Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1648 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (262 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (90 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (56 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (937 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (175 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (937 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 801 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities     Open Access  
SHS Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Si Somos Americanos     Open Access  
Signos : Investigación en Sistemas de Gestión     Open Access  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
SINTESA : Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik     Open Access  
SN Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Social & Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Social History Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Inquiry : Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access  
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social Landscape Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Science & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 101)
Social Science Computer Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Social Science Protocols     Open Access  
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Social Science Spectrum     Open Access  
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Social Sciences & Humanities Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Studies and the Young Learner     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Social Studies of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Social Studies Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Social, Humanities, and Educational Studies (SHEs) : Conference Series     Open Access  
Socialiniai tyrimai     Open Access  
Socialium : Revista Cientifica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift     Open Access  
Sociedad e Infancias     Open Access  
Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sociétés & Représentations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Socio     Open Access  
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Sociología y Tecnociencia     Open Access  
Sophia Austral     Open Access  
Soshum : Jurnal Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Sosio Didaktika : Social Science Education Journal     Open Access  
SosioHumanika: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan (Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Education)     Open Access  
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics     Open Access  
Sozial Extra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Studi Magrebini : North African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Studia Socialia Cracoviensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Asian Social Science     Open Access  
Studies in Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Sultan Agung Fundamental Research Journal     Open Access  
Suma de Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Survey Research Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Sustainability : Science, Practice, & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Symmetry     Open Access  
Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Søkelys på arbeidslivet (Norwegian Journal of Working Life Studies)     Open Access  
Tangent     Hybrid Journal  
Tapuya : Latin American Science, Technology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TechTrends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Teme : Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Tempo Social     Open Access  
Teoría y Praxis     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The Batuk     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
The Equilibrium     Open Access  
The EXceptional Parent     Full-text available via subscription  
The New Yorker     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Winnower     Open Access  
The Women : Annual Research Journal of Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Thesis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tieteessä Tapahtuu     Open Access  
Tinkazos     Open Access  
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access  
Trama : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access  
Trans-pasando Fronteras     Open Access  
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transmotion     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Transtext(e)s Transcultures     Open Access  
Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales : TraHs     Open Access  
Trivium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tulane Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Twentieth Century Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Twenty-First Century Society: Journal of the Academy of Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UC Riverside Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UED Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education     Open Access  
Ultima Década     Open Access  
Uluslararası Anadolu Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / International Anatolian Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Umanistica Digitale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
Universidad de La Habana     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad, Escuela y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universitas Científica     Open Access  
Universitas-XXI, Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Mauritius Research Journal     Open Access  
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACSA     Open Access  
VA Engage Journal     Open Access  
Variations : Revue Internationale de Théorie Critique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wani : Revista del Caribe Nicaragüense     Open Access  
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Whatever : A Transdisciplinary Journal of Queer Theories and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Workplace : A Journal for Academic Labor     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Social Science     Open Access  
World Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zambia Social Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Œconomia     Open Access  
Вісник ДонНУЕТ. Серія. Гуманітарні науки     Open Access  
Култура / Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Symmetry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.334
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2073-8994
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 636: Real-Time Control of Sintering Moisture
           Based on Temporal Fusion Transformers

    • Authors: Xinping Chen, Jinyang Cheng, Ziyun Zhou, Xinyu Lu, Binghui Ye, Yushan Jiang
      First page: 636
      Abstract: The quality of sintered ore, which serves as the primary raw material for blast furnace ironmaking, is directly influenced by the moisture in the sintering mixture. In order to improve the precision of water addition in the sintering process, this paper proposes an intelligent model for predicting water-filling volume based on Temporal Fusion Transformer (TFT), whose symmetry enables it to effectively capture long-term dependencies in time series data. Utilizing historical sintering data to develop a prediction model for the amount of mixing and water addition, the results indicate that the TFT model can achieve the R squared of 0.9881, and the root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.5951. When compared to the transformer, long short-term memory (LSTM), and particle swarm optimization–long short-term memory (PSO-LSTM), it is evident that the TFT model outperforms the other models, improving the RMSE by 8.5403, 6.9852, and 0.453, respectively. As an application, the TFT model provides an effective interval reference for moisture control in normal sintering processes, which ensures that the error is within 1 t.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060636
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 637: A Necessary Optimality Condition on the
           Control of a Charged Particle

    • Authors: Nigar Yildirim Aksoy, Ercan Celik, Merve Zengin
      First page: 637
      Abstract: We consider an optimal control problem with the boundary functional for a Schrödinger equation describing the motion of a charged particle. By using the existence of an optimal solution, we search the necessary optimality conditions for the examined control problem. First, we constitute an adjoint problem by a Lagrange multiplier that is related to constraints of theory on symmetries and conservation laws. The adjoint problem obtained is a boundary value problem with a nonhomogeneous boundary condition. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the adjoint problem. Then, we demonstrate the differentiability of the objective functional in the sense of Frechet and get a formula for its gradient. Finally, we give a necessary optimality condition in the form of a variational inequality.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060637
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 638: Strange Things in Bottom-to-Strange Decays:
           The Standard Model Turned Upside Down'

    • Authors: Martin Andersson, Alexander Mclean Marshall, Konstantinos A. Petridis, Eluned Smith
      First page: 638
      Abstract: The flavour anomalies are a set of experimental deviations from the Standard Model (SM) predictions in several observables involving decays of bottom quarks. In particular, tensions between theory and experiment in measurements involving a bottom quark decaying into a strange quark and a pair of muons have motivated much theoretical work to explore possible new physics explanations. This review summarises the tumultuous evolution of these tensions, focusing on the most recent experimental results and their implications for physics beyond the SM. We also discuss the prospects for future measurements and tests of the flavour anomalies at the LHC and other facilities.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060638
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 639: An Online Review-Driven Picture Fuzzy
           Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making Approach for Evaluating the Online
           Medical Service Quality of Doctors

    • Authors: Kaiwen Shi, Juanjuan Peng
      First page: 639
      Abstract: In order to further investigate the level of online medical services in China and improve the medical experience of patients, this study aims to establish an online review-driven picture fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) approach for the online medical service evaluation of doctors. First, based on the Aczel–Alsina t-norm and t-conorm, the normal picture fuzzy Aczel–Alsina operations involving a variable parameter are defined to make the corresponding operations more flexible than other operations. Second, two picture fuzzy Aczel–Alsina aggregation operators are developed, and the corresponding properties are discussed as well. Third, combined with the online review information of China’s medical platform Haodaifu, the online review-driven evaluation attributes and their corresponding weights are obtained, which can make the evaluation model more objective. Fourth, an extended normal picture fuzzy complex proportional assessment (COPRAS) decision-making method for the service quality evaluation of online medical services is proposed. Finally, an empirical example is presented to verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed method. A sensitivity analysis and a comparison analysis are also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed approach.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060639
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 640: Nonlinear Transport through
           Parity–Time Symmetric Lattice Potentials

    • Authors: Wei Mao, Yongping Zhang
      First page: 640
      Abstract: We study nonlinear transports of a light field through finite parity–time symmetric lattice potentials. The initial light field is trapped in a source reservoir and is released to expand toward the lattice potentials along the transverse direction due to the nonlinearity. We identify the transports that can be classified into in-band and in-gap transports. In the in-band transport, the light field can tunnel through the lattices into the sink reservoir, and in the in-gap transport, the light field is self-trapped inside the lattices to form a solitary wave.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060640
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 641: An Adaptive Search Algorithm for
           

    • Authors: Linshan Ding, Zailin Guan, Dan Luo, Mudassar Rauf, Weikang Fang
      First page: 641
      Abstract: In today’s customer-centric economy, the demand for personalized products has compelled corporations to develop manufacturing processes that are more flexible, efficient, and cost-effective. Flexible job shops offer organizations the agility and cost-efficiency that traditional manufacturing processes lack. However, the dynamics of modern manufacturing, including machine breakdown and new order arrivals, introduce unpredictability and complexity. This study investigates the multiplicity dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem (MDFJSP) with new order arrivals. To address this problem, we incorporate the fluid model to propose a fluid randomized adaptive search (FRAS) algorithm, comprising a construction phase and a local search phase. Firstly, in the construction phase, a fluid construction heuristic with an online fluid dynamic tracking policy generates high-quality initial solutions. Secondly, in the local search phase, we employ an improved tabu search procedure to enhance search efficiency in the solution space, incorporating symmetry considerations. The results of the numerical experiments demonstrate the superior effectiveness of the FRAS algorithm in solving the MDFJSP when compared to other algorithms. Specifically, the proposed algorithm demonstrates a superior quality of solution relative to existing algorithms, with an average improvement of 29.90%; and exhibits an acceleration in solution speed, with an average increase of 1.95%.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060641
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 642: Mean-Field Stochastic Linear Quadratic
           Optimal Control for Jump-Diffusion Systems with Hybrid Disturbances

    • Authors: Chao Tang, Xueqin Li, Qi Wang
      First page: 642
      Abstract: A mean-field linear quadratic stochastic (MF-SLQ for short) optimal control problem with hybrid disturbances and cross terms in a finite horizon is concerned. The state equation is a systems driven by the Wiener process and the Poisson random martingale measure disturbed by some stochastic perturbations. The cost functional is also disturbed, which means more general cases could be characterized, especially when extra environment perturbations exist. In this paper, the well-posedness result on the jump diffusion systems is obtained by the fixed point theorem and also the solvability of the MF-SLQ problem. Actually, by virtue of adjoint variables, classic variational calculus, and some dual representation, an optimal condition is derived. Throughout our research, in order to connect the optimal control and the state directly, two Riccati differential equations, a BSDE with random jumps and an ordinary equation (ODE for short) on disturbance terms are obtained by a decoupling technique, which provide an optimal feedback regulator. Meanwhile, the relationship between the two Riccati equations and the so-called mean-field stochastic Hamilton system is established. Consequently, the optimal value is characterized by the initial state, disturbances, and original value of the Riccati equations. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate our theoretic results.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060642
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 643: Estimation of the Domain of Attraction on
           Controlled Nonlinear Neutral Complex Networks via Razumikhin Approach

    • Authors: Hong Yu, Yinfang Song
      First page: 643
      Abstract: This paper is devoted to dealing with the issue of the estimation of the domain of attraction (DOA) for highly nonlinear neutral complex networks (HNNCNs) with time delays. Firstly, by the Razumikhin approach, we establish several novel lemmas on the estimation of DOA for highly nonlinear neutral differential systems. The cases of bounded non-differentiable delays and unbounded proportional delays are discussed, respectively. Subsequently, by utilizing the proposed lemmas, combining the Lyapunov stability theory and inequality technique, the estimation of DOA on HNNCNs with bounded delays or proportional delays is derived when the chosen control gain is sufficiently large. If initial values start from DOA, then the states of systems will exponentially or polynomially converge to the equilibrium point, which means that the local exponential or polynomial synchronization of HNNCNs is realized. Additionally, the weighted outer-coupling matrix of complex networks is not required to be symmetric, which means that the derived results can be applied to both the undirected networks and directed networks. Finally, several numerical examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility of theoretical findings.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060643
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 644: RETRACTED: Lin et al. A Perception Study for
           Unit Charts in the Context of Large-Magnitude Data Representation.
           Symmetry 2023, 15, 219

    • Authors: Yun Lin, Yi Tang, Yanfei Zhu, Fangbin Song, Wenzhe Tang
      First page: 644
      Abstract: The Symmetry Editorial Office retracts the article titled “A Perception Study for Unit Charts in the Context of Large-Magnitude Data Representation” [...]
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060644
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 645: Improvement and Application of Hale’s
           Dynamic Time Warping Algorithm

    • Authors: Hairong Wang, Qiufang Zheng
      First page: 645
      Abstract: Due to the different generation and propagation mechanisms of P- and S-waves, there may be significant differences in the seismic data collected by the two, which poses a great obstacle to the time domain matching of P- and S-waves in multiwave exploration. Furthermore, the quality and accuracy of the matching effect will directly affect the subsequent multiwave joint inversion and interpretation effect. Therefore, the study of P and S-wave-matching methods plays a crucial role in seismic exploration. In 2013, Hale improved the classical Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm applied to solve the problem of speech recognition, and obtained the DTW algorithm suitable for solving the matching of P-waves and S-waves. The seismic wave-matching results generated by this algorithm are horizontal discontinuous (different trajectories) and need further processing. This study analyses the algorithm based on simulations of seismic waves using Ricker wavelets. In response to existing problems, this paper proposes strategies to improve the DTW algorithm. The algorithm in this study significantly improved the continuity of the registration results of the actual seismic wave data in the horizontal direction (different traces).
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060645
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 646: A Novel Self-Adaptive Deformable
           Convolution-Based U-Net for Low-Light Image Denoising

    • Authors: Hua Wang, Jianzhong Cao, Huinan Guo, Cheng Li
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Capturing images under extremely low-light conditions usually suffers from various types of noise due to the limited photon and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which makes low-light denoising a challenging task in the field of imaging technology. Nevertheless, existing methods primarily focus on investigating the precise modeling of real noise distributions while neglecting improvements in the noise modeling capabilities of learning models. To address this situation, a novel self-adaptive deformable-convolution-based U-Net (SD-UNet) model is proposed in this paper. Firstly, deformable convolution is employed to tackle noise patterns with different geometries, thus extracting more reliable noise representations. After that, a self-adaptive learning block is proposed to enable the network to automatically select appropriate learning branches for noise with different scales. Finally, a novel structural loss function is leveraged to evaluate the difference between denoised and clean images. The experimental results on multiple public datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060646
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 647: Inequalities for the Euclidean Operator
           Radius of n-Tuple Operators and Operator Matrices in Hilbert
           C∗-Modules

    • Authors: Mohammad H. M. Rashid, Wael Mahmoud Mohammad Salameh
      First page: 647
      Abstract: This study takes a detailed look at various inequalities related to the Euclidean operator radius. It examines groups of n-tuple operators, studying how they add up and multiply together. It also uncovers a unique power inequality specific to the Euclidean operator radius. The research broadens its scope to analyze how n-tuple operators, when used as parts of 2×2 operator matrices, illustrate inequalities connected to the Euclidean operator radius. By using the Euclidean numerical radius and Euclidean operator norm for n-tuple operators, the study introduces a range of new inequalities. These inequalities not only set limits for the addition, multiplication, and Euclidean numerical radius of n-tuple operators but also help in establishing inequalities for the Euclidean operator radius. This process involves carefully examining the Euclidean numerical radius inequalities of 2×2 operator matrices with n-tuple operators. Additionally, a new inequality is derived, focusing specifically on the Euclidean operator norm of 2×2 operator matrices. Throughout, the research keeps circling back to the idea of finding and understanding symmetries in linear operators and matrices. The paper highlights the significance of symmetry in mathematics and its impact on various mathematical areas.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060647
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 648: The Schwarzian Approach in
           Sturm–Liouville Problems

    • Authors: Nektarios Vlahakis
      First page: 648
      Abstract: A novel method for finding the eigenvalues of a Sturm–Liouville problem is developed. Following the minimalist approach, the problem is transformed to a single first-order differential equation with appropriate boundary conditions. Although the resulting equation is nonlinear, its form allows us to find the general solution by adding a second part to a particular solution. This splitting of the general solution into two parts involves the Schwarzian derivative: hence, the name of the approach. The eigenvalues that correspond to acceptable solutions can be found by requiring the second part to correct the asymptotically diverging behavior of the particular solution. The method can be applied to many different areas of physics, such as the Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics and stability problems in fluid dynamics. Examples are presented.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060648
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 649: Evaluation of Classification Performance of
           New Layered Convolutional Neural Network Architecture on Offline
           Handwritten Signature Images

