Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1836 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (272 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (100 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (59 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (1085 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (192 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (1085 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
(En)clave Comahue. Revista Patagónica de Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Abant Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actes de la Journée des Sciences et Savoirs     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 271)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Afrika Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Ágora de Heterodoxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AKADEMOS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AL-Qadissiya Magzine for Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aleph : UCLA Undergraduate Research Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aletheia : Revista de Desarrollo Humano, Educativo y Social Contemporáneo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algarrobo-MEL     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alinteri Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
Ambigua : Revista de Investigaciones sobre Género y Estudios Culturales     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Anais do Congresso de Pesquisa e Extensão e da Semana de Ciências Sociais da UEMG/Barbacena     Open Access  
Anais Eletrônicos do Congresso Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Análisis     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anduli : Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Open Access  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbejdspapirer : Professionshøjskolen Metropol     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arbetsliv i omvandling     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Argumentos : Revista do Departamento de Ciências Sociais da Unimontes     Open Access  
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of German and European Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Astrolabio, Nueva Época     Open Access  
Ateneo Chinese Studies Program Lecture Series     Open Access  
Aurum Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Population Studies     Open Access  
Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bingöl Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Public and Social Science     Open Access  
Black Women, Gender & Families     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Memoria     Open Access  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Borderlands Journal : Culture, Politics, Law and Earth     Open Access  
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
BU Academic Review     Open Access  
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Social Informatics Theory and Application     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Búsqueda     Open Access  
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Estudos Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambio : Rivista sulle Trasformazioni Sociali     Open Access  
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Campos en Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Caradde : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chandrakasem Rajabhat University Journal of Graduate School     Open Access  
Changing Societies & Personalities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Social Science and Management     Open Access  
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cidadania em Ação : Revista de Extensão e Cultura: Notícias     Open Access  
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Técnica y Mainstreaming Social     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Religión/Ciências Sociais e Religião     Open Access  
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Científic@ : Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
Circular Economy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CMU Journal of Law and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Community Empowerment     Open Access  
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Connections     Open Access  
Conocimiento, Investigación y Educación CIE     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
CONTRA : RELATOS desde el Sur     Open Access  
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cooperativismo y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access  
Cultura Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Cultura y Representaciones Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)

        1 2 3 4 5 6     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Challenges
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2078-1547
Published by MDPI Homepage  [234 journals]
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 1: Healing Anthropocene Syndrome: Planetary
           Health Requires Remediation of the Toxic Post-Truth Environment

    • Authors: Alan C. Logan, Susan H. Berman, Brian M. Berman, Susan L. Prescott
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The term “Anthropocene Syndrome” describes the wicked interrelated challenges of our time. These include, but are not limited to, unacceptable poverty (of both income and opportunity), grotesque biodiversity losses, climate change, environmental degradation, resource depletion, the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), health inequalities, social injustices, the spread of ultra-processed foods, consumerism and incivility in tandem with a diminished emphasis on the greater potential of humankind, efforts toward unity, or the value of fulfilment and flourishing of all humankind. Planetary health is a concept that recognizes the interdependent vitality of all natural and anthropogenic ecosystems—social, political and otherwise; it blurs the artificial lines between health at scales of person, place and planet. Promoting planetary health requires addressing the underlying pathology of “Anthropocene Syndrome” and the deeper value systems and power dynamics that promote its various signs and symptoms. Here, we focus on misinformation as a toxin that maintains the syndromic status quo—rapid dissemination of falsehoods and dark conspiracies on social media, fake news, alternative facts and medical misinformation described by the World Health Organization as an “infodemic”. In the context of planetary health, we explore the historical antecedents of this “infodemic” and underscore an urgent need to remediate the misinformation mess. It is our contention that education (especially in early life) emphasizing mindfulness and understanding of the mechanisms by which propaganda is spread (and unhealthy products are marketed) is essential. We expand the discourse on positive social contagion and argue that empowerment through education can help lead to an information transformation with the aim of flourishing along every link in the person, place and planet continuum.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010001
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 2: Data Science on Industrial Data—Today’s
           Challenges in Brown Field Applications

    • Authors: Tilman Klaeger, Sebastian Gottschall, Lukas Oehm
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Much research is done on data analytics and machine learning for data coming from industrial processes. In practical approaches, one finds many pitfalls restraining the application of these modern technologies especially in brownfield applications. With this paper, we want to show state of the art and what to expect when working with stock machines in the field. The paper is a review of literature found to cover challenges for cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) in brownfield applications. This review is combined with our own personal experience and findings gained while setting up such systems in processing and packaging machines as well as in other areas. A major focus in this paper is on data collection, which tends be more cumbersome than most people might expect. In addition, data quality for machine learning applications is a challenge once leaving the laboratory and its academic data sets. Topics here include missing ground truth or the lack of semantic description of the data. A last challenge covered is IT security and passing data through firewalls to allow for the cyber part in CPPS. However, all of these findings show that potentials of data driven production systems are strongly depending on data collection to build proclaimed new automation systems with more flexibility, improved human–machine interaction and better process-stability and thus less waste during manufacturing.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 3: A Model for the Spread of Infectious
           Diseases with Application to COVID-19

    • Authors: Ricardo A. G. Unglaub, Kathrin Spendier
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Given the present pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2 virus, the authors tried fitting existing models for the daily loss of lives. Based on data reported by Worldometers on the initial stages (first wave) of the pandemic for countries acquiring the disease, the authors observed that the logarithmic rendering of their data hinted the response of a first-order process to a step function input, which may be modeled by a three-parameters function, as described in this paper. This model was compared against other similar, log(N)-class of models that are non-compartmental type (such as the susceptible, infected, and removed, or SIR models), obtaining good fit and statistical comparison results, where N denotes the cumulative number of daily presumed deaths. This simple first-order response model can also be applied to bacterial and other biological growth phenomena. Here we describe the model, the numerical methods utilized for its application to actual pandemic data, and the statistical comparisons with other models which shows that our simple model is comparatively outstanding, given its simplicity. While researching the models available, the authors found other functions that can also be applied, with extra parameters, to be described in follow-on articles.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 4: Acknowledgment of Reviewers of Challenges in
           2020

    • Authors: Challenges Editorial Office Challenges Editorial Office
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Challenges maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 5: Seeing and Overcoming the Complexities of
           Intersectionality

