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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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International Review for the Sociology of Sport
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.632
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1012-6902 - ISSN (Online) 1461-7218
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • ‘Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that
           counts can be counted’: Searching for the value of metrics and
           altmetrics in sociology of sport journals

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      Authors: Rebecca Olive, Stephen Townsend, Murray G. Phillips
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Metrics, and increasingly altmetrics, are a pervasive aspect of academic life. A proliferation of digital tools available have seen greater emphasis on the quantification of the ‘performance’ of individual journals. Although metrics and altmetrics are justified in terms of increased accountability and transparency, there are significant inequities in the ways they are deployed. Key among these is the unsuitability of many popular metrics for assessing publications in the humanities and social sciences, as the data, algorithms and systems which support them cater to authorship and citation practices of the various science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These issues are amplified for journals in the sociology of sport, which publish research by humanities and social science scholars whose work is quantified according to the standards of the health science departments in which they frequently work. In this discussion, we critically examine how common forms of metrics and altmetrics, including those produced by Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Altmetric.com, are applied to available sociology of sport journals. We analyse and critique how different metric algorithms produce variable measures of performance for each of the journals in the field and reveal how other information available on these databases can augment our understanding of the sociology of sport publishing ecology. Far from advocating the value of metrics and altmetrics, our analysis is intended to arm scholars and journals with the information required to critically navigate the entanglement of metrics and altmetrics with neoliberalism, audit culture and digital technologies in universities.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T06:54:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221107467
       
  • Homophobia in Brazilian football: A critical discourse analysis of fans’
           comments in online football forums

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      Authors: Juliana Nabono Martins
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Football is one of the many fields where the display of orthodox masculinity, often related to sexism and homophobia, reaches its peak. Studies indicate that such behaviors negatively affect athletes who do not fit heteronormative standards and closeted gay players, who fear coming out due to an intimidating and toxic environment. Fans have been central to some empirical studies investigating homophobia in football; however, most research to date focuses on western countries. Through the lens of Critical Discourse Analysis, this paper examines how Brazilian football fans see the presence of openly gay players on a men's team. One hundred and fifty comments were collected from thirteen online football forums. The results indicate similarities in the responses provided by Brazilian fans compared to western studies. Although fans’ positive views towards the presence of openly gay players were expressed, homophobic opinions were also identified in this environment. Several fans also demonstrated no objection to the use of homophobic language. The present study is relevant to the existing literature as it aids in clarifying previous notions of homophobia in Brazilian football. At the same time, it problematizes and officially places Brazil on the map of studies on the topic.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T06:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221107323
       
  • What’s in a game' A dialectic of competition and cooperation in
           Squid Game

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      Authors: Soo Yeon Kim, Sungjoo Park
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Squid Game, a Netflix original series about children's games turned into deathmatches, has become a phenomenal global success and has captivated the latest cultural and media scenes. This article examines the representation of games in Squid Game to argue that their unprecedented appeal to the masses derives from a paradoxical human desire for ruthless competition and moral cooperation. That is, while Squid Game presents a superb allegory of the degree to which contemporary game playing is driven by consumer capitalism, it simultaneously unfolds a moving drama in the midst of competition where unanticipated team spirit is kindled and underdogs win against all odds. Focusing on a dialectic between result-oriented competition and utopian cooperation, the article concludes that the huge popularity of Squid Game demonstrates the contemporary spectator's need for a hybrid entertainment when watching games.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T06:04:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221107468
       
  • FIFA’s utopia: An analysis of FIFA’s football for hope
           movement

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      Authors: Shawn D. Forde
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This article offers an analysis of FIFA’s Football for Hope (FFH) movement with a particular focus on the 20 Centres for 2010 Campaign that was connected to the 2010 World Cup, and the FFH Festivals held during the 2010 and 2014 World Cups. Using document analysis and observations made during the FFH Festival at the 2014 World Cup and drawing on Levitas’ ( ) Utopia as Method, this article analyzes claims made by FIFA that football can bring hope and build a better future. Ultimately, the hope that FIFA promotes, and their imagined future is one that is essentially predetermined and is based on the current status quo. However, FFH through their documents and their festival, also present glimpses of potentially transformative alternatives.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T06:04:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221107322
       