    • Authors: Yasin Ozkan, Pakize Erdogmus
      First page: 649
      Abstract: While there are many verification studies on signature images using deep learning algorithms in the literature, there is a lack of studies on the classification of signature images. Signatures are used as a means of identification for banking, security controls, symmetry, certificates, and contracts. In this study, the aim was to design network architectures that work very fast in areas that require only signature images. For this purpose, a new Si-CNN network architecture with existing layers was designed. Afterwards, a new loss function and layer (Si-CL), a novel architecture using Si-CL as classification layer in Si-CNN to increase the performance of this architecture, was designed. This architecture was called Si-CNN+NC (New Classification). Si-CNN and Si-CNN+NC were trained with two datasets. The first dataset which was used for training is the “C-Signatures” (Classification Signatures) dataset, which was created to test these networks. The second dataset is the “Cedar” dataset, which is a benchmark dataset. The number of classes and sample numbers in the two datasets are symmetrical with each other. To compare the performance of the trained networks, four of the most well-known pre-trained networks, GoogleNet, DenseNet201, Inceptionv3, and ResNet50, were also trained with the two datasets with transfer learning. The findings of the study showed that the proposed network models can learn features from two different handwritten signature images and achieve higher accuracy than other benchmark models. The test success of the trained networks showed that the Si-CNN+NC network outperforms the others, in terms of both accuracy and speed. Finally, Si-CNN and Si-CNN+NC networks were trained with the gold standard dataset MNIST and showed superior performance. Due to its superior performance, Si-CNN and Si-CNN+NC can be used by signature experts as an aid in a variety of applications, including criminal detection and forgery.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060649
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 650: Numerical Simulation Study Considering
           Discontinuous Longitudinal Joints in Soft Soil under Symmetric Loading

    • Authors: Xianwei He, Xiangyang Xu, Hao Yang
      First page: 650
      Abstract: In shield tunneling, the joint is one of the most vulnerable parts of the segmental lining. Opening of the joint reduces the overall stiffness of the ring, leading to structural damage and issues such as water leakage. Currently, the Winkler method is commonly used to calculate structural deformation, simplifying the interaction between segments and soil as radial and tangential Winkler springs. However, when introducing connection springs or reduction factors to simulate the joint stiffness of segments, the challenge lies in determining the reduction coefficient and the stiffness of the springs. Currently, the hyperstatic reflection method cannot simulate the discontinuity effect at the connection of the tunnel segments, while the state space method overlooks the nonlinear interaction between the tunnel and the soil. Therefore, this paper proposes a numerical simulation method considering the interaction between the tunnel and the soil, which is subjected to compression rather than tension, and the discontinuity of the joints between the segments. The model structure and external load are symmetrical, resulting in symmetrical calculation results. This method is based on the soft soil layers and shield tunnel structures of the Shanghai Metro, and the applicability of the model is verified through deformation calculations using three-dimensional laser scanning point clouds of sections from the Shanghai Metro Line 5. When the subgrade reaction coefficient is 5000 kN/m3, the model can effectively simulate the deformation of operational tunnels. By adjusting the bending stiffness of individual connection springs, we investigate the influence of bending stiffness reduction on the bending moment, radial displacement, and rotational displacement of the ring. The results indicate that a decrease in joint bending stiffness significantly affects the mechanical response of the ring, and the extent and degree of this influence are correlated with the joint position and the magnitude of joint bending stiffness.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060650
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 651: Numerical Study on Aerodynamic Noise
           Reduction in Passenger Car with Fender Shape Optimization

    • Authors: Dongqi Jiao, Haichao Zhou, Tinghui Huang, Wei Zhang
      First page: 651
      Abstract: Despite the rapid development of vehicle intelligent technology, the aerodynamic noise problem of internal combustion engine vehicles and pure electric vehicles at high speed has always been a growing problem. In this study, the effects of the car body fender shape on the aerodynamic noises of the rearview mirror and wheel region were investigated, and a noise reduction method was also proposed by optimizing the fender shape. To realize the parametric modeling of the fender, five positional variables were selected to define the fender configuration; the free-form deformation (FFD) method was used to establish the response fender model according the DOE schemes, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to obtain the noise results. Then, with the help of the radial basis function (RBF) model and the adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) algorithm, the aerodynamic shape of the fender was optimized to reduce aerodynamic noise. Comparative analysis was then employed to assess flow field characteristics of the optimized model against the original model and elucidate the fender configuration’s contribution to aerodynamic noise reduction and its realization mechanism.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060651
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 652: Critical Information Mining Network:
           Identifying Crop Diseases in Noisy Environments

    • Authors: Yi Shao, Wenzhong Yang, Zhifeng Lu, Haokun Geng, Danny Chen
      First page: 652
      Abstract: When agricultural experts explore the use of artificial intelligence technology to identify and detect crop diseases, they mainly focus on the research of a stable environment, but ignore the problem of noise in the process of image acquisition in real situations. To solve this problem, we propose an innovative solution called the Critical Information Mining Network (CIMNet). Compared with traditional models, CIMNet has higher recognition accuracy and wider application scenarios. The network has a good effect on crop disease recognition under noisy environments, and can effectively deal with the interference of noise to the recognition effect in actual farmland scenes. Consider that the shape of the leaves can be symmetrical or asymmetrical.First, we introduce the Non-Local Attention Module (Non-Local), which uses a unique self-attention mechanism to fully capture the context information of the image. The module overcomes the limitation of traditional convolutional neural networks that only rely on local features and ignore global features. Global features are particularly important when the image is disturbed by noise. Non-Local improves a more comprehensive visual understanding of crop disease recognition. Secondly, we have innovatively designed a Multi-scale Critical Information Fusion Module (MSCM). The module uses the Key Information Extraction Module (KIB) to dig into the shallow key features in the network deeply. The shallow key features strengthen the feature perception of the model to the noise image through texture and contour information, and then the shallow key features and deep features are fused to enrich the original deep feature information of the network. Finally, we conducted experiments on two public datasets, and the results showed that the accuracy of our model in crop disease identification under a noisy environment was significantly improved. At the same time, our model also showed excellent performance under stable conditions. The results of this study provide favorable support for the improvement of crop production efficiency.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060652
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 653: A Symmetric Multiprocessor
           System-on-a-Chip-Based Solution for Real-Time Image Dehazing

    • Authors: Dat Ngo, Bongsoon Kang
      First page: 653
      Abstract: The acquisition of digital images is susceptible to haze, and images captured under such adverse conditions may impact high-level applications designed for clean input data. Image dehazing emerges as a practical solution to this problem, as it can be employed to pre-process images immediately after acquisition. This paper presents a concise review of impactful algorithms, including those based on deep learning models, to identify the existing gap in real-time processing capabilities. Subsequently, a real-time dehazing system on a multiprocessor system-on-a-chip (MPSoC) platform is introduced to bridge this gap. The proposed system balances the trade-off between dehazing performance and computational complexity; hence, the name “Symmetric” is coined. Additionally, the entire system is implemented in programmable logic and wrapped by an interface circuit supporting double-buffering, rendering it highly suitable for seamless integration into existing camera systems. Implementation results on a Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC ZCU106 Evaluation Kit demonstrate a maximum operating frequency of 356.51 MHz, equivalent to a maximum processing speed of 40.27 frames per second for DCI 4K resolution.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060653
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 654: A Modified Spectral Conjugate Gradient
           Method for Absolute Value Equations Associated with Second-Order Cones

    • Authors: Leifu Gao, Zheng Liu, Jingfei Zou, Zengwei Wang
      First page: 654
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a modified spectral conjugate gradient (MSCG) method for solving absolute value equations associated with second-order cones (SOCAVEs). Some properties of the SOCAVEs are analyzed, and the global convergence of the MSCG method is discussed in depth. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the effectiveness and competitiveness of our algorithm.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060654
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 655: MultiFuzzTOPS: A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria
           Decision-Making Model Using Type-2 Soft Sets and TOPSIS

    • Authors: Shumaila Manzoor, Saima Mustafa, Kanza Gulzar, Asim Gulzar, Sadia Nishat Kazmi, Syed Muhammad Abrar Akber, Rasool Bukhsh, Sheraz Aslam, Syed Muhammad Mohsin
      First page: 655
      Abstract: Effective and optimal decision-making can enhance system performance, potentially leading to a positive reputation and financial gains. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) is an important research topic widely applied to practical decision-making problems. Using the basic idea of symmetry to balance the arrangement where elements or features have an equality or similarity in distribution, MCDM provides robust decisions in such multi-dimensional complex issues. This study proposes MultiFuzzTOPS, a decision-making model to deal with complexity of multi-criteria decision-making. The proposed MultiFuzzTOPS leverages the fuzzy logic and soft sets such as type-2 soft sets (T2SS) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) for decision-making. We validate the proposed model by implementing it to solve the pesticide selection problem in food science by considering various criteria for the selection of pesticides. Our proposed MultiFuzzTOPS recommends the best pesticide compared with its counterparts because it covers the maximum information for the selection of the best alternative. Results are ranked on the basis of the Hamming distance and similarity coefficient. We also validate the effectiveness by performing the sensitivity analysis, and the validation shows the reliability and effectiveness of our proposed model.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060655
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 656: On the Reducibility of a Class Nonlinear
           Almost Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    • Authors: Nina Xue, Yanmei Sun
      First page: 656
      Abstract: Inthis paper, we consider the reducibility of a class of nonlinear almost periodic Hamiltonian systems. Under suitable hypothesis of analyticity, non-resonant conditions and non-degeneracy conditions, by using KAM iteration, it is shown that the considered Hamiltonian system is reducible to an almost periodic Hamiltonian system with zero equilibrium points for most small enough parameters. As an example, we discuss the reducibility and stability of an almost periodic Hill’s equation.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060656
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 657: The Scale-Invariant Vacuum Paradigm: Main
           Results and Current Progress Review (Part II)

    • Authors: Vesselin G. Gueorguiev, Andre Maeder
      First page: 657
      Abstract: This is a summary of the main results within the Scale-Invariant Vacuum (SIV) paradigm based on Weyl integrable geometry. We also review the mathematical framework and utilize alternative derivations of the key equations based on the reparametrization invariance as well. The main results discussed are related to the early universe; that is, applications to inflation, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, and the growth of the density fluctuations within the SIV. Some of the key SIV results for the early universe are a natural exit from inflation within the SIV in a later time texit with value related to the parameters of the inflationary potential along with the possibility for the density fluctuations to grow sufficiently fast within the SIV without the need for dark matter to seed the growth of structure in the universe. In the late-time universe, the applications of the SIV paradigm are related to scale-invariant dynamics of galaxies, MOND, dark matter, and dwarf spheroidals, where one can find MOND to be a peculiar case of the SIV theory. Finally, within the recent time epoch, we highlight that some of the change in the length-of-the-day (LOD), about 0.92 cm/yr, can be accounted for by SIV effects in the Earth–Moon system.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060657
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 658: The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    • Authors: Charalampos Moustakidis
      First page: 658
      Abstract: Neutron stars are considered extraordinary astronomical laboratories for the physics of nuclear matter as they have the most fascinating constitution of energy and matter in the Universe [...]
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060658
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 659: The Additive Xgamma-Burr XII Distribution:
           Properties, Estimation and Applications

    • Authors: Hebatalla H. Mohammad, Faten S. Alamri, Heba N. Salem, Abeer A. EL-Helbawy
      First page: 659
      Abstract: This paper introduces a new four-parameter additive model, named xgamma-Burr XII distribution, by considering two competing risks: the former has the xgamma distribution and the latter has the Burr XII distribution. A graphical description of the xgamma-Burr XII distribution is presented, including plots of the probability density function, hazard rate and reversed hazard rate functions. The xgamma-Burr XII density has different shapes such as decreasing, unimodal, approximately symmetric and decreasing-unimodal. The main statistical properties of the proposed model are studied. The unknown model parameters, reliability, hazard rate and reversed hazard rate functions are estimated via the maximum likelihood method. The asymptotic confidence intervals of the parameters, reliability function, hazard rate function and reversed hazard rate function are also obtained. A simulation study is carried out to evaluate the performance of the maximum likelihood estimates. In addition, three real data are applied to show the superiority of the xgamma-Burr XII distribution over some known distributions in real-life applications.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060659
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 660: Enhancing Integer Time Series Model
           Estimations through Neural Network-Based Fuzzy Time Series Analysis

    • Authors: Mohammed H. El-Menshawy, Mohamed S. Eliwa, Laila A. Al-Essa, Mahmoud El-Morshedy, Rashad M. EL-Sagheer
      First page: 660
      Abstract: This investigation explores the effects of applying fuzzy time series (FTSs) based on neural network models for estimating a variety of spectral functions in integer time series models. The focus is particularly on the skew integer autoregressive of order one (NSINAR(1)) model. To support this estimation, a dataset consisting of NSINAR(1) realizations with a sample size of n = 1000 is created. These input values are then subjected to fuzzification via fuzzy logic. The prowess of artificial neural networks in pinpointing fuzzy relationships is harnessed to improve prediction accuracy by generating output values. The study meticulously analyzes the enhancement in smoothing of spectral function estimators for NSINAR(1) by utilizing both input and output values. The effectiveness of the output value estimates is evaluated by comparing them to input value estimates using a mean-squared error (MSE) analysis, which shows how much better the output value estimates perform.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060660
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 661: Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Using
           Velocity Pausing and Adaptive Strategy

    • Authors: Kezong Tang, Chengjian Meng
      First page: 661
      Abstract: Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm has been widely applied to solve various real-world optimization problems. However, traditional PSO algorithms encounter issues such as premature convergence and an imbalance between global exploration and local exploitation capabilities when dealing with complex optimization tasks. To address these shortcomings, an enhanced PSO algorithm incorporating velocity pausing and adaptive strategies is proposed. By leveraging the search characteristics of velocity pausing and the terminal replacement mechanism, the problem of premature convergence inherent in standard PSO algorithms is mitigated. The algorithm further refines and controls the search space of the particle swarm through time-varying inertia coefficients, symmetric cooperative swarms concepts, and adaptive strategies, balancing global search and local exploitation. The performance of VASPSO was validated on 29 standard functions from Cec2017, comparing it against five PSO variants and seven swarm intelligence algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate that VASPSO exhibits considerable competitiveness when compared with 12 algorithms. The relevant code can be found on our project homepage.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060661
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 662: Sufficient Conditions for Linear Operators
           Related to Confluent Hypergeometric Function and Generalized Bessel
           Function of the First Kind to Belong to a Certain Class of Analytic
           Functions

    • Authors: Saiful R. Mondal, Manas Kumar Giri, Raghavendar Kondooru
      First page: 662
      Abstract: Geometric function theory has extensively explored the geometric characteristics of analytic functions within symmetric domains. This study analyzes the geometric properties of a specific class of analytic functions employing confluent hypergeometric functions and generalized Bessel functions of the first kind. Specific constraints are imposed on the parameters to ensure the inclusion of the confluent hypergeometric function within the analytic function class. The coefficient bound of the class is used to determine the inclusion properties of integral operators involving generalized Bessel functions of the first kind. Different results are observed for these operators, depending on the specific values of the parameters. The results presented here include some previously published findings as special cases.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060662
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 663: Characterizations of Minimal Dominating Sets
           in γ-Endowed and Symmetric γ-Endowed Graphs with Applications
           to Structure-Property Modeling

    • Authors: Sakander Hayat, Raman Sundareswaran, Marayanagaraj Shanmugapriya, Asad Khan, Venkatasubramanian Swaminathan, Mohamed Hussian Jabarullah, Mohammed J. F. Alenazi
      First page: 663
      Abstract: Claude Berge (1987) introduced the concept of k-extendable graphs, wherein any independent set of size k is inherently a constituent of a maximum independent set within a graph H=(V,E). Graphs possessing the property of being 1-extendable are termedas Berge graphs. This introduction gave rise to the notion of well-covered graphs and well-dominated graphs. A graph is categorized as well-covered if each of its maximal independent sets is, in fact, a maximum independent set. Similarly, a graph attains the classification of well-dominated if every minimal dominating set (DS) within it is a minimum dominating set. In alignment with the concept of k-extendable graphs, the framework of (k,γ)-endowed graphs and symmetric (k,γ)-endowed graphs are established. In these graphs, each DS of size k encompasses a minimum DS of the graph. In this article, a study of γ-endowed dominating sets is initiated. Various results providing a deep insight into γ-endowed dominating sets in graphs such as those characterizing the ones possessing a unique minimum DS are proven. We also introduce and study the symmetric γ-endowed graphs and minimality of dominating sets in them. In addition, we give a solution to an open problem in the literature. which seeks to find a domination-based parameter that has a correlation coefficient of ρ>0.9967 with the total π-electronic energy of lower benzenoid hydrocarbons. We show that the upper dominating number Γ(H) studied in this paper delivers a strong prediction potential.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060663
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 664: A Ciphertext Reduction Scheme for Garbling
           an S-Box in an AES Circuit with Minimal Online Time