    • Authors: Cate Thomas, Colleen MacMillan, Merryn McKinnon, Hayley Torabi, Megan Osmond-McLeod, Ellen Swavley, Tamzen Armer, Kimberley Doyle
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Background: Intersectionality contests that individuals have multiple characteristics in their identity that cannot be siloed or deemed exclusive to each other. Understanding and utilising an intersectional lens in organisations can increase inclusion of individuals and organisational performance. An educational package known as the Intersectionality Walk (IW) was developed by the authors, piloted, and evaluated in order to break down the commonly held descriptors of diversity silos that fragments inclusion, and to understand how various identity characteristics compound disadvantage. The paper outlines the need to transition from siloed views of diversity to a more intrinsic view of identity to achieve inclusivity. Methods: The IW was developed and trialled with a series of work-based scenarios and realistic multifaceted personas. Data collection occurred pre- and post-IW utilising a mixed methods approach. Responses to Likert scale surveys and open-ended questions were captured and analysed via inductive and grounded theory perspectives. Results: An improved awareness and understanding of individual knowledge, reflectivity and positionality relating to intersectionality and intersectional approaches was reported on completion of the IW. Furthermore, responses reported how and why organisations can approach and improve inclusivity via using intersectional approaches. Conclusions: The IW as an educational package has a positive impact and is a key linkage for all employers to build an inclusive culture and to harness the talent of all employees. Further research will occur to measure the implemented change in organisations following the IW.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 6: Purposeful Evaluation of Scholarship in the
           Open Science Era

    • Authors: Mario Pagliaro
      First page: 6
      Abstract: In most of the world’s countries, scholarship evaluation for tenure and promotion continues to rely on conventional criteria of publications in journals of high impact factor and achievements in securing research funds. Continuing to hire and promote scholars based on these criteria exposes universities to risk because students, directly and indirectly through government funds, are the main source of revenues for academic institutions. At the same time, talented young researchers increasingly look for professors renowned for excellence in mentoring doctoral students and early career researchers. Purposeful scholarship evaluation in the open science era needs to include all three areas of scholarly activity: research, teaching and mentoring, and service to society.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 7: State-Subsidised Housing and Architecture in
           20th-Century Portugal: A Critical Review Outlining Multidisciplinary
           Implications

    • Authors: Rui Jorge Garcia Ramos, Eliseu Gonçalves, Gisela Lameira, Luciana Rocha
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Stable access to affordable quality housing is a core feature of public health principles and practices. In this report, we provide an update on the research project “Mapping Public Housing: A Critical Review of the State-subsidised Residential Architecture in Portugal (1910–1974)” (MdH), developed between 2016 and 2019 at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Porto (FAUP) in Portugal. This funded research project (PTDC/CPC-HAT/1688/2014) brought together an international and multidisciplinary team composed of architects, sociologists, historians, an economist, an anthropologist, information scientists and archivists, from different academic levels (senior researchers, postdoctoral, PhD and Master’s degree students), adopting a variety of approaches and operating in a range of different contexts. The aim of the research undertaken was to investigate the reality of social and state-subsidised housing in terms of its architecture, while, at the same time, seeking to broaden our understanding of this phenomenon and of the transition to a democratic regime. Furthermore, this research project was designed to contribute towards the development of common ground for supporting decisions in the environmental, social and economic fields relating to housing management, as well as architectural heritage management and protection. This review is based on the submitted application (2015) and final report (2020).
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 8: How Should We Respond to the Global
           Pandemic: The Need for Cultural Change

    • Authors: Ben Gray
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The Covid pandemic has had a terrible effect on the world and government responses have been described as “Catastrophic Moral Failure”. The approach of bioethics of developing “normative ethics” has provided frameworks on how to act but despite the fact that we knew what to do to prevent the pandemic, we did not do it. In this paper I argue that ethics is culture bound: it is the stories that “we” live by. I illustrate this with examples of cultures with differing values that were developed as a result of the particular circumstances of those cultures. I then argue that after World War 2 in response to the risks of further large wars and atrocities, work was done to further establish a “global culture” and a detailed normative ethical framework was developed by negotiation through the United Nations for that “culture”. Whilst this approach has been necessary, it has not been sufficient. I argue that we need to reframe the approach as one of achieving cultural change rather than complying with ethical norms. Some societies that were unable to adapt to changed circumstances failed to survive, others failed to thrive. A similar fate awaits the whole planet if we cannot change the stories we live by.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 9: Catalyst Twenty-Twenty: Post-Traumatic
           Growth at Scales of Person, Place and Planet

    • Authors: Alan C. Logan, Susan H. Berman, Richard B. Scott, Brian M. Berman, Susan L. Prescott
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Planetary health is a broad multidisciplinary effort that attempts to address what has been described as “Anthropocene Syndrome”—the wicked, interrelated challenges of our time. These include, but are not limited to, grotesque biodiversity losses, climate change, environmental degradation, resource depletion, the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), health inequalities, social injustices, erosion of wisdom and civility, together with the many structural underpinnings of these grand challenges. The ultimate aim of planetary health is flourishing along every link in the person, place and planet continuum. The events of “2020” have illuminated the consequences of “mass trauma” and how sub-threshold anxiety and/or depressive symptoms erase the rigid lines between mental “health” and mental “disorders”, and unmasked the systemic forms of injustice, discrimination, and oppression that have too often escaped discourse. Here, we query the ways in which post-traumatic growth research might inform the larger planetary health community, especially in the context of a global pandemic, broadening socioeconomic inequalities, a worsening climate crisis, and the rise of political authoritarianism. The available research would suggest that “2020” fulfills the trauma criteria of having a “seismic impact on the assumptive world”, and as such, provides fertile ground for post-traumatic growth. Among the many potential positive changes that might occur in response to trauma, we focus on the value of new awareness, perspective and greater wisdom.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 10: Microbial Muses: Threads of Our Inner
           Wisdom

    • Authors: Susan E. Erdman
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Spiritual journeys unveil our inner wisdom to help us navigate traumatic life events. Scientific evidence implicates a gut–immune–brain axis in our sense of self, raising the possibility that our microbial partners and hormone oxytocin offer a sense of connectedness and liberate our ancestral archives to sustain us during challenging times.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010010
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 12, Pages 11: Improving Mentorship and Supervision during
           COVID-19 to Reduce Graduate Student Anxiety and Depression Aided by an
           Online Commercial Platform Narrative Research Group