  • Momentum lost or creating new constellations' Insights from an
           exercise-at-work project during the COVID-19 pandemic – a mixed methods
           approach

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      Authors: Marie Overbye, Ulrik Wagner
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Exercise-at-work programmes have been identified as venues to decrease inequalities in physical activity and exercise between socioeconomic groups and to improve employees' health and wellbeing. Drawing on a multiple institutional logics perspective and adopting a mixed-methods approach, this paper investigates how employees, exercise-ambassadors and managers at five Danish workplaces experience Covid-19 induced changes to a 1-year exercise-at-work project, and how these changes impacted upon the workplace. Our results suggest that Covid-19 and the altered format of exercise and delivery polarized employees' opportunities for exercise at work. However, the generally positive experiences of exercise-at-work activities and their influence on social environment and collaboration (identified prior to Covid-19 lockdown) remained among those employees who continued with activities. Self-organized adaptions and models of employee exercise which emerged suggest that community logic endured despite the crisis. We show how Covid-19 induced organizational changes led to interplays between institutional logics, with family and state logics becoming more prominent. Specifically, the exercise-at-work programme changed from an aligned model, with complementary logics and minimal conflict, to a model where logics of profession and corporation became dominant at the expense of community logic (exercise-ambassadors activities), but constrained by a state and a family logic.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T06:27:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221101154
       
  • How gender affects the newsworthiness of sports news on German TV: An
           application of the news-factors approach to understanding gender-biased
           sports news presentation

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      Authors: Holger Ihle
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Gender inequalities in sports media are well-documented. This study focuses on sports news composition and how gender influences the prominence of sports news stories. The news-factors approach offers a causal explanation for the lower prominence (i.e. newsworthiness) of women's sports in TV sports reporting. Following this theory's perspective, athletes’ gender is supposed to work as a moderating variable on news values of news factors in sports reports. The content analysis of seven German sports news programs reveals whether the same news factors are treated unequally with regard to women's and men's sports in TV news coverage. The results show that women's sports are presented as less newsworthy than men's sports, although news factors do not differ significantly by gender. However, the moderation effect of gender does not cause lower newsworthiness. That means, e.g., sports women's successes are equally emphasized as the success of male athletes in sports news on TV, and gender does not lower the credits female athlete's success receive in any given news stories. Instead, the results suggest that gender works as a news factor of its own, reducing not the news value of certain news factors but the overall newsworthiness of women's sports in TV coverage. Thus, the results demonstrate that gender inequality in sports media does not necessarily come from journalists perceiving female athletes’ performance as inferior but from presenting women's sports less often and in a far less prominent way than men's sports.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T05:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221103106
       
  • When sport is taken to extremes: A sociohistorical analysis of sport
           addiction

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      Authors: Emmanuelle Larocque, Nicolas Moreau
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In the 1970s, the concept of sport addiction appeared in scientific literature, warning of the addictive properties of exercise when taken to extremes. Appearing in over 6500 peer-reviewed articles in Google Scholar from 1979 to 2017, this construct is of interest to the fields of mental health and sport sociology as it provides a heuristic case to consider the conditions which allow for a category-in-the-making to gain meaning despite its absence from leading classification systems. Using Hacking's framework of ecological niches, this review of literature provides a critical examination of “sport addiction” and aims to investigate the driving forces and the means by which social actors from the scientific community negotiate the landscape and boundaries of this emerging disorder. The results highlight the prominence of psychology in the diffusion of the construct and the reticence of the medical world to legitimize it as a mental health category.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T04:59:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221104956
       
  • Governing Olympic education: Technologies of policy announcements and
           outsourcing