    • Authors: Xu Yan, Bin Lian, Yunhao Yang, Xiaotie Wang, Jialin Cui, Xianghong Zhao, Fuqun Wang, Kefei Chen
      First page: 664
      Abstract: The secure computation of symmetric encryption schemes using Yao’s garbled circuits, such as AES, allows two parties, where one holds a plaintext block m and the other holds a key k, to compute Enc(k,m) without leaking m and k to one another. Due to its wide application prospects, secure AES computation has received much attention. However, the evaluation of AES circuits using Yao’s garbled circuits incurs substantial communication overhead. To further improve its efficiency, this paper, upon observing the special structures of AES circuits and the symmetries of an S-box, proposes a novel ciphertext reduction scheme for garbling an S-box in the last SubBytes step. Unlike the idea of traditional Yao’s garbled circuits, where the circuit generator uses the input wire labels to encrypt the corresponding output wire labels, our garbling scheme uses the input wire labels of an S-box to encrypt the corresponding “flip bit strings”. This approach leads to a significant performance improvement in our garbling scheme, which necessitates only 28 ciphertexts to garble an S-box and a single invocation of a cryptographic primitive for decryption compared to the best result in previous work that requires 8×28 ciphertexts to garble an S-box and multiple invocations of a cryptographic primitive for decryption. Crucially, the proposed scheme provides a new idea to improve the performance of Yao’s garbled circuits. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme in the semi-honest model and experimentally verify its efficiency.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060664
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 665: A Note on the Application of the Double
           Sumudu–Generalized Laplace Decomposition Method and 1+1- and
           2+1-Dimensional Time-Fractional Boussinesq Equations

    • Authors: Hassan Eltayeb, Said Mesloub
      First page: 665
      Abstract: The current paper concentrates on discovering the exact solutions of the singular time-fractional Boussinesq equation and coupled time-fractional Boussinesq equation by presenting a new technique known as the double Sumudu–generalized Laplace and Adomian decomposition method. Here, two main theorems are addressed that are very useful in this work. Moreover, the mentioned method is effective in solving several problems. Some examples are presented to check the precision and symmetry of the technique. The outcomes show that the proposed technique is precise and gives better solutions as compared to existing methods in the literature.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060665
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 666: The Thermoelastic Dynamic Response of a Rod
           Due to a Moving Heat Source under the Fractional-Order Thermoelasticity
           Theory

    • Authors: Fengjun Liu, Pengjie Shi, Ying Guo
      First page: 666
      Abstract: In this paper, the thermoelastic behavior of a rod made of an isotropic material under the action of a moving heat source was investigated using a new theory of thermoelasticity related to fractional-order time with two relaxation times. A mathematical model of the one-dimensional thermoelasticity problem was established based on the new thermoelasticity theory. We considered the symmetry of the material, and the fractional-order thermoelasticity control equation was given. Subsequently, the control equations were solved and analyzed using the Laplace transform and its inverse transform. This study examined the effects of fractional-order parameters, time, two thermal relaxation times, and the speed of movement of the heat source on the displacement, temperature, and stress distribution patterns in the rod.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060666
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 667: Numerical Solution for the Heat Conduction
           Model with a Fractional Derivative and Temperature-Dependent Parameters

    • Authors: Rafał Brociek, Edyta Hetmaniok, Damian Słota
      First page: 667
      Abstract: This paper presents the numerical solution of the heat conduction model with a fractional derivative of the Riemann–Liouville type with respect to the spatial variable. The considered mathematical model assumes the dependence on temperature of the material parameters (such as specific heat, density, and thermal conductivity) of the model. In the paper, the boundary conditions of the first and second types are considered. If the heat flux equal to zero is assumed on the left boundary, then the thermal symmetry is obtained, which results in a simplification of the problem and the possibility of considering only half the area. The numerical examples presented in the paper illustrate the effectiveness and convergence of the discussed computational method.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060667
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 668: Estimation of Pointing Errors of Large Radio
           Telescopes under Solar Radiation Based on Digital Twin

    • Authors: Shanxiang Wei, Deqing Kong, Binlan Wang, Lianbo Fu, Wenrong Xiao, Zongming Yin, Yongxiang Li, Zhouzhou Xiao
      First page: 668
      Abstract: The pointing accuracy of large radio telescopes is affected by antenna structure errors, installation errors, servo errors, gravity, and varying environmental factors. Although an on-line pointing model had been developed in the past for several large radio telescopes to correct these effects, it is also valuable to explore new ways to correct these effects. Therefore, in order to estimate the dynamic pointing error of large radio telescopes under solar radiation, a new way based on digital twin (DT) is used in this paper. Digital models of the Wuqing 70-m radio telescope (WRT70) are created based on the DT operational framework. Finally, the reliability of the WRT70’s DT system is verified, and the dynamic pointing error of WRT70 (staying at the position of the elevation angle of 90° and the azimuth angle of 180°) on two sunny days in different seasons is estimated by the created DT system. The research results show that the pointing error of large radio telescopes under solar radiation fluctuates greatly and the seasonal differences are very striking. The maximum elevation pointing error of WRT70 under solar radiation around the winter solstice is over 40 arcsec, which is equal to 4/11 of the beam width for WRT70 operating at 8 GHz. In this paper, it is feasible to estimate the time-varying pointing errors of large radio telescopes at rest under solar radiation by constructing a DT system, but it is not effective to estimate the dynamic pointing errors of large radio telescopes in operation. It is expected to establish a dynamic pointing error model and calibrate the dynamic pointing errors of large radio telescopes in operation by DT technology in the future.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060668
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 669: Estimation of Marshall–Olkin Extended
           Generalized Extreme Value Distribution Parameters under Progressive
           Type-II Censoring by Using a Genetic Algorithm

    • Authors: Rasha Abd El-Wahab Attwa, Shimaa Wasfy Sadk, Taha Radwan
      First page: 669
      Abstract: In this article, we consider the statistical analysis of the parameter estimation of the Marshall–Olkin extended generalized extreme value under liner normalization distribution (MO-GEVL) within the context of progressively type-II censored data. The progressively type-II censored data are considered for three specific distribution patterns: fixed, discrete uniform, and binomial random removal. The challenge lies in the computation of maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs), as there is no straightforward analytical solution. The classical numerical methods are considered inadequate for solving the complex MLE equation system, leading to the necessity of employing artificial intelligence algorithms. This article utilizes the genetic algorithm (GA) to overcome this difficulty. This article considers parameter estimation through both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. For the MLE, the confidence intervals of the parameters are calculated using the Fisher information matrix. In the Bayesian estimation, the Lindley approximation is applied, considering LINEX loss functions and square error loss, suitable for both non-informative and informative contexts. The effectiveness and applicability of these proposed methods are demonstrated through numerical simulations and practical real-data examples.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060669
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 670: Advancing Sustainable Urban Development:
           Navigating Complexity with Spherical Fuzzy Decision Making

    • Authors: Mohd Anjum, Hong Min, Gaurav Sharma, Zubair Ahmed
      First page: 670
      Abstract: This study explores the complexities of urban planning and addresses major issues by carefully weighing four options for smart city technology, community-based development, green infrastructure investment, and transit-oriented development. Unlike traditional evaluations, our study applies the novel SWARA-WASPAS model to spherical fuzzy sets (SFSs), thus identifying and navigating the uncertainty present in decision making. This methodological approach improves the accuracy of our assessment by providing detailed information about the advantages and disadvantages of each option. Our study offers useful insights for urban policymakers and planners using carefully weighted criteria and employing a methodical ranking procedure. The aim is to provide insights for decisions that promote equity, environmental consciousness, resilience, and symmetry in urban environments. The application of the SWARA-WASPAS approach not only advances the field but also provides a strong basis for informed decision making. This improves the accuracy of our evaluations and provides detailed insights into each option’s pros and cons. Our study uses weighted criteria and systematic ranking to advise urban policymakers and planners. Our main goal is to help urban populations make resilient, environmentally responsible, equitable, and symmetrical decisions. Our research aims to further the conversation on sustainable urban development by offering a framework based on data that addresses the difficulties associated with dynamic urban environments. In the end, we want our humanized viewpoint to speak to a wider audience and inspire a shared dedication to creating cities that flourish in the face of changing urban environments.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060670
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 671: A Singular Tempered Sub-Diffusion Fractional
           Model Involving a Non-Symmetrically Quasi-Homogeneous Operator

    • Authors: Xinguang Zhang, Peng Chen, Lishuang Li, Yonghong Wu
      First page: 671
      Abstract: In this paper, we focus on the existence of positive solutions for a singular tempered sub-diffusion fractional model involving a quasi-homogeneous nonlinear operator. By using the spectrum theory and computing the fixed point index, some new sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions are derived. It is worth pointing out that the nonlinearity of the equation contains a tempered fractional sub-diffusion term, and is allowed to possess strong singularities in time and space variables. In particular, the quasi-homogeneous operator is a nonlinear and non-symmetrical operator.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060671
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 672: Symmetrical Data Recovery: FPGA-Based
           Multi-Dimensional Elastic Recovery Acceleration for Multiple Block
           Failures in Ceph Systems

    • Authors: Fan Lei, Yong Wang, Junqi Chen, Sijie Yang
      First page: 672
      Abstract: In the realm of Ceph distributed storage systems, ensuring swift and symmetrical data recovery during severe data corruption scenarios is pivotal for data reliability and system stability. This paper introduces an innovative FPGA-based Multi-Dimensional Elastic Recovery Acceleration method, termed AMDER-Ceph. Utilizing FPGA technology, this method is a pioneer in accelerating erasure code data recovery within such systems symmetrically. By harnessing the parallel computing power of FPGAs and optimizing Cauchy matrix binary operations, AMDER-Ceph significantly enhances data recovery speed and efficiency symmetrically. Our evaluations in real-world Ceph environments show that AMDER-Ceph achieves up to 4.84 times faster performance compared with traditional methods, especially evident in the standard 4 MB block size configurations of Ceph systems.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060672
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 673: On the Solvatochromism of Fluorescein Sodium

    • Authors: Corina Cheptea, Alexandru Zara, Ecaterina Ambrosi, Ana Cezarina Morosanu, Maria Diaconu, Mihaela Miron, Dana Ortansa Dorohoi, Dan Gheorghe Dimitriu
      First page: 673
      Abstract: Fluorescein sodium is a very important compound for a wide spectrum of applications, from which medical applications prevail. Despite this, there are very few studies in the literature related to the structure and fundamental properties of fluorescein sodium and its solutions, with most of the studies dealing with fluorescein. The purpose of the present article is to determine some parameters of the fluorescein sodium molecule approaching the quantum-mechanical modeling and experimental solvatochromism in both binary and ternary solutions. For data analysis, several theoretical models were applied. The results highlight the intermolecular interactions involved in the spectral shift of the electronic absorption band of fluorescein sodium when dissolved in different solvents or binary solvents and allowed the estimation of the difference between the interaction energy in molecular pairs of the type of fluorescein sodium − solvent 1 and fluorescein sodium − solvent 2. By applying a variational method, the dipole moment in the first excited state of the fluorescein sodium molecule and the angle between the dipole moments in the ground and excited states, respectively, were estimated. These results are useful for a better understanding of the behavior of fluorescein sodium when dissolved in different solvents or combinations of solvents, to develop new practical applications.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060673
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 674: A New Adaptive Levenberg–Marquardt
           Method for Nonlinear Equations and Its Convergence Rate under the
           Hölderian Local Error Bound Condition

    • Authors: Yang Han, Shaoping Rui
      First page: 674
      Abstract: The Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) method is one of the most significant methods for solving nonlinear equations as well as symmetric and asymmetric linear equations. To improve the method, this paper proposes a new adaptive LM algorithm by modifying the LM parameter, combining the trust region technique and the non-monotone technique. It is interesting that the new algorithm is constantly optimized by adaptively choosing the LM parameter. To evaluate the effectiveness of the new algorithm, we conduct tests using various examples. To extend the convergence results, we prove the convergence of the new algorithm under the Hölderian local error bound condition rather than the commonly used local error bound condition. Theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the new algorithm is stable and effective.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060674
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 675: Solitons of η-Ricci–Bourguignon
           Type on Submanifolds in (LCS)m Manifolds

    • Authors: Lixu Yan, Vandana, Aliya Naaz Siddiqui, Halil Ibrahim Yoldas, Yanlin Li
      First page: 675
      Abstract: In this research article, we concentrate on the exploration of submanifolds in an (LCS)m-manifold B˜. We examine these submanifolds in the context of two distinct vector fields, namely, the characteristic vector field and the concurrent vector field. Initially, we consider some classifications of η-Ricci–Bourguignon (in short, η-RB) solitons on both invariant and anti-invariant submanifolds of B˜ employing the characteristic vector field. We establish several significant findings through this process. Furthermore, we investigate additional results by using η-RB solitons on invariant submanifolds of B˜ with concurrent vector fields, and discuss a supporting example.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060675
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 676: Modeling the Nonmonotonic Immune Response in
           a Tumor–Immune System Interaction

    • Authors: Yu Liu, Yuhang Ma, Cuihong Yang, Zhihang Peng, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Malay Banerjee, Yueping Dong
      First page: 676
      Abstract: Tumor–immune system interactions are very complicated, being highly nonlinear and not well understood. A large number of tumors can potentially weaken the immune system through various mechanisms such as secreting cytokines that suppress the immune response. In this paper, we propose a tumor–immune system interaction model with a nonmonotonic immune response function and adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACI). The model has a tumor-free equilibrium and at most three tumor-presence equilibria (low, moderate and high ones). The stability of all equilibria is studied by analyzing their characteristic equations. The consideration of nonmonotonic immune response results in a series of bifurcations such as the saddle-node bifurcation, transcritical bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and Bogdanov–Takens bifurcation. In addition, numerical simulation results show the coexistence of periodic orbits and homoclinic orbits. Interestingly, along with various bifurcations, we also found two bistable scenarios: the coexistence of a stable tumor-free as well as a high-tumor-presence equilibrium and the coexistence of a stable-low as well as a high-tumor-presence equilibrium, which can show symmetric and antisymmetric properties in a range of model parameters and initial cell concentrations. The new findings indicate that under ACI, patients can possibly reach either a stable tumor-free state or a low-tumor-presence state in the presence of nonmonotonic immune response once the immune system is activated.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060676
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 677: Timelike Constant Axis Ruled Surface Family
           in Minkowski 3-Space

    • Authors: Areej A. Almoneef, Rashad A. Abdel-Baky
      First page: 677
      Abstract: A timelike (TL) constant axis ruled surface in E13 (Minkowski 3-space), as determined by its ruling, forms a constant dual angle with its Disteli-axis (striction axis or curvature axis). In this article, we employ the symmetry through point geometry of Lorentzian dual curves and the line geometry of TL ruled surfaces. This produces the capability to expound a set of curvature functions that specify the local configurations of TL ruled surfaces. Then, we gain some new constant axis ruled surfaces in Lorentzian line space and their geometrical illustrations. Further, we also earn several organizations among a TL constant axis ruled surface and its striction curve.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060677
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 678: Solving Second-Order Homogeneous Linear
           Differential Equations in Terms of the Tri-Confluent Heun’s Function
           

