Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1540 journals)
    - HISTORY (859 journals)
    - History (General) (45 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (72 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (67 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AREAS (10 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (256 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (183 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (48 journals)

HISTORY (859 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 452 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
New Hibernia Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Newfoundland and Labrador Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nineteenth-Century Contexts: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Noctua. La tradizione filosofica dall'antico al moderno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nomenclatura : aproximaciones a los estudios hispánicos     Open Access  
Nordic Journal of Educational History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Northern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Northern Scotland     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Notes & Records of the Royal Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Nuevo mundo mundos nuevos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nuova Rivista Storica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ohio History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ohm : Obradoiro de Historia Moderna     Full-text available via subscription  
Opuscula : Short Texts of the Middle Ages and Renaissance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Oral History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Oriens     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Orvosi Hetilap     Full-text available via subscription  
Osiris     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Oud Holland - Quarterly for Dutch Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Oxford German Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Paradigmi     Full-text available via subscription  
Paragone : Past and Present     Full-text available via subscription  
Parergon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Parliamentary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Parliaments, Estates and Representation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pasado Abierto     Open Access  
Passato e presente     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Passepartout     Open Access  
Past & Present     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Patrimoines du Sud     Open Access  
Patristica et Mediævalia     Open Access  
Pecia     Full-text available via subscription  
Pedralbes : revista d'història moderna     Open Access  
Penn History Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Peritia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Perspective     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Philippine Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pleine Marge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PLURA, Revista de Estudos de Religião / PLURA, Journal for the Study of Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Policy and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Polis : The Journal of the Society for Greek Political Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Politéia : História e Sociedade     Open Access  
Politics & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Popular Music History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Porta Aurea     Open Access  
Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Postcolonial Text     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (hardback)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the Zoological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Procesos Historicos     Open Access  
Prose Studies: History, Theory, Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Przegląd Nauk Historycznych     Open Access  
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Publications du Centre Européen d'Etudes Bourguignonnes     Full-text available via subscription  
Purdue Historian     Open Access  
Quaderns d’Història de l’Enginyeria     Open Access  
Quaker History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Queensland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Queensland Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Questes : Revue pluridisciplinaire d'études médiévales     Open Access  
Quintana. Revista de Estudos do Departamento de Historia da Arte     Open Access  
RADAR : Historiedidaktisk tidsskrift     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rasenna : Journal of the Center for Etruscan Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Rationality and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Raven : A Journal of Vexillology     Hybrid Journal  
Reinardus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Relaciones. Estudios de historia y sociedad     Open Access  
Renaissance Drama     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Renaissance Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Renaissance Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Res Gesta     Open Access  
Res Historica     Open Access  
Rethinking History: The Journal of Theory and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Reti Medievali Rivista     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Review of Central and East European Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Reviews in American History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Revista Alétheia     Open Access  
Revista Análisis Internacional     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Crítica Histórica     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Historico-Juridicos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Historia (Concepción)     Open Access  
Revista de História Bilros. História(s), Sociedade(s) e Cultura(s)     Open Access  
Revista de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Historia Industrial. Economía y Empresa     Open Access  
Revista de Historia Social y de las Mentalidades     Open Access  
Revista de Historia Universal     Open Access  
Revista de Istorie a Moldovei     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Eletrônica Discente História.com     Open Access  
Revista Habitus : Revista do Instituto Goiano de Pré-História e Antropologia     Open Access  
Revista Historia Autónoma     Open Access  
Revista Maracanan     Open Access  
Revista Memória em Rede     Open Access  
Revista Mosaico : Revista de História     Open Access  
Revista Paginas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revolutionary Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue d'Histoire de l'Eglise de France     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue d'histoire de l'enfance     Open Access  
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue de géographie historique     Open Access  
Revue de l’Histoire des Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revue des Études Arméniennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue d’histoire des sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Mabillon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Rhetoric Society Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
RIHA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
RIHC : Revista Internacional de Historia de la Comunicación     Open Access  
Romanticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Romanticism on the Net     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Romantik : Journal for the Study of Romanticisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rúbrica Contemporánea     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Russian History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of World History     Open Access  
Rural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Russian Education & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Russian Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Sacris Erudiri     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Saeculum. Jahrbuch für Universalgeschichte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safundi : The Journal of South African and American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sasdaya : Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Scando-Slavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine / Scientia Canadensis : revue canadienne d'histoire des sciences, des techniques et de la médecine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scottish Church History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Scottish Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Scrineum Rivista     Open Access  
Scrinium : Journal of Patrology and Critical Hagiography     Open Access  
Scrutiny2: Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sémata : Ciencias Sociais e Humanidades     Full-text available via subscription  
Semina : Revista dos Pós-Graduandos em História da UPF     Open Access  
Senses and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Serendipities : Journal for the Sociology and History of the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Siècles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Signos Historicos     Open Access  
Slagmark - Tidsskrift for idéhistorie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Slavonica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Social History of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Social Science History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Società e Storia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Society and Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sociología Histórica     Open Access  
South African Historical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Economics : SAJE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
South Asia Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
South Asian History and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South Asian Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South Australian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription  
South Central Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South European Society and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Southeast European and Black Sea Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Southwestern Historical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Soviet and Post-Soviet Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SPAL : Revista de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Spontaneous Generations : A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Studi di Storia Medioevale e di Diplomatica - Nuova Serie     Open Access  
Studia Aurea : Revista de Literatura Española y Teoría Literaria del Renacimiento y Siglo de Oro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Studia Historiae Oeconomicae     Open Access  
Studia Historyczne     Open Access  
Studia Iranica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studia Litteraria et Historica     Open Access  
Studia z Historii Filozofii     Open Access  
Studies in Church History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Digital Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Studies in East European Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Studies in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Social Science History
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.2
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0145-5532 - ISSN (Online) 1527-8034
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • SSH volume 45 issue 4 Cover and Front matter