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      Authors: Honglu Zhang, Darren Powell
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The Chinese government views the Olympic Games as a critical platform to present national pride on a global scale. Olympic education also has an important role to play for China, as it is a requirement for any Olympic host country. In the context or preparations for the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics, this original ethnographic research examines the governance of Olympic education, with a focus on how relationships between China's government and a range of stakeholders (e.g. private sectors, academics, and individual teachers) ‘worked’ to shape the implementation of Olympic education in two Beijing primary schools. Utilising Foucault's notion of governmentality, we demonstrate that Olympic education was a significant tactic for Chinese government to realise their ambition of the great rejuvenation of China. Here, the state employed two technologies of government: policy announcements and outsourcing. In tension with common assumptions about China – and Chinese education – being purely authoritarian, our research illuminates how hybrid socialist-neoliberal rationalities worked to shape Olympic education in schools.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T05:43:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221101993
       
  • Mondains and oblates. Body trajectories in high-level sport

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      Authors: Philippe Longchamp, Marion Braizaz, Amal Tawfik, Kevin Toffel
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Most of the scientific literature concerning former high-level athletes is devoted to their professional retraining. There are comparatively few empirical studies dealing with their body representations and practices. Based on Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework, this article presents the results of an interview survey with 30 former high-level athletes. It shows that their relationships with their bodies result from their specific body trajectories, marked by family socialization and social background, sports socialization, injuries, and the possession of different forms of capital. In contrast to mondains, who have relatively stable body trajectories, oblates are marked by less homogeneous socialization and see their body trajectories divided between a form of personal dissatisfaction on the one hand and a feeling of saturation with their sport on the other.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T05:43:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221096235
       
  • Responder or promoter' investigating the role of nation-state in
           globalization: The case of China’s strategies in the global wushu
           movement

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      Authors: Chien-Chun Tzeng, Tien-Chin Tan, Alan Bairner
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how wushu, as a folk sport in China, has been promoted globally by a nation-state. Identifying the Global Wushu Movement (GWM) as an East-to-West diffusion and a political and cultural phenomenon, our analytical framework is based on that of globalization as proposed by Houlihan (1994, ) and Held et al. (1999). Our particular focus is on the ‘nation-state’, notably its role in activating the GWM and whether it is a responder to or a promoter of global sporting culture. Data was collected from both documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews involving a total of twenty key stakeholders. Findings reveal that some of China's strategies prove that it is a responder to the Olympic Movement. Other strategies demonstrate that China, as the promoter of the GWM, has its own agenda to influence the international sporting realm. More specifically, the state is indeed affected by globalization which can also be managed by the state. This is because, to some extent, while China accepted the Olympic value, it has also transformed a part of its own traditional culture (wushu) and exported it via the International Wushu Federation (IWUF) as the façade. Conceptually, the duality of China's strategies in the case of GWM implies the emergence of reverse globalization.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T03:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221096947
       
  • “That's where you start to think like, does anyone actually listen to or
           watch women's sport'” Gender Regimes and Students Experiences on
           Higher Education Sport Courses

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      Authors: Philippa Velija, Catherine Phipps
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In this article we apply theoretical tools from the work of Elias and Connell to critically discuss the ways in which gender relations on Higher Education sport courses are manifested and experienced by students. Drawing on data from an analysis of curriculum, as well as interviews, surveys and workshops with students across a range of sport courses at one university, we explore curriculum design and the ways in which knowledge is presented which both marginalises and compartmentalises issues of gender, as well as presenting knowledge as gender neutral. This article provides a critical understanding of how knowledge about gender and women's sport features and is taught in UK Higher Education sport courses, alongside how students experiences in the classroom to provide an understanding which reinforces existing gender regimes and gender relations.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T07:06:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221097824
       
  • Sport, gender, and national interest during the Olympics: A comparative
           analysis of media representations in Central and Eastern Europe

