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International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.435
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 32  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1747-9541 - ISSN (Online) 2048-397X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Inconsistency between objective and subjective comparisons of sleep
           quality is found between sea level and moderate terrestrial altitude
           (2,320m) in high-performance swimmers

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      Authors: Daniel Astridge, Michael McKenna, Adrian Campbell, Anthony P Turner
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      It is popular for high-performance athletes to attend training camps at natural moderate altitude (1800–2500m), which may have direct and indirect effects on the quantity and quality of sleep athletes obtain. This can potentially influence the ability to maximise training responses and optimise recovery from exercise. This study aimed to compare objective and subjective markers of sleep quality between sea level (SL) and moderate altitude (ALT) in a sample of 14 (male n = 5, female n = 9) high-performance collegiate swimmers. Sleep was objectively (wristwatch actigraphy) and subjectively (Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire; ASSQ) assessed at SL and an ALT of 2,320m. A significant increase (p = 0.028, d = 0.76) in the ‘sleep difficulty score’ calculated from the ASSQ was identified from SL (4.9 ± 1.7 au) to ALT (6.6 ± 2.3 au), with a greater number of the swimmers judged to have a more severe clinical sleep problem at ALT. Of the seven sleep characteristics assessed objectively, there were no significant differences identified between the two environments. Sleep disruption was found to substantially improve following rest/recovery days while at ALT. Although this study highlights possible inconsistencies between objective and subjective measures of sleep quality while at ALT, any suggestion of reduced sleep quality should be considered seriously. Practically, the present study demonstrates the importance of, at altitude, using both objective and subjective measures to monitor athlete sleep quality, and ensuring training schedules are carefully periodised, incorporating rest or recovery days within intense training blocks for optimal sleep quality to be achieved.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T05:32:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221109150
       
  • The association between junior tennis players’ physical and cognitive
           attributes and groundstroke performance

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      Authors: Mitchell Turner, Alyce Russell, Kate Turner, Philipp Beranek, Christopher Joyce, Fleur McIntyre, Travis Cruickshank
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Improving groundstroke velocity and accuracy is critical for tennis success. However, there is limited research available on the physical and cognitive attributes required for groundstroke performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and cognitive characteristics and their association with groundstroke performance in junior tennis players. Thirty-four competitive junior tennis players, aged 12.59 ± 2.44 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Cognitive tests assessing processing speed, complex attention, cognitive flexibility and problem-solving capacity and physical tests assessing flexibility, speed, agility, power, strength and anaerobic and aerobic capacity were performed. Tennis groundstroke performance was evaluated using a novel tennis groundstroke assessment. Tennis groundstroke performance was associated (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T05:32:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221106824
       
  • Group draw with unknown qualified teams: A lesson from the 2022 FIFA World
           Cup draw

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      Authors: László Csató
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The draw for the 2022 FIFA World Cup has been organised before the identity of three winners of the play-offs is revealed. Seeding has been based on the FIFA World Ranking released on 31 March 2022 but these three teams have been drawn from the weakest Pot 4. We show that the official seeding policy does not balance the difficulty levels of the groups to the extent possible: a better alternative would have been to assign the placeholders according to the highest-ranked potential winner, similar to the rule used in the UEFA Champions League qualification. Our simulations reinforce that this is the best strategy in general to create balanced groups in the FIFA World Cup.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T05:32:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221108799
       
  • An external focusing strategy was beneficial in experienced children but
           not in novices: The effect of external focus, internal focus, and holistic
           attention strategies

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      Authors: Esmaeel Saemi, Elham Amo-Aghaei, Ebrahim Moteshareie, Masahiro Yamada
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      External focus (attention directed to an intended effect) has been shown to improve motor performance compared to internal focus (attention directed to body movements). Recently, holistic attention (attention directed to the overall feeling) has been discussed as an effective alternative. We hypothesized that a less specific cue (e.g. holistic attention) may be more effective than an external focus in experienced individuals. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of external focus, internal focus, and holistic attention on 14 experienced children-athletes (Mage, 14.35 ± 1.98 years; Mheight, 171.28 ± 9.53 cm; Mweight, 58.28 ± 10.28 kg) and 14 novice children (Mage, 14.21 ± 1.92 years; Mheight, 170.92 ± 12.40 cm; Mweight, 62.14 ± 15.62 kg). Participants completed a 16-meter front crawl swimming task with assigned instructions for three trials per condition. The results showed main effects of skill level (p < 0.001), condition (p = 0.006), and the skill level/condition interaction (p = 0.003). Post hoc tests revealed that external focus was superior to internal focus (p < 0.001), with no difference between holistic attention and internal focus (p = 0.158) or holistic attention and external focus (p = 0.05) in the experienced athletes, while none of the conditions were different in novices. The benefits of attentional focus may be influenced by the level of experience.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T05:32:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221104158
       
  • Performance indicators in women’s volleyball Olympics and World
           Championships (2014–2021)

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      Authors: George Giatsis
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to explore the match and technical indicators between winning and losing women's teams in the Olympics and World Championships (2016–2021) depending on the final score of the matches and to compare the winners’ technical indicators in 3-set matches to those of men in the respective competitions. A total of 281 volleyball matches were analyzed from the Women's Olympics (2016 and 2021) and World Championships (2014 and 2018). Discriminant function analysis determined which skill(s) contributed significantly to winning matches in every type of score. This study showed that the teams that won 3-0 and 3-1 matches had better performance in all scoring skills (serve, attack, block, and opponent errors) compared to their opponents, while the opponents’ errors did not affect the result. In 5-set matches, block points were the main predictor of a team's success. In conclusion, the results of the women's teams at the highest level of volleyball matches, show that different performance indicators determine the match outcome. The attack is not the only skill that increases the probability of winning a match, since block and serve to contribute equally significantly. Furthermore, in 5-set matches, blocking is the technical skill that differentiates the winning from the losing teams. Finally, in 3-set matches, it seems that the performance indicators differ between women and men in attack efficiency, block, and opponent error points.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T05:09:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221106378
       
  • Cycling modelling under uncontrolled outdoor conditions using a wearable
           sensor and different meteorological measurement methods

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      Authors: Geoffrey Millour, Félix Plourde-Couture, Frédéric Domingue
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to model the cycling displacement under uncontrolled outdoor conditions with a wearable sensor and different meteorological measurement methods. One participant completed eight courses of a distance of 9.2 ± 2.4 km with varied profiles and directions. Data were recorded every second with a power meter, a GPS and a speed sensor. The aerodynamic drag coefficient, measured by a Notio wearable sensor, and the meteorological variables provided by the Notio, a Kestrel fixed meteorological station and the OpenWeather website were integrated into the Martin mathematical model to calculate the theoretical power output. The power calculated by the model on the basis of data from Notio, Kestrel and OpenWeather were, respectively, 1 ± 4 W higher, 7 ± 15 W lower and 67 ± 111 W higher than the power measured by the sensor. The overall RMSE and R2, including 7325 data points, were 12.8 W and 0.77 (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T04:21:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221106386
       
  • How much training do English male academy players really do' Load
           inside and outside of a football academy

