Abstract: Slave labour or work in conditions analogous to slavery continues on all continents and sometimes tends to be mistaken for “simple” violations of labour laws. Therefore, this work aims to identify parameters that allow distinguishing between situations of non-compliance with labour legislation and modern rural slavery in Brazil through the analysis of accommodation conditions. To achieve this objective, a bibliographic research was developed in six databases on sanitary, accommodation and clothing issues of enslaved workers in the 19th century in Brazil. The resulting data were compared with data from a sample of 392 proven cases of neoslavery detected between 2007 and 2017 in Brazil. The analysis focused on the general conditions of the physical structures necessary to protect workers against bad weather, animal attacks, violence, sanitary conditions to support physiological and asepsis needs, as well as the clothing provided and used. Similarities were found in the accommodation conditions between enslaved and neoenslaved workers in Brazil between the 19th and 21st centuries. The availability of sanitary conditions (toilets), rest (bedrooms/dormitories), and the general housing structure are very similar. Future research may point towards identifying other parameters and developing a tool to help authorities unequivocally identify neoslavery situations.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050214
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 215: Youths’ Perceptions and
           Aspiration towards Participating in the Agricultural Sector: A South
           African Case Study

    • Authors: Johannes I. F. Henning, Nicolette Matthews, Moatlhodi August, Primrose Madende
      First page: 215
      Abstract: Agriculture is considered as a leading source of employment while ensuring food security to the world and especially rural communities. However, the youth do not appear to be interested in the agricultural sector due to various reasons such as their perceptions and aspirations towards the sector. This research intends to explore whether perceptions, aspirations and access to resources affect youth participation in agriculture and related economic activities, under rain-fed production in two regions of the Free State province of South Africa. Principal component analysis was used to determine perception dimensions, while a probit model was used to investigate the effect of capital (human, social, physical, financial and natural), the perception dimensions and the respondents’ agricultural aspirations on agricultural participation. The results showed that the aspirations of youth do not affect their decision to participate in the agricultural sector. However, exposure to agriculture and support systems can increase youth participation in the industry. Results also show that grants, which are an easy source of income, and the uneducated and comfort perception dimension hinders youth participation in agriculture.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050215
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 216: Crisis Communication and Resilience:
           Are Russian and Latvian Speakers in the Same Boat'

    • Authors: Sigita Struberga, Žaneta Ozoliņa
      First page: 216
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is testing the ability of the national governments to manage a crisis by covering policy sectors, which are decisive for health, well-being, sustainability of individuals, and society at large. Communication plays a crucial role in situations when society is at risk. Communication is a source of prevention, action, mitigation, and empowerment. Therefore, the ways and means of how national governments and governmental institutions implement adopted strategies, and how they make their actions understandable and reasonable to their societies, become an important element of crisis management at large. Diversification of the modern information environment makes governments’ communication even more complex. The media landscape, especially social media, impact reality’s perception, including crisis and emergencies. As a result, governments are struggling with different forms of messaging and a choice of narratives to be shared with the broader public or societal groups. Considering the existing division in the perception of political realities between Latvian and Russian-speaking communities, Latvia is a case of particular interest for analysis. The article aims to explore how the society has been led through the current crisis communication-wise by the government and what strategies are used for the particular linguistic groups. The article looks at the main factors influencing the perceptions of the Russian-speaking community in Latvia and the main reasons for the existing divergence between perceptions of Latvian and Russian-speaking representatives. The study is based on focus group interviews organized authors.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050216
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 217: A New Military Hierarchy of Needs

    • Authors: Márta Pákozdi, György Bárdos
      First page: 217
      Abstract: The aim of our research was to create an up-to-date model of the hierarchy of needs of regular soldiers serving in the Hungarian Defense Forces. Our starting point was the theory of motivation, which states that people’s actions are motivated by a system of needs. As qualitative systematic data analysis offers an opportunity to create a relevant (decisive) theory to answer the main research question, we based our analysis on the grounded theory method. The results showed that the needs identified in our model often resembled those identified in other theories, including military models, although on different levels. The hierarchy of needs pyramid that we constructed contains terms such as resources, power, team spirit, development, quest for challenges, and fulfillment and, by way of general background, appreciation. Our research broadened our knowledge regarding individuals’ motivation to choose a military career.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050217
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 218: Zombification and Industry
           4.0—Directional Financialisation against Doomed Industrial