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      Authors: Dunja Antunovic, Sunčica Bartoluci
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have documented patterns in sports media coverage across a variety of geographical and media contexts extensively, but relatively few studies focus on the Central and Eastern European region. This study examines the agenda diversity of European public service media in Hungary, Croatia, and Slovenia on their sport-related Facebook accounts during the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. A content analysis identified featured sports, gender balance, and the role of national interest in the events and athletes represented. Sports agenda diversity was driven by the hegemony of men's football and national success at the Olympics. Gender imbalance in media coverage persists in the region even on public service broadcasters’ social media accounts. Women received coverage only when representing the home nation at an Olympic event. The hegemony of men's football is a transnational phenomenon, while Olympic coverage emphasizes sports that share historical associations with national identity. Sports agenda diversity in the three countries is heterogeneous and regionally distinct. In practice, broadcasters might temporarily minimize gender imbalance in Olympic coverage, but in ways that routinizes the national focus. Theoretical developments in agenda setting in coverage of international events should account both for transnational patterns in public service media in the region and local particularities.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221095686
       
  • How natural environments influence traditional sports and games: A mixed
           methods study from China

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      Authors: Yifan Zuo, Qihang Qiu, Tianlong Hu, Jie Zhang
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores complex relationships between the formation and development of traditional sports and games (TSGs) and the natural environment by adopting a mixed method of two studies. First, taking 1356 TSGs as cases, Study 1 uses spatial analysis to explore the representation, connotation, and source of the relationship between TSGs and natural environment factors. Second, Study 2 uses grounded theory to analyze 149 official declaration documents of TSGs and extracts 36 initial concepts, 12 subcategories, and 4 core categories, from which a theoretical framework of the formation process model of TSGs is constructed. The findings illustrate that the formation and development of TSGs are not completely determined by the natural environment but are derived from a combination of factors such as survival values, beliefs, attitudes, and the natural environment. On one hand, when the natural environment is considered an external factor of society, TSGs are directly affected by it. On the other hand, when the natural environment is considered an internal factor of society, it can only interact with people's beliefs and attitudes and indirectly accelerate or delay TSG formation and development. Research results provide both theoretical and practice implications in the safeguarding of TSGs.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T06:26:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221096233
       
  • Examining the fabrics of match-fixing: The underground sport betting
           system

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      Authors: Chien-Chun Tzeng, Fabien Ohl
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to examine the very fabrics of underground sport betting system that is associated with match-fixing. Mafia, syndicates, and bookmakers are the three levels of actors in the hierarchy. Having grassroots bookmakers as our particular focus, we examine their roles and networks, what regulates the system, and how the system functions. Thanks to our academic links with the mafia, we had access to bookmakers to carry out observations and 25 interviews. We rely on the social capital model in which structural, relational and cognitive dimensions are identified. Findings reveal that actors are empowered by their social capital to streamline their underground business. Far from the stereotype of a competitive market under the control and coercion of very powerful mafia, our observations of bookmakers, mainly women, show that they cooperate, trust each other, and have great autonomy in their activities. Because of their strong shared culture and networks, betting activities are considered acceptable in their own small community.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T11:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221095688
       
  • Corruption in sports: Lessons from Montenegro

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      Authors: Marko Begović
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This paper represents a pioneering attempt to study corruption in sports within the Western Balkans countries. Even though it is not a new phenomenon, as such, it aims to contribute to the existing literature on corruptive practices associated with the sports by exploring its nature, reach and magnitude. A mixed-method approach is employed using two levels of analysis – document analysis followed by semi-structured interviews. From 2006, Montenegro's official political orientation was towards membership within the European Union (EU). That said, for a country currently undergoing the process of EU integration, the control of corruption represents an essential element of the legitimization of both parties, Montenegro and the EU. However, as found, the form of corruption enables continuity of the dominant position of the long-standing political structure in power – the Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS). The DPS utilizes a range of undemocratic practices, combining clientelism and corruption to spread its influence outside of politics, on the broader socio-economic realms. The significance of the empirical study is in offering new perspectives and insights from a specific country within the Western Balkans, confirming the existence of a strong clientelist network established in the sports movement in Montenegro. The presence of politically exposed persons within sports governing bodies influences decisions at all levels in favor of political interest, including allocation of resources, public funds and media protection.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T05:46:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221094186
       
  • From fanzines to foodbanks: Football fan activism in the age of
           anti-politics

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      Authors: Danny Fitzpatrick, Paddy Hoey
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This article is concerned with an emerging trend in political participation: the role played by football fans in engendering activism and protest. The role of fan activism in the debate on patterns of civic and political (dis)engagement – in the age of so-called anti-politics – has been ignored by the scholarly literature thus far. As a corrective, this article examines the development of football fan activism over the last thirty years, since the creation of the English Premier League in 1992. It adopts a case study approach centred on supporters’ movements since 1992. It argues that the political activism of football fans has both quantitatively and qualitatively changed over this period. Employing the sociological theory of Manuel Castells it claims that collective identities developed in resistance to the commercialisation and commodification within football have developed into more distinct ‘project identities’ that seek bring about more profound social change through football.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T07:26:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221077188
       
  • Female elite sports achievements in Iran. The Case of the First Olympic
           Medalist

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      Authors: Ali Ziaee, Jacco van Sterkenburg, Ivo van Hilvoorde
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aims to identify the societal implications of the first-ever Iranian female medalist in the Olympics to date. We explored the meanings given to Kimia Alizadeh's success within Iranian society. We collected data through an examination of online news agencies and social networking sites using Leximancer software, a computer-assisted program for qualitative content analysis. This analysis uncovered four main themes: ‘women's sports and the dynamics of local-global policy’, ‘hope and determination’, ‘pride in light of hijab’, and ‘meaningful and historic medal’. It was concluded that the societal implications of this medal-winning are more important than the quality of the medal itself within Iranian society. We also suggest assessing Iranian sportswomen within their own socio-cultural context.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T04:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221088124
       
  • The meaning of democracy in an era of good governance: Views of
           representation and their implications for board composition

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      Authors: Cecilia Stenling, Josef Fahlén, Anna-Maria Strittmatter, Eivind Å. Skille
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Contemporary sport governance contexts are marked by a trend towards efficiency-based board composition and an increasing use of instruments aimed to (re)shape boards. Yet, democratic governance is integral to many countries’ sport systems, and research tells us that representation still matters in sport governance. Considering this, the aim with this paper is to provide researchers and practitioners with a vocabulary to understand and address issues of representation in board composition. The paper builds on interviews with nomination committee representatives of 62 Swedish national sport federations (NSFs). The analysis provides insights into the meaning and implications of four distinct views of representation, along with an interpretation of potential responses to board-shaping instruments engendered by these views.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T08:26:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221088127
       
  • Representations of race/ethnicity and the nation: A content analysis of
           televised Polish international football

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      Authors: Arne van Lienden, Jacco van Sterkenburg
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores the meanings given to race/ethnicity by Polish commentators covering games of the Polish national football team on TV. There will be an explicit focus on how such patterns of representation might intersect with those given to national identities in the context of international football. Our analysis reveals that commentators habitually reproduce the racialized stereotype of the ‘natural Black athlete’, particularly in the representation of Black African football players. White players remain more ‘invisible’ in the commentary, yet also here the intersection with national or wider regional backgrounds inflects the patterns of representation. For instance, White Portuguese and White Bosnian players are represented in a fashion that suggests they are placed outside of hegemonic Polish understandings of White (sporting) masculinity. This reveals the contingency and complexity of discourses of Whiteness in the Polish context. The findings reveal that the normativity of European Whiteness is also reflected in the meanings given to Polishness by the commentators, which are imbued with notions of psychological (masculine) Whiteness.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T05:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221085862
       
  • ‘If you haven't got the contacts … you have no choice’: A
           figurational examination of unpaid work in football scouting in men's
           professional football in England

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      Authors: Jacob Griffiths, Daniel Bloyce
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Association football has been viewed as an industry with considerable lucrative career prospects; however, this has not prevented the use of unpaid staff throughout football in the UK. There has been increasing academic research regarding the professionalisation and commercialisation of football, yet there has been little acknowledgement of the role of those working in football in an unpaid capacity. Therefore, this paper examines the culture of unpaid work in football scouting, by exploring the motivations of 12 unpaid scouts at professional clubs, from a figurational perspective. Our findings suggest that scouts want to work in the industry because of their ‘love of the game’, in a ‘quest for excitement’ in their career. Unpaid work was in the pursuit of experience and contacts, the latter of which was highly valued in the industry. Football clubs are enclosed figurations and the scouts placed importance on developing interdependent social relations to gain entry to the industry, demonstrating how football may be perceived nepotistic. The likelihood of gaining a paid role directly from an unpaid position was low and therefore the decisions to continually accept unpaid work represented the notion of fantasy-laden thinking.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T10:33:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221086119
       
  • Racist Stacking in Professional Soccer in Germany

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      Authors: Tina Nobis, Felicia Lazaridou
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Racist stacking is a phenomenon in team sports in which Black players are underrepresented in tactical and leading positions, while they are overrepresented in decentralized and physical positions. In this article, we propose that racist stacking is a type of institutional racism characterized by racist ascriptions incorporated in the daily routines of sport institutions. We explored whether racist stacking happens in soccer in Germany based on these assumptions. The results of an examination of the 36 teams in the male divisions of the first and second Bundesliga in the 2020/2021 season are presented in this article. We discovered patterns in our data that support a theory of racist stacking. White players are more likely to play positions associated with leadership, oversight, responsibility, intelligence, and organization, whereas Black players are more likely to play positions associated with aggressiveness, speed, and instinct. We conclude that, contrary to popular belief, professional sports do not just rely on the competitiveness principle. Instead, some decisions appear to be made on the basis of racist attributions, whether purposefully or accidentally.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T10:54:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221081125
       
  • Rising to the Gender Challenge in Scotland: Women's Embodiment of the
           Disposition to be Mountaineers

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      Authors: Emmanuelle Tulle
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Mountains have long been dominated by men and hypermasculine practices. Women have worked hard to find a legitimate space in them. This paper is drawn from a qualitative study which explores the experiences of 10 women, based in Scotland, who have dedicated part of their lives to mountains. It adds to existing insights on women who have made inroads into mountaineering. Conceptualising mountaineering as a social field structured by masculine domination, the paper seeks to understand the conditions which have enabled the women to successfully embody a disposition to mountaineering over time and interrogates how the women's practices represent a challenge to the continuing dominance of men and hypermasculine narratives that prevail in this field. The paper shows that a number of structural changes in wider society and in mountaineering have enabled women to claim a mountaineering identity but that the field continues to be inflected by narratives of exclusion.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T10:54:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221078748
       
  • Theorising painkiller (mis)use in football using Bourdieu's practice
           theory and physical capital

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      Authors: Daniel Read, Aaron C.T. Smith, James Skinner
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This conceptual article advances the value of Bourdieu's practice theory and physical capital as a tool to understand the various types of painkiller (mis)use in sport. Consuming painkillers to manage injury and fatigue is a common practice among male professional footballers and misuse can exacerbate existing injuries and contribute to chronic physical and mental health conditions. In order to highlight the interaction between micro and macro-level factors we conceptualise painkiller use in professional football as a relational process between habitus, capital, and field position wherein variation in use is a result of social trajectory and field experiences. The analysis elaborates upon Bourdieu's practice theory in sport. It shows that the importance of protecting physical capital stems from internalised dispositions about how the body is viewed, which legitimise the use of painkillers within the social field of football despite the damaging potential outcomes for players. The article extends Bourdieu's practice theory to managing painkiller (mis)use, provides recommendations towards a future research programme, and identifies potential interventions for improving athlete welfare.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T03:12:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221082483
       