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 1 - 4
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.44
       
  • SSH volume 45 issue 4 Cover and Back matter

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.45
       
  • Introduction to Soils and Sustainability Special Issue

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      Authors: Cunfer; Geoff
      Pages: 617 - 623
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.30
       
  • Contested Grasslands: Commons and the Unequal Land-Costs to Sustain Soil
           Fertility in Preindustrial Agriculture

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      Authors: Güldner; Dino
      Pages: 625 - 655
      Abstract: Maintaining soil fertility was the most pressing problem in preindustrial agriculture. Prior to the arrival of industrial inputs, farmers relied on ecological soil replenishment processes and biological fertilizing techniques to sustain the productivity of soil. Central European farmers actively managed the cycling of nutrients by keeping livestock. Farm animals provided the means to recycle nutrients from crop production and to transfer nutrients from land-use systems dedicated for biomass extraction, such as grasslands. This article explores the unequal distribution of these vital resources in the Manor Bruck, Austria, and its impact on landlord’s and peasant’s abilities to meet the “land costs” of sustaining soil fertility. The article tests the hypothesis as to whether inequality was a major driver for unsustainable farming practices and the degradation of agro-ecosystems in the long run. Focal points are commons and communal land-use systems and their role in cycling nutrients through the agricultural landscape. Commons in the Manor Bruck comprised vast grasslands, which provided an important ecological buffer to balance the continuous export of nutrients from crop production for all actors. The aim is to demonstrate how social conflict emerging from the competition over commons guides us to the specific sustainability challenges faced by farmers.
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.32
       
  • Agricultural Intensification and Soil Fertility in Atlantic Spain,
           1750–1890

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      Authors: Corbacho González; Beatriz, Padró Caminal, Roc
      Pages: 657 - 680
      Abstract: This article describes the intensification process of agriculture and its environmental limits regarding soil fertility in the rural community of Fonsagrada, in the inner region of Galicia in northwestern Spain. It addresses changes in land use, crops, and agricultural productivity between 1750 and 1890, framed within the theory of social metabolism and based on the method of nutrient balances. That technique measures nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium flows across the landscape within a given agro-ecosystem to assess its biophysical functioning and to detect environmental constraints related to management. The intensification of cropland resulted in net losses of potassium in outlying rough grazing land and hay meadows that served as the sources of cropland nutrients. Agricultural intensification was possible due to the close stabling of livestock, which allowed for more manure availability. Doing so, however, deprived pastureland of nutrient recover through manure deposition, which created a metabolic rift in the agro-ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.31
       
  • Regional Soil Nutrient Balances for Cropland in 1920s Catalonia, Spain

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      Authors: Galán; Elena
      Pages: 681 - 703
      Abstract: Understanding the replacement of soil nutrients removed by harvests makes it possible to understand the influence of humans on long-term soil fertility. This article calculates nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium balances for cropland in 1920 for three agroecoregions distinguished by particular historical settlement patterns, land use, geography, and climatic characteristics in Catalonia, Spain. The analysis assesses and compares the regional potential for farmers to have returned the nutrients extracted from croplands at a time of transition, when only a few synthetic fertilizers were yet available. From sustainability science, the article borrows a methodology to reconstruct soil nutrient balances in historical agroecosystems from available regional historical sources. The soil balances indicate that nutrient extractions were balanced with the additions in Catalonia’s wetter Pyrenees and eastern regions, but were in deficit in the arid western regions, where less livestock manure was available. In Barcelona province, farmers made considerable use of synthetic fertilizers already in 1920. Such fertilizers were mainly intended to supplement phosphorus in the eastern region, suggesting that they played an important role there too, where there was not enough manure.
      PubDate: 2021-09-06
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.27
       