    • Authors: Olivér Kovács
      First page: 218
      Abstract: This contribution addresses the puzzle of whether Industry 4.0 is able to autochthonously bring back the real economy (non-financial corporate sector) into the consciousness of the financial sector. It is all the more important since the conventional wisdom over financialisation says that it cannot be reversed without re-establishing the command of the social and collective over the private and individual for the modern era. Our paper argues that a healthy diffusion of Industry 4.0 is doomed unless some directionality is set within the financialisation process. To this end, by building on the relevant lessons of complexity science, it investigates the complex nexus among financialisation, zombification and Industry 4.0 development, an aspect which is not even sporadically examined in the literature. After presenting a short stock take on excessive financialisation, the paper deciphers the main systemic channels of zombification affecting negatively the outlooks of Industry 4.0. Some important policy recommendations are drawn as well.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050218
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 219: Smartphone Moves: How Changes in
           Embodied Configuration with One’s Smartphone Adjust Conversational

    • Authors: Eerik Mantere
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Smartphones are often spontaneously used for personal purposes and during face-to-face gatherings. New terms like “phubbing” and “technoference” describe negative consequences of this behavior, but analysis of the actual everyday social situations where smartphones feature has largely been neglected. This article shows how simultaneous smartphone and conversational engagements are shaped by participants’ embodied conduct. A naturally occurring three-party conversation in a Finnish café is analyzed in detail to show how changes in embodied user–smartphone configuration impact ongoing conversation. User–smartphone configuration consists of the smartphone’s location, its physical relation to its user’s hands, and its screen direction in relation to the user’s head. User-smartphone configuration can manifest a change in an interactive footing in conversation, function as a turn-holding device, and organize a change in the conversational state. New methods and concepts for studying smartphone use in social situations are introduced. “Smartphone positions” refers to the embodied user–smartphone configurations that are oriented as manifestations of degrees of user–device engagement. “Smartphone moves” are the changes in smartphone positions, and they carry sequential relevance. Increased smartphone engagement is seen as decreased conversational engagement and vice versa. Making interactive resources available for one engagement manifests as an accountable event of disengagement from another. Engagement and disengagement are argued to be a continuum rather than a contrast pair.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050219
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 220: Peer Effects of the Same and
           Different Religions on Faithfulness: A Comparison between Indonesia and

    • Authors: Muhammad Zilal Hamzah, Yukichika Kawata, Syed Ahmed Salman, Eleonora Sofilda
      First page: 220
      Abstract: By employing questionnaire surveys to empirically examine peer effects on religious faithfulness, this study mainly compares Muslims in Indonesia and India as examples. This study uses religious restrictions on foods as the main component of the questionnaire. A total of two variables were selected to examine peer effects: (1) the percentage of respondents’ close friends who follow a different religion and (2) the percentage of people in the respondents’ city who follow the same faith. Ordinary least squares/generalized least squares regression was conducted, and six models were estimated. The results reveal that Indian/Indonesian respondents are more affected by those who follow the same/different religions, respectively, suggesting that relatively smaller groups have larger peer effects on religious faithfulness. Although further investigations are required, these symmetric results may be attributed to the fact that tensions among people from different religions are high/low, and that the percentage of people who follow a different faith in the respondents’ city is high/low in India and Indonesia, respectively.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050220
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 221: Mounting Turbulence in Neoliberal
           Globalization: Political Economy, Populist Discourse, and Policy in
           Alberta, Canada

    • Authors: James Lawson
      First page: 221
      Abstract: For decades, the world’s dominant ideological and policy framework, neoliberal globalization, increasingly faces important disrupters. Long backers of neoliberalism, conservative movements now face pressing, convergent policy challenges (climate emergency, COVID-19), which they increasingly deny through populism, rather than address through neoliberalism. Populism’s unstable, often localist or xenophobic spatial imaginaries increasingly disrupt the neoliberal globalizing consensus of the 1990s and 2000s, and, thus, continental and international integration. As challenges mount, neoliberal globalization’s chances of re-stabilization diminish. However, chance, strategy, and the collective determination and capacities of its opponents will also be essential to establish something new. This article is an interpretive work, linking these themes to the history and current debates of Alberta, Canada, and its unconventional fossil-fuel exports. Canada’s leading fossil-fuel jurisdiction, Alberta, has stoutly favored free trade, continental integration, federal decentralization, and new export markets. Its United Conservative Party (UCP) government exhibits neo-nationalist or regionalist populism, opening tensions with the continental integration of its fossil fuel industries. Yet its populism targets the industry’s enemies to accelerate industry’s growth. Right-wing populism, marked by unstable spatial imaginaries, marks Alberta’s history. Alberta exemplifies the current destabilization of neoliberal globalization through populism, with implications for fossil-fuel exports.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050221
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 222: Incidence of Human Capital in the
           Innovative Performance of Service Companies: A Study in Ecuador