  • Black male college athlete identity: A scoping review

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      Authors: Jonathan E. Howe
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarship on college athlete identity has increased within recent decades; however, there remains a dearth of literature centred on identity and Black male college athletes. While athletic identity is often self and socially regarded as a dominant identity, this population also holds numerous identities, such as race, gender, sexual orientation, class, and being a student. This scoping review synthesizes 26 peer-reviewed pieces of scholarship that focus on Black male college athletes and identity. Thematic categories found in this literature include discussions of athletic identity, complexities and intersections of identity, United States (US) college and athletic context impacting identity salience, and shifting the narrative of Black male college athlete identity. This review concludes with future directions that encourage the increase in research regarding identity and Black male college athletes.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T05:32:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902221082042
       
  • The diplomatic roles of Korean state-run sport for development programs

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      Authors: Dongkyu Na, Christine Dallaire
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The Korean government established the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) in April 1991 as an agency of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) to design and execute most of its official development assistance (ODA) grants. Since then, KOICA has administered two forms of Korean sport grants: sport aid projects (e.g. the construction of sport facilities and provision of sport equipment) and sport technical cooperation programs (sport volunteering and Taekwondo coaching programs). Drawing on Murray’s (2018) categorization of sport diplomacy, as well as Foucauldian discourse analysis, we examine how KOICA sport initiatives have, over three decades, operated to support the government's foreign policy and diplomatic goals. The findings reveal that KOICA sport initially prioritized elite sport development in an approach akin to traditional sport diplomacy. Now, however, it appears to have adopted global sport for development (SFD) strategies with a focus on social development, in line with a new sport-oriented, public diplomacy approach. Through the combination of these two strategies, the role played by KOICA sport as a diplomatic tool of the Korean state has become more sophisticated.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T01:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902211065337
       
  • Athlete activism and the role of personal and professional positionality:
           The case of naomi osaka

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      Authors: Tom R Leppard
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In this article I argue that athlete activist's personal and professional positionality influence their activism. Researchers document the powerful impact that athlete activists wield in effecting social change – especially during the civil rights movement. However, the extant literature does not consider the important points of sameness or difference that activists’ personal and professional positionality afford them. Athlete activists are not homogenous. Using content analysis, this article examines how Naomi Osaka's leverages her positionality to generate points of sameness and difference with multiple groups. The findings demonstrate that athletes’ personal racial identities greatly influence their decision to become an activist and the issues they speak to. Further, their professional positionality is embedded in a history of former activists, current activists, and the racial structure of their sport. I conclude that Osaka is greatly influenced by the points of sameness and difference afforded to her by her multiple personal and professional identities.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T01:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902211073907
       
  • Defining ‘woman': A governmentality analysis of how protective policies
           are created in elite women's sport

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      Authors: Anna Posbergh
      Abstract: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Women's sport remains a contested realm that frequently features standards and regulations premised on women's inferiority and physiological distinctions from men. In response to these purported sex-based differences, a range of protective policies have been implemented to ostensibly ensure women's safety and health, defend “fair competition” in women's sport, and/or prevent the violation of social and medical boundaries that define who is a “woman.” Yet, protective policies encompass a multitude of rationales and strategies, demonstrating the malleability of “protection” in terms of who is protected and why. In this article, I draw from Michel Foucault's theory of “governmentality” to investigate the nuances of protective policies, especially their placed importance on sex differences. To do so, I examine three case studies: World Athletics’ (WA) 2019 female eligibility policy, WA's 2019 transgender eligibility policy, and the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). Using document texts and semi-structured interviews with eight scientists involved with developing the case studies, I find that protective policies are developed through messy and often contentious processes that selectively draw from varying knowledges and discourses. This then culminates in contrasting methods of defining, protecting, and governing women athletes and their bodies.
      Citation: International Review for the Sociology of Sport
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T03:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10126902211072765
       
 
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