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      Authors: David M Johnson, Sean P Cumming, Ben Bradley, Sean Williams
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      To date, no studies have investigated the loads undertaken by elite youth footballers outside of their academy commitments. This study aimed to understand the load of English male academy football players' activity both inside and outside of the academy, as well as, how this load varies between age groups and days. Fifty-two male academy footballers were asked to record the duration, intensity and mode of moderate to vigorous physical activity undertaken outside of their academy training. These data were then combined with session Rating of Perceived Exertion load undertaken inside the academy over the corresponding period. Data were analysed using linear mixed models. The coefficient of variation (CV) was the between-subject standard deviation as a percentage of the mean. The variation of activity types players undertake outside the academy reduced with age. There was no significant difference in the ‘outside of academy’ load between age groups, but there was a significantly greater CV in the Under 15/16 (U15/16) group (CV = 164%) compared to the U12 (CV = 107%) and U13/14 (CV = 119%) age groups (P = 0.001). For the U12 group, there were no significant between-day differences in load outside of the academy or the combined (inside and outside) load. For the U13/14 and U15/16 groups, there were significant between-day differences in load outside of the academy, as well as, significant between-day differences in the combined load. Practitioners should consider how activities undertaken by players outside of the academy setting contribute to the weekly load periodisation and should modify their training schedules accordingly.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T10:48:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221101847
       
  • Current perception and practice of athletics coaches about the
           modification of footstrike pattern in endurance runners: A survey

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      Authors: Guillaume Abran, François Delvaux, Cédric Schwartz, Géraldine Martens, Stéphanie Hody, Nadia Dardenne, Oliver Bruyere, Stephen Bornheim, Jean-Louis Croisier
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeTo date, the relationship between footstrike pattern and performance, as well as with injury incidence in endurance running remains unclear. For these reasons, it is currently not recommended to modify footstrike pattern in an uninjured long-distance runner. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether athletic coaches apply these current scientific recommendations with their endurance runners on the field.MethodsA Delphi method study was used to develop an online survey that was administered to French-speaking athletic coaches in Belgium. The survey comprised three sections: 1) coaches’ profile, 2) coaches’ perception of footstrike patterns, 3) practices pertaining to footstrike patterns.ResultsOne hundred and fourteen respondents completed the entire questionnaire. Ninety-six (84%) athletic coaches reported modifying the footstrike pattern of their endurance runners. They reported that they modify their runners’ rearfoot and forefoot strike more often than a midfoot strike (P < 0.0001) to prevent injury (83%) and to improve performance (66%). According to them, midfoot strike is considered as the best landing pattern for endurance performance (47%) and injury prevention (36%) whereas rearfoot strike is considered as the worst (respectively, 50% and 52%).Summary and conclusionThis study highlights the disparities between scientific recommendations and athletic coaches’ field practices for modifying footstrike patterns in endurance runners. Contrary to current scientific literature recommendations, a large proportion of coaches modify the natural footstrike pattern of their endurance runners towards a midfoot strike pattern to improve performance and prevent injury.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:53:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221108089
       
  • High-speed running distance and frequency in football training: When and
           how are they stimulated in a microcycle'

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      Authors: Kévin Marín, Julen Castellano
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose: The aims of this study were to describe the distribution of the distance and frequency of the high-speed running performed by professional players during the training process, taking into account the duration of the microcycle (Mi) composed of 4, 5, 6 and 7 days between matches (MD). Total distance at high speed (HSR,>21 km·h−1, in m), at very high-speed running (VHSR,>24 km·h−1, in m) and sprint (SPR,>27 km·h−1, in m) were recorded, in terms of distance (d) and frequency (n) during training sessions. Training data were obtained using global positioning technology from 23 professional football players belonging to the first team of the Spanish La Liga club during the 2017/18 season (n  =  28 microcycles). There were no significant differences in volume (distance and frequency) of the different locomotive demands (LD) when Mi accumulated more days. Regardless of the duration of the Mi, the central days (MD-5, MD-4 and MD-3) accumulated more stimulus in HSR, VHSR and SPR compared to the post sessions (MD-6 and MD-7) and pre-match (MD-2 and MD-1) where the MD-2 was the day that required the least stimuli from the players (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:52:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221107982
       
  • Can’t jump, won’t jump: Affordances of the horse-rider dyad underpin
           skill adaptation in showjumping using a constraints-led approach

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      Authors: Marianne Davies, Joseph A Stone, Keith Davids, Jane Williams, Mark O’Sullivan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Equestrianism is part of a global industry influenced by a rich history of over 4000 years of culture and tradition. As the only interspecies Olympic event, equestrianism is facing negative public perceptions of competition performance and traditional coaching practices. In this position paper, we propose a constraints-led approach as a framework for contemporising equestrian coaching practice. Ecological dynamics is the theoretical framework that underpins a constraints-led approach methodology, providing guiding principles that inform a nonlinear pedagogy in sport and physical education. A constraints-led approach focuses on the individual (organism/s), task and environmental constraints acting over multiple nested timescales and what this means for how behaviour emerges. Using examples from the equestrian discipline of showjumping, we outline how a constraints-led approach can inform coaching behaviour and practice design to support skill acquisition through co-adaptations in the horse-rider dyad system. By focussing on the horse-rider dyad as a complex system, there is a move away from a human-centric perspective of compliance and control of the horse, toward system agency and intentionality in problem solving. Practice design principles of intention, representativeness, constraints manipulation and functional variability support the dyad to co-adapt and interact effectively through practice to achieve performance goals. Skilful performance is developed through attunement to perceptual information that invites opportunities for action (affordances). Understanding the development of affordance perception in the horse-rider dyad could guide the application of a constraints-led approach to equestrian coaching practice.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:52:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221107379
       
  • Engagement in athletic career: A study of female Brazilian handball world
           champions

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      Authors: Leilane Alves de Lima, Riller Silva Reverdito, Alcides José Scaglia, Larissa Rafaela Galatti
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to identify and describe elements that influenced the engagement of the 2013 Brazilian handball female world champions from grassroots to elite sports levels. Seven members of the team participated in a retrospective examination of their athletic development, with a mean of 20 years of sports experience. A semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, and the script was based on the development stages of the Developmental Model of Sport Participation1 and the dynamic elements of the Personal Assets Framework2. The thematic analysis showed that the athletes’ personal characteristics, their disparate environments, and the quality of their relationships were significant in their pathway to elite performance. The results show that well-structured settings are not important in the early years, but rather the coaches’ interest in keeping young athletes engaged in sport is one of the key elements. Moreover, the advance in the maintenance years, training in a more structured setting and the coaches’ caring attitude and attention to their athletes’ feelings and emotions can lead to pathways toward excellence.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:52:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221106763
       
  • Acute:chronic workload ratio and training monotony variations over the
           season in youth soccer players: A systematic review

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      Authors: Markel Rico-González, Rafael Oliveira, Francisco Tomás González Fernández, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Since acute:chronic workload ratio and training monotony have been criticized as injury risk predictors, the use of intensity measures should be more oriented to understand the variations of intensity across the season. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the main evidence about the acute:chronic workload ratio and training monotony variations over the season in youth soccer players. The search was made in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and FECYT (Web of Sciences, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, and SCIELO) according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 225 studies initially identified, 13 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. Nine analyzed acute:chronic workload ratio, seven analyzed monotony, and four studies analyzed both acute:chronic workload ratio and monotony. Overall, the range values for acute:chronic workload ratio were 0.58–17.5 AU, while for monotony were 0.83–23.0 AU which showed a higher variability. Few studies showed an association between higher values of acute:chronic workload ratio and/monotony with injury risk or to prevent health problems. These measures could be used to understand the variations of the data through the in-season periods. However, caution is necessary due to the scarce studies performed in young soccer players.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221104589
       
  • When coaching is a calling: A moderated mediating model among school
           sports coaches

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      Authors: Wan Chen Lu, Shin-Huei Lin, Chih-Fu Cheng, Ming-Han Wu
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      IntroductionDrawing on the Job Demands-Resources Model, the present study examined the relationships among the job control, calling, work engagement, and job performance of sports coaches.MethodsWith a cross-sectional study design, we enrolled 278 school sports coaches as participants and adopted questionnaires to collect data. Self-reported data on demographics, job control, calling, work engagement, and job performance were collected from participants. We posted recruitment posters at the sports seminars/workshops for coaches and distributed an informed consent form and a questionnaire to coaches who were willing to participate in our study. Participants received an NT$100 gift voucher after they had filled out the questionnaire. Descriptive analyses (e.g., means, standard deviations, and correlations among focal variables, etc.), reliability and validity analysis, and a series of hierarchical regression analyses to test the hypotheses were adopted in this study.ResultsJob control is positively associated with job performance through work engagement. Further, the moderated mediation model demonstrated that job control has a stronger positive correlation with work engagement and job performance, especially when sports coaches possess higher levels of calling.ConclusionThe current findings suggest that job control is a critical antecedent of job performance through work engagement and that a higher level of calling strengthens the relationship. We suggest that crafting an autonomy-supportive working environment will help empower sports coaches to set goals and become involved, which in turn supports sports coaches in achieving their goals and produces better individual/team performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221103778
       
  • Evolution of anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of
           international male cricketers from 2014 to 2020 in a World Cup winning
           nation

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      Authors: P Scott, R Ahmun, C de Weymarn, E Gardner, A Bliss, T W Jones, S J Callaghan, J Tallent
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the study was to firstly present a comprehensive physical profile of international cricketers in a World Cup winning cricket nation. Secondly, to describe changes in physical profiles across seven years. Fifty-two senior international cricketers’ physical profiles were retrospectively analysed across seven years. Using linear mixed-modelling, changes in stature, body mass, sum-of-8 skinfolds, sprinting time (10 and 40 m), run-2 time, counter movement jump (CMJ), push and pull strength capacity and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level-1 (Yo-Yo-IR1) were analysed during a seven-year period. There were no significant changes in body mass (p = .63) or stature (p = .99) during this time. However, there was a significant (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:08:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221105455
       
  • Feedback from basketball coaches: Type, quantity, and real-time outcomes

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      Authors: Sima Zach, Elia Furman
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between different types and frequencies of feedback given by basketball coaches and the outcome of possessions during the game. The verbal behavior of three basketball coaches was recorded during five full games, and these games were also video recorded. On average, the coaches gave 2.54 feedbacks per possession, with a total of 1931 feedbacks during 761 possessions in all five games. Feedback responses were classified into six sub-categories, including positive, negative, open, closed, focused, and general, and could belong to more than one category. Those that did not fit any category were marked as neutral. The relationship between the amount and types of feedbacks given and the results of the possessions was examined. Results show that of the six sub-categories, only positive and negative feedbacks were significantly related to possession outcomes. Moreover, the coaches tended to give large amounts of feedback and in varying frequencies, regardless of the possession outcomes. In conclusion, our results indicate that although not all types of feedback directly affect the performance during the game of basketball, positive feedback seems to be beneficial while negative feedback could even cause harm, even if to a relatively small extent. Basketball coaches should therefore make an effort to provide more positive feedback and less negative feedback.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T05:49:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221105609
       
  • Effect of intra-session exercise sequence on the load–velocity
           relationship variables after a concurrent sprint interval and resistance
           training program

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      Authors: Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Felipe García-Pinillos, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Santiago A Ruiz-Alias
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to examine the effects of altering the intra-session exercise sequence of a concurrent training program on the load–velocity relationship variables obtained from different compound exercises. Physically active subjects (n = 24, age = ∼21 years) were assigned to one group that performed sprint interval training (sprints: 4–6; intensity: all-out; duration: 30 s; rest: 4 min) followed by resistance training (exercises: back squat and bench press; sets per exercise: 4–6; load: 60–80% of the one-repetition maximum; repetition in reserve: 6–1; rest: 2 min) (SIT + RT) or another group that performed the opposite sequence (RT + SIT). Exercises modes were separated by 10 min. Both groups trained three times per week over an eight-week period. The individualized load–velocity relationships were assessed before and after training through an incremental loading test during the back squat and bench press exercises and three variables were subsequently calculated: load-axis intercept (L0), velocity-axis intercept (v0), and area under the line (Aline = L0⋅v0/2). Regardless of exercise sequence, both groups increased L0 (ES range = 0.78–0.91) and Aline (ES range = 0.50–0.55) but decreased v0 (ES range = −0.36 to −0.46) during the back squat exercise, while all load–velocity relationship variables were increased (ES range = 0.04–2.20) during the bench press exercise. The SIT + RT group showed a moderately greater bench press v0 increase compared to the RT + SIT group (ES = −1.07). These results indicate that both intra-session exercise sequences can induce comparable improvements in the load–velocity relationship variables after an eight-week concurrent training program.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T05:18:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221105458
       
  • Developing coach education to enhance rugby coaches’ understanding and
           application of game centred approaches—The importance of questioning

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      Authors: Rhys Pritchard, Kevin Morgan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Although there seems a willingness to adopt pedagogical approaches that address the complexity of team games, there is little guidance as to how. Transforming coaching practice does not happen overnight, therefore developing non-linear approaches to coaching assumes the development of new knowledge. These approaches to coaching privilege social interaction and the use of questioning in the coaching process, which is far removed from the traditional approach to coaching. Greater exploration is needed as to how to support coaches in developing their application of non-linear coaching practices to support transformative coach learning. Research identified the challenges coaches face when trying to incorporate questioning into their practice. Recognising the pedagogical nature of coaching, this paper draws on Lev Vygotsky to support coaches in improving their coaching with game-centred approaches and the use of questioning. The study aim was to improve my practice as a coach educator to enhance rugby coaches’ understanding and application of the game-centred approach. It involved a group of six student rugby coaches. Using action research, coaches delivered an 11-week rugby programme to a class of year 5 children. Findings emphasised the importance of social interaction, privileging the use of language in developing coach autonomy. Providing time to build a collaborative relationship between the educator and coach assisted coach development. The major contribution this paper makes is to illustrate the value of effective questioning. The importance of questioning cannot be understated in coaching and coach education, with it leading to social interaction and facilitating opportunities to develop co-construction of new knowledge.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T05:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221104157
       
  • Effects on collective behaviour and locomotor and neuromuscular response
           

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      Authors: Sergio Nieto, Julen Castellano, Ibon Echeazarra, Eneko Fernández
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to describe the effects on collective behaviour and the physical response of young elite football players (Under 15) in the same 11 versus 11 task in three different pitch lengths (100, 75 and 50 m, LSG100, LSG75 and LSG50, respectively), keeping the width constant (60 m). The intra-team variables were: convex hull (CH), stretch index (SI), width (W), length (L) and length/width (L/W). The inter-team variables were calculated by using the 20 outfield players: CH2, W2, L2, L/W2 and DC (distance between centroids). The physical variables were: maximum speed (Vmax), number of accelerations (Acc) and decelerations (Dec) and total distance (TD). The results showed small (LSG100 > LSG75) and moderate–long differences (LSG100 > LSG50) for CH, SI and L. There was a moderate increase in DC and W2 (LSG50 > LSG75) and a moderate decrease in SI2, CH2, SI, L and CH (LSG75 > LSG50). The entropy was higher in SSG50 > LSG75 > LSG100. On a conditional level, the values showed differences between the three formats studied, showing more similarities between LSG50 and LSG100 than with LSG75. The main conclusion of the study was that the variation in the dimensions of the pitch caused a non-linear variation in the behavioural and conditional response in teams and players.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T05:17:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221101603
       
  • Longitudinal analysis of the 800-m performances of the world's best female
           long-distance pool swimmer: A case study using critical speed and D′

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      Authors: Renato Barroso, Everton Crivoi do Carmo, Carl Foster, Philip Skiba, Augusto Carvalho Barbosa
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purposes of this study were to ascertain how physiological adaptations, as reflected by critical speed and distance above critical speed (D′), impact the competitive performance of a world-class female long-distance swimmer; and to determine whether a model including the expenditure and recovery of D′ could be used to understand pacing in swimming. From August 2011 to August 2021, we retrieved 800-m performance and splits data from races in which she improved her time, and also the 400-m and 200-m freestyle performances from the same competitions. Performances from the 200, 400, and 800 m were used to estimate critical speed and D′. The 800-m splits were used to calculate the usage of D′ during the race and to investigate pacing. The differential W′ balance model (W′BAL) was used to calculate its analogous in swimming, the D′BAL. Critical speed increased from 1.516 to 1.616 ms−1 while D′ fluctuated ∼15 m from 2011 to 2016. D′BAL approached 0 m at the end of the races and may be useful to understand pacing. Critical speed and 800-m speed presented a nearly perfect correlation (0.99, p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T08:15:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221104721
       
  • Bayesian approaches for critical velocity modelling of data from
           intermittent efforts

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      Authors: Ken Peng, Dave C Clarke, Tim B Swartz
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In sports science, critical power and related critical velocity models have been widely investigated, and are being increasingly applied to field-based team sports. A challenge associated with these models is that laboratory experiments that yield accurate measurements of maximal sustainable velocity are expensive. Alternatively, inexpensive field data (from training and matches) are being used to fit such models. However, the intermittent nature of efforts in field-based sports implies that the dependent variable concerning maximum sustainable velocity is reliably calibrated only for short time durations. This paper develops methods where field data based on short time durations is combined with prior knowledge to fit the three-parameter critical velocity model. This is accomplished in a Bayesian framework for which Markov chain methods are required for model fitting and inference.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T06:45:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221100311
       
  • The demands of training and match-play on elite and highly trained junior
           tennis players: A systematic review

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      Authors: James Andrew Fleming, Adam Field, Steve Lui, Robert Joseph Naughton, Liam David Harper
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTalented junior tennis players are exposed to high training loads and congested competition schedules. Understanding the demands of training and competition is important to prescribe training and recovery programmes that optimise performance. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and appraise the literature available on training and match-play demands in an elite and highly trained junior tennis population to inform practice and future research opportunities.MethodsA systematic search of PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Scopus databases was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines in November 2021. The following keywords were used: ‘tennis’, ‘match-play’, ‘match’, ‘training’, ‘drill’, ‘practice’, ‘coaching’, ‘session’, ‘competition’ and ‘tournament’. Filters were applied to retrieve articles conducted on junior tennis players.ResultsThe search returned an initial 879 articles. Following the screening process, 21 articles were accepted for analysis. Articles were organised into four themes: training demands, match-play, court surface and recovery. Results highlighted that training sessions failed to induce the same physiological and perceptual demands imposed by tournament match-play. Rallies were 22% longer on clay courts, and associated with increased playing time, heart rate, blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion compared with hard court surfaces. Competing in multiple matches per day negatively impacted performance indices including jumping, sprinting and change of direction. Increased ratings of muscle soreness, fatigue and pain were also reported.ConclusionAdditional work is warranted to substantiate these findings and determine the efficacy of current training strategies and competition demands imposed on elite and highly trained junior tennis players.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T07:23:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221102556
       
  • Concurrent training in team sports: A systematic review

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      Authors: Deborah Seipp, Oliver J Quittmann, Frowin Fasold, Stefanie Klatt
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Concurrent strength and endurance training could interfere with adaptation, which primarily affects long-term strength development. However, so far, research on this theme has rarely focused on ways to optimize concurrent strength and endurance training in team sports. Objectives: This paper aims to summarize the literature on the effects of concurrent training on aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways as well as strength and jump performance measures in team sports (invasion games) to provide recommendations for its application. Methods: A systematic literature review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted. Various reliable sources with only experimental studies investigating the effect of concurrent training on sport-specific performance measures in team sports (invasion games) were included. Two researchers independently evaluated the risk of bias with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Results: From 1649 records, 24 were included: 12 in children/adolescents (n = 428; aged up to 18 years) and 12 in adults (n = 620; aged 19–30 years), respectively. Thirteen of 24 studies reported improved endurance (V˙O2max, YoYoIR) and strength (CMJ, SJ and 1RM) performance by adding additional resistance training in young and adult team sport players with different training status, and nine of 24 studies reported more pronounced interference effects in older and more experienced players. Discussion: Concurrent training can improve endurance and strength performance in team sports athletes. However, it is revealed that concurrent training can lead to diminished effects, which might be minimized by extended recovery time between sessions, adapted sequencing order and endurance exercise modality. With maturity and developing training status, an increased importance of these variables was documented.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T07:23:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221099846
       
  • The influence of tactical formation on physical and technical match
           performance in male soccer: A systematic review

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      Authors: Leon Forcher, Leander Forcher, Hagen Wäsche, Darko Jekauc, Alexander Woll, Stefan Altmann
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The number of investigations that specifically address the influence of formation on soccer performance has increased in recent years. Since there is no overview that summarizes these effects, this systematic review aims to synthesize the available literature on the effects of tactical formation on physical and technical match performance. According to the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, a systematic search was performed (Databases: PubMed and Web of Science). Studies were included, if they reported any physical (e.g., sprinting distance) or technical (e.g., number of passes) match performance parameters and compared at least two different formations. The study outcomes were synthesized descriptively. The effect of formation on physical performance was investigated in ten studies while three studies investigated the effect on technical performance (11 studies included). The studies revealed that formation has an effect on the physical and technical match performance of soccer players both in a team and at a positional level. On a team level, smaller differences were observed for formations that are similar in the number of players in each playing position (i.e., 4-5-1, 4-2-3-1). Furthermore, physical match performance was higher in formations with three defenders (e.g., 3-5-2) in comparison to formations with four defenders (e.g., 4-4-2). On a positional level, all positions were affected in a similar way by formation. Therefore, formation affects the physical and technical match performance of soccer players and if the playing position is also considered, the results become even more meaningful. The studies were very heterogeneous regarding their methodology (i.e., parameters, sample size). The findings can help coaches to design their training programs and to prepare the players for a specific positional role depending on the tactical formation.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:45:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221101363
       
  • The influence of compression tights on running economy varies by relative
           intensity

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      Authors: Chris McManus, Chris E Cooper, Gavin Sandercock
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of compression tights on running economy is unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of compression tights on economy. Following an incremental test to exhaustion to determine aerobic capacity (V̇O2max) and peak running speed (vV̇O2max), twenty-six moderately endurance-trained males (28 ± 7 years; 76.1 ± 8.4 kg; V̇O2max = 54.7 ± 4.8 mL·kg−1·min−1) were allocated to either a 60% (n = 8), 62.5% (n = 9) or 65% vV̇O2max group (n = 9) using block randomisation. Participants ran for 15 min at the allocated vV̇O2max with compression tights and a non-compression control condition in a randomised, counter-balanced order, separated by seven days. Oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and expired carbon dioxide (V̇CO2) was measured to determine economy as caloric unit cost. No difference was observed between conditions for the 60% and 62.5% vV̇O2max groups, however economy was improved with compression at 65% vV̇O2max (P 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:45:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221097961
       
  • Selected factors for triple jump preparation: A case study of an Olympic
           silver medalist

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      Authors: Nelio Alfano Moura, PengPeng Han, Larissa de Paula Moura, GuoJie Wang, TingGang Yuan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The People's Republic of China obtained at the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games its best historical performance in the triple jump, thereby winning the silver medal. The objective of this case study was to present how evidence-based knowledge was applied to improve selected factors that may have contributed to this result. The factors included running speed, strength, muscle power, jumping technique, body composition, mental preparation, training organization, and recovery. Short training blocks, monitoring of training sessions and athlete's status, individualized tapering, use of activation sessions the day before competition, and postactivation performance enhancement strategies used in training and at the event were concepts followed during the preparation to the Games. Improved performance in field tests and power training was accompanied by positive changes in approach speed, run-up accuracy, and jumping technique, which, together with mental preparation, enabled two personal records to be set in the Olympic final. The results in the field tests were among the best ever reported and could constitute a benchmark for world-class triple jumpers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:45:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221094670
       
  • The effects of an HIIT program on young soccer players’ physical
           performance

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      Authors: Yiannis Michailidis, Christoforos Ganotakis, Nikos Motsanos, Thomas Metaxas
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is widely used in soccer. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of an HIIT program on the performance of soccer players under the age of 17. Twenty-nine youth players participated in this study. Players were randomly separated into two groups: control group (n = 14) and intervention group which performed extra HIIT (EX, n = 15). The duration of the training program was 4 weeks. Sprint 10 m, 30 m, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), Illinois agility test, YO-YO intermitted recovery test 1, and repeated sprint ability (RSA) test (RSAbest, RSAmean, RSAdecrement) were measured pre and post the training program. The performance in 10 m, Illinois test, and RSAmean improved in the EX group (P = 0.022, P = 0.047, and P = 0.045, respectively). The performances of the two groups differed significantly in post-measurement of 10 m, Illinois test, and RSAmean (P = 0.046, P = 0.039, and P = 0.044, respectively). This study supports that a short-term program of HIIT can improve acceleration, agility, and RSA performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T09:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221102530
       
  • Comparing the physical effects of combining small-sided games with short
           high-intensity interval training or repeated sprint training in youth
           soccer players: A parallel-study design

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      Authors: Hadi Nobari, Ana Filipa Silva, Norodin Vali, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Most of the research combining small-sided games (SSGs) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is using the short or long forms of HIIT. However, other types of HIIT as repeated sprint training (RST) could enhance different stimuli. The purpose of the current research was to analyze the within- and between-group variations of physical fitness and body composition of two combined training interventions: (i) SSGs combined with a short high intensity interval training (sHIIT); and (ii) SSGs combined with a RST. This study followed a randomized parallel study design. Twenty-eight youth soccer players (age: 17.3 ± 0.5) belong to the same team were assigned equally to two intervention groups: SSG + sHIIT versus SSG + RST. Training intervention lasted 4 weeks, with a 2-session/week frequency. The players were tested twice, once before and after the intervention with the following tests: skinfolds (fat mass); Sargent jump test (SJT); standing long jump; sprinting time at 10-, 20-, or 30-m; 5-0-5 for time and deficit; 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15IFT) based on the final velocity, and repeated sprint ability (RAST) for peak, minimum, average power, and fatigue index. A mixed analysis of variance was conducted to considering factor × time effect. Between-group analysis revealed no significant differences at baseline and post-intervention period for fat mass, sprinting time at 10-, 20-, and 30-m, change-of-direction (COD) time and deficit, SJT and standing long jump, final velocity at 30-15IFT and RAST peak, average power, and fatigue index (p > 0.05). Within-group analysis revealed that both groups significantly reduced fat mass (p ≤ 0.001), SJT (p ≤ 0.001), standing long jump (p ≤ 0.001), sprint time at 10- and 20-m (p ≤ 0.001), 30-m (p = 0.002), COD time (p ≤ 0.001) and deficit (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:43:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221101842
       
  • Training, anthropometric, and physical performance profiles of players in
           the U19 men's volleyball at different in-game role

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      Authors: Pedro Schons, Artur Avelino Birk Preissler, Guilherme Pereira Berriel, Victor Hugo Szortyka Oses, Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The evolution of its rules has made the demands of different court in-game role more specific in terms of skills. However, it is unclear whether players in the U19 men's volleyball already have specifics according to their in-game role. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the training profiles, anthropometric profiles, and physical performance profiles of male volleyball players aged under 19 at different in-game role. The 353 volleyball players (16.89 ± 0.76 years) were evaluated prior to the Brazilian U19 men's state team championship games. The training profiles were evaluated using a questionnaire; the anthropometric profile was obtained by analyzing the body mass, body height, and arm span; and the physical performance profile was measured by changes in direction, sprint, block jump reach, and spike jump reach tests. One-way ANOVA test was used to compare players' in-game role, with a significance of α
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T04:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221100058
       
  • The effect of proprioceptive training on technical soccer skills in female
           soccer

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      Authors: Athanasios G. Souglis, Antonios K. Travlos, Georgios Andronikos
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Development of perceptual-cognitive motor skills is a crucial factor influencing soccer training and competition. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of neuromuscular coordination, proprioceptive and balance exercises on physiological attributes and technical skills in female soccer. Female soccer players competing in Greek A Division (N = 48) were assigned to intervention (N1 = 24) and control groups (N2 = 24). The Proprioceptive Training Intervention Program (PTIP) lasted approximately 20 min and was implemented five times per week for 16 weeks. It was hypothesized that the PTIP in addition to a regular training programme would significantly affect female soccer player perceptual-cognitive-motor capability as it was estimated with physiological attributes ([math]O2max and agility) and motor performance soccer technical skills (juggling, heading, shooting, passing, and dribbling). All performance variables were measured prior and after the 16-weeks PTIP. Groups by Measures (2 × 2) ANOVAs with repeated measures on the second factor revealed that the intervention group decreased percent body fat and improved [math]O2max and all technical skills in comparison to the control group after the PTIP (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T07:29:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221097857
       
  • 2019 International touch rugby world Cup: An analysis of movement demands
           by half and gender

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      Authors: Javier A Zaragoza, Jessica Prather, Christine M Florez, Justin Goonan, Matthias R Tinnin, Ariane H Secrest, Lem W Taylor, Nathan Elsworthy, Vincent J Dalbo
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeQuantify and compare the movement demands of gameplay in a male only and a female only touch rugby team competing in the International Touch World Cup (2019).MethodsMovement demands (male: n = 16; female: n = 15) were assessed across 16 games (male open's: 8; female open's: 8) with 10 Hz global positioning system devices. Separate linear mixed models and Cohen's effect size (ES) comparisons were used to analyze variables by half (1st vs. 2nd half) and gender (male vs. female).ResultsWithin game comparisons revealed reductions in run distance (ES = -0.26; p = 0.003) and worst-case scenario one-minute relative distance (ES = -0.29; p = 0.019) from the first to second half in a male only team. The female only team experienced an increase in walk distance (ES = 0.42; p
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T07:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221100185
       
  • Rink hockey “Ok-XS”. Motor behavior effects of scaling games
           in U8 players

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      Authors: Enrique Lacasa, Albert Canton, Isidre Brufau, Jaume March-Llanes, Carlota Torrents
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In rink hockey, it is not usual to find proposals of mini-hockey in early competition. This study aimed to analyse the effect of the manipulation of court dimensions and the number of participants on the motor behavior of players. Twenty-four rink hockey players (three girls and 21 boys; age: 7.1 ± 0.4 years) U8 category participated in this study. Three types of 3-min games were played twice, with 3-min breaks, following a random order: i) Four versus four (plus goalkeeper) on an official pitch (40 × 20 m); ii) Four versus four (plus goalkeeper) on a rink measuring 20 × 13 m, and iii) Two versus two (plus goalkeeper) on a court measuring 20 × 10 m. All games were video-recorded and a systematic observation instrument was used to register the actions using the Lince PLUS observation tool (v.1.2.0-2020). The individual technical-tactical behavioral variables of the court players were analysed, considering: (a) actions without the ball; (b) actions with the ball; and (c) final phase of ball possession. Statistical analysis was performed based on the Generalized Mixed Poisson Model. The results revealed that total actions were increased in both scaling situations compared to situation 1 in which young rink hockey players officially compete (S1 vs. S3; p
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T07:28:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221094830
       
  • How do International Olympic Sport Federations innovate' the use of
           crowdfunding and the impact of COVID-19

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      Authors: Miguel Crespo, Dolores Botella-Carrubi, Jose Jabaloyes, Rafael Martínez-Gallego
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of innovation and crowdfunding of International Olympic Sport Federations (IFs), which are the world governing bodies of their respective sports. Three research questions were addressed: the perceptions of the IFs on the implementation of their innovation programmes during the last four years (2016–2020), the impact of COVID-19 on the IFs capability to innovate, and the crowdfunding strategies of the IFs. A mixed method combining qualitative and quantitative approaches was used. An online semi-structured questionnaire which included an open answer section was completed by IFs executives (n = 22) and an analysis of the information provided by IFs through various content sources was conducted. Results showed that IFs with less funding had a significantly more innovative approach that their counterparts, that the perception of the impact of COVID-19 on the innovative capability was not unanimous, that they identified sport-specific programmes as the most innovative of all initiatives delivered during the pandemic, and that crowdfunding projects were implemented in their sport but mostly at individual and local levels. From a research perspective, since this is the first study that investigates the innovation and crowdfunding strategies of IFs, future directions include the need for further research with national and regional federations on these topics. Practical implications are suggested for IFs to deliver innovative programmes to satisfy their stakeholder needs and to consider new funding methods such as crowdfunding as part of their strategies.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:52:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221096922
       
  • “Is it a slow day or a go day'”: The perceptions and applications
           of velocity-based training within elite strength and conditioning

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      Authors: Steve W. Thompson, Pete Olusoga, David Rogerson, Alan Ruddock, Andrew Barnes
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Velocity-based training (VBT) is a contemporary prescriptive, programming, and testing tool commonly utilised in strength and conditioning (S&C). Over recent years, there has been an influx of peer-reviewed literature investigating several different applications (e.g. load-velocity profiling, velocity loss, load manipulation, and reliability of technology) of VBT. The procedures implemented in research, however, do not always reflect the practices within applied environments. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the perceptions and applications of VBT within elite S&C to enhance contextual understanding and develop appropriate avenues of practitioner-focused research. Fourteen high-performance S&C coaches participated in semi-structured interviews to discuss their experiences of implementing VBT into their practices. Reflexive thematic analysis was adopted, following an inductive and realist approach. Three central organising themes emerged: Technology, applications, and reflections. Within these central themes, higher order themes consisting of drivers for buying technology; programming, testing, monitoring, and feedback; and benefits, drawbacks, and future uses also emerged. Practitioners reported varied drivers and applications of VBT, often being dictated by simplicity, environmental context, and personal preferences. Coaches perceived VBT to be a beneficial tool yet were cognizant of the drawbacks and challenges in certain settings. VBT is a flexible tool that can support and aid several aspects of S&C planning and delivery, with coaches valuing the impact it can have on training environments, objective prescriptions, tracking player readiness, and programme success.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:02:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221099641
       
  • Violinboxplot and enhanced radar plot as components of effective graphical
           dashboards: An educational example of sports analytics

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      Authors: Martí Casals, Pepus Daunis-i-Estadella
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      A statistical graph can offer an alternative compelling approach to statistical thinking that focuses on important concepts rather than procedural formulas. Nowadays, visualizing multidimensional/multivariate data is essential but can also be challenging. In sport analytics, the exploration and descriptive analysis of data using visualization techniques has increased in recent years to, for example, describe possible patterns and uncertainty of player performance. These visualization techniques have been used so far with different purposes by various professionals in the sport industry, such as managers, coaches, scouters, technical staff, journalists, and researchers. The abuse of graphs, such as the radar plot, and their frequent misinterpretation in the world of sports and possible implications for coaching decisions has led us to create more informative and accurate visualizations. Here, we propose new, more educational visualizations we have termed violinboxplots and enhanced radar plot for their use in the sports analytics and other fields. These allow us to visualize, besides distribution and statistical summaries, the extreme data values that can be fundamental in performance studies and allow us to benchmark.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:02:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221099638
       
  • Comparison of the game structure and point ending during Grand Slam
           women's doubles tennis

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      Authors: Marcos Borderias, Miguel Crespo, Rafael Martí­nez-Gallego, Ernest Baiget
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the importance of doubles tennis, there is little research on this modality of the game, especially as per women play. The aim of this study was to analyse the structural variables and the way points ended in women's doubles, as well as to observe the differences between surfaces and between winning and losing teams. Twenty-one WTA doubles matches from three Grand Slams played on three different surfaces were analysed. Players played 2.0 ± 0.3 sets, 19.9 ± 3.2 games, 130.4 ± 25.3 points, 0.2 ± 0.6 tie breaks per match (PM), 9.5 ± 1.0 games and 62.6 ± 7.9 points per set, and 6.6 ± 0.6 points per game (PG). 33.5% of the points ended with a winner (Wn), 43.6% with a forced error (FE) and 22.8% with an unforced error (UE), with the Wn shot being the variable that most discriminated between winner and loser teams. It was also shown that the way more points were finished was with FE, followed by Wn and UE. There were no significant differences between surfaces in structural variables or point ending. These results showed that in women's doubles playing Wn shots and avoiding UE is crucial to successful performance, so that aggressive play and taking the initiative in the game has a positive influence in the result.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:01:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221098226
       
  • Leg fidgeting enhances blood lactate clearance following maximal anaerobic
           exercise

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      Authors: A. MartinezAguirre-Betolaza, K. Jacka, D. Sargent, C. Paterson, K.J. Stone, L. Stoner, A. Broomfield-Gull, S. Fryer
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Low intensity active recovery such as walking appears to be optimal for the clearance of blood lactate (BLa) concentration following high intensity exercise. However, within a sporting context, competition rules or procedural impracticalities often mean walking is not possible. Leg fidgeting during sitting has been shown to increase leg blood flow, which may impact BLa clearance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether leg fidgeting stimulates BLa clearance following high intensity exercise. Using a randomized crossover design, fifteen (7 female) university athletes performed a 30 s Wingate test followed by 15 min of either passive seated rest, or seated leg fidgeting. BLa, heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed pre, immediately post and post 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 min. There was a significant (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221097800
       
  • The association between training load and physical development in
           professional male youth soccer players: a systematic review

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      Authors: Joshua Rice, Thomas E Brownlee, Allistair P McRobert, Jack Ade, Barry Drust, James J. Malone
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives1) To evaluate current physical performance tests used within professional male youth soccer; 2) to understand the relationship of these tests performance in relation to specific measures of external and internal training load (TL) to conclude if there is a subsequent change in test performance.MethodsRelevant literature was searched using five electronic databases (PubMed Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Scopus), with additional articles identified by the authors. Articles relating to TL and physical development assessment within professional male youth soccer players were evaluated.ResultsDatabase searches yielded 5683 articles following removal of duplicates. After screening the titles, abstracts and full texts, 28 articles were identified. Both external TL (total distance, high speed distance, duration) and internal TL (rating of perceived exertion, training impulse) measures were found to be associated with improvements in physical test performance across both pre-season and in-season phases. Field-based testing was found to be sensitive to changes in physical performance for aerobic capacity, lower body power/strength and sprint performance. However, limited sensitivity to change was found when assessing player agility performance.ConclusionFuture research in this area should look to enhance our understanding of the dose-response of TL with changes in fitness across different age groups in professional male youth soccer.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:01:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221097388
       
  • Description of collective behaviour in football according to the level of
           competence in representative tasks from positional data: Systematic review
           

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      Authors: Sergio Nieto, Julen Castellano, Ibon Echeazarra
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this systematic review is to provide a base of knowledge from studies that have dealt with the description of collective behaviour in young footballers according to the level of competence associated to that age group, taking representative tasks from positional data as our starting point. Following the PRISMA statement a systematic revision was carried out on three meta-search engines (PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus). The following key words were used in the search: football, tactical behaviour, positional data and age-group, together with their equivalents. Of the 423 articles identified, 11 fulfilled the inclusion requirements. The main results suggest that: the variables made up of the joining of two points with a line (Width, Length and distance between dyads) and the collective area covered increase with age; however, the individual area tends to reduce. The increase in level of competence appears to require a greater functional variability in order to generate uncertainty and to counteract that of the opposing team. These results could allow trainers to identify on which tactical behaviour to focus intervention with the aim of fostering optimal development according the age.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T12:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221088640
       
  • Characteristics of goals scored in open play at the 2017 and 2018
           Australian national cerebral palsy football championship

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      Authors: Alvin M Goh, Eric J Drinkwater, Craig A Harms, Mark Scanlan, Robert U Newton, Fadi Ma’ayah
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Despite increasing popularity of cerebral palsy (CP) football (para football) worldwide, there are limited data available describing effective attacking strategies that lead to goals. The purpose of this research was to investigate the most frequent methods of ball repossession, distribution and movement patterns that successfully led to goals scored in open play of CP football. Video footage of all goals (n = 167) during the Australian National CP Football Championships in 2017 and 2018 were analysed using SportsCode software. Most goals (89.8%) were scored from open play, with the most effective mode of ball delivery identified as being direct play, of four or less passes, to create an opportunity to score. More goals were scored during the first half of games (54.9%), with a majority of goals (67.1%) scored from a region that encompasses the entire penalty area (Zone 1). The findings from the research conclude that tactically, coaches could capitalise on restarts by moving the ball quickly in four or less passes into the middle of the penalty area, to increase their chances of scoring goals in CP football.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:56:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221095941
       
  • The impact of age and maturation on physical performance capacities in
           emerging adolescent surfing athletes: An argument for off-water training

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      Authors: Amy Perejmibida, Jenny A Conlon, Mikayla Lyons, Ashley Cripps
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Surfing is a high intensity intermittent sport, rapidly increasing in popularity in recent years. Surfing athletes who possess holistic physical performance capabilities, for example; strength, power, dynamic balance and flexibility, are better able to respond to the dynamic and variable nature of competition. Talent identification (TID) and long-term athlete development (LTAD) processes must consider the physical capacities necessary for performance and the impact of maturation. This study aimed to identify the physical performance capacities of state level adolescent surfers and explore their association with age and maturation. Participants (13.68 ± 1.57 years, 159.54 ± 12.33 cm, 50.07 ± 12.25 kg) were recruited from the Surfing Western Australia (WA) High Performance Pathway (HPP). Athletes completed a TID testing battery including anthropometrics (height, sitting height, body mass, arm span, sum of 7 skinfolds), flexibility (sit and reach), lower body power (vertical and broad jump) and strength (isometric mid-thigh pull; IMTP), dynamic balance (time to stabilisation; TTS) and sensorimotor ability and stability (Athletic Ability Assessment; AAA). Findings demonstrated whilst many physical performance capacities improved with advanced age and maturation, relative lower body strength, dynamic balance and several components of the AAA did not. Further, physical performance capacities were similarly associated with both maturity and age, except total AAA, which was significantly associated with maturation but not age. In conclusion, these data highlight inefficiencies in the current physical preparation of emerging adolescent state-level surfing athletes and highlight the need for a more robust training programme to maximise athletic potential, including structured off-water training.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:57:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221083481
       
  • Examining positional difference in basketball players’ field goal
           accuracy using Bayesian Hierarchical Model

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      Authors: Feng Wang, Guohua Zheng
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study developed a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Scheme to study the positional difference of field goal accuracy at different shooting distances, including less than 8 ft, 8–24 ft, and more than 24 ft. The approach was first applied to players’ statistics in the National Basketball Association (NBA) 2018–2019 season in the USA. Results found that the overall accuracy decreases with the increase in shooting distance. When the shooting distance is less than 8 feet, players in the role of center have the highest accuracy (63.2%). The point guard and shooting guard have higher shooting accuracy than power forward and small forward. When the shooting distance is between 8 and 24 feet, the guards, including the shooting guard and point guard, have the highest shooting accuracy. For the 3-point field goal with a shooting distance of more than 24 feet, the point guard and shooting guard have the highest shooting accuracy, with a mode of 0.362, respectively. To further demonstrate the use of the proposed method, shooting accuracy at different distances was investigated for NBA basketball seasons in the last decade (2011–2020). Analyzes found that shooting accuracy for distinct positions at different shooting distances is generally higher in the last five years (from 2016–2017 season to 2020–2021 season) compared to the first five years (from 2011–2012 season to 2015–2016 season). Increases in the accuracy of field goals with shooting distance over 24 feet have been observed for players who take the roles of center, power forward, and shooting guard.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:27:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221096772
       
  • Monitoring of internal and external loads to interpret acute and chronic
           fatigue in indoor team sports: A systematic review

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      Authors: Adrián Moreno-Villanueva, Markel Rico-González, José Pino-Ortega
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze how the periodization of workloads can induce states of accumulated fatigue in the short, medium and long term in indoor team sports and (2) to identify these periods of fatigue through the interpretation internal and external performance variables. This systematic review was carried out under PRISMA guidelines. The Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for relevant published studies between 1st January 2010 and 25th April 2021. The STROBE scale and MINORS checklist were used to assess the reporting and methodological risk of bias, respectively. Of the 2219 studies initially identified, 20 were selected for a full review. The main conclusions were that a periodic and integrative evaluation of monitoring variables of a different nature is needed to identify states of fatigue accurately and rigorously. The end of the preparatory periods (PPs) and the second phase of the competitive periods (CPs) seem to be the most exhausting moments of the season (high values of RPE, CK, LDH, and oxidative stress markers, and decrease in the T/C ratio). Specifically, congested weeks promote the development of high levels of acute and subacute fatigue (high levels of DOMS and fatigue along with low levels of RPE). Therefore, it is recommended to extend the duration of the preseason and the implementation of more active recovery days during congested weeks, in order to improve resistance to acute and subacute fatigue, and therefore avoid reaching a state of overtraining.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221096396
       
  • Reference values for external and internal training intensity monitoring
           in professional male soccer players: A systematic review

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      Authors: Rafael Oliveira, Alexandre Martins, Adrián Moreno-Villanueva, João P. Brito, Matilde Nalha, Markel Rico-González, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      One of the possibilities for organising different studies and providing some reference values or benchmarks is to summarise all information. Such a possibility could help coaches and practitioners identify typical values based on specific conditions and eventually use benchmark values to compare players against The current systematic review was carried out to identify and summarise studies that have examined external and internal training intensity monitoring and to provide references values for the main measures in professional male soccer players. A systematic review of EBSCO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 2404 studies initially identified, 25 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analysed. From these, the following range intervals by overall team were found: session rated perceived exertion (s-RPE) = 26–936 AU, total distance = 2143–9540 m and distance>14 km/h = 410–1884 m, distance>18 km/h = 7–541 m, distance>24 km/h = 1–190 m, acceleration number>3 m.s−2 = 9–195, deceleration number>-3 m.s−2 = 10–157 and player load = 310–774 AU. Additionally, range intervals for player positions and a match-day minus approach were provided. This study provided reference values of professional male players for the main internal and external intensity measures. Altogether, they can be used by coaches, their staff, or practitioners to achieve desired competitive levels. They can replicate such values or even increase the numbers presented in training sessions.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T05:21:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211072966
       
  • Time-course analysis following initial warm-up to inform pre-pitch entry
           preparations of soccer substitutes

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      Authors: Paul A. Swinton, Kevin Symon, Patrick Maughan, Katherine E. Burgess, Eimear Dolan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the time-course of decrements in physical performance following a pre-match warm-up in soccer players. Knowledge of this information could be used to inform re-warm-ups and pre-pitch entry practices of soccer substitutes. Data were collected over five sessions with 12 male youth professionals (15–17 yrs). Across the five sessions each player performed countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (30 and 40 cm), pre-warm-up, immediately post-warm-up, and following 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-min of inactivity. Physical performance was assessed by jump height and calculation of reactive strength index (RSI). Hierarchical generalised linear models (HGLMs) were fitted within a Bayesian framework to identify plausible time to achieve 10 to 50% decrements of the initial pre to post warm-up improvement. Mean improvements of 5.4 cm (95%CrI: 4.8 to 6.0), 0.24 ms−1 (95%CrI: 0.19 to 0.29), and 0.32 ms−1 (0.27 to 0.36) were obtained for the CMJ, and RSI measured from the 30 and 45 cm box, respectively. Decrements for all assessments were non-linear with the steepest rates of decline measured in the initial periods following warm-up. High probabilities were calculated (p ≥ 0.979) that up to 50% of the initial warm-up improvement for the CMJ would be lost between 20 and 30 min. The results of this study provide a guide for future research and practitioners managing the pre-pitch entry of soccer substitutes. It is suggested that practitioners consider and assess the effectiveness of exposing players to a re-warm-up between 20- and 30-min prior to pitch entry to maintain performance capabilities.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T08:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221095196
       
  • The differentiation of single and dual career athletes falls short: A
           person-oriented approach to characterize typical objective life situations
           of elite athletes

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      Authors: Merlin Örencik, Michael J. Schmid, Jürg Schmid, Achim Conzelmann
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Research concerning athletic career development in high-performance sport typically uses demographic data, sport characteristics or pursuing a dual career (i.e. having an educational or vocational career simultaneous to the athletic career) to identify developmental processes. In defiance of these attempts, considerable heterogeneity remains within these subgroups of the elite athlete population. In line with the person-oriented approach, the objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive typology of athletes with similar objective life situations by considering both sport-related as well as non-sport related aspects. To this end, data were collected about athletic performance level, weekly amount of working time (i.e. sport-related activities, education, and vocation), and financial information (i.e. gross annual income and income generated from sport). Based on a sample of 733 elite athletes, a cluster analysis was performed to divide the sample into groups of similar patterns on the aforementioned factors. Five different athlete patterns were found: (1) working dual career athletes, (2) high-income professional athletes, (3) medium-income professional athletes, (4) family-supported athletes, and (5) student dual career athletes. These findings support the dual career literature of separating dual career (Cluster 1 and Cluster 5) from single career athletes, which, in turn, should also not be regarded as a single population, but further divided (Cluster 2, Cluster 3, