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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Journal of Sports Economics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.608
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1527-0025 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7794
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Division Play and Outcome Uncertainty in Sports Leagues

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      Authors: Young Hoon Lee, Rodney Fort
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The analysis of outcome uncertainty (OU) and competitive balance (CB) has been of overwhelming importance in sports economics. Surprisingly, there is little work on the impact of the structure of play on either OU or CB. Balanced and unbalanced schedules, and division play have been used to analyze biasedness of CB measures. And the impact of the introduction of unbalanced schedules on OU has been analyzed. But the impact of the introduction of both unbalanced schedules and division play on OU has not been analyzed. In this paper, we assess the impacts on OU, for given choices of CB (OU/CB) of moving to division play. This includes the impact of schedule imbalance, division strength, the number of teams, and the number of divisions. We also obtain estimates of their marginal impacts on OU/CB via numerical analysis and regression. The results are compared to OU/CB from unbiased estimators, for the case of the introduction of division play in Major League Baseball. The results suggest that the approach is useful and there are policy implications.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2023-01-18T06:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221148995
       
  • Market Efficiency and Censoring Bias in College Football Gambling

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      Authors: Robert Arscott
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The team totals and point spread betting lines jointly predict team scores in college football games. The gambling market’s score predictions are shown to be biased due to censoring at zero points. This presents arbitrage opportunities for gamblers who place wagers on the team totals line in cases for which expected bias is high. A naïve betting strategy that exploits this bias using only information contained within the two betting lines themselves yields a win percentage of over 55 percent over the past two decades. This significantly exceeds the typical transaction costs associated with wagers, indicating the market is semi-strong inefficient.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2023-01-18T06:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221148991
       
  • False Start' An Analysis of NFL Penalties With and Without Crowds

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      Authors: Alex Farnell
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The lack of crowds at sports fixtures as a result of COVID-19 restrictions has allowed researchers a unique opportunity to examine the widely accepted convention of home advantage. This work takes a slightly different approach, by examining within game outcomes. Specifically using play-by-play data from the NFL, this paper asks whether the lack of crowds aided a Quarterback's ability to manipulate opposition defenses. Results suggest this was the case, though effects are not uniform by home and away team.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2023-01-09T06:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221148997
       
  • Mass Gathering Sport Events and the Spread of Viral Respiratory Infection:
           Japanese Professional Baseball and Influenza

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      Authors: Hiroaki Funahashi, Alexander Cardazzi, Nicholas Masafumi Watanabe
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Using weekly-level influenza case data from all 47 prefectures in Japan alongside data from Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) league from 1999 to 2018, we examine the effect of hosting games on local influenza transmission. The results highlight that during the flu season, for every NPB game held at its home ballpark, there is an average increase of 0.18 cases per sentinel medical institution (SMI) between that week and the following week. The effects are robust to different specifications and placebo tests. This translates to about a 0.1% increase in the number of cases during the overlap of NPB and flu seasons.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-12-27T05:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221143978
       
  • European Men's Club Football in the Eyes of Consumers: The Determinants of
           Television Broadcast Demand

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      Authors: Anthony Macedo, Marta Ferreira Dias, Paulo Reis Mourão
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Using stated preferences, this study estimates the determinants of television broadcast demand for current European men's club football competitions and a hypothetical European Super League. The results suggest that demand increases for most competitions with the consumer's level of interest, the accessibility to the matches, and the consumer being fan of a club playing in that competition. No support to the uncertainty-of-outcome hypothesis is found, as perceived competitive balance does not increase demand for most competitions. Conversely, the perception of quality of game played tends to be a more important driver of demand, influencing more competitions and having a larger impact.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-12-15T06:41:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221143982
       
  • A Dynamic Analysis of Equal Revenue Sharing and Endogenous Salary Caps in
           the N-Team Leagues

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      Authors: Masaki Fujimoto
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This article studies the combined effect of equal revenue sharing and endogenous salary caps in a dynamical setting. It is shown that (i) a combination of equal revenue sharing and salary caps cannot eliminate competitive imbalance in the league; (ii) the share of player salaries has no impact on the distribution of talent among teams; (iii) under equal revenue sharing, the introduction of salary restrictions is not meant to prevent player salaries from rising, but to prevent them from falling; and (iv) under equal revenue sharing and salary caps, the reverse-order draft is incompatible with talent investment incentives of teams.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T09:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221143983
       
  • About the “Away Goals Rule” in Association Football. Does Scrapping
           the Rule Increase the Fairness of the Game'

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      Authors: Francisco J. Bahamonde-Birke, Ramón Andrés Bahamonde-Birke
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The present study analyzes all major international football tournaments organized by UEFA and CONMEBOL during a period of 30 years to assess the impact of the away goals rule (AGR). The study takes advantage of natural experiment given by the differentiated application of the AGR by both confederations, in order to assess the efficacy and the consequences of the rule in terms of both the total amount of goals being scored (the original intention of the rule) and the teams that progressed onto the next stages. The results show that the AGR seems to have failed to fulfill its original goal of increasing both scoring by teams playing away and scoring in general. The AGR is found to have a significant impact favoring the chances of the team starting the series at home. However, it still does not translate into a higher probability of progressing onto the next stage than the team closing the series at home. Closing the series at home has an intrinsic advantage, which is only countered, although not completely, by the impact of the AGR. Regarding tiebreakers, we observe that closing the series at home has a positive impact no matter whether overtimes with AGR or penalty shootouts are used as tiebreakers. However, playing an overtime, when no AGR is set in place has a determining influence favoring the team closing the series at home.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T06:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221128957
       
  • Substitution Effects and the Transnational Demand for European Soccer
           Telecasts

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      Authors: Georgios Nalbantis, Tim Pawlowski, Dominik Schreyer
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      European soccer leagues’ internationalization efforts have significantly increased the number of available telecasts abroad. In the US, this has fueled discussions about the degree of audience overlap between networks broadcasting international soccer. However, whether and to what extent telecasts of different leagues indeed constitute substitutes has never been explored empirically. Drawing on US audience data for Bundesliga telecasts, we analyze the impact of scheduling clashes with Premier League, La Liga, and Serie A games. Econometric demand models reveal sizeable substitution effects caused primarily by overlapping Premier League games, suggesting significant competition for the soccer audience in the US market.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T02:29:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221132234
       
  • Corruption and Self-Sabotage in Sporting Competitions – An Experimental
           

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      Authors: Thomas Giel, Sören Dallmeyer, Daniel Memmert, Christoph Breuer
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates match-fixing employing a 2-player contest in an experimental setting. Subjects compete in a real-effort task and are bribed onetime to self-sabotage. Based on Becker’s deterrence hypothesis, the effectiveness of deterrent factors is analyzed via different treatments applying an expected utility framework. Results show that the majority of participants do not maximize their monetary payoff, that increasing detection probability has a higher deterring effect on bribe acceptance compared to severity of monetary punishment, and that participants with lower performance levels were more likely to accept bribes. Implications are derived for sport governing bodies to operate against match-fixing.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-14T07:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221134239
       
  • The Designated Player Policy Rule and Attendance Demand in Major League
           Soccer

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      Authors: Johan Rewilak
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence suggests that Major League Soccer's designated player (DP) rule increased match-day attendance in its inaugural season leading to expansion of this policy. However, there is a need to examine whether these findings are robust. Therefore, this paper uses the DP rule as a natural experiment to identify its effect on match-day attendance using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy. In contrast to existing research, when using a difference-in-difference estimator, the statistically significant effect of DPs on attendance vanishes but may be recovered when omitting domestic DPs from the set of DPs.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T07:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221134234
       
  • A comparative study of scoring systems by simulations

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      Authors: László Csató
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      We study the trade-off between two risks for scoring rules used in sports competitions containing multiple contests: (1) the threat of early clinch when the title is clinched before the last contest(s) of the competition take place; and (2) the danger of winning the competition without finishing first in any contest. Four historical points scoring systems of the Formula One World Championship are compared with the family of geometric scoring rules. The current scheme seems to be a reasonable compromise close to the Pareto frontier. Our results contribute to the issue of choosing an optimal set of point values.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T06:09:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221134241
       
  • Sports Facilities as a Housing Amenity: Do Prices Follow Facilities'

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      Authors: Geoffrey Propheter
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The sports facility amenity theory predicts that when facility sites change, home prices nearer the prior site decline while home prices nearer the new site increase. Using home sales data in the vicinity of two proposed facility sites for the Golden State Warriors in San Francisco, the data are generally supportive of the amenity theory. The study also shows that Euclidean and walking distance can yield dissimilar treatment effect sizes, thus compelling researchers to justify their distance measurement choice. Finally, the data provide weak support that home buyers respond to changes in facility re-designs towards increased public benefits.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T07:56:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221132221
       
  • Behavioral Biases in Daily Fantasy Baseball: The Case of the Hot Hand

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      Authors: Jeremy M. Losak, Andrew P. Weinbach, Rodney J. Paul
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Despite mixed evidence, sport participants and fans heavily believe in the existence of the hot hand. Prior literature examining NBA and NFL betting markets found betters were biased towards hot teams. Using a unique market and data set, this study identifies if the hot hand is prevalent in daily fantasy baseball contests, if there is a profitable hot hand selection strategy, and if consumers believe in its existence. Results show that while there is no evidence of a hot hand effect, and no evidence of a profitable hot hand strategy, consumers believe in and incorporate it in their lineup decisions.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-22T04:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221128955
       
  • The Spread of Integration in Major League Baseball

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      Authors: Paul M. Holmes, Robert F. Kane
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      After the initial integration of Major League Baseball (MLB), teams introduced black players at different rates. We examine whether, and to what extent, team performance affected the rate of spread of integration. Our theoretical model predicts that teams of moderate talent will integrate fastest. We confirm this prediction using data from the first twenty years of MLB integration. However we show that relatively little of the spread of integration can be explained by differences in talent/performance, suggesting that competitive rivalry (as we measure it) was not the primary driver of the pace of integration in MLB.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T08:29:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221120588
       
  • Performance Quality Preference Heterogeneity in Major League Baseball

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      Authors: Brian M. Mills, Rodney Fort
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      With few exceptions, the sports attendance demand literature assumes the intensity of fan responses to home and visiting team quality are homogeneous across the markets in a league. However, the theory of sports leagues makes no such assumption. In this paper, we empirically investigate heterogeneity in fan win preference intensity using Major League Baseball attendance. Using a generalized linear mixed model, we find evidence of substantial fan preference heterogeneity, toward both home and visiting team quality, across Major League Baseball markets. In addition to the demonstrated importance for empirical analysis, we detail how this also matters for league policy design.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T07:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221123318
       
  • The Value of College Athletics in the Labor Market: Results from a Resume
           Audit Field Experiment

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      Authors: James D. Paul, Albert A. Cheng, Jay P. Greene, Josh B. McGee
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Employers may favor applicants who played college sports if athletics participation contributes to leadership, conscientiousness, discipline, and other traits that are desirable for labor-market productivity. We conduct a resume audit to estimate the causal effect of listing collegiate athletics on employer callbacks and test for subgroup effects by ethnicity, gender, and sport type. We applied to more than 450 jobs on a large, well-known job board. For each job listing, we submitted two fictitious resumes, one of which was randomly assigned to include collegiate varsity athletics. Overall, listing a college sport does not produce a statistically significant change in the likelihood of receiving a callback or interview request. We find no statistically significant differences within ethnicities or genders.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T06:27:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221123315
       
  • The Importance of Team Fit for NBA Rookies’ Career Earnings

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      Authors: Joseph Kuehn, Filippo Rebessi
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Workers entering the labor market often face a trade off between job matches that maximizes their short run and long run compensation. This trade off is influenced by peers who may enhance or diminish the worker’s productivity, and thus affect their future salary. We study this question for rookies in the National Basketball Association (NBA). We find that for rookies drafted between 2011 and 2017, playing with teammates that facilitated them getting 1 additional point per 100 possessions was predicted to increase the value of their second contract by between 9.9% and 23.6%. This implies that being drafted by the team that provides the ‘best fit’ is an important determinant of a rookie’s future earnings.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-29T06:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221120587
       
  • Compensating Differentials for the Risk of Reinjury – Lessons from
           Professional Boxing

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      Authors: Peter Anderson
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      A neglected area in the compensating-differential literature is how wages compensate workers for the risk of reinjury, specifically the risk of a subsequent mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). Using a new, unbalanced panel of 1,211 professional boxers, this paper finds that boxers' purses price for the risk of knockout reinjury risk while those that have never lost by knockout earn economically and statistically insignificant knockout-risk premiums. These results are consistent across three measures of previous knockout loss and three robustness tests, implying that current values of a statistical injury (VSI) underestimate previously injured workers' willingness to pay for safety.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T05:17:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221120592
       
  • Real Options Applied to Consumer Goods: Maximizing Profits and Fan Welfare

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      Authors: Jason P. Berkowitz, Kurt W. Rotthoff
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The use of pre-sale options for tickets is underutilized in sports. In this study, we show that the use of pre-sale options increases profits, but also increases consumer utility—making both parties better off. Thus, the efficiency gains and profit gains make incorporating options with advanced selling, as opposed to just advanced selling, an optimal strategy. Through this ticket pricing strategy, the organizer can realize a significant increase in profits from a separating equilibrium pricing strategy while simultaneously consumer welfare increases as fans know, with certainty, they have tickets to the game if their team participates. If these options were offered by participants instead of the organizer it also allows the participant to smooth their revenues over time.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T07:03:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221111791
       
  • Policy and Policy Response on the Court: A Theoretical and Empirical
           Examination of the Three-Point Line Extension in Basketball

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      Authors: Justin A. Ehrlich, Shankar Ghimire, Thomas R. Sadler, Shane D. Sanders
      First page: 159
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper considers recent and historical changes in the three-point line distance at the NCAA and NBA levels as an example of policy change with highly-measurable outcome(s). The paper presents several empirical tests describing a point-maximizing basketball team's optimal allocation of two-point and three-point shots. It does so primarily in the context that the NCAA Men's Basketball three-point line was extended from 20′9″ to 21′9″ in advance of the 2019–20 season, and similar analysis for the NBA in the 1990s. We find that a three-point line extension significantly lowers three- and two-point shot proficiency, while decreasing (increasing) three-point (two-point) shot volume.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T07:12:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221111790
       
  • The Incentive Effects of Tournaments and Peer Effects in Team Production:
           Evidence from Esports

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      Authors: Eric Mao
      First page: 174
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines the incentive effects of increased prize differentials and productivity spillovers from substitute coworkers within the context of esports. A direct behavioral measure called “actions per minute (APM)” is utilized to gauge Dota 2 players’ on-field exertion of effort dedicated to winning the game. The results based on empirical analysis support the incentive effects of the convex prize structure of esports tournaments on eliciting effort. Further investigation indicates that the incentive effects of high-stakes esports tournaments are more a result of the size of total prize than the relative prize distribution. It is also found that players who serve subordinate roles are more likely to engage in shirking behavior in the presence of teammates with similar roles.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T07:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221113033
       
  • You Booze, You Lose' Spillovers to Crime from Alcohol Sales at College
           Football Games

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      Authors: Zachary S. Fone
      First page: 193
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, many schools have lifted their alcohol sales bans at college football games, possibly as a tool to increase attendance and revenues. However, spillovers to crime deserve consideration, given the research that links alcohol consumption and availability to crime. Alcohol sales may spill over to crime through their impacts on attendance, preferences for alcohol consumption among fans, and endogenous changes to policing and enforcement, although the net effect on crime is theoretically ambiguous. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) over the 2005 to 2016 period for law enforcement agencies that serve 33 Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) schools, and utilizing difference-in-differences (DD) and triple-differences empirical strategies (leveraging variation in pre-vs. post-sales periods, home vs. away game days, and sales-adopting vs. non-adopting schools), I find that alcohol sales are associated with reductions in arrests for liquor law violations (83.5 percent) and disorderly conduct (81.0 percent) on home game days.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T06:45:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221114878
       
  • Gendered Consequences of COVID-19 Among Professional Tennis Players

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      Authors: Michael Cary, Heather Stephens
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Journal of Sports Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic increased the risk of travelling, working, and participating in public events. To test whether there were gendered differences in the response to COVID-19, we examine the behavior of male and female professional tennis players. We use data from major tennis tournaments which included a rather large number of athletes withdrawing from play. After controlling for past performance, wealth, and other relevant player attributes, we find that female tennis players were more likely to withdraw. This suggests that high-earning women may have greater risk aversion, especially related to COVID-19, than their male counterparts. Importantly, women were more risk-averse when it comes to international travel.
      Citation: Journal of Sports Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T07:55:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15270025221120591
       
 
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