    • Authors: Carol Nash
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Before COVID-19, post-secondary learning was dominated by in-person, institution-organized meetings. With the 12 March 2020 lockdown, learning became virtual, largely dependent on commercial online platforms. Already more likely to experience anxiety and depression in relation to their research work, perhaps no students have endured more regarding the limitations imposed by COVID-19 than graduate students concerning their mentorship and supervision. The increase in mental health issues facing graduate students has been recognized by post-secondary institutions. Programs have been devised to reduce these challenges. However, the additional attention and funds to combat depression and anxiety have not shown anticipated results. A new approach to mitigate anxiety and depression in graduate students through mentorship and supervision is warranted. Offered here is an award-winning model featuring self-directed learning in a community formed by adding together different, equal, diverse points of view rather than agreement. The approach, delivered through a commercial online platform, is non-hierarchical, and based in narrative research. The proposed model and approach are presented, discussed and limitations considered. They are offered as a promising solution to ebb the increase in anxiety and depression in graduate students—particularly in response to COVID-19.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2021-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/challe12010011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 13: Agent-Based and System Dynamics Modeling of
           Water Field Services

    • Authors: Bernard Amadei
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This paper explores the applicability of the agent-based (AB) and system dynamics (SD) methods to model a case study of the management of water field services. Water borehole sites are distributed over an area and serve the water needs of a population. The equipment at all borehole sites is managed by a single water utility that has adopted specific repair, replacement, and maintenance rules and policies. The water utility employs several service crews initially stationed at a single central location. The crews respond to specific operation and maintenance requests. Two software modeling tools (AnyLogic and STELLA) are used to explore the benefits and limitations of the AB and SD methods to simulate the dynamic being considered. The strength of the AB method resides in its ability to capture in a disaggregated way the mobility of the individual service crews and the performance of the equipment (working, repaired, replaced, or maintained) at each borehole site. The SD method cannot capture the service crew dynamics explicitly and can only model the average state of the equipment at the borehole sites. Their differences aside, both methods offer policymakers the opportunity to make strategic, tactical, and logistical decisions supported by integrated computational models.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020013
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 14: Surface Alteration of Borosilicate and
           Phosphate Nuclear Waste Glasses by Hydration and Irradiation

    • Authors: Bella Y. Zubekhina, Boris E. Burakov, Michael I. Ojovan
      First page: 14
      Abstract: We examined the degradation of nuclear waste borosilicate and phosphate glasses containing strong alpha-emitter 238Pu at a specific activity of 6.33 × 105 MBq/g in comparison with similar non-radioactive, non-radioactive irradiated and radioactive samples containing beta- and gamma-emitters, namely radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs. For irradiation and leaching experiments, we used borosilicate and phosphate glasses, which are well-known and currently used to immobilize high-level radioactive waste. The main focus was the observation of the surface of altered glasses. Comparative analysis of hydrolytic surface alteration of borosilicate and phosphate nuclear waste glasses reveals that the behavior of radioactive samples differs significantly from that of non-radioactive glasses.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020014
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 15: Nanotechnology as an Alternative to Reduce
           the Spread of COVID-19

    • Authors: Roberto Vazquez-Munoz, Jose L. Lopez-Ribot
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The current emerging COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global impact on every major aspect of our societies. It is known that SARS-Cov-2 can endure harsh environmental conditions for up to 72 h, which may contribute to its rapid spread. Therefore, effective containment strategies, such as sanitizing, are critical. Nanotechnology can represent an alternative to reduce the COVID-19 spread, particularly in critical areas, such as healthcare facilities and public places. Nanotechnology-based products are effective at inhibiting different pathogens, including viruses, regardless of their drug-resistant profile, biological structure, or physiology. Although there are several approved nanotechnology-based antiviral products, this work aims to highlight the use of nanomaterials as sanitizers for the prevention of the spread of mainly SARS-Cov-2. It has been widely demonstrated that nanomaterials are an alternative for sanitizing surfaces to inactivate the virus. Also, antimicrobial nanomaterials can reduce the risk of secondary microbial infections on COVID-19 patients, as they inhibit the bacteria and fungi that can contaminate healthcare-related facilities. Finally, cost-effective, easy-to-synthesize antiviral nanomaterials could reduce the burden of the COVID-19 on challenging environments and in developing countries.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020015
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 16: Dozy-Chaos Mechanics for a Broad Audience

    • Authors: Vladimir V. Egorov
      First page: 16
      Abstract: A new and universal theoretical approach to the dynamics of the transient state in elementary physico-chemical processes, called dozy-chaos mechanics (Egorov, V.V. Heliyon Physics2019, 5, e02579), is introduced to a wide general readership.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020016
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 17: Operating Small Hydropower Plants in Greece
           under Intermittent Flow Uncertainty: The Case of Tsiknias River (Lesvos)

    • Authors: Ourania Tzoraki
      First page: 17
      Abstract: In arid and semi-arid parts of the world, river exploitation is intensive, involving water storage for irrigation or hydropower generation. In Greece, 100 small hydropower plants (SHPs) take advantage of less than 10% of the hydropower potential of low flow streams (<2 m3/s), a very small amount in relation to the 70% of the European Union. The energy policy of complete decarbonization of the country by 2023 on a national scale opens the road for new investments in SHP projects, especially in intermittent-flow streams of the Greek islands. Simulated flows by the Modello Idrologico SemiDistribuito in continuo (MISDc model) are used to construct the annual flow duration curve (FDC) to study and assess the hydropower potential of an intermittent stream (Tsiknias river, Lesvos, Greece). For Tsiknias River, but also for six other intermittent-flow rivers of Crete island, the capacity factor (CF), which represents the mean annual power of the hydropower plant, should remain >75% to exploit the river’s potential. The FDC and CF are essential in designing SHP projects in intermittent-flow streams with long no-flow periods. The development of public participatory approaches and a closer cooperation among policy makers and stakeholders should work to promote hydropower exploitation and accelerate licensing procedures.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020017
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 18: Considerations for Comparing Video Game AI
           Agents with Humans