    • Authors: Orly Carvache-Franco, Mauricio Carvache-Franco, Wilmer Carvache-Franco, Miguel A. Bustamante-Ubilla
      First page: 222
      Abstract: The relationship between human capital and innovative performance in service companies has been studied in countries with fast-growing economies and knowledge-intensive companies, but little evidence exists in other contexts. The research examined the relationship between human capital variables and the innovative performance of Ecuadorian service companies. The methodology is quantitative. It is a non-experimental, cross-sectional investigation, and data from Ecuador from the national survey of innovation activities 2015 were used. A bivariate probit regression was performed. The results indicate that the variable training in innovation activities is positively related to service innovation, but not to process innovation, because service innovation requires a greater development of skills and abilities than process innovation in these activities. Company workers and the variable workers with higher education are positively related to process innovation, but not to service innovation. The research contributes to the gap in the literature on the relationship between human capital variables and innovative performance and provides empirical evidence of the relationship in developing countries where evidence is scarce. The research has practical implications for managers and administrators of service companies: Increasing training in innovation activities can increase the potential for service innovation and increasing workers with higher education increases the innovative potential in the processes in these companies. The originality of this study is that it presents evidence of this relationship in a developing country that has companies in a different context such as scarcity of qualified human resources, low level of R&D investment, and companies with a medium level of knowledge complexity, since the evidence focuses on companies in developed countries and knowledge-intensive companies.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050222
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 223: Family Type Differences in
           Children’s Satisfaction with People They Live with and Perceptions
           about Their (Step)parents’ Parenting Practices

    • Authors: Oliver Nahkur, Dagmar Kutsar
      First page: 223
      Abstract: Family complexity is increasing in Europe, experienced by a significant proportion of children. More evidence is needed in Europe how children’s family type influences their well-being, especially their family-related subjective well-being, and to what extent parenting practices are playing a role in these relationships. The aim of the paper is to study perceptions of children who live with two biological parents, with a biological and a stepparent, or with a single parent about the parenting practices of their (step)parents and their satisfaction with the people they live with. The analysis is based on the third wave of the “Children’s Worlds” harmonized dataset of 12-year-old children in Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Romania. The findings reveal a ‘cascade of children’s appraisals’ by the family types—overall, living with two biological parents is the least and in a stepparent family the most complex family environment for children, reflected in their highest and lowest evaluations of parenting practices and family-related subjective well-being, respectively. The analyses showed that simple and complex family type differences in children’s family-related subjective well-being are entirely explained by parenting practices in Norway, Estonia, and Poland, but not or almost not at all in Finland, Hungary, and Romania. To conclude, in a caring, safe, and participation-enhancing family atmosphere, children can be inclusively flexible and adapt to new parent-figures.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050223
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 224: Did Immigrants Perceive More Job
           Insecurity during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic' Evidence from German Panel

    • Authors: Marvin Bürmann, Jannes Jacobsen, Cornelia Kristen, Simon Kühne, Dorian Tsolak
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Immigrants have been affected more than native-born ethnic majority populations by the negative economic consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This contribution examines whether they have also experienced higher levels of perceived job insecurity, reflected in a differential increase in financial concerns and the fear of job loss during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This empirical study employs the SOEP-CoV survey, which assesses the socio-economic consequences of SARS-CoV-2. It is embedded in the ongoing German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We present OLS models to compare perceptions of job insecurity across groups, capturing the situation before and during the pandemic. The analyses reveal that first-generation immigrants reported more financial worries, and they perceived a higher chance of job loss than second-generation immigrants and the native-born ethnic majority. This difference in economic concerns emerged only in the pandemic. Despite covering a wide range of conditions signaling objective risk of job loss, as well as individuals’ means and resources for dealing with looming job loss, these disparities persisted in the empirical study. Considering group-membership-related feelings of acceptance and inclusion could provide a promising route for future inquiry that may allow the remaining gap in subjective job insecurity to be accounted for.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050224
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 225: When the Challenges of Widowhood
           Extend to Childcare: Essential Considerations for Social Work Practice