  • Agricultural Expansion, Soil Degradation, and Fertilization in Portugal,
           1873–1960: From History to Soil and Back Again

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      Authors: Carmo; Miguel, Domingos, Tiago
      Pages: 705 - 732
      Abstract: This research explains what happened to agricultural soil fertility during the “Campanha do Trigo” (Wheat Campaign) in Portugal, which began in 1929. It is commonly understood that the excessive expansion of wheat crops during the fascist “Estado Novo” (New State) regime led to the degradation of soils in the southern half of Portugal. This relationship, however, has never been questioned before. This article extends the narrative back into the last half of the nineteenth century in search of the origin of processes that gradually intensified throughout the country. In short, expansion of the cultivated area in association with the inadequate intensification of crop rotations over about 80 years, from the 1870s onward, including in non-wheat areas, strongly accentuated soil erosion and made organic fertilization progressively less effective. These transformations were only partially offset by chemical fertilization. Nitrogen and phosphorus were the key factors in this historical process. Focusing on the cultivation system and soil dynamics allows the successive integration of various kinds of historical evidence and sources. From an environmental question—why did agricultural soil degrade'—this article explores soil degradation over time and space, and assesses its social and biophysical impacts. At the same time, it addresses the history of agriculture in Portugal and its disciplinary foundations.
      PubDate: 2021-08-02
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.28
       
  • Soil Fertility on an Agricultural Frontier: The US Great Plains,
           1880–2000

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      Authors: Cunfer; Geoff
      Pages: 733 - 762
      Abstract: In contrast to most long-settled agricultural landscapes, the US Great Plains presents a rare example of well-documented agricultural colonization of new land. The Census of Agriculture provides detailed information about evolving grassland farm systems from the beginning of agricultural expansion and then at some two dozen time points between 1880 and the present. From early sod-busting, through drought and depression, and into late-twentieth-century modernization, it is possible to track how farmers used their land in any county. Treating farmland as an agroecosystem, a hybrid human-natural landscape, this article asks how farmers captured, altered, and replenished soil fertility. Did they extract more soil nitrogen than they returned, or did they maintain a balance' The article assesses land use from a soil nutrients perspective in several plains environments to capture variation in climate (especially rainfall), native soil quality, and availability of irrigation water. It traces farm management strategies through time to understand agricultural crises, growth periods, and technological transitions in the context of soil fertility. Soil management on an agricultural frontier was markedly different from that in places that had been farmed for centuries. A shortage of people and livestock and an abundance of deep, rich soils in the plains informed farmers’ calculations as they juggled labor, capital, and market forces against family and financial strategies. Uniform methods of estimating and representing soil nutrient processes make possible a direct comparison of the relative sustainability of historical agroecosystems.
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.25
       
  • Trawling the Ocean of Grass: Soil Nitrogen in Saskatchewan Agriculture,
           1916–2001

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      Authors: Larsen; Laura
      Pages: 763 - 784
      Abstract: Using a socioecological metabolism approach to analyze data from the Census of Agriculture, this article examines the underlying soil fertility of two case study areas in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan through the calculation of soil nitrogen balances. The Rural Municipalities of Wise Creek and Livingston are 300 miles apart and therefore have different topography, soil types, and rainfall levels, even though both are within the northern Great Plains. Over 85 years, from first settlement in the 1910s until the beginning of the twenty-first century, Wise Creek agriculture focused increasingly on livestock production while in Livingston farmers began to grow a greater variety of crops, most notably incorporating canola into rotations. Despite the differences between the two case studies, the pattern of soil nitrogen losses was remarkably similar, with biomass yields declining along with soil nitrogen. The addition of chemical nitrogen fertilizers since the 1960s did not produce yields matching historic highs, nor did a renewed focus on livestock. Wise Creek and Livingston showed two different responses to declining yields, but neither one ultimately provided a long-term solution to the problem of soil nutrient depletion and consequent productivity declines.
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.24
       
  • Soil Fertility Transitions in the Context of Industrialization,
           1750–2000