    • Authors: Christopher R. Madan
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Video games are sometimes used as environments to evaluate AI agents’ ability to develop and execute complex action sequences to maximize a defined reward. However, humans cannot match the fine precision of the timed actions of AI agents; in games such as StarCraft, build orders take the place of chess opening gambits. However, unlike strategy games, such as chess and Go, video games also rely heavily on sensorimotor precision. If the “finding” was merely that AI agents have superhuman reaction times and precision, none would be surprised. The goal is rather to look at adaptive reasoning and strategies produced by AI agents that may replicate human approaches or even result in strategies not previously produced by humans. Here, I will provide: (1) an overview of observations where AI agents are perhaps not being fairly evaluated relative to humans, (2) a potential approach for making this comparison more appropriate, and (3) highlight some important recent advances in video game play provided by AI agents.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020018
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 19: Project Earthrise: Inspiring Creativity,
           Kindness and Imagination in Planetary Health

    • Authors: Alan C. Logan, Susan H. Berman, Brian M. Berman, Susan L. Prescott
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The concept of planetary health blurs the artificial lines between health at scales of person, place and planet. At the same time, it emphasizes the integration of biological, psychological, social and cultural aspects of health in the modern environment. Our grandest challenges in the Anthropocene ultimately stem from human attitudes to each other and to our environment. However, solutions rarely confront the underlying value systems that created these interconnected problems, or the attitudes that perpetuate them. Too often, the dominant focus is on the “worst of human nature”, and devalues or neglects the importance of empathy, kindness, hope, love, creativity and mutual respect—the deeper values that unite, empower and refocus priorities of individuals and groups. Here, we call to normalize more creative, mutualistic approaches—including the perspectives of traditional and indigenous cultures—to positively influence normative value systems. We revisit the power of inspiration with the profound example of the Apollo 8 Earthrise photo which galvanized a fledgling planetary health movement over 50 years ago. Through the inaugural Earth Day that followed, we are reminded that its early organizers were not constrained in how they defined the “environment”. They and their primary speakers were as concerned about value systems as they were about pollution—that we cannot hope to solve our problems without addressing the attitudes that created them in the first place. We explore the ways in which the awe of Earthrise—and the contemporary science of creativity and studies of utopian thinking—might reinvigorate imagination, kindness and mutualism. We revisit the fundamental challenge offered by Pulitzer-Prize-winning microbiologist Rene Dubos and others in the afterglow of the Earthrise photo, and the inaugural Earth Day. This is a question of imagination: What kind of world we want to live in'
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020019
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 20: Report on Digital Literacy in Academic
           Meetings during the 2020 COVID-19 Lockdown

    • Authors: Carol Nash
      First page: 20
      Abstract: COVID-19, a novel coronavirus, was deemed a pandemic during mid-March 2020. In response, lockdowns were imposed for an indefinite period world-wide. Academic institutions were no exception. Continuing meetings of academic groups consequently necessitated online communication. Various platforms were available from which to choose to encourage digital literacy. Despite alternatives, the almost overnight closure of all non-essential services at one post-secondary institution resulted in the selection of Zoom as the preferred platform for meetings until social distancing ended. In contrast, the facilitator of a unique, health-related, narrative research group at the institution—a group tailored to critical thought, communication, cooperation and creativity—considered a hybrid format private Facebook group likely to provide a more appropriate and satisfying group experience than possible with synchronous Zoom meetings. Pros and cons of both online platforms are presented along with the conditions under which each one is preferable. Positive results were evident in promoting digital literacy for this particular academic group using the hybrid format of a private Facebook group. As such, private Facebook groups hold promise in supporting digital literacy for collaborative online health-related group meetings. Unique in examining and evaluating private Facebook groups, this report holds significance for digital literacy regarding academic meetings.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020020
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 21: Towards Healthy Planet Diets—A
           Transdisciplinary Approach to Food Sustainability Challenges

    • Authors: Stefan C. Dekker, Aletta D. Kraneveld, Jerry van Dijk, Agni Kalfagianni, Andre C. Knulst, Herman Lelieveldt, Ellen H. M. Moors, Eggo Müller, Raymond H. H. Pieters, Corné M. J. Pieterse, Stephanie Rosenkranz, Laurentius A. C. J. Voesenek, August C. M. van Westen
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The future of food is one of the major world-wide challenges. In this perspective paper, we set-up a framework for a multi-disciplinary future food systems approach, building on the UN Sustainable Development Goals. We hereby combine a truly sustainable approach including social science aspects combined with the One Health approach. Scientists from a large number of backgrounds have addressed four key areas that are discussed in more detail in this paper: (i) nature inspired food production, (ii) sustainable immune resilience, (iii) social and cultural change of food behavior, and (iv) food fairness. We believe that transformations to integrated future food system approaches should move beyond single solutions and can only be solved by working in transdisciplinary settings of science, society, and industry.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 22: A Perspective on Nigeria’s Preparedness,
           Response and Challenges to Mitigating the Spread of COVID-19

    • Authors: Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu, Ishmael Jaja Festus, Obichukwu Chisom Nwobi, Chinwe-Juliana Iwu Jaja, James Wabwire Oguttu
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel disease pandemic that emerged in late 2019 in China, and later spread to other parts of the world, including Nigeria. This review analyzes the preparedness of Nigeria to the COVID-19 pandemic and recommends strategies that could be useful in controlling the disease. Published articles on COVID-19 worldwide, socioeconomic and disease status and preparedness to COVID-19 in Africa and Nigeria, were retrieved from databases such as Pubmed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and Google search engine. Nigeria is the most populous black nation in the world, and is one of the largest crude oil producers in the world. However, its healthcare system is dilapidated and weak, due to years of neglect and widespread corruption. As a result, Nigeria is vulnerable to COVID-19, as evidenced by the current geographical distribution of the disease in its population. Many socioeconomic factors could potentially facilitate the spread of COVID-19 in Nigeria. This could lead to a high caseload in the country, which could overwhelm the health care system. The application of social distancing, personal hygiene, especially hand hygiene and mask-wearing, as practiced in many countries, has proven to be effective to reduce the spread of COVID-19. In Nigeria, social distancing, in many instances, may be impracticable, given its large population, and a high density of people living in crowded conditions like slums and camps. Moreover, there is a sizeable population of internally displaced people, due to the attack by Boko Haram fighters in Northern Nigeria, and herdsmen in Southern Nigeria. The implementation of these measures is likely to be a great challenge. Nigeria has announced a complete lockdown for the containment of COVD-19, but its implementation and efficacy are doubtful, due to the same reasons previously mentioned.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020022
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 23: Systemic Crop Signaling for Automatic
           Recognition of Transplanted Lettuce and Tomato under Different Levels of
           Sunlight for Early Season Weed Control

    • Authors: Wen-Hao Su
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Conventional cultivation works to control weeds between the rows, but it ignores the weeds in crop rows which are most competitive with crops. Many vegetable crops still require manual removal of intra-row weeds not otherwise controlled by herbicides or conventional cultivation. The increasing labor costs of weed control and the continued emergences of herbicide-resistant weeds are threatening grower ability to manage weeds and maintain profitability. Intra-row weeders are commercially available but work best in low weed populations. One strategy for rapid weed crop differentiation is to utilize a machine-detectable compound to mark a crop. This paper proposes a new systemic plant signaling technology that can create machine-readable crops to facilitate the automated removal of intra-row weeds in early growth stages. Rhodamine B (Rh–B) is an efficient systemic compound to label crop plants due to its membrane permeability and unique fluorescent properties. The project involves applying solutions of Rh–B at 60 ppm to the roots of lettuce and tomato plants prior to transplantation to evaluate Rh–B persistence in plants under different levels of sunlight. Lettuce and tomato seedlings with the systemic Rh–B should be reliably recognized during their early growth stages. An intelligent robot is expected to be developed to identify the locations of plants based on the systemic signal inside. Reduced light treatments should help to alleviate the photodegradation of Rh–B in plants. After being exposed to full sunlight for 27 days, the systemic Rh–B would be detectable in tomato branches and lettuce ribs, and these plants are tolerant to root treatments with this fluorescent compound. This paper describes the project background and plan as well as the anticipated contributions of the research to allow the machine vision system to reliably identify the crop plants, and thus showing technical feasibility for outdoor weed control.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020023
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 24: Concept of a Sino-German Summer School on
           Multiscale Processes in Oceans and the Atmosphere

    • Authors: Gerrit Lohmann, Xueen Chen, Xun Gong, Shuang Li
      First page: 24
      Abstract: A concept for an interdisciplinary summer school for “multiscale processes in oceans and the atmosphere” is presented. It aims to deepen students’ understanding of scientific issues as well as their experience in multicultural communication. The theme covers climate evolution, which is partially dominated by far-reaching anthropogenic changes and their possible consequences on the Earth’s system. An integrated approach helps to change rigid subject-specific mindsets among faculties and students and across cultures, so as to broaden their horizons in both research and life. Research has shown, however, that the development of intercultural competence in students does not happen automatically but needs to be fostered and supported. Therefore, a primary goal is also to provide young researchers from several countries (mainly China and Germany) with the opportunity to gain more indepth knowledge on research in Germany, to be exposed to scientific culture, and thus to prepare for foreign research visits either during the PhD phase or as postdoctoral fellows, supporting the internationalization of education and opportunities in marine sciences. Finally, the students have the chance to further develop their scientific profiles by attending scientific talks, lab exercises, and excursions and by combining rigorous scientific disciplines with the awareness of multidisciplinary issues related to the topic of global climate change.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020024
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 25: The Potential Effects of Short-Chain Fatty
           Acids on the Epigenetic Regulation of Innate Immune Memory

    • Authors: Raphael Watt, Kimberley Parkin, David Martino
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The regulation of innate immunity is substantially more ‘plastic’ than previously appreciated. Innate immune memory (manifested through trained immunity and tolerance) is a recently described epigenetic phenomenon that is a model example, with broad implications for infectious disease, allergy and autoimmunity. Training the innate immune system to combat infections and temper inappropriate responses in non-communicable diseases will likely be an area of intense research. Innate immunity is influenced by short chain fatty acids, which are the natural products of digestion by the intestinal microbiota that possess inherent histone deacetylase inhibitory properties. It therefore stands to reason that a healthy gut microbiome may well influence mucosal and systemic trained immunity via short chain fatty acids. There is a lack of data on this specific topic, and we discuss potential relationships based on available and preliminary evidence. Understanding the link between intestinal microbiome composition, capacity for short chain fatty acid production and downstream effects on innate immune memory in early life will have important implications for host immunobiology. In this review we explore the intersection between the gut microbiota, short chain fatty acids and epigenetic regulation of innate immunity with a focus on early life.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020025
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 26: Current Challenges of Cold Brew
           Coffee—Roasting, Extraction, Flavor Profile, Contamination, and Food
           Safety

    • Authors: Raven Kwok, Kenny Lee Wee Ting, Steffen Schwarz, Linda Claassen, Dirk W. Lachenmeier
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Cold brew coffee has emerged as a new trend over the last decade. However, “cold brew” is an extraction style of ground roasted coffee with water at lower than body temperature (typically 8 °C or room temperature), rather than a beverage per se. Cold brew extraction poses several challenges, including the need for specific optimization depending on the multiple influences of coffee variety and processing, roast degree, grinding, dosage, water composition, turbulence, brew system (drip, immersion etc.), time and temperature, and their interactions. While cold brew is typically characterized by a floral sweetness, over-extraction may lead to abundant acidity and bitterness. To avoid this, an extraction degree of 70% was suggested using shorter time frames (i.e., 2 h at 15 °C with 80 g/L coffee for optimized medium roast profiles). Due to the lack of sterilizing temperatures during preparation, cold brew is significant in the coffee sector because hygiene and food safety requirements pose specific challenges. To avoid microbiological contamination and deterioration in quality, cold brew should be as freshly prepared as possible and shelf-life should be minimized.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020026
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 27: Resilience Thinking and Strategies to
           Reclaim Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Cascade Tank-Village System (CTVS)
           in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Gavin Melles, Ethmadalage Dineth Perera
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Cascading Tank Village Systems (CTVSs) of Sri Lanka historically provided a resilient community-based social-ecological water management system in the rural dry zone of Sri Lanka After being abandoned for many centuries, their restoration is now being pursued by different national and international actors as a key to climate change mitigation and sustainable livelihoods for communities. Rural livelihoods in the dry zone are at risk due to multiple factors, poor access and management of water, economic and health pressures, as well as resource limitations and degradation. Despite recent efforts to restore CTVS systems, no social-ecological approach (SES) nor a sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF)-focused approach to ensuring resilient and sustainable livelihood outcomes has been taken. As part of an on-going PhD project, this paper analyses the background, current challenges and potential for an SES focused resilience thinking approach to CTVS for future sustainable livelihood opportunities and outcomes. The study finds CTVS exhibit all the properties of a complex adaptive SES and that a resilience thinking approach centred on achieving sustainable livelihood outcomes for communities suggests deep institutional changes are needed. CTVS are at a crossroads between restoring the past (system adaptability) or transforming for the future, and a combination of legacy and future market orientation seems the best solution.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020027
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 28: A Systems Approach to Building Community
           Capacity and Resilience