    • Authors: Shayea Aldossari
      First page: 678
      Abstract: In this paper, we state an algorithm that checks whether a given second-order linear differential equation can be reduced to the tri-confluent Heun’s equation. The algorithm provides a method for finding solutions of the form exp(∫r(x)dx)·HeunT(q,α,γ,δ,ϵ,f(x)), where the parameters α,β,λ∈C, the functions r,f∈C(x), and f are not constant.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060678
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 679: Power Transformer On-Load
           Capacity-Regulating Control and Optimization Based on Load Forecasting and
           Hesitant Fuzzy Control

    • Authors: Dexu Zou, Xinyu Sun, Hao Quan, Jianhua Yin, Qingjun Peng, Shan Wang, Weiju Dai, Zhihu Hong
      First page: 679
      Abstract: The operational stability of a power transformer exerts an extremely important impact on the power symmetry, balance, and security of power systems. When the grid load fluctuates greatly, if the load factor of the transformer cannot be maintained within a reasonable range, it leads to increased instability in grid operation. Adjusting the transformer capacity based on load changes is of great significance. The existing control methods for on-load capacity-regulating (OLCR) transformers have low timeliness, and the daily switching frequency of the capacity-regulating switch is not controlled. To ensure the safe and stable operation of transformers, this paper proposes a control method for OLCR transformers based on load prediction and fuzzy control. Firstly, the operating principle of OLCR transformers is analyzed, and a multi-strategy enhanced dung beetle optimizer (MSDBO) combined with a CNN−LSTM model is proposed for load forecasting. On this basis, the daily switching frequency of the capacity-regulating transformer is introduced, and hesitant fuzzy control is used to select the optimal capacity-regulating strategy relying on three factors: loss, economy, and switching frequency. Finally, simulation models are constructed using the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and simulation analysis is conducted to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed control method. For the three scenarios in this paper, the method reduces daily power loss by 28.5% to 56.3% and daily operating costs by 25.4% to 50.8%. The method used in this paper can sacrifice 3.5% to 9.2% of the loss reduction capability in exchange for reducing the number of switch operations by 28.6% to 57.1%, significantly extending the lifespan of the switches and thereby increasing the operational lifespan of the transformer.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060679
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 680: Effective Video Summarization Using Channel
           Attention-Assisted Encoder–Decoder Framework

    • Authors: Faisal Alharbi, Shabana Habib, Waleed Albattah, Zahoor Jan, Meshari D. Alanazi, Muhammad Islam
      First page: 680
      Abstract: A significant number of cameras regularly generate massive amounts of data, demanding hardware, time, and labor resources to acquire, process, and monitor. Asymmetric frames within videos pose a challenge to automatic summarization of videos, making it challenging to capture key content. Developments in computer vision have accelerated the seamless capture and analysis of high-resolution video content. Video summarization (VS) has garnered considerable interest due to its ability to provide concise summaries of lengthy videos. The current literature mainly relies on a reduced set of representative features implemented using shallow sequential networks. Therefore, this work utilizes an optimal feature-assisted visual intelligence framework for representative feature selection and summarization. Initially, the empirical analysis of several features is performed, and ultimately, we adopt a fine-tuning InceptionV3 backbone for feature extraction, deviating from conventional approaches. Secondly, our strategic encoder–decoder module captures complex relationships with five convolutional blocks and two convolution transpose blocks. Thirdly, we introduced a channel attention mechanism, illuminating interrelations between channels and prioritizing essential patterns to grasp complex refinement features for final summary generation. Additionally, comprehensive experiments and ablation studies validate our framework's exceptional performance, consistently surpassing state-of-the-art networks on two benchmarks (TVSum and SumMe) datasets.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060680
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 681: Handwritten Recognition Techniques: A
           Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Husam Ahmad Alhamad, Mohammad Shehab, Mohd Khaled Y. Shambour, Muhannad A. Abu-Hashem, Ala Abuthawabeh, Hussain Al-Aqrabi, Mohammad Sh. Daoud, Fatima B. Shannaq
      First page: 681
      Abstract: Given the prevalence of handwritten documents in human interactions, optical character recognition (OCR) for documents holds immense practical value. OCR is a field that empowers the translation of various document types and images into data that can be analyzed, edited, and searched. In handwritten recognition techniques, symmetry can be crucial to improving accuracy. It can be used as a preprocessing step to normalize the input data, making it easier for the recognition algorithm to identify and classify characters accurately. This review paper aims to summarize the research conducted on character recognition for handwritten documents and offer insights into future research directions. Within this review, the research articles focused on handwritten OCR were gathered, synthesized, and examined, along with closely related topics, published between 2019 and the first quarter of 2024. Well-established electronic databases and a predefined review protocol were utilized for article selection. The articles were identified through keyword, forward, and backward reference searches to comprehensively cover all relevant literature. Following a rigorous selection process, 116 articles were included in this systematic literature review. This review article presents cutting-edge achievements and techniques in OCR and underscores areas where further research is needed.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060681
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 682: Hypergolic Ignition by Off-Center Binary
           Collision of Monoethanolamine-NaBH4 and Hydrogen Peroxide Droplets

    • Authors: Dawei Zhang, Siduo Song, Dehai Yu, Yueming Yuan, Hongmei Liu, Xuedong Liu, Xuejun Fan
      First page: 682
      Abstract: Hypergolic ignition of H2O2 and MEA-NaBH4 by off-center collision of their droplets was experimentally studied, focusing on the characteristics and mechanism of droplet mixing, droplet heating and evaporation, and gas-phase ignition. The whole collision ignition process was divided into five stages, which were compared, respectively, with that of head-on collision. Under the condition of a slightly off-center collision (for cases where B < 0.35), H2O2 droplets penetrate MEA-NaBH4 droplets after the collision and coalesce with it, but the internal H2O2 drop inside the MEA-NaBH4 droplet does not form a stable sphere. Instead, it rotates and expands inside the mixed droplet. With B increasing to 0.59, the droplets no longer coalesce after collision but separate away, forming satellite droplets. In such cases, multi-ignition mode is observed. When B increases to a certain extent, specifically, 0.85, a grazing collision is observed such that no mass transfer exists during the interaction of droplets, which leads to ignition failure. A theoretical model quantifying droplet swelling rate was established to calculate the volume change of the droplet. It was found that the swelling can be attributed to the flash boiling of superheated internal H2O2 fluid. Meanwhile, the ignition delay time was found to linearly decrease with B at various Wes until the extent where the chemical reaction takes over control, leading to an almost constant time delay defined as RDT. Additionally, the regime of ignition modes corresponding to different droplet mixing features is summarized in the We-B parametric space.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060682
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 683: Symmetry-Enhanced Fuzzy Logic Analysis in
           Parallel and Cross-Road Scenarios: Optimizing Direction and Distance
           Weights for Map Matching

    • Authors: Weicheng Zhou, Huilin Ge, Muhammad Awais Ashraf
      First page: 683
      Abstract: This study addresses the challenges of setting segmentation points in the membership function and determining appropriate weights for different types of information within a fuzzy logic algorithm for map matching. We use linear fitting to derive an empirical formula for setting segmentation points for the information membership function. Furthermore, we evaluate the effects of various weights for direction and distance information in parallel and cross-road scenarios. The research identified the optimal distance that achieves the highest matching accuracy and provided insights into how the weights of connection, direction, and distance information affect this accuracy. The simulations confirmed the critical importance of precise segmentation point settings and weight determinations in enhancing the accuracy of fuzzy logic algorithms for map matching. The results underscore the potency of our tailored parameter-setting strategy and contribute to knowledge of symmetry, offering practical insights for implementing fuzzy logic in map matching with a particular emphasis on the principle of symmetry in algorithm design and information processing.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060683
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 684: Design Procedure for Real-Time
           Cyber–Physical Systems Tolerant to Cyberattacks

    • Authors: Carlos M. Paredes, Diego Martínez Castro, Apolinar González Potes, Andrés Rey Piedrahita, Vrani Ibarra Junquera
      First page: 684
      Abstract: Modern industrial automation supported by Cyber–Physical Systems (CPSs) requires high flexibility, which is achieved through increased interconnection between modules. This interconnection introduces a layer of symmetry into the design and operation of CPSs, balancing the distribution of tasks and resources across the system and streamlining the flow of information. However, this adaptability also exposes control systems to security threats, particularly through novel communication links that are vulnerable to cyberattacks. Traditional strategies may have limitations in these applications. This research proposes a design approach for control applications supported by CPSs that incorporates cyberattack detection and tolerance strategies. Using a modular and adaptive approach, the system is partitioned into microservices for scalability and resilience, allowing structural symmetry to be maintained. Schedulability assessments ensure that critical timing constraints are met, improving overall system symmetry and performance. Advanced cyberattack detection and isolation systems generate alarms and facilitate rapid response with replicas of affected components. These replicas enable the system to recover from and tolerate cyberattacks, maintaining uninterrupted operation and preserving the balanced structure of the system. In conclusion, the proposed approach addresses the security challenges in CPS-based control applications and provides an integrated and robust approach to protect industrial automation systems from cyber threats. A case study conducted at a juice production facility in Colima, México, demonstrated how the architecture can be applied to complex processes such as pH control, from simulation to industrial implementation. The study highlighted a plug-and-play approach, starting with component definitions and relationships, and extending to technology integration, thereby reinforcing symmetry and efficiency within the system.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060684
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 685: New Order 2.0 Simplified Weak
           Itô–Taylor Symmetrical Scheme for Stochastic Delay
           Differential Equations

    • Authors: Yang Li, Qianhai Xu, Yifei Xin, Yu Zhang
      First page: 685
      Abstract: In this article, we construct a new order 2.0 simplified weak Itô–Taylor symmetrical scheme for stochastic delay differential equations. By the new local weak convergence lemma and the connection inequality, we theoretically prove the global weak convergence theorem in two parts on the basis of Malliavin stochastic analysis. Meanwhile, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the error and convergence results. Furthermore, the obtained results display the influence of the delay coefficient on global errors.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060685
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 686: Several Symmetric Identities of the
           Generalized Degenerate Fubini Polynomials by the Fermionic p-Adic Integral
           on Zp

    • Authors: Maryam Salem Alatawi, Waseem Ahmad Khan, Ugur Duran
      First page: 686
      Abstract: After constructions of p-adic q-integrals, in recent years, these integrals with some of their special cases have not only been utilized as integral representations of many special numbers, polynomials, and functions but have also given the chance for deep analysis of many families of special polynomials and numbers, such as Bernoulli, Fubini, Bell, and Changhee polynomials and numbers. One of the main applications of these integrals is to obtain symmetric identities for the special polynomials. In this study, we focus on a novel extension of the degenerate Fubini polynomials and on obtaining some symmetric identities for them. First, we introduce the two-variable degenerate w-torsion Fubini polynomials by means of their exponential generating function. Then, we provide a fermionic p-adic integral representation of these polynomials. By this representation, we derive some new symmetric identities for these polynomials, using some special p-adic integral techniques. Lastly, by using some series manipulation techniques, we obtain more identities of symmetry for the two variable degenerate w-torsion Fubini polynomials.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060686
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 687: Dynamical Analysis and Synchronization of
           Complex Network Dynamic Systems under Continuous-Time

    • Authors: Rui Yang, Huaigu Tian, Zhen Wang, Wei Wang, Yang Zhang
      First page: 687
      Abstract: In multilayer complex networks, the uncertainty in node states leads to intricate behaviors. It is, therefore, of great importance to be able to estimate the states of target nodes in these systems, both for theoretical advancements and practical applications. This paper introduces a state observer-based approach for the state estimation of such networks, focusing specifically on a class of complex dynamic networks with nodes that correspond one-to-one. Initially, a chaotic system is employed to model the dynamics of each node and highlight the essential state components for analysis and derivation. A network state observer is then constructed using a unique diagonal matrix, which underpins the driver and response-layer networks. By integrating control theory and stability function analysis, the effectiveness of the observer in achieving synchronization between complex dynamic networks and target systems is confirmed. Additionally, the efficacy and precision of the proposed method are validated through simulation.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060687
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 688: Bogdanov–Takens Bifurcation of
           Kermack–McKendrick Model with Nonlinear Contact Rates Caused by
           Multiple Exposures

    • Authors: Jun Li, Mingju Ma
      First page: 688
      Abstract: In this paper, we consider the influence of a nonlinear contact rate caused by multiple contacts in classical SIR model. In this paper, we unversal unfolding a nilpotent cusp singularity in such systems through normal form theory, we reveal that the system undergoes a Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation with codimension 2. During the bifurcation process, numerous lower codimension bifurcations may emerge simultaneously, such as saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations with codimension 1. Finally, employing the Matcont and Phase Plane software, we construct bifurcation diagrams and topological phase portraits. Additionally, we emphasize the role of symmetry in our analysis. By considering the inherent symmetries in the system, we provide a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamical behavior. Our findings suggest that if this occurrence rate is applied to the SIR model, it would yield different dynamical phenomena compared to those obtained by reducing a 3-dimensional dynamical model to a planar system by neglecting the disease mortality rate, which results in a stable nilpotent cusp singularity with codimension 2. We found that in SIR models with the same occurrence rate, both stable and unstable Bogdanov-Takens bifurcations occur, meaning both stable and unstable limit cycles appear in this system.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060688
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 689: Investigation on the Influence of Film
           Cooling Structure on the Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of
           Axisymmetric Plug Nozzle

    • Authors: Zhuang Ma, Bo Zhang, Yun Bai
      First page: 689
      Abstract: Some numerical simulations were used to study the effects of blowing ratio (0.25–0.5), hole diameters(0.65~1 mm), and hole inclination angle (30~60°) of the film cooling structure on the cooling and aerodynamic characteristics of the axisymmetric plug nozzle under the condition of transonic. The results showed that the bow shocks appear near the film holes on the plug wall in the supersonic region, which cause the wall cooling effectiveness of the plug to decrease. Compared with the baseline plug, the blowing ratio ranged from 0.25 to 0.5, the wall average temperature of the rear plug decreased by 34.4~48.1%, the thrust coefficient and total pressure recovery coefficient decreased by 0.31~0.61% and 0.52~0.93%, respectively. When the perforated percentage is constant, the wall cooling effectiveness increases with the decrease of the hole diameters. The increase in the inclination angle of the film holes lead to the decrease in cooling effectiveness and aerodynamic performance. This is because the penetration ability of the cooling air to the mainstream is enhanced, and the obstruction to the mainstream boundary layer is increased, resulting in the increase of bow shock intensity near the film holes in the supersonic region.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060689
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 690: A Novel Constraint-Aware Flexible Model with
           Ant Colony Optimization for Symmetrical Travel Recommendation

    • Authors: Mohammed Alatiyyah
      First page: 690
      Abstract: This paper proposes a flexible travel recommender model (FTRM) that emphasizes the symmetry between user preferences and travel constraints, addressing key challenges in the field such as the integration of diverse constraint types and the customization of travel itineraries. The key contribution of the proposed model lies in its integration with the item constraints data model (ICDM), which effectively manages a plethora of constraint types. Additionally, this study develops a novel algorithm inspired by ant colony optimization (ACO) principles, demonstrating performance metrics that are comparable to state-of-the-art algorithms in this field. A comprehensive set of systematic experimental analyses is conducted, employing various models across diverse situational contexts, with the primary goal of illustrating the capabilities of the proposed symmetrical FTRM using real-world data from the Durham dataset. The obtained results highlight the model’s ability to accommodate diverse constraint types, facilitating the customization of travel itineraries to suit individual user preferences and achieve a balanced and symmetrical travel experience. Specifically, our model outperforms existing models in terms of flexibility and customization, showing significant improvements in user satisfaction and itinerary efficiency.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060690
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 691: Relation-Preserving Functional Contractions
           Involving a Triplet of Auxiliary Functions with an Application to Integral
           Equations

    • Authors: Doaa Filali, Faizan Ahmad Khan
      First page: 691
      Abstract: This article addresses certain fixed-point results in a metric space equipped with a locally transitive binary relation under a functional contraction containing three auxiliary functions. The findings proved herein enrich and improve a number of existing results. In order to prove the credibility of our findings, an illustrative example is provided. Making use of our findings, we study the genuineness of the unique solution to a Fredholm integral equation.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060691
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 692: Control of Three-Dimensional Natural
           Convection of Graphene–Water Nanofluids Using Symmetrical
           Tree-Shaped Obstacle and External Magnetic Field