    • Authors: Misheck Dube
      First page: 225
      Abstract: Unless widows recount their painful experiences of caring for their children, their day-to day lived challenges of childcare may be misunderstood if not totally missed by social workers in practice. This article discusses the widow’s painful experiences of caring for their children in Binga District in Zimbabwe and the critical aspects needed for consideration by social workers in practice. A qualitative research approach using a phenomenological research design was adopted to capture the lived struggles of the widows in caring for their children. Using purposive sampling, twenty-four widows participated in the in-depth interviews, with ten widows participating in individual interviews whilst fourteen widows participated in two separate focus group interviews with seven widows in each group. Data were analysed thematically with predetermined and emerging themes critically discussed and compared with existing literature. The findings showed that due to dwindling resource bases, widows are bound to fail to meet the physiological, psychosocial, economic and educational needs of their children. The article recommends deliberate and systematic social work considerations in efforts to intervene and avert the circumstances of the widows that have a negative impact on childcare.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050225
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 226: “There’s Something Very
           Wrong with the System in This Country”: Multiracial Organizations
           and Their Responses to Racial Marginalization

    • Authors: Jenifer Bratter, Allan Farrell, Sharan Kaur Mehta, Raul S. Casarez, Xiaorui Zhang, Michael Carroll
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Multiracial organizing since the 1980s has centered around the need to define and make visible the term multiracial (e.g., U.S. Census). In the contemporary era when multiple race populations are a growing and institutionally recognized demographic, how do multiracial organizations characterize and seek to combat collective experiences of racial marginalization' Here, we draw on in-depth interviews with officers from diverse multiracial organizations in the U.S. and Canada (N = 19) collected from 2017 through 2018 to examine this question. The findings revealed that multiracial individuals experience distinct forms of exclusion, which we call categorical invisibility, that target individuals who do not “fit” into established monoracial categories, and mixture as pathology, a less common frame but representing more overt forms of bias targeting those of mixed backgrounds. The lived impacts of these experiences prompt the expressed need for “safe” spaces from the psychosocial costs of categorical invisibility. Multiracial organizations, located mostly in the United States with one in Canada, engage in diverse community building and advocacy efforts to address these needs and, thus, represent critical sites of resistance to the trauma of racial (in)visibility. This work amplifies the need to center Critical Multiracial Theory to expose how monoracial paradigms as a central feature of White supremacy continue to shape the lives of multiracial people and expand our knowledge on how multiracial organizations shape the (re)negotiation of racial categories that challenge the racial status quo.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050226
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 227: Asian Australians’ Experiences
           of Online Racism during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Alanna Kamp, Nida Denson, Rachel Sharples, Rosalie Atie
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Between 13 November 2020 and 11 February 2021, an online national survey of 2003 Asian Australians was conducted to measure the type and frequency of self-identified Asian Australians’ experiences of racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey also aimed to gauge the relationships between racist experiences and targets’ mental health, wellbeing and sense of belonging. In this paper, we report findings on the type and frequency of online racist experiences and their associations with mental health, wellbeing and belonging. The survey found that 40 per cent of participants experienced racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within that group, 66 per cent experienced racism online. The demographic pattern of those most likely to experience online racism were younger age groups, males, those born in Australia, English speakers at home, non-Christians, and migrants who have been in Australia less than 20 years. Analysis also found a strong correlation between Asian Australians’ experiences of online racism and poor mental health, wellbeing and belonging. The relationship between experiencing racism, non-belonging and morbidity were more pronounced for those who experienced online racism compared to those who experienced racism in other offline contexts. This points to the corrosive nature of online racism on social cohesion, health and belonging.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11050227
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 174: Religiosity, Religious
           Fundamentalism, Heterosexism, and Support for Lesbian and Gay Civil
           Rights: A Moderated Mediation Approach

    • Authors: Richard S. Henry, Paul B. Perrin, Erin R. Smith
      First page: 174
      Abstract: Support for lesbian and gay (LG) civil rights has increased in recent decades, but heterosexism is still prevalent, particularly among highly religious populations. Evidence suggests, however, that it may not be affiliation, but rather conviction in one’s beliefs that relates to prejudicial attitudes. The aims of this study were to examine the relationships among religiosity, heterosexism, and level of support for LG civil rights, as well as potential moderating effects by religious fundamentalism. This study used Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (Mturk) to recruit a U.S. national sample (n = 407) to participate in an online survey. A mediation model was constructed with religiosity leading to heterosexism, which diminished support for LG civil rights. This mediation model was expanded into moderated mediations with three types of religious fundamentalism as moderators. Heterosexism fully mediated the relationship between religiosity and support for LG civil rights. A moderated mediation was observed for aspects of religious fundamentalism reflecting external authority and worldly rejection (but not fixed religion) such that the mediation was present only when participants had high levels of these types of religious fundamentalism. Despite the belief that religious people endorse higher levels of heterosexism and that this influences their support for LG civil rights, this is only true when religiosity is also coupled with fundamentalist belief systems reflecting external authority and worldly rejection.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11040174
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 175: Who Are the Protagonists of
           History' Exploratory Study on Historical Relevance after Completing
           Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain

    • Authors: Pilar Rivero, Iñaki Navarro-Neri, Borja Aso
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Which historical figures do Spanish students think are relevant after completing their compulsory schooling in the subject of history' The main objective of this research is to discover which four historical figures students choose as the most important in human history after completing their compulsory schooling, and the type of reasons they give to justify their answers. By means of a mixed study, this research involved asking 165 students, aged 16 to 17, which four figures they think are the most relevant in history and why. Based on this statement, a quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted to explore the students’ discourses justifying their choices using the categories proposed by Partington, Hunt and Lévesque. The results show a clear tendency in students to choose key figures in Spain’s history, such as Christopher Columbus or Francisco Franco, or a prominent person, such as Adolf Hitler, as the most relevant historical figures, who appear in the curriculum in their last year of compulsory secondary education. Lastly, the argumentative approach regarding the level of historical significance focuses primarily on the impact of their actions on a large number of people during their historical moment, with no critical reflection on their long-term impact or consequences.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11040175
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 176: Initial Validation of the Ambivalent
           Sexism Inventory in a Military Setting

    • Authors: Vesna Trut, Petra Sinovčić, Boris Milavić
      First page: 176
      Abstract: The military is a work environment in which the underrepresentation of women and the presence of gender prejudices continue to exist. The present study validated the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) for the Croatian military population. To determine the ASI scale’s basic metric characteristics, data were collected from a sample of 895 active-duty military personnel (445 men and 450 women). The study results determined satisfactory measurement characteristics for the ASI scale and confirmed the ambivalent sexism construct with its basic dimensions. Sexism in the military environment was found to a moderately high degree, and gender differences were observed. Three types of sexism endorsement were identified in both subsamples (egalitarian, moderate egalitarian and traditional for women, and moderate egalitarian, traditional and hostile for men), with additional differences detected in their socio–demographic and professional characteristics. The findings support the apparent exposure of women to sexism in the military environment, and suggest the need to raise awareness of the negative impact of gender prejudice on gender relations in the military.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11040176
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 177: Prevalence of Early Marriage and Its
           Underlying Causes in Nepal: A Mixed Methods Study

    • Authors: Prakash C. Bhattarai, Deepak R. Paudel, Tikaram Poudel, Suresh Gautam, Prakash K. Paudel, Milan Shrestha, Janes I. Ginting, Dhruba R. Ghimire
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Early marriage is one of the major traditional practices that affects the life of both boys and girls in many different ways. In this context, this research assessed the prevalence of early marriage and derived its underlying causes. Adopting a mixed methods approach, first, the study surveyed a sample of 1350 households of Nepal in which at least a marriage took place within the five years before the survey. Following a survey, secondly, the study explored 30 unique cases of early marriage, and ten among them were studied in more depth through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was applied to determine the factors that could influence the prevalence of early marriage. It was then followed by an analysis of the qualitative data. The research findings demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of early marriage (49.6%) among households within Nepal; nevertheless, the overall trend of early marriage is noted at a decreasing trend over the years. Undoubtedly, factors such as the level of education of the family members, the gender of the head of the household, and religion, influence the predisposition to early marriage within Nepal. Early marriage is undeniably a subjective phenomenon; however, such subjectivity is shaped by the socio-economic situation, as well as individual and family values. Thus, among others, the study implied that improving the strategies that promote higher formal schooling could reduce the prevalence of early marriage and thereby result in associated beneficial welfare effects in Nepal.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11040177
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 178: Parental Digital Mediation According
           to the Age of Minors: From Restraint and Control to Active Mediation

    • Authors: Rebeca Suárez-Álvarez, Tamara Vázquez-Barrio, Belinda de Frutos-Torres
      First page: 178
      Abstract: Research shows that parental mediation is essential for the introduction of minors into the digital environment and their development therein as well as to reduce their exposure to online risks. The present study examines parental strategies depending on whether minors are (dis)connected to the Internet and whether they differ according to their age. The motivations for minors to connect are also examined in relation to the frequency to which they connect to the Internet (activities related to school or learning, interacting with friends, and being entertained). The sample consists of 776 Spanish families with minors aged 5–17. Results show that parental mediation depends on the age of the minor, parental mediation strategies are more restrictive when minors are younger, and as their age increases strategies become more dialogue and collaboration oriented. In adolescence, parents mainly control internet purchases, yet they become more flexible with minors’ presence on social networks. The conclusions reveal that parental mediation is in the process of evolving from a restrictive approach to one that is more empathetic. The change in mediation is due to a greater awareness of the relevance of proper use of the Internet for the well-being of their children.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11040178
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 179: What Do School Children Know about
           Climate Change' A Social Sciences Approach

    • Authors: Álvaro-Francisco Morote, María Hernández
      First page: 179
      Abstract: One of the subject areas that is currently most prominent in the field of education (Social Science) is climate change, given its implications for raising awareness and training the present and future society. The objectives of this study, focused on school children (Primary Education—10 to 12 years old; third cycle, Secondary Education—12–16 years old; and pre-university, Baccalaureate—17–18 years old) in the Region of Valencia (Spain), are to analyse the following: the main information channels through which children receive information on climate change; the causes and consequences that they identify with respect to this phenomenon; and the main greenhouse gas that they believe is in the atmosphere. Based on the 575 students surveyed during the academic year 2020–2021, the results indicate that the three main information media are digital (TV—82.8%, Internet—56.2% and social networks—49.4%). With respect to the causes of the phenomenon identified by the students, particularly noteworthy was pollution (70.1%) and, in terms of the effects, the increase and changes in temperature (61.7%) were of particular note. Finally, with reference to greenhouse gases, the majority responded CO2 (63.5%). This is incorrect, as the main greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is water vapour. To sum up, we can highlight the role played by schools in training the future society and the risk arising from an increase in the information received from digital media by children as they grow older, due to the danger of misinformation.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11040179
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 180: Thai SMEs’ Response in the
           Digital Economy Age: A Case Study of Community-Based Tourism Policy

    • Authors: Wannapa Tongdaeng, Chandra-nuj Mahakanjana
      First page: 180
      Abstract: The goals of this study were to identify factors affecting the responses of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the digital economy age, to examine the impact of policy implementation and stakeholders’ roles in the promotion of SMEs in the service sector of community-based tourism (CBT), to analyze the competitiveness of CBT, and to reveal the gap in SMEs’ service quality. The research design consisted of both qualitative and quantitative methods. It was found that independent variables, i.e., the strategic management, the decision-making process, the structural contingency, perception, and the SMEs’ potential, together in the multiple regression model, could predict dependent variables. Policy actors can be divided into three levels. Politicians are at the national policy level, high-level bureaucrats are at the implementation level, and stakeholders in the community are at the local level. Policy instruments include projects to support SMEs. Local-level actors play a role in promoting SMEs through collaborative public management. The competitiveness analysis of CBT can be divided into five forces: the rivalry of CBT, the threat of new entrants, the threat of substitutes, the bargaining power of suppliers, and the bargaining power of customers. Meanwhile, there are some problems in assuring service quality.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11040180
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
  • Social Sciences, Vol. 11, Pages 181: Married and Cohabiting Finnish
           First-Time Parents: Differences in Wellbeing, Social Support and Infant

    • Authors: Mirjam Kalland, Saara Salo, Laszlo Vincze, Jari Lipsanen, Simo Raittila, Johanna Sourander, Martina Salvén-Bodin, Marjaterttu Pajulo
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Cohabitation is more common than marriage when couples are expecting their first child in Finland. However, little is known about possible differences in wellbeing between the two groups. In this study, we examined differences in parental wellbeing, relationship satisfaction, infant health outcomes, and use of social support among cohabiting and married first-time parents. Survey data was collected from 903 parents during pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Cohabiting parents had more depressive symptoms than married parents. They were also less satisfied with their relationships and expressed less satisfaction with the quality of support they got from their partner. Cohabiting fathers did not use the cost-free support from maternity clinics as often as married fathers. Our results show differences in well-being between married and cohabiting first-time parents and that the support from maternity clinics should better acknowledge diversity and address the different needs of different types of families.
      Citation: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/socsci11040181
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
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