    • Authors: Bernard Amadei
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Capacity and resilience are two closely aligned concepts in human development. They both contribute to increasing the ability of societies to cope with and adapt to challenging and adverse perturbations that may affect systems the societies depend upon. A traditional approach to building capacity and resilience at the community scale is to address in a fragmented manner specific issues at play in institutional, socio-economic, environmental, and infrastructure systems that may prevent the delivery of adequate community services and meeting development goals. This compartmentalized approach, driven by a need to reach some form of satisfactory community equilibrium, fails to recognize the interactions and interconnectedness that exist among community systems, which, if addressed, could solve multiple issues more effectively. It also does not account for the complex, adaptive, and dynamic nature of communities. A resilient community is more than just a collection of well-functioning silos. This paper proposes a system dynamics approach to account for the dynamic and adaptive nature of communities when developing capacity-building strategies toward strengthening their ability to deliver services and deal with adverse events. A case study of small-scale community capacity assessment around the service of wastewater and sewage treatment published elsewhere is presented to illustrate the proposed approach.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020028
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 29: Indigenous Natural and First Law in
           Planetary Health

    • Authors: Nicole Redvers, Anne Poelina, Clinton Schultz, Daniel M. Kobei, Cicilia Githaiga, Marlikka Perdrisat, Donald Prince, Be’sha Blondin
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Indigenous Peoples associate their own laws with the laws of the natural world, which are formally known as or translated as Natural or First Law. These laws come from the Creator and the Land through our ancestral stories and therefore, they are sacred. All aspects of life and existence depend on living and following these natural First Laws. Since colonization, Indigenous Peoples’ Natural Laws have been forcibly replaced by modern-day laws that do not take into account the sacred relationship between the Earth and all of her inhabitants. The force of societies who live outside of Natural Law has ensured the modern-day consequences of not living in balance with nature. Pandemics and global environmental change, including climate change, are all consequences of not following the Natural Laws that are encapsulated by the interconnected nature of the universe. Here we discuss Natural Law from an Indigenous paradigm and worldview which carries implications for planetary health and wider environmental movements around the globe.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020029
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 30: Methods of Promoting Professional Agency at
           Work

    • Authors: Satu Kalliola, Salme Mahlakaarto
      First page: 30
      Abstract: In the midst of continuous changes in working life, finding a way to balance organizational demands and the needs of employees has become an important task. This task has highlighted the significance of agency and social interaction, as influencing factors that can enhance people’s potential to meet new learning tasks. In the Scandinavian and Finnish contexts, research institutions, in cooperation with work organizations, have developed practical methods to promote agency and learning at work. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of two different workplace development methods, identity (ID) training, and participatory action research (PAR) using dialogue forums if combined and applied as a two-level approach. The study asks what the characteristics of these methods are in general and if there are any key characteristics that could support their combined application. The research question is answered by a qualitative descriptive analysis of the literature on organizations, agency, and applications of the methods. The results shed light on and emphasize the intertwining characteristics of the methods. The research concludes with the hypothesis—to be tested in further research—that the methods are necessary for each other and recommends a preliminary investigation on the prevailing organizational culture, as a resource for organization-specific modifications.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020030
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 31: An Overview of Mobile Learning for Refugee
           Students: Juxtaposing Refugee Needs with Mobile Applications’
           Characteristics

    • Authors: Maria Drolia, Eirini Sifaki, Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis
      First page: 31
      Abstract: The mass influx of refugees into Europe since 2013 and their educational challenges have increased the need for high-quality refugee education. One proposal for addressing these challenges was to leverage mobile devices for educational purposes (mobile learning). Although significant research has been done in this field, mobile learning’s effectiveness on different social groups has yet to be explored. The present review paper aims to outline: (a) the factors that challenge refugee education, (b) the use of smart mobile devices by the refugee population, (c) the conflicting views about the effect of mobile learning in refugee education, and (d) the proposed characteristics for mobile refugee applications as found in the literature. A juxtaposition of refugee needs with the characteristics of mobile learning apps is attempted. By surveying the literature, the present paper concludes that mobile learning seems beneficial for refugees in two ways: providing refugees access to education and improving the quality of the provided refugee education. However, it is not a one-solution-fits-all regarding their education. At the end, future research proposals are included.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020031
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 32: Exploratory Sampling of Spalting Fungi in
           the Southern Peruvian Amazon Forest

    • Authors: Sarath M. Vega Gutierrez, Javier F. Illescas Guevara, Claudia C. Andersen, Jose Koechlin von Stein, Seri C. Robinson
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Most of the research related to Peruvian Amazon fungi is focused on edible mushrooms and pathogens. Other important fungi, such as the spalting type (decay fungi that pigment wood internally), are not broadly studied, as most of them do not produce fruiting bodies and can be difficult to locate. Spalting fungi, however, are of broad economic importance due to their ability to produce pigments that enhance wood aesthetics, resulting in an increased economic value. In order to begin understanding the diversity of spalting fungi within certain regions of the Amazon, a sampling of downed trees and branches (through the opening of the xylem to identify potential pigmenting and zone line producing fungi) was done in the district of Las Piedras, Madre de Dios, Peru. Fungi suspected of causing internal pigment and zone lines were collected, cultured, isolated, and sequenced. The species found belonged to the orders Helotiales, Xylariales, Hypocreales, Russulales, Polyporales, Botryosphaeriales and two specimens of the class Leotiomycetes. The fungi collected produced pigments or zone lines in wild conditions and all of them were capable of wood decomposition. Interestingly, these are the same orders and genera as North American spalting fungi, which may indicate a correlation within species that pigment wood. The results obtained start a specific database of spalted fungi in the Amazon and, with it, help support an effort to increase the forest value of ecosystems primarily used for a few high-valued tree species.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11020032
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 1: Production Challenges in Least Developed
           Countries