    • Authors: Walid Aich, Inès Hilali-Jaghdam, Amnah Alshahrani, Chemseddine Maatki, Badr M. Alshammari, Lioua Kolsi
      First page: 692
      Abstract: This numerical investigation explores the enhanced control of the 3D natural convection (NC) within a cubic cavity filled with graphene–water nanofluids, utilizing a bottom-center-located tree-shaped obstacle and a horizontal magnetic field (MF). The analysis includes the effects of the Rayleigh number (Ra), the solid volume fraction of graphene (φ), the Hartmann number (Ha), and the fins’ length (W). The results show complex flow patterns and thermal behavior within the cavity, indicating the interactive effects of nanofluid properties, the tree-shaped obstacle, and magnetic field effects. The MHD effects reduce the convection, while the addition of graphene improves the thermal conductivity of the fluid, which enhances the heat transfer observed with increasing Rayleigh numbers. The increase in the fins’ length on the heat transfer efficiency is found to be slightly negative, which is attributed to the complex interplay between the enhanced heat transfer surface area and fluid flow disruption. This study presents an original combination of non-destructive methods (magnetic field) and a destructive method (tree-shaped obstacle) for the control of the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in a 3D cavity filled with graphene–water nanofluids. In addition, it provides valuable information for optimizing heat transfer control strategies, with applications in electronic cooling, renewable energy systems, and advanced thermal management solutions. The application of a magnetic field was found to reduce the maximum velocity and total entropy generation by about 82% and 76%, respectively. The addition of graphene nanoparticles was found to reduce the maximum velocity by about 5.5% without the magnetic field and to increase it by 1.12% for Ha = 100. Varying the obstacles’ length from W = 0.2 to W = 0.8 led to a reduction in velocity by about 23.6%.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060692
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 693: Covering-Based Intuitionistic Hesitant Fuzzy
           Rough Set Models and Their Application to Decision-Making Problems

    • Authors: Muhammad Kamraz Khan, Kamran, Muhammad Sajjad Ali Khan, Ahmad Aloqaily, Nabil Mlaiki
      First page: 693
      Abstract: In this paper, we present four categories of covering-based intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy rough set (CIHFRS) models using intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy β-neighborhoods (IHF β-neighborhoods) and intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy complementary β-neighborhoods (IHFC β-neighborhoods. Through theoretical analysis of covering-based IHFRS models, we propose the intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy TOPSIS (IHF-TOPSIS) technique for order of preference by similarity to an ideal solution, addressing multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) challenges concerning the assessment of IHF data. A compelling example aptly showcases the suggested approach. Furthermore, we address MCDM problems regarding the assessment of IHF information based on CIHFRS models. Through comparison and analysis, it is evident that addressing MCDM problems by assessing IHF data using CIHFRS models proves more effective than utilizing intuitionistic fuzzy data with CIFRS models or hesitant fuzzy information with CHFRS models. IHFS emerges as a unique and superior tool for addressing real-world challenges. Additionally, covering-based rough sets (CRSs) have been successfully applied to decision problems due to their robust capability in handling unclear data. In this study, by combining CRSs with IHFS, four classes of CIFRS versions are established using IHF β-neighborhoods and IHFC β-neighborhoods. A corresponding approximation axiomatic system is developed for each. The roughness and precision degrees of CBIHFRS models are specifically talked about. The relationship among these four types of IHFRS versions and existing related versions is presented based on theoretical investigations. A method for MCDM problems through IHF information, namely, IHF-TOPSIS, is introduced to further demonstrate its effectiveness and applicability. By conducting a comparative study, the effectiveness of the suggested approach is evaluated.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060693
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 694: On Generalized Fibospinomials: Generalized
           Fibonacci Polynomial Spinors

    • Authors: Ece Gülşah Çolak, Nazmiye Gönül Bilgin, Yüksel Soykan
      First page: 694
      Abstract: Spinors are important objects in physics, which have found their place more and more after the discovery that particles have an intrinsic angular momentum shape and Cartan’s mathematical expression of this situation. Recent studies using special number sequences have also revealed a new approach to the use of spinors in mathematics and have provided a different perspective for spinor research that can be used as a source for future physics studies. The purpose of this work is to expand the generalized Fibonacci quaternion polynomials to the generalized Fibonacci polynomial spinors by associating spinors with quaternions, and to introduce and investigate a new polynomial sequence that can be used to benefit from the potential advantages of spinors in physical applications, and thus, to provide mathematical arguments, such as new polynomials, for studies using spinors and quaternions in quantum mechanics. Starting from this point of view, in this paper we introduce and investigate a new family of sequences called generalized Fibospinomials (or generalized Fibonacci polynomial spinors or Horadam polynomial spinors). Being particular cases, we use (r,s)-Fibonacci and (r,s)-Lucas polynomial spinors. We present Binet’s formulas, generating functions and the summation formulas for these polynomials. In addition, we obtain some special identities of these new sequences and matrices related to these polynomials. The importance of this study is that generalized Fibospinomials are currently the most generalized sequence in the literature when moving from Fibonacci quaternions to spinor structure, and that a wide variety of new spinor sequences can be obtained from this particular polynomial sequence.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060694
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 695: The Influence of the Interface on the
           Micromechanical Behavior of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix
           Composites: An Analysis Based on the Periodic Symmetric Boundary
           Conditions

    • Authors: Wei Yan, Shilun Shi, Longcheng Xiao, Xiulun Li, Jian Xu
      First page: 695
      Abstract: The long-term periodicity and uncontrollable interface properties during the preparation process for silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide-based composites (SiCf/SiC CMC) make it difficult to thoroughly investigate their mechanical damage behavior under complex loading conditions. To delve deeper into the influence of the interface strength and toughness on the mechanical response of microscopic representative volume element (RVE) models under complex loading conditions, in this work, based on numerical simulation methods, a microscale representative volume element (RVE) with periodic symmetric boundary conditions for the material is constructed. The phase-field fracture theory and cohesive zone model are coupled to capture the brittle cracking of the matrix and the debonding behavior at the fiber/matrix interface. Simulation analysis is conducted for tensile, compressive, and shear loading as well as combined loading, and the validity of the model is verified based on the Chamis theory. Further investigation is conducted into the mechanical response behavior of the microscale RVE model under complex loading conditions in relation to the interface strength and interface toughness. The results indicate that under uniaxial loading, increasing the interface strength leads to a tighter bond between the fiber and matrix, suppressing crack initiation and propagation, and significantly increasing the material’s fracture strength. However, compared to the transverse compressive strength, increasing the interface strength does not continuously enhance the strength under other loading conditions. Meanwhile, under the condition of strong interface strength of 400 MPa, an increase in the interface toughness significantly increases the transverse compressive strength of the material. When it increases from 2 J/m2 to 20 J/m2, the transverse compressive strength increases by 28.49%. Under biaxial combined loading, increasing the interface strength significantly widens the failure envelope space under σ2-τ23 combined loading; with the transition from transverse compressive stress to tensile stress, the transverse shear strength shows a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, and when the ratio of transverse shear displacement to transverse tensile/compressive displacement is −1, it reaches the maximum. This study provides strong numerical support for the investigation of the interface properties and mechanical behavior of SiCf/SiC composites under complex loading conditions, offering important references for engineering design and material performance optimization.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060695
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 696: Magneto Axisymmetric Vibration of FG-GPLs
           Reinforced Annular Sandwich Plates with an FG Porous Core Using DQM and a
           New Shear Deformation Theory

    • Authors: Aamna H. K. Al-Ali, Fatemah H. H. Al Mukahal, Mohammed Sobhy
      First page: 696
      Abstract: Based on the differential quadrature procedure (DQP), the vibrational response of functionally graded (FG) sandwich annular plates enhanced with graphene platelets (GPLs) and with an FG porous core is illustrated in this paper. The current annular plate is assumed to deform axisymmetrically and expose to a radial magnetic field. The Lorentz magnetic body force is deduced via Maxwell’s relations. The effective physical properties of the upper and lower layers of the sandwich plate are obtained by employing the Halpin–Tsai model. Our technique depends on a new four-unknown shear deformation theory to depict the displacements. In addition, the motion equations are established via Hamilton’s principle. The motion equations are solved by employing the DQP. In order to study the convergence of the DQ method, the minimum number of grid points needed for a converged solution is ascertained. In addition, the current theory’s outcomes are compared with those of previous higher-order theories. The effects of the porosity distribution type, porosity factor, GPLs distribution pattern, GPLs weight fraction, inner-to-outer radius ratio, outer radius-to-thickness ratio, magnetic field parameters, core thickness, and elastic substrate parameters on the nondimensional vibration frequencies are discussed.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060696
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 697: A Knowledge-Guided Multi-Objective Shuffled
           Frog Leaping Algorithm for Dynamic Multi-Depot Multi-Trip Vehicle Routing
           Problem

    • Authors: Yun Zhao, Xiaoning Shen, Zhongpei Ge
      First page: 697
      Abstract: Optimization algorithms have a wide range of applications in symmetry problems, such as graphs, networks, and pattern recognition. In this paper, a dynamic periodic multi-depot multi-trip vehicle routing model for scheduling test samples is constructed, which considers the differences in testing unit price and testing capacity of various agencies and introduces a cross-depot collaborative transport method. Both the cost and the testing time are minimized by determining the optimal sampling routes and testing agencies, subjecting to the constraints of vehicle capacity, number of vehicles, and delivery time. To solve the model, a knowledge-guided multi-objective shuffled frog leaping algorithm (KMOSFLA) is proposed. KMOSFLA adopts a convertible encoding mechanism to realize the diversified search in different search spaces. Three novel strategies are designed: the population initialization with historical information reuse, the leaping rule based on the greedy crossover and genetic recombination, and the objective-driven enhanced search. Systematic experimental studies are implemented. First, feasibility analyses of the model are carried out, where effectiveness of the cross-depot collaborative transport is validated and sensitivity analyses on two parameters (vehicle capacity and proportion of the third-party testing agencies) are performed. Then, the proposed algorithm KMOSFLA is compared with five state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results indicate that KMOSFLA can provide a set of non-dominated schedules with lower cost and shorter testing time in each scheduling period, which provides a reference for the dispatcher to make a final decision.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060697
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 698: Improving the Robustness of the Theil-Sen
           Estimator Using a Simple Heuristic-Based Modification

    • Authors: Artur Bal
      First page: 698
      Abstract: One of the most widely used robust regression methods for solving simple linear regression problems is the Theil-Sen (TS) estimator. This estimator has some notable advantages; however, it does not belong to the most robust estimation methods (called high-breakdown estimators) and is prone to outliers whose distribution is highly asymmetric with respect to the correct data points. This paper presents a modification of the TS estimator, the Robustified Theil-Sen (RTS) estimator. The new method uses a heuristic-based selection procedure to reduce the number of initial estimates of the regression function parameters computed with at least one outlier, thereby improving the regression results. The use of this heuristic procedure only slightly increases the computational time required for using the RTS estimator compared to the TS estimator. Preliminary results of two numerical experiments presented in the paper show that the RTS estimator outperforms other comparable estimators, i.e., the TS estimator and the repeated median estimator, in terms of robustness. The results presented also suggest that the breakpoint value (which is a measure of the robustness of estimators) of the RTS estimator is higher than the breakpoint value of the TS estimator and equal to the breakpoint value of the high-breakpoint estimators.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060698
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 699: Research on Decomposition and Offloading
           Strategies for Complex Divisible Computing Tasks in Computing Power
           Networks

    • Authors: Ping He, Jiayue Cang, Huaying Qi, Hui Li
      First page: 699
      Abstract: With the continuous emergence of intelligent network applications and complex tasks for mobile terminals, the traditional single computing model often fails to meet the greater requirements of computing and network technology, thus promoting the formation of a new computing power network architecture, of ‘cloud, edge and end’ three-level heterogeneous computing. For complex divisible computing tasks in the network, task decomposition and offloading help to realize a distributed execution of tasks, thus reducing the overall running time and improving the utilization of fragmented resources in the network. However, in the process of task decomposition and offloading, there are problems, such as there only being a single method of task decomposition; that too large or too small decomposition granularity will lead to an increase in transmission delay; and the pursuit of low-delay and low-energy offloading requirements. Based on this, a complex divisible computing task decomposition and offloading scheme is proposed. Firstly, the computational task is decomposed into multiple task elements based on code partitioning, and then a density-peak-clustering algorithm with an improved adaptive truncation distance and clustering center (ATDCC-DPC) is proposed to cluster the task elements into subtasks based on the task elements themselves and the dependencies between the task elements. Secondly, taking the subtasks as the offloading objects, the improved Double Deep Q-Network subtask offloading algorithm (ISO-DDQN) is proposed to find the optimal offloading scheme that minimizes the delay and energy consumption. Finally, the proposed algorithms are verified by simulation experiments, and the scheme in this paper can effectively reduce the task delay and energy consumption and improve the service experience.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060699
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 700: Existence Results for Tempered-Hilfer
           Fractional Differential Problems on Hölder Spaces

    • Authors: Hussein A. H. Salem, Mieczysław Cichoń, Wafa Shammakh
      First page: 700
      Abstract: This paper considers a nonlinear fractional-order boundary value problem HDa,gα1,β,μx(t)+f(t,x(t),HDa,gα2,β,μx(t))=0, for t∈[a,b], α1∈(1,2], α2∈(0,1], β∈[0,1] with appropriate integral boundary conditions on the Hölder spaces. Here, f is a real-valued function that satisfies the Hölder condition, and HDa,gα,β,μ represents the tempered-Hilfer fractional derivative of order α>0 with parameter μ∈R+ and type β∈[0,1]. The corresponding integral problem is introduced in the study of this issue. This paper addresses a fundamental issue in the field, namely the circumstances under which differential and integral problems are equivalent. This approach enables the study of differential problems using integral operators. In order to achieve this, tempered fractional calculus and the equivalence problem of the studied problems are introduced and studied. The selection of an appropriate function space is of fundamental importance. This paper investigates the applicability of these operators on Hölder spaces and provides a comprehensive rationale for this choice.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060700
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 701: A Symmetric Fourth Party Logistics Routing
           Problem with Multiple Distributors in Uncertain Random Environments

    • Authors: Xinyu Gao, Xin Gao, Yang Liu
      First page: 701
      Abstract: Economic globalization and the rapid development of the Internet make logistics systems more and more diversified, people and enterprises have greatly increased their requirements for logistics systems, and fourth party logistics has received more and more attention from people and related enterprises. In order to further study the routing problem under uncertain stochastic environments, this paper considers the fourth party logistics routing problem from a single manufacturer to multiple distributors with uncertain times and random supplies under the complete information symmetry scenario and symmetric transportation volume decision space. Then, an uncertain stochastic programming model is established with the minimum total cost as its core objective, and the total transportation time, manufacturer’s supply, and distributor’s demand as constraints. In order to solve the optimal path of the above problems, this paper transforms the uncertain stochastic programming model into a classical mathematical programming model based on the distribution functions of uncertain time and random supply. Finally, two numerical examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060701
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 702: Results and Perspectives from the First Two
           Years of Neutrino Physics at the LHC by the SND@LHC Experiment

    • Authors: D. Abbaneo, S. Ahmad, R. Albanese, A. Alexandrov, F. Alicante, K. Androsov, A. Anokhina, T. Asada, C. Asawatangtrakuldee, M. Ayala Torres, C. Battilana, A. Bay, A. Bertocco, C. Betancourt, D. Bick, R. Biswas, A. Blanco Castro, V. Boccia, M. Bogomilov, D. Bonacorsi, W. Bonivento, P. Bordalo, A. Boyarsky, S. Buontempo, M. Campanelli, T. Camporesi, V. Canale, A. Castro, D. Centanni, F. Cerutti, M. Chernyavskiy, K.-Y. Choi, S. Cholak, F. Cindolo, M. Climescu, A. Conaboy, G. Dallavalle, D. Davino, P. de Bryas, G. De Lellis, M. De Magistris, A. De Roeck, A. De Rújula, M. De Serio, D. De Simone, A. Di Crescenzo, D. Di Ferdinando, R. Donà, O. Durhan, F. Fabbri, F. Fedotovs, M. Ferrillo, M. Ferro-Luzzi, R. Fini, A. Fiorillo, R. Fresa, W. Funk, F. Garay Walls, A. Golovatiuk, A. Golutvin, E. Graverini, A. Guler, V. Guliaeva, G. Haefeli, C. Hagner, J. Helo Herrera, E. van Herwijnen, P. Iengo, S. Ilieva, A. Infantino, A. Iuliano, R. Jacobsson, C. Kamiscioglu, A. Kauniskangas, E. Khalikov, S. Kim, Y. Kim, G. Klioutchnikov, M. Komatsu, N. Konovalova, S. Kuleshov, L. Krzempek, H. Lacker, O. Lantwin, F. Lasagni Manghi, A. Lauria, K. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lo Meo, V. Loschiavo, S. Marcellini, A. Margiotta, A. Mascellani, F. Mei, A. Miano, A. Mikulenko, M. Montesi, F. Navarria, W. Nuntiyakul, S. Ogawa, N. Okateva, M. Ovchynnikov, G. Paggi, B. Park, A. Pastore, A. Perrotta, D. Podgrudkov, N. Polukhina, A. Prota, A. Quercia, S. Ramos, A. Reghunath, T. Roganova, F. Ronchetti, T. Rovelli, O. Ruchayskiy, T. Ruf, M. Sabate Gilarte, Z. Sadykov, M. Samoilov, V. Scalera, W. Schmidt-Parzefall, O. Schneider, G. Sekhniaidze, N. Serra, M. Shaposhnikov, V. Shevchenko, T. Shchedrina, L. Shchutska, H. Shibuya, S. Simone, G. Siroli, G. Sirri, G. Soares, J. Sohn, O. Soto Sandoval, M. Spurio, N. Starkov, J. Steggemann, I. Timiryasov, V. Tioukov, F. Tramontano, C. Trippl, E. Ursov, A. Ustyuzhanin, G. Vankova-Kirilova, G. Vasquez, V. Verguilov, N. Viegas Guerreiro Leonardo, C. Vilela, C. Visone, R. Wanke, E. Yaman, Z. Yang, C. Yazici, C. Yoon, E. Zaffaroni, J. Zamora Saa, the SND@LHC Collaboration
      First page: 702
      Abstract: After rapid approval and installation, the SND@LHC Collaboration was able to gather data successfully in 2022 and 2023. Neutrino interactions from νμs originating at the LHC IP1 were observed. Since muons constitute the major background for neutrino interactions, the muon flux entering the acceptance was also measured. To improve the rejection power of the detector and to increase the fiducial volume, a third Veto plane was recently installed. The energy resolution of the calorimeter system was measured in a test beam. This will help with the identification of νe interactions that can be used to probe charm production in the pseudo-rapidity range of SND@LHC (7.2 < η < 8.4). Events with three outgoing muons have been observed and are being studied. With no vertex in the target, these events are very likely from muon trident production in the rock before the detector. Events with a vertex in the detector could be from trident production, photon conversion, or positron annihilation. To enhance SND@LHC’s physics case, an upgrade is planned for HL-LHC that will increase the statistics and reduce the systematics. The installation of a magnet will allow the separation of νμ from ν¯μ
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060702
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 703: The Deterioration of C-S-H Gel in a Severe
           Sulfate Environment

    • Authors: Wei Liao, Chunhua Lu, Zhongzi Xu
      First page: 703
      Abstract: Immersion tests with 5 wt.% Na2SO4 solution were carried out to investigate the deterioration of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel in a sulfate environment. C-S-H gels with different Ca/(Si + Al) molar ratios were used for comparison. Particular attention was paid to the changes in element composition and Si-O-Si chain structure of the C-S-H gel. The results show that the C-S-H gels with a low Ca/(Si + Al) ratio (0.8–1.0) and appropriate Si-O-Si chain length (14.8) presented better stability in a severe sulfate environment. The C-S-H gels with a higher Ca/(Si + Al) ratio (>2.0) were more sensitive to the attack of sulfate ions. Calcium ions dissolved rapidly during the immersion process, causing the loss of cohesive strength of the C-S-H gel, and then decomposed into fine particles. The C-S-H gel with a lower Ca/(Si + Al) ratio (about 1.1) rarely leached out calcium ions and maintained good micromorphology. The 29Si MAS-NMR results indicate that the Si-O-Si chains with too short or too long chain lengths will break and recombine under the attack of sulfate ions. The Si-O-Si chains with an appropriate chain length (14.8) maintained the stability of the structure of the C-S-H gel in a sulfate environment. These changes are closely related to the asymmetric layered structure of amorphous C-S-H gel. Partial calcium ions between the layers of the main chain structure of Si-O-Si are easily taken away by sulfate ions, leading to the structural instability of the C-S-H gel.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060703
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 704: A Coronal Loop Automatic Detection Method

    • Authors: Zhenhong Shang, Ziqi He, Runxin Li
      First page: 704
      Abstract: Coronal loops are bright, filamentary structures formed by thermal plasmas constrained by the sun’s magnetic field. Studying coronal loops provides insights into magnetic fields and their role in coronal heating processes. We propose a new automatic coronal loop detection method to optimize the problem of existing algorithms in detecting low-intensity coronal loops. Our method employs a line-Gaussian filter to enhance the contrast between coronal loops and background pixels, facilitating the detection of low-intensity ones. Following the detection of coronal loops, each loop is extracted using a method based on approximate local direction. Compared with the classical automatic detection method, Oriented Coronal Curved Loop Tracing (OCCULT), and its improved version, OCCULT-2, the proposed method demonstrates superior accuracy and completeness in loop detection. Furthermore, testing with images from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) at 173 Å, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) at 193 Å, and the High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) at 193 Å and 172 Å confirms the robust generalization capabilities of our method. Statistical analysis of the cross-section width of coronal loops shows that most of the loop widths are resolved in Hi-C images.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060704
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 705: Existence of a Fixed Point and Convergence
           of Iterates for Self-Mappings of Metric Spaces with Graphs

    • Authors: Alexander J. Zaslavski
      First page: 705
      Abstract: In the present paper, under certain assumptions, we establish the convergence of iterates for self-mappings of complete metric spaces with graphs which are of a contractive type. The class of mappings considered in the paper contains the so-called cyclical mappings introduced by W. A. Kirk, P. S. Srinivasan and P. Veeramani in 2003 and the class of monotone nonexpansive operators. Our results hold in the case of a symmetric graph.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060705
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 706: A Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Approach
           for International Shipping Operator Selection Based on Single-Valued
           Neutrosophic Power Hamy Mean Operators

    • Authors: Kecheng Zhang, Yawen Wang, Zhicheng Chen
      First page: 706
      Abstract: Maritime shipping is a crucial method of transporting goods internationally and is vital in supporting global trade. However, due to its global scope, the international shipping market is susceptible to political and economic disturbances. The recent escalation in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has severely impacted the international shipping market, particularly in the tense Red Sea region. Previous research has neglected the significance of evaluating international shipping companies, particularly their origins, within their evaluation frameworks. A fuzzy multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) approach is necessary to address the complexity of evaluating shipping companies with unclear criteria and uncertain expert opinions. Symmetry is crucial in various mathematical fields, with recent applications in hesitant fuzzy sets (HFSs) and neutrosophic sets (NSs), which are frequently employed to solve complex MADM problems. The consideration of symmetry in decision-making processes can enhance the robustness and fairness of evaluations, ensuring a balanced and unbiased approach. The neutrosophic–hesitant fuzzy set (NHFS) considers both the uncertainty of membership degrees of elements (hesitancy in HFSs) and the performance of membership degrees in the true, false, and neutral aspects (the ternary relation in NSs). NHFSs can be seen as a generalization of HFSs and NSs, providing a flexible mathematical framework to more effectively describe and analyze the uncertainties, hesitancies, and fuzziness involved in MADM problems. This study presents single-valued neutrosophic power Hamy mean (SVNPHM) operators and single-valued neutrosophic weighted power Hamy mean (SVNWPHM) operators, which are derived from power aggregation operators (AOs) and the Hamy mean (HM), within the framework of single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNS). Some properties were investigated via these operators. Furthermore, SVNWPHM operators were employed to address single-valued neutrosophic MADM issues. The proposed methodology was validated by conducting a case study on international shipping provider selection, showcasing the methodology’s relevance and efficiency.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060706
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 707: Motion Control of Macro–Micro Linear
           Platform Based on Adaptive Fuzzy Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    • Authors: Mingyi Wang, Tianrun Kang, Kai Kang, Chengming Zhang, Liyi Li
      First page: 707
      Abstract: To ensure precise positioning of the macro–micro platform with a symmetrical structure, it is crucial to mitigate the impact of various perturbations, including disturbances, as well as complex factors such as external loads, electrical noise, and model parameter variations. This paper proposes a novel macro–micro master–slave control structure that incorporates adaptive fuzzy linear active disturbance rejection control (AFLADRC). The Kp and Kd parameters of the linear state error feedback (LSEF) are dynamically tuned and adjusted using fuzzy reasoning. This approach enhances the robustness of the system and simplifies the tuning process. In addition, this paper also analyzes the symmetry of the coupling effect between macro and micro, as the coupling will affect the motor force and the reaction potential of the motor. The macro–micro platform adopts a symmetric design; the macro stage is driven by a permanent magnet synchronous linear motor (PMLSM), and the micro stage is driven by a voice coil motor. Finally, we built the macro–micro linear motion experimental platform to verify the control effect of the proposed method by conducting trajectory tracking experiments and comparison experiments.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060707
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 708: Method for the Trajectory Tracking Control
           of Unmanned Ground Vehicles Based on Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization
           and Model Predictive Control

    • Authors: Mengtao Jin, Junmin Li, Te Chen
      First page: 708
      Abstract: The symmetry principle has significant guiding value in vehicle dynamics modeling and motion control. In complex driving scenarios, there are problems of low accuracy and large time delay in the trajectory tracking control of unmanned ground vehicles. In order to solve this problem and improve the motion control of unmanned ground vehicles, a vehicle coordination control method based on chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) and model predictive control (MPC) algorithms is proposed. To achieve coordinated control of vehicle trajectory tracking and yaw stability, a model predictive controller was designed with the objective of minimizing trajectory tracking errors and yaw stability tracking errors. The required front wheel angle and yaw torque control variables were obtained by solving nonlinear constraint optimization. At the same time, considering the problems of low computational efficiency, high solving time, and local optimization in model predictive control, a chaotic particle swarm optimization algorithm is introduced to solve the optimization constraint problem within model predictive control, thereby effectively improving the computational efficiency and accuracy of the model predictive trajectory tracking controller. The results show that compared with MPC, the multi-objective function optimization solution time and vehicle lane changing time of CPSOMPC improved by 24.51% and 7.21%, respectively, which indicates the coordinated control method that combines the CPSO and MPC algorithms can effectively improve trajectory tracking performance while ensuring vehicle lateral stability.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060708
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 709: Intelligent Detection of Tunnel Leakage
           Based on Improved Mask R-CNN

    • Authors: Wenkai Wang, Xiangyang Xu, Hao Yang
      First page: 709
      Abstract: The instance segmentation model based on deep learning has addressed the challenges in intelligently detecting water leakage in shield tunneling. Due to the limited generalization ability of the baseline model, occurrences of missed detections, false detections, and repeated detections are encountered during the actual detection of tunnel water leakage. This paper adopts Mask R-CNN as the baseline model and introduces a mask cascade strategy to enhance the quality of positive samples. Additionally, the backbone network in the model is replaced with RegNetX to enlarge the model’s receptive field, and MDConv is introduced to enhance the model’s feature extraction capability in the edge receptive field region. Building upon these improvements, the proposed model is named Cascade-MRegNetX. The backbone network MRegNetX features a symmetrical block structure, which, when combined with deformable convolutions, greatly assists in extracting edge features from corresponding regions. During the dataset preprocessing stage, we augment the dataset through image rotation and classification, thereby improving both the quality and quantity of samples. Finally, by leveraging pre-trained models through transfer learning, we enhance the robustness of the target model. This model can effectively extract features from water leakage areas of different scales or deformations. Through instance segmentation experiments conducted on a dataset comprising 766 images of tunnel water leakage, the experimental results demonstrate that the improved model achieves higher precision in tunnel water leakage mask detection. Through these enhancements, the detection effectiveness, feature extraction capability, and generalization ability of the baseline model are improved. The improved Cascade-MRegNetX model achieves respective improvements of 7.7%, 2.8%, and 10.4% in terms of AP, AP0.5, and AP0.75 compared to the existing Cascade Mask R-CNN model.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060709
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 710: The Influence of Low-Frequency Oscillations
           on Trailing-Edge Tonal Noise with Symmetry Spanwise Source Regions

    • Authors: Zhangchen Song, Peiqing Liu, Hao Guo, Yifeng Sun, Shujie Jiang
      First page: 710
      Abstract: For noise reduction at a low-to-moderate Reynolds number, airfoil trailing-edge tonal noise has multiple prominent tones. Among these tones, secondary tones are greatly influenced by external disturbances such as oscillations commonly in the environment. In previous experiments, the spatial movement of sources was found to be related to an inherent high-frequency oscillation. Therefore, the spatial influence of external low-frequency oscillations was investigated in this study. By using tripping tapes to construct different symmetry source regions on the pressure side with side secondary tones, a transient spatial analysis of an NACA0012 airfoil at 2 degrees was performed by microphone arrays when a 10 Hz pressure oscillation was significant at 24 m/s. Temporally, this 10 Hz periodic strength change became more intense at a broader frequency bandwidth for a longer source region. Furthermore, a substantial time delay, significantly larger than the sound propagating time difference between microphones, was observed exclusively along the spanwise direction. This delay led to a periodic directivity pattern, particularly when two 0.2 m source regions were separated by a 0.2 m or 0.4 m tripping region. This low-frequency oscillation introduces an asymmetric transient switching pattern for symmetric spanwise source regions. Consequently, the response of airfoils to external oscillations in field tests should be considered.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060710
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 711: Results for Analytic Function Associated
           with Briot–Bouquet Differential Subordinations and Linear Fractional
           Integral Operators

    • Authors: Ebrahim Amini, Wael Salameh, Shrideh Al-Omari, Hamzeh Zureigat
      First page: 711
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a new class of linear fractional differential operators that are based on classical Gaussian hypergeometric functions. Then, we utilize the new operators and the concept of differential subordination to construct a convex set of analytic functions. Moreover, through an examination of a certain operator, we establish several notable results related to differential subordination. In addition, we derive inclusion relation results by employing Briot–Bouquet differential subordinations. We also introduce a perspective study for developing subordination results using Gaussian hypergeometric functions and provide certain properties for further research in complex dynamical systems.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060711
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 712: Clustering Mixed-Type Data via Dirichlet
           Process Mixture Model with Cluster-Specific Covariance Matrices

    • Authors: Nurul Afiqah Burhanuddin, Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, Hani Syahida Zulkafli, Norwati Mustapha
      First page: 712
      Abstract: Many studies have shown successful applications of the Dirichlet process mixture model (DPMM) for clustering continuous data. Beyond continuous data, in practice, one can expect to see different data types, including ordinal and nominal data. Existing DPMMs for clustering mixed-type data assume a strict covariance matrix structure, resulting in an overfit model. This article explores a DPMM for mixed-type data that allows the covariance matrix to differ from one cluster to another. We assume an underlying latent variable framework for ordinal and nominal data, which is then modeled jointly with the continuous data. The identifiability issue on the covariance matrix poses computational challenges, thus requiring a nonstandard inferential algorithm. The applicability and flexibility of the proposed model are illustrated through simulation examples and real data applications.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060712
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 713: Numerical Approach Based on the Haar Wavelet
           Collocation Method for Solving a Coupled System with the
           Caputo–Fabrizio Fractional Derivative

    • Authors: Bachir Dehda, Fares Yazid, Fatima Siham Djeradi, Khaled Zennir, Keltoum Bouhali, Taha Radwan
      First page: 713
      Abstract: In the present paper, we consider an effective computational method to analyze a coupled dynamical system with Caputo–Fabrizio fractional derivative. The method is based on expanding the approximate solution into a symmetry Haar wavelet basis. The Haar wavelet coefficients are obtained by using the collocation points to solve an algebraic system of equations in mathematical physics. The error analysis of this method is characterized by a good convergence rate. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to prove the accuracy and effectiveness of this method.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060713
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 714: A Modular Robotic Arm Configuration Design
           Method Based on Double DQN with Prioritized Experience Replay

    • Authors: Ziyan Ding, Haijun Tang, Haiying Wan, Chengxi Zhang, Ran Sun
      First page: 714
      Abstract: Abstract: The modular robotic arms can achieve desired performances in different scenarios through the combination of various modules, and concurrently hold the potential to exhibit geometric symmetry and uniform mass symmetry. Therefore, selecting the appropriate combination of modules is crucial for realizing the functions of the robotic arm and ensuring the elegance of the system. To this end, this paper proposes a double deep Q-network (DDQN)-based configuration design algorithm for modular robotic arms, which aims to find the optimal configuration under different tasks. First, a library of small modules of collaborative robotic arms consisting of multiple tandem robotic arms is constructed. These modules are described in a standard format that can be directly imported into the software for simulation, providing greater convenience and flexibility in the development of modular robotic arms. Subsequently, the DDQN design framework for module selection is established to obtain the optimal robotic arm configuration. The proposed method could deal with the overestimation problem in the traditional deep Q-network (DQN) method and improve the estimation accuracy of the value function for each module. In addition, the experience replay mechanism is improved based on the SumTree technique, which enables the algorithm to make effective use of historical experience and prevents the algorithm from falling into local optimal solutions. Finally, comparative experiments are carried out on the PyBullet simulation platform to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the configuration design method developed in the paper. The simulation results show that the proposed DDQN-based method with experience replay mechanism has higher search efficiency and accuracy compared to the traditional DQN scheme.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060714
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 715: Symmetry-Enabled Resource-Efficient Systolic
           Array Design for Montgomery Multiplication in Resource-Constrained MIoT
           Endpoints

    • Authors: Atef Ibrahim, Fayez Gebali
      First page: 715
      Abstract: In today’s TEST interconnected world, the security of 5G Medical IoT networks is of paramount concern. The increasing number of connected devices and the transmission of vast amounts of data necessitate robust measures to protect information integrity and confidentiality. However, securing Medical IoT edge nodes poses unique challenges due to their limited resources, making the implementation of cryptographic protocols a complex task. Within these protocols, modular multiplication assumes a crucial role. Therefore, careful consideration must be given to its implementation. This study focuses on developing a resource-efficient hardware implementation of the Montgomery modular multiplication algorithm over GF(2l), which is a critical operation in cryptographic algorithms. The proposed solution introduces a bit-serial systolic array layout with a modular structure and local connectivity between processing elements. This design, inspired by the principles of symmetry, allows for efficient utilization of resources and optimization of area and delay management. This makes it well-suited for deployment in compact Medical IoT edge nodes with limited resources. The suggested bit-serial processor structure was evaluated through ASIC implementation, which demonstrated substantial improvements over competing designs. The results showcase an average area reduction of 24.5% and significant savings in the area–time product of 26.2%.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060715
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 716: An Improved Pedestrian Detection Model Based
           on YOLOv8 for Dense Scenes

    • Authors: Yuchao Fang, Huanli Pang
      First page: 716
      Abstract: In dense scenes, pedestrians often exhibit a variety of symmetrical features, such as symmetry in body contour, posture, clothing, and appearance. However, pedestrian detection poses challenges due to the mutual occlusion of pedestrians and the small scale of distant pedestrians in the image. To address these challenges, we propose a pedestrian detection algorithm tailored for dense scenarios called YOLO-RAD. In this algorithm, we integrate the concept of receiving field attention (RFA) into the Conv and C2f modules to enhance the feature extraction capability of the network. A self-designed four-layer adaptive spatial feature fusion (ASFF) module is introduced, and shallow pedestrian feature information is added to enhance the multi-scale feature fusion capability. Finally, we introduce a small-target dynamic head structure (DyHead-S) to enhance the capability of detecting small-scale pedestrians. Experimental results on WiderPerson and CrowdHuman, two challenging dense pedestrian datasets, show that compared with YOLOv8n, our YOLO-RAD algorithm has achieved significant improvement in detection performance, and the detection performance of mAP@0.5 has increased by 2.5% and 6%, respectively. The detection performance of mAP@0.5:0.95 was improved by 2.7% and 6.8%, respectively. Therefore, the algorithm can effectively improve the performance of pedestrian detection in dense scenes.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060716
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 717: Analytical Investigation of Thermal
           Radiation Effects on Electroosmotic Propulsion of Electrically Conducting
           Ionic Nanofluid with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Interaction in Ciliated
           Channels

    • Authors: Junaid Mehboob, Rahmat Ellahi, Sadiq Mohammad Sait
      First page: 717
      Abstract: This study examines the behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) suspended in a water-based ionic solution, driven by the combined mechanisms of electroosmosis and peristalsis through ciliated media. The inclusion of nanoparticles in ionic fluid expands the range of potential applications and allows for the tailoring of properties to suit specific needs. This interaction between ionic fluids and nanomaterials results in advancements in various fields, including energy storage, electronics, biomedical engineering, and environmental remediation. The analysis investigates the influence of a transverse magnetic field, thermal radiation, and mixed convection acting on the channel walls. The novel physical outcomes include enhanced propulsion efficiency due to SWCNTs, understanding the influence of thermal radiation on fluid behavior and heat exchange, elucidation of the interactions between SWCNTs and the nanofluid, and recognizing implications for microfluidics and biomedical engineering. The Poisson–Boltzmann ionic distribution is linearized using the modified Debye–Hückel approximation. By employing real-world approximations, the governing equations are simplified using long-wavelength and low-Reynolds-number approximation. Conducting sensitivity analyses or exploring the impact of higher-order corrections on the model’s predictions in recent literature might alter the results significantly. This acknowledges the complexities of the modeling process and sets the groundwork for further enhancement and investigation. The resulting nonlinear system of equations is solved through regular perturbation techniques, and graphical representations showcase the variation in significant physical parameters. This study also discusses pumping and trapping phenomena in the context of relevant parameters.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060717
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 718: A Bridge between Trace Anomalies and
           Deconfinement Phase Transitions

    • Authors: Bing-Kai Sheng, Yong-Liang Ma
      First page: 718
      Abstract: Inspired by the fact that both the dilaton potential encoding the trace anomalies of QCD and the Polyakov loop potential measuring the deconfinement phase transition can be expressed in the logarithmic forms, as well as the fact that the scale symmetry is expected to be restoring and colors are deconfined in extreme conditions such as high temperatures and/or densities, we conjecture a relation between the dilaton potential and the Polyakov loop potential. Explicitly, we start from the Coleman–Weinberg type potential of a real scalar field—a dilaton or conformal compensator—and make an ansatz of the relation between this scalar field and the Polyakov loop to obtain the Polyakov loop potential, which can be parameterized in Lattice QCD (LQCD) in the pure glue sector. We find that the coefficients of Polyakov potential fitted from Lattice data are automatically satisfied in this ansatz, the locations of deconfinement and scale restoration are locked to each other, and the first-order phase transition can be realized. Extensions to the low-energy effective quark models are also discussed. The conjectured relation may deepen our understanding of the evolution of the universe, the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, the phase diagram of QCD matter, and the properties of neutron stars.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060718
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 719: Semi-Symmetric Metric Connections and
           Homology of CR-Warped Product Submanifolds in a Complex Space Form
           Admitting a Concurrent Vector Field

    • Authors: Meraj Ali Khan, Ibrahim Al-Dayel, Sudhakar Kumar Chaubey
      First page: 719
      Abstract: In this paper, we conduct a thorough study of CR-warped product submanifolds in a Kaehler manifold, utilizing a semi-symmetric metric connection within the framework of warped product geometry. Our analysis yields fundamental and noteworthy results that illuminate the characteristics of these submanifolds. Additionally, we investigate the implications of our findings on the homology of these submanifolds, offering insights into their topological properties. Notably, we present a compelling proof demonstrating that, under a specific condition, stable currents cannot exist for these warped product submanifolds. Our research outcomes contribute significant knowledge concerning the stability and behavior of CR-warped product submanifolds equipped with a semi-symmetric metric connection. Furthermore, this work establishes a robust groundwork for future explorations and advancements in this particular field of study.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060719
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 720: A Fault Diagnosis Method for Analog Circuits
           Based on Improved TQWT and Inception Model

    • Authors: Xinjia Yuan, Siting Yang, Wenmin Wang, Yunlong Sheng, Xuye Zhuang, Jiancheng Yin
      First page: 720
      Abstract: A soft fault in an analog circuit is a symptom where the parameter range of a component exists symmetrically to the left and right of its nominal value and exceeds a specific range. The proposed method uses the Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) optimized tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT) algorithm for feature refinement, the Inception model for feature extraction, and an SVM for fault diagnosis. First, the Q-factor is optimized to make it more compatible with the signal. Second, the signal is decomposed, and a single-branch reconstruction is performed using the TQWT to extract features adequately. Then, fault feature extraction is conducted using the Inception model to obtain multiscale features. Finally, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to complete the entire fault diagnosis process. The proposed method is comprehensively evaluated using the Sallen–Key bandpass filter circuit and the four-op-amp biquad high-pass filter circuit widely used in electronic systems. The experimental results prove that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in terms of diagnosis accuracy and reliability.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060720
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 721: Numerical Solution of the Linear Fractional
           Delay Differential Equation Using Gauss–Hermite Quadrature

    • Authors: Salma Aljawi, Sarah Aljohani, Kamran Kamran, Asma Ahmed, Nabil Mlaiki
      First page: 721
      Abstract: Fractional order differential equations often possess inherent symmetries that play a crucial role in governing their dynamics in a variety of scientific fields. In this work, we consider numerical solutions for fractional-order linear delay differential equations. The numerical solution is obtained via the Laplace transform technique. The quadrature approximation of the Bromwich integral provides the foundation for several commonly employed strategies for inverting the Laplace transform. The key factor for quadrature approximation is the contour deformation, and numerous contours have been proposed. However, the highly convergent trapezoidal rule has always been the most common quadrature rule. In this work, the Gauss–Hermite quadrature rule is used as a substitute for the trapezoidal rule. Plotting figures of absolute error and comparing results to other methods from the literature illustrate how effectively the suggested approach works. Functional analysis was used to examine the existence of the solution and the Ulam–Hyers (UH) stability of the considered equation.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060721
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 722: Analysis from the Functional Viewpoint of a
           Single-Cylinder Horizontal Steam Engine with a Crosshead Trunk Guide
           through Engineering Graphics

    • Authors: José Ignacio Rojas-Sola, Juan Carlos Barranco-Molina
      First page: 722
      Abstract: This paper explores a historical innovation created by Henry Muncaster: a stationary steam engine featuring a single-cylinder horizontal design with a crosshead trunk guide. Through the application of engineering graphics techniques, we have elucidated the functioning of this invention by developing a 3D CAD model based on the original drawings published in Model Engineer magazine in 1957. However, the geometric modeling process faced challenges due to missing and erroneous dimensions for several components. Consequently, dimensional, geometric, and movement constraints were applied to ensure the coherence and functionality of the 3D CAD model, alongside conducting an interference analysis. Ultimately, the proper alignment of the cylinder and crosshead was ascertained, which is crucial for maintaining uniform forces and motions within the steam engine. This alignment is pivotal for achieving balanced operation, minimizing vibrations, and enhancing the overall efficiency of the invention.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060722
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 723: Multifactorial Tomato Leaf Disease Detection
           Based on Improved YOLOV5

    • Authors: Guoying Wang, Rongchang Xie, Lufeng Mo, Fujun Ye, Xiaomei Yi, Peng Wu
      First page: 723
      Abstract: Target detection algorithms can greatly improve the efficiency of tomato leaf disease detection and play an important technical role in intelligent tomato cultivation. However, there are some challenges in the detection process, such as the diversity of complex backgrounds and the loss of leaf symmetry due to leaf shadowing, and existing disease detection methods have some disadvantages in terms of deteriorating generalization ability and insufficient accuracy. Aiming at the above issues, a target detection model for tomato leaf disease based on deep learning with a global attention mechanism, TDGA, is proposed in this paper. The main idea of TDGA includes three aspects. Firstly, TDGA adds a global attention mechanism (GAM) after up-sampling and down-sampling, as well as in the SPPF module, to improve the feature extraction ability of the target object, effectively reducing the interference of invalid targets. Secondly, TDGA uses a switchable atrous convolution (SAConv) in the C3 module to improve the model’s ability to detect. Thirdly, TDGA adopts the efficient IoU loss (EIoU) instead of complete IoU loss (CIoU) to solve the ambiguous definition of aspect ratio and sample imbalance. In addition, the influences of different environmental factors such as single leaf, multiple leaves, and shadows on the performance of tomato disease detection are extensively experimented with and analyzed in this paper, which also verified the robustness of TDGA. The experimental results show that the average accuracy of TDGA reaches 91.40%, which is 2.93% higher than that of the original YOLOv5 network, which is higher than YOLOv5, YOLOv7, YOLOHC, YOLOv8, SSD, Faster R-CNN, RetinaNet and other target detection networks, so that TDGA can be utilized for the detection of tomato leaf disease more efficiently and accurately, even in complex environments.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060723
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 724: GBVSSL: Contrastive Semi-Supervised Learning
           Based on Generalized Bias-Variance Decomposition

    • Authors: Shu Li, Lixin Han, Yang Wang, Jun Zhu
      First page: 724
      Abstract: Mainstream semi-supervised learning (SSL) techniques, such as pseudo-labeling and contrastive learning, exhibit strong generalization abilities but lack theoretical understanding. Furthermore, pseudo-labeling lacks the label enhancement from high-quality neighbors, while contrastive learning ignores the supervisory guidance provided by genuine labels. To this end, we first introduce a generalized bias-variance decomposition framework to investigate them. Then, this research inspires us to propose two new techniques to refine them: neighbor-enhanced pseudo-labeling, which enhances confidence-based pseudo-labels by incorporating aggregated predictions from high-quality neighbors; label-enhanced contrastive learning, which enhances feature representation by combining enhanced pseudo-labels and ground-truth labels to construct a reliable and complete symmetric adjacency graph. Finally, we combine these two new techniques to develop an excellent SSL method called GBVSSL. GBVSSL significantly surpasses previous state-of-the-art SSL approaches in standard benchmarks, such as CIFAR-10/100, SVHN, and STL-10. On CIFAR-100 with 400, 2500, and 10,000 labeled samples, GBVSSL outperforms FlexMatch by 3.46%, 2.72%, and 2.89%, respectively. On the real-world dataset Semi-iNat 2021, GBVSSL improves the Top-1 accuracy over CCSSL by 4.38%. Moreover, GBVSSL exhibits faster convergence and enhances unbalanced SSL. Extensive ablation and qualitative studies demonstrate the effectiveness and impact of each component of GBVSSL.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060724
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 725: Heaps of Linear Connections and Their
           Endomorphism Truss

    • Authors: Andrew James Bruce
      First page: 725
      Abstract: We examine the heap of linear connections on anchored vector bundles and Lie algebroids. Naturally, this covers the example of affine connections on a manifold. We present some new interpretations of classical results via this ternary structure of connections. Endomorphisms of linear connections are studied, and their ternary structure, in particular the endomorphism truss, is explicitly presented. We remark that the use of ternary structures in differential geometry is novel and that the endomorphism truss of linear connections provides a concrete geometric example of a truss.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060725
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 726: Effective Identification and Authentication
           

    • Authors: P. Britto Corthis, G. P. Ramesh, Miguel García-Torres, Roberto Ruíz
      First page: 726
      Abstract: Currently, Internet of Things (IoT)-based cloud systems face several problems such as privacy leakage, failure in centralized operation, managing IoT devices, and malicious attacks. The data transmission between the cloud and healthcare IoT needs trust and secure transmission of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). IoT-enabled healthcare equipment is seen in hospitals that have been implementing the technology for many years. Nonetheless, medical agencies fail to consider the security risk associated with healthcare IoT devices, which are readily compromised and cause potential threats to authentication and encryption procedures. Existing cloud computing methods like homomorphic encryption and the elliptic curve cryptography are unable to meet the security, identity, authentication, and security needs of healthcare IoT devices. The majority of conventional healthcare IoT algorithms lack secure data transmission. Therefore, fog computing is introduced to overcome the problems of IoT device verification, authentication, and identification for scalable and secure transmission of data. In this research manuscript, fog computing includes a hybrid mathematical model: Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) and Proxy Re-encryption (PR) with Enhanced Salp Swarm Algorithm (ESSA) for IoT device verification, identification, and authentication of EHRs. ESSA is incorporated into the PR algorithm to determine the optimal key size and parameters of the PR algorithm. Specifically, in the ESSA, a Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) is integrated with the conventional Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA) to enhance its global and local search processes. The primary objective of the proposed mathematical model is to further secure data sharing in the real time services. The extensive experimental analysis shows that the proposed model approximately reduced 60 Milliseconds (ms) to 18 milliseconds of processing time and improved 25% to 3% of reliability, compared to the traditional cryptographic algorithms. Additionally, the proposed model obtains a communication cost of 4260 bits with a memory usage of 680 bytes in the context of security analysis.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060726
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 727: Feasibility Study on Active Structural
           Attenuation: Addressing Multiband Vibration in Automotive Vehicles on 2D
           Asymmetric Structures with a Faulty Horizontal Actuator

    • Authors: Dongwoo Hong, Hojoon Moon, Byeongil Kim
      First page: 727
      Abstract: This work presents a study on the modeling, analysis, and control of asymmetric source structures, which focuses on a multi-directional active mounting system that aims to consider the location and orientation of an actual automotive powertrain mount. An active mount was created by connecting a PZT (piezo-stack) actuator with a rubber grommet. Additional force necessary for every mount was determined by using forces caused by harmonic stimulation and the control input has the capability to reduce vibrations by engaging in detrimental opposition against the input. In addition, the vibration in the horizontal direction can be reduced with the adjustment of variables that can be modified via the dynamic interconnection of the source frame. This study especially evaluated the effectiveness of vibration reduction without a horizontal active component and determined the feasibility of control. Through sequences of simulated outcomes, it was demonstrated that the implementation of this asymmetric, bi-directional (both horizontally and vertically) active mount may effectively reduce stimulation oscillations. Additionally, a numerical validation was performed to reduce the vibrations generated by the modulation. It was accomplished by observing the system’s response utilizing a digital filter with a normalized least mean square method. The simulations of adaptive digital filters demonstrated that the efficacy of control diminishes when faced with intricate noise and signals, while the attenuation trend stays unaltered.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060727
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 728: A Mathematical Analysis and Simulation of
           the F-L Effect in Two-Layered Blood Flow through the Capillaries Remote
           from the Heart and Proximate to Human Tissue

    • Authors: Virendra Upadhyay, Pooja Maurya, Surya Kant Chaturvedi, Vikas Chaurasiya, Dinesh Kumar
      First page: 728
      Abstract: In this paper, we have provided a mathematical analysis of an empirical result, namely, the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect, a phenomenon that occurs in capillary tubes with a diameter lower than 0.3 mm. According to this effect, in capillary tubes under 0.3 mm in diameter, the apparent viscosity of blood decreases as the diameter of the tube decreases, making flow possible in these vessels. A two-phase blood flow mathematical model for human capillaries has been presented here. According to Haynes’ theory, blood is separated into two layers when it flows from the capillary. It is assumed that the first layer is plasma, and the second layer is the core layer. The plasma layer flows near the wall of the capillary, and the core layer flows along the axis of the capillary. Further, the core layer is assumed to be a mixture of two phases: one is the plasma, and the other is that of RBCs. For mathematical modeling purposes, a curvilinear coordinate system has been adopted, with physical quantities used in tensorial form. Derived equations are solved to find the effective viscosity, which depends upon the radius of the capillary; that is, it reduces viscosity to make blood flow possible. A comparative study was conducted with the experimental result of this effect, and it was observed that the proposed two-phase blood flow model is much closer to the experimental data than the single-phase blood flow model, and both have the same trends. After validation of the model with the experimental result, this model was applied to human capillaries (diameter lower than 10 μm) to show the F-L effect, and the impact of various physiological quantities that are relevant to the flow of blood into human capillaries are also discussed here. The impact of hematocrit on various parameters has been demonstrated explicitly.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16060728
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 629: Features, Paradoxes and Amendments of
           Perturbative Non-Hermitian Quantum Mechanics

    • Authors: Miloslav Znojil
      First page: 629
      Abstract: Quantum mechanics of unitary systems is considered in quasi-Hermitian representation and in the dynamical regime in which one has to take into account the ubiquitous presence of perturbations, random or specific. In this paper, it is shown that multiple technical obstacles encountered in such a context can be circumvented via just a mild amendment of the so-called Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation–expansion approach. In particular, the quasi-Hermitian formalism characterized by an enhancement of flexibility is shown to remain mathematically tractable while, on the phenomenological side, opening several new model-building horizons. It is emphasized that they include, i.a., the study of generic random perturbations and/or of multiple specific non-Hermitian toy models. In parallel, several paradoxes and open questions are shown to survive.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16050629
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 630: Fault-Tolerant Phototaxis of a Modular
           System Inspired by Gonium pectorale Using Phase-Based Control

    • Authors: Kohei Nishikawa, Yuki Origane, Hiroki Etchu, Daisuke Kurabayashi
      First page: 630
      Abstract: In this study, we proposed a model for modular robots in which autonomous decentralized modules adaptively organize their behavior. The phototaxis of Gonium pectorale, a species of volvocine algae, was modeled as a modular system, and a fault-tolerant modular control method of phototaxis was proposed for it. The proposed method was based on the rotation phase of the colony and adaptively adjusted an internal response-related parameter to enhance the fault tolerance of the system. Compared to a constant parameter approach, the simulation results demonstrated a significant improvement in the phototaxis time for positive and negative phototaxis during module failures. This method contributes to achieving autonomous, decentralized, and purposeful mediation of the modules necessary for controlling modular robots.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16050630
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 631: Pseudo-Spin Symmetry and the Hints for
           Unstable and Superheavy Nuclei

    • Authors: Jing Geng, Zhiheng Wang, Jia Liu, Jiajie Li, Wenhui Long
      First page: 631
      Abstract: The pseudo-spin symmetry (PSS) provides an important angle to understand nuclear microscopic structure and the novel phenomena found in unstable nuclei. The relativistic Hartree–Fock (RHF) theory, that takes the important degrees of freedom associated with the π-meson and ρ-tensor (ρ-T) couplings into account, provides an appropriate description of the PSS restoration in realistic nuclei, particularly for the pseudo-spin (PS) doublets with high angular momenta (l˜). The investigations of the PSS within the RHF theory are recalled in this paper by focusing on the effects of the Fock terms. Aiming at common artificial shell closures appearing in previous relativistic mean-field calculations, the mechanism responsible for the PSS restoration of high-l˜ orbits is stressed, revealing the manifestation of nuclear in-medium effects on the PSS, and thus, providing qualitative guidance on modeling the in-medium balance between nuclear attractions and repulsions. Moreover, the essential role played by the ρ-T coupling, that contributes mainly via the Fock terms, is introduced as combined with the relations between the PSS and various nuclear phenomena, including the shell structure and the evolution, novel halo and bubble-like phenomena, and the superheavy magicity. As the consequences of the nuclear force in complicated nuclear many-body systems, the PSS itself and the mechanism therein can not only deepen our understanding of nuclear microscopic structure and relevant phenomena, but also provide special insight into the nature of the nuclear force, which can further enrich our knowledge of nuclear physics.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16050631
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 632: Statistical Mechanics Approaches for
           Studying Temperature and Rate Effects in Multistable Systems

    • Authors: Andrea Cannizzo, Stefano Giordano
      First page: 632
      Abstract: Systems with a multistable energy landscape are widespread in physics, biophysics, technology, and materials science. They are strongly influenced by thermal fluctuations and external mechanical actions that can be applied at different rates, moving the system from equilibrium to non-equilibrium regimes. In this paper, we focus on a simple system involving a single breaking phenomenon to describe the various theoretical approaches used to study these problems. To begin with, we propose the exact solution at thermodynamic equilibrium based on the calculation of the partition function without approximations. We then introduce the technique of spin variables, which is able to simplify the treatment even for systems with a large number of coordinates. We then analyze the energy balance of the system to better understand its underlying physics. Finally, we introduce a technique based on transition state theory useful for studying the non-equilibrium dynamical regimes of these systems. This method is appropriate for the evaluation of rate effects and hysteresis loops. These approaches are developed for both the Helmholtz ensemble (prescribed extension) and the Gibbs ensemble (applied force) of statistical mechanics. The symmetry and duality of these two ensembles is discussed in depth. While these techniques are used here for a simple system with theoretical purposes, they can be applied to complex systems of interest for several physical, biophysical, and technological applications.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16050632
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 633: Calibrated Empirical Neutrosophic Cumulative
           Distribution Function Estimation for Both Symmetric and Asymmetric Data

    • Authors: Hareem Abbasi, Usman Shahzad, Walid Emam, Muhammad Hanif, Nasir Ali, Mubeen Mukhtar
      First page: 633
      Abstract: The traditional stratification weight is widely used in survey sampling for estimation under stratified random sampling (StRS). A neutrosophic calibration approach is proposed under neutrosophic statistics for the first time with the aim of improving conventional stratification weight. This addresses the challenge of estimating the empirical cumulative distribution function (CDF) of a finite population using the neutrosophic technique. The neutrosophic technique extends traditional statistics, dealing with indeterminate, vague, and uncertain values. Thus, using additional information, we are able to obtain an effective estimate of the neutrosophic CDF. The suggested estimator yields an interval range in which the population empirical CDF is likely to exist rather than a single numerical value. The proposed family of neutrosophic estimators will be defined under suitable calibration constraints. A simulation study is also computed in order to assess the effectiveness of the suggested and adapted neutrosophic estimators using real-life symmetric and asymmetric datasets.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16050633
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 634: A New Three-Parameter Inverse Rayleigh
           Distribution: Simulation and Application to Real Data

    • Authors: Muzafer Shala, Faton Merovci
      First page: 634
      Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new three-parameter inverse Rayleigh distribution that extends the inverse Rayleigh distribution, constructed based on the generalized transmuted family of distributions proposed by Alizadeh, Merovci, and Hamedani. We explore statistical properties such as the quantile function, moments, harmonic mean, mean deviation, stress–strength reliability, and entropy. Parameter estimation is performed using various methods, including maximum likelihood, least squares, the method of the maximum product of spacings, and the method of Cramér–von Mises. The usefulness of the new three-parameter inverse Rayleigh distribution is illustrated by modeling a real dataset, demonstrating its superior fit compared to several other distributions.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16050634
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Symmetry, Vol. 16, Pages 635: PSD and Cross-PSD of Responses of Seven
           Classes of Fractional Vibrations Driven by fGn, fBm, Fractional OU
           Process, and von Kármán Process

    • Authors: Ming Li
      First page: 635
      Abstract: This paper gives its contributions in four stages. First, we propose the analytical expressions of power spectrum density (PSD) responses and cross-PSD responses to seven classes of fractional vibrators driven by fractional Gaussian noise (fGn). Second, we put forward the analytical expressions of PSD and cross-PSD responses to seven classes of fractional vibrators excited by fractional Brownian motion (fBm). Third, we present the analytical expressions of PSD and cross-PSD responses to seven classes of fractional vibrators driven by the fractional Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU) process. Fourth, we bring forward the analytical expressions of PSD and cross-PSD responses to seven classes of fractional vibrators excited by the von Kármán process. We show that the statistical dependences of the responses to seven classes of fractional vibrators follow those of the excitation of fGn, fBm, the OU process, or the von Kármán process. We also demonstrate the obvious effects of fractional orders on the responses to seven classes of fractional vibrations. In addition, we newly introduce class VII fractional vibrators, their frequency transfer function, and their impulse response in this research.
      Citation: Symmetry
      PubDate: 2024-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sym16050635
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 5 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1648 journals)
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SOCIAL SCIENCES (937 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 801 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities     Open Access  
SHS Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Si Somos Americanos     Open Access  
Signos : Investigación en Sistemas de Gestión     Open Access  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
SINTESA : Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik     Open Access  
SN Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Social & Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Social History Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Inquiry : Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access  
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social Landscape Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Science & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 101)
Social Science Computer Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Social Science Protocols     Open Access  
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Social Science Spectrum     Open Access  
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Social Sciences & Humanities Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Studies and the Young Learner     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Social Studies of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Social Studies Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Social, Humanities, and Educational Studies (SHEs) : Conference Series     Open Access  
Socialiniai tyrimai     Open Access  
Socialium : Revista Cientifica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift     Open Access  
Sociedad e Infancias     Open Access  
Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sociétés & Représentations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Socio     Open Access  
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Sociología y Tecnociencia     Open Access  
Sophia Austral     Open Access  
Soshum : Jurnal Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Sosio Didaktika : Social Science Education Journal     Open Access  
SosioHumanika: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan (Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Education)     Open Access  
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics     Open Access  
Sozial Extra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Studi Magrebini : North African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Studia Socialia Cracoviensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Asian Social Science     Open Access  
Studies in Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Sultan Agung Fundamental Research Journal     Open Access  
Suma de Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Survey Research Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Sustainability : Science, Practice, & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Symmetry     Open Access  
Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Søkelys på arbeidslivet (Norwegian Journal of Working Life Studies)     Open Access  
Tangent     Hybrid Journal  
Tapuya : Latin American Science, Technology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology transfer: innovative solutions in Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TechTrends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Teme : Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Tempo Social     Open Access  
Teoría y Praxis     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The Batuk     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
The Equilibrium     Open Access  
The EXceptional Parent     Full-text available via subscription  
The New Yorker     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Winnower     Open Access  
The Women : Annual Research Journal of Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Thesis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tieteessä Tapahtuu     Open Access  
Tinkazos     Open Access  
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access  
Trama : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access  
Trans-pasando Fronteras     Open Access  
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transmotion     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Transtext(e)s Transcultures     Open Access  
Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales : TraHs     Open Access  
Trivium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tulane Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Twentieth Century Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Twenty-First Century Society: Journal of the Academy of Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UC Riverside Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
UED Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education     Open Access  
Ultima Década     Open Access  
Uluslararası Anadolu Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / International Anatolian Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Umanistica Digitale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Uni-pluriversidad     Open Access  
Universidad de La Habana     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad, Escuela y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universitas Científica     Open Access  
Universitas-XXI, Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Mauritius Research Journal     Open Access  
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Unoesc & Ciência - ACSA     Open Access  
VA Engage Journal     Open Access  
Variations : Revue Internationale de Théorie Critique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Vilnius University Proceedings     Open Access  
Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wani : Revista del Caribe Nicaragüense     Open Access  
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Wellbeing, Space & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Whatever : A Transdisciplinary Journal of Queer Theories and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Workplace : A Journal for Academic Labor     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Social Science     Open Access  
World Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Zambia Social Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Œconomia     Open Access  
Вісник ДонНУЕТ. Серія. Гуманітарні науки     Open Access  
Култура / Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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