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      Authors: Güldner; Dino, Larsen, Laura, Cunfer, Geoff
      Pages: 785 - 811
      Abstract: Fertile soils are essential for human health and nutrition and formed the foundation of human economies for millennia. Soils deserve close attention from environmental and economic historians and sustainability scientists. Most soil history literature addresses failure: misuse of soil, uncontrolled erosion, and the resulting collapse of past civilizations. More important, however, and of urgent interest for our present and future prosperity, are the mundane ways that historical farm communities sustained soil health, even while cultivating the same land for centuries. This article explains five strategies by which European and North American farmers accessed, recycled, replenished, and sustained soil fertility over 250 years. By evaluating inputs, extractions, transfers, and annual balances of potassium, phosphorus, and, especially, nitrogen, it models historical soil management in a variety of agroecosystems in various geographical settings and through time. This biophysical environmental history, based on socioecological metabolism methods borrowed from sustainability science, reveals ongoing adaptation to shifting social and environmental contexts. As industrialization, global trade, and population accelerated, farmers adjusted their soil fertility strategies to keep up with new pressures and opportunities. Each solution to existing soil fertility constraints created new obstacles and bottlenecks. Through the past quarter millennium, farm sustainability meant constant readjustment to new circumstances. As farmers innovated crop choices and rotations, corralled livestock, adopted new technologies, deployed novel energy sources, and expanded into new lands, they increased food productivity to feed growing world population and supply expanding markets, while maintaining the supply of soil nutrients necessary to fertilize next year’s crop.
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.26
       
  • The Social Foundations of Positivism: The Case of Late-Nineteenth-Century
           Italy

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      Authors: Riley; Dylan, Emigh, Rebecca Jean, Ahmed, Patricia
      Pages: 813 - 842
      Abstract: What social conditions produce positivism' One position, common to both positivists and some of their major critics, suggests that positivism is an “ideology” or “worldview” of industrial capitalism. Positivism therefore resonates with the basic experience of capitalism for all social groups. Intellectuals draw on this experience in formulating positivist social science. A second position suggests that positivism is a strategy of distinction by which intellectuals attempt to accumulate symbolic capital against their rivals. This position suggests that positivism is a resource for establishing a social science that imitates the methodology of natural science. Our article argues for a third view focused on the internal structure of the intelligentsia as a social group. Positivism could emerge in both industrial capitalist and preindustrial contexts; however, the types of positivism differ in these two cases because the structure of the intelligentsia differs. In preindustrial contexts, such as nineteenth-century Italy, which is the focus of our analysis, positivists claim an ontological continuity between natural and social sciences. In industrial contexts, on the basis of which most theories of positivism rest, positivists claim a methodological similarity between natural and social sciences. We conclude our analysis by reflecting on the implications of our study for work on positivism and social ontology in the social sciences.
      PubDate: 2021-06-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.22
       
  • Internal Migration and Sectoral Shift in the Nineteenth-Century United
           States

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      Authors: MacDonald; Daniel
      Pages: 843 - 862
      Abstract: We study the relationship between internal migration and industrialization in the United States between 1850 and 1880. We use the Linked Representative Samples from IPUMS and find significant amounts of rural-urban and urban-urban migration in New England. Rural-urban migration was mainly driven by agricultural workers shifting to manufacturing occupations. Urban-urban migration was driven by foreign-born workers in manufacturing. We argue that rural-urban migration was a significant factor in US economic development and the structural transformation from agriculture to manufacturing.
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.36
       
  • Suffering from Suffrage: Welfare State Development and the Politics of
           Citizenship Disqualification

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      Authors: Andersen; David, Jensen, Carsten, Rasmussen, Magnus B.
      Pages: 863 - 886
      Abstract: Following the landmark essay of T. H. Marshall, Citizenship and the Social Class (1949), it has conventionally been assumed that the introduction and expansion of social rights in Europe happened as the final stage of a long process of democratization that included the granting of first civil and then political rights. We present a radically different perspective on the relationship between the extension of suffrage (under meaningful competition for government power) and social rights, that is state-financed entitlements that make citizens’ livelihood independent from the labor market in the instance of events such as unemployment or sickness. First, some countries institutionalized a state-financed poor relief system much before mass democratization. In these countries, the primary effect of suffrage extension was to reduce public social spending, not expand it. Second, the way this retrenchment occurred was partly by creating a negative link between social rights, on the one hand, and civil and political rights, on the other. We test our argument with case studies of nineteenth- to early-twentieth-century England, Denmark, Norway, and Prussia, all of which are paradigmatic cases that represent the variation in welfare state types.
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
      DOI: 10.1017/ssh.2021.38
       
 
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