    • Authors: Matthias Brönner, Skander Salah, Markus Lienkamp
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Local production sites in least developed countries offer sustainability for both multinational corporations and local society. However, corporations often hesitate because of uncertain environmental influences on production sites in these countries. To minimize planning uncertainties, we aim to identify and categorize the challenges of local production in least developed countries. Therefore, we conduct a research on local production challenges described in current literature. Our results indicate that the influences can be clustered and occur independent of the country. To show practical relevance and actuality of the identified production challenges, we conducted two case studies. Additionally, these studies give examples for organizational, product-specific and technological solutions to overcome the prevailing challenges. In summary, we support the removal of barriers that keep corporates from setting up local production sites in least developed countries.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010001
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Challenges
           in 2019

    • Authors: Challenges Editorial Office Challenges Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...]
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010002
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 3: Emerging Concepts on the Role of
           ADP-Ribosylation

    • Authors: Palmiro Poltronieri
      First page: 3
      Abstract: NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways, since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organism homeostasis. NAD+ is a coenzyme in redox reactions, a donor of adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADPr) moieties in ADP-ribosylation reactions, and a substrate for sirtuins, a group of histone deacetylase enzymes that use NAD+ to remove acetyl groups from proteins. NAD+ is also a precursor of cyclic ADP-ribose, a second messenger in the release and signaling of Ca++, and of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and oligoadenylates (oligo2′-5′A)—two immune response-activating compounds. In the biological systems considered in this review, NAD+ is mostly consumed in ADP-ribose (ADPr) transfer reactions. In this review, the roles of these chemical products are discussed in biological systems, such as in animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. In the review, ADP-ribosylating enzymes are introduced, as well as the importance to restore the NAD+ pools in these systems. Finally, a special attention is presently focused on viral macrodomains, aimed to develop inhibitors to improve the immune response to viruses.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010003
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 4: The Mismatch between Anthropogenic CO2
           Emissions and Their Consequences for Human Zinc and Protein Sufficiency
           Highlights Important Environmental Justice Issues

    • Authors: Elizabeth R. H. Moore, Matthew R. Smith, Debbie Humphries, Robert Dubrow, Samuel S. Myers
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The impacts of climate change are not equally distributed globally. We examined the global distribution of CO2 emissions and the ensuing distribution of increases in the risk of zinc and protein deficiency resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We estimated cumulative per capita (2011–2050) CO2 emissions for 146 countries using existing measurement data and by apportioning regional emissions projections. We tested the relationship between cumulative per capita CO2 emissions and the risk of additional zinc and protein deficiency at the population-level and country-level. At the population-level (i.e., population-weighted), we observed a significant inverse association between CO2 emissions and the percentage of the population placed at additional risk of zinc (p-value: <0.001) and protein (p-value: <0.01) deficiencies. Country-level (i.e., unweighted) analyses produced significant but less strong associations. Populations with lower per capita CO2 emissions between 2011 and 2050 will experience a disproportionately high nutritional burden, highlighting socioeconomic, geospatial, and intergenerational injustices.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010004
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 5: Investigating Thermal Performance of
           Residential Buildings in Marmari Region, South Evia, Greece

    • Authors: Alkistis E. Kanteraki, Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos, Miltiadis Zamparas, Vasilis C. Kapsalis, Sofoklis S. Makridis, Giouli Mihalakakou
      First page: 5
      Abstract: In recent decades, the steady increase of energy consumption from building construction and operations cause atmospheric pollution and significant financial burden, mainly due to the high costs imposed from energy production. This study examines ways under which modern designs of a building can be applied on construction and domestication while following conventional methods of construction, compared to a building that has been constructed and domesticated under bioclimatic architecture. Particularly, two buildings were investigated in terms of the energy consumption incurred, being built on the same seaside area and period of construction and at adjacent plots of the same distance from sea for ease of comparison. The first building (A1) was constructed under the principles of bioclimatic architecture, being also facilitated with green and smart technologies. The second building (A2) was constructed under conventional construction techniques. The energy efficiency of both buildings was calculated by the “TEE KENAK” software, while specific parameters were recorded. Energy classifications of both buildings were valued and a proposed scenario and interventions unveiled the energy classification upgrading from A2 to A1. Our analysis revealed, as also found in the literature, that during thermal energy oscillating conditions, corresponding relative humidity stresses were observed, indicating that the vapor pressure handling should be taken into account towards comfort. The preliminary incremental cost evaluation and comparison of A1 and A2 energy upgrading under the criterion of simple payback period were critically discussed.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010005
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 6: Novel Coronavirus: How Atmospheric
           Particulate Affects Our Environment and Health

    • Authors: Luigi Sanità di Toppi, Lorenzo Sanità di Toppi, Erika Bellini
      First page: 6
      Abstract: It is well-known that atmospheric pollution, first and foremost the particulate matter (PM), causes serious diseases in humans. China’s metropolises and Italy’s Po Valley have in fact achieved a concerning degree of notoriety thanks to runaway air pollution problems. The spread of viral respiratory diseases is facilitated in polluted environments, an example of which is the respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. In this opinion paper, we consider the possible relationship between air pollution, primarily airborne PM10–2.5, and the spread of the novel coronavirus in Northern Italy. If it is true that the novel coronavirus remains active from some hours to several days on various surfaces, it is logical to postulate that the same can occur when it is adsorbed or absorbed by the atmospheric particulate matter, which may also help carry the virus into the human respiratory system. As the Earth presents us with a very high bill to pay, governments and other authorities need to take prompt action to counter excessive pollution levels, both in Italy and in other countries.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010006
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 7: Biodiversity in Music Scores

    • Authors: David G. Angeler
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Nature has inspired music since the dawn of humankind and has contributed to the creation and development of music as an art form. However, attempts to use the science of nature (i.e., quantitative ecology) to inform music as a broader art-science system is comparatively underdeveloped. In this paper an approach from biodiversity assessments is borrowed to quantify structural diversity in music scores. The approach is analogous in its nature and considers notations with distinct pitches and duration as equivalents of species in ecosystems, measures within a score as equivalents of ecosystems, and the sum of measures (i.e., the entire score) as a landscape in which ecosystems are embedded. Structural diversity can be calculated at the level of measures (“alpha diversity”) and the entire score (“gamma diversity”). An additional metric can be derived that quantifies the structural differentiation between measures in a score (“beta diversity”). The approach is demonstrated using music scores that vary in complexity. The method seems particularly suitable for hypothesis testing to objectively identify many of the intricate phenomena in music. For instance, questions related to the variability within and between musical genres or among individual composers can be addressed. Another potential application is an assessment of ontogenetic structural variability in the works of composers during their lifetime. Such information can then be contrasted with other cultural, psychological, and historical variables, among others. This study shows the opportunities that music and ecology offer for interdisciplinary research to broaden our knowledge of complex systems of people and nature.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010007
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 8: Action Research to Enhance
           Inter-Organisational Coordination of Climate Change Adaptation in the
           Pacific

    • Authors: Daniel Gilfillan, Stacy-ann Robinson, Hannah Barrowman
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Pacific regional organisations focusing on climate change have overlapping adaptation-related mandates. With the growing importance of regional organisations in supplying financial and technical resources for climate adaptation in small island developing states, it is important to understand how well these supranational organisations work together on these issues. In this paper, theories of regionalism and neofunctionalism, complex systems, and superordinate group identity are used to design an action research project that tests the level of coordination between Pacific regional organisations. It presents and discusses a pre-analysis plan for the project, the goal of which is to determine the ways in which virtual team structure can be used to enhance inter-organisational coordination of adaptation interventions across small, dispersed, resource-constrained country jurisdictions. The proposed study represents an important intermediary step in developing more robust climate-related organisational policies at the regional scale in the Pacific and beyond.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010008
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 9: Soiling Losses: A Barrier for India’s
           Energy Security Dependency from Photovoltaic Power

    • Authors: Aritra Ghosh
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Worldwide photovoltaic power generation is affected by deposited dust on photovoltaic (PV) systems, which creates soiling losses. In this work, factors that have a detrimental influence on dust deposition and an impact on PV systems performance were reviewed. The different ways that dust deposition can be a barrier for India’s energy security plan involving PV were also discussed. Different available cleaning techniques were also introduced. The nature, size, and morphology of dust particles vary with geographical location. Any increase of the PV tilt angle, or high wind speed and heavy rain showers reduce dust deposition. Deposited dust reduces the incident transmitted light on the PV, which has an adverse impact on the reduction of short circuit current. However, the open-circuit voltage has a reduced effect due to dust deposition. The enhancement of temperature caused by dust-covered PVs is still a debatable area. A universal cleaning technique is required to eliminate the soiling losses from PV. India has a solar mission to generate 100 GW of PV power by 2022. However, India’s poor air quality can undermine efforts to achieve this target.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010009
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 10: Intelligent Collaborative Authoring of
           Place-Based, Cross-Cultural and Media-Rich Experiences

    • Authors: Konstantinos Kotis, Dimitris Spiliotopoulos, Andreas Papasalouros
      First page: 10
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a framework that aims to support the active participation and collaboration of knowledge workers and engineers in the co-authoring of place-based, cross-cultural and media-rich memories, experiences, stories and narration. To achieve this, the framework proposes a novel approach for facilitating such a participation and collaboration through the semantic integration of data/information and integrated tools that will be both accessible via an open, user-friendly, mobile and knowledge-based platform, emphasizing a low-effort participative and guided co-authoring approach. The presented collaborative and participative approach is expected to foster social cohesion in heterogeneous communities of interest and practice. For the realization of the framework, we propose the implementation of a proof-of-concept system and its evaluation in the socio-cultural group of immigrants and refugees within the context of creating and sharing knowledge related to the physical and digital artifacts of a modern art museum. Our vision for the proposed framework is to introduce new technology for the collaborative authoring of cultural experiences with low effort using an intelligent assistant. Additionally, we envision a Shared Experiences Ecosystem (SEE) that aims to provide media-rich content and tools that will eventually foster the inclusive access of heterogeneous socio-cultural groups to shared experiences, increasing social cohesion in resilient local environments.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010010
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 11: Sustainable Distribution of Responsibility
           for Climate Change Adaptation

    • Authors: Åsa Knaggård, Erik Persson, Kerstin Eriksson
      First page: 11
      Abstract: To gain legitimacy for climate change adaptation decisions, the distribution of responsibility for these decisions and their implementation needs to be grounded in theories of just distribution and what those affected by decisions see as just. The purpose of this project is to contribute to sustainable spatial planning and the ability of local and regional public authorities to make well-informed and sustainable adaptation decisions, based on knowledge about both climate change impacts and the perceptions of residents and civil servants on what constitutes a sustainable distribution of responsibility. Our aims are: (1) a better understanding of the practical implications of theories about just distribution of responsibility for the choice of local and regional climate adaptation measures; (2) knowledge about what residents and civil servants consider a sustainable distribution of responsibility for climate adaptation measures; and (3) a better understanding of conflicts concerning the distribution of responsibilities and systematic knowledge about the possibilities to manage them. In this interdisciplinary project, we study six municipalities and their residents, and two county administrative boards, all in Sweden, using mixed methods: value theory, document studies, interviews, focus groups, and surveys.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010011
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Challenges, Vol. 11, Pages 12: Challenges for the Island of Barbuda: A
           Distinct Cultural and Ecological Island Ecosystem at the Precipice of
           Change

    • Authors: Jason A. Hubbart, Kirsten Stephan, Fritz Petersen, Zachary Heck, Jason Horne, B. Jean Meade
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Barbuda is one of two major islands that comprise the Caribbean nation of Antigua and Barbuda. The island is known for its secluded pink and white sand beaches and, more recently, for Hurricane Irma (September 2017). The category five mega-storm decimated much of the island’s landscape and infrastructure, and the physical damage was widely publicized. Three years after Hurricane Irma, many challenges related to humanitarian aid, fiscal resources, and materials to rebuild remain. There are many natural resource commodity and human social challenges including those related to water resources, agriculture, marine ecosystems, feral animal populations, human health, tourism, and economics. This article includes some of Barbuda’s historical context and identifies a number of current critical challenges and recommendations for activities (approaches) that may advance a number of management practices. For example, the Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) and/or One Health approach(es) include social and fiscal mechanisms to implement programs, policies, legislation, and research in which multiple sectors of Barbuda could communicate and work together to achieve sustainable outcomes. Context is provided to substantiate humanitarian aid, scientific engagement, scientific progress, and political support for a semi-closed cultural socio-ecological island ecosystem at the precipice of change.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/challe11010012
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
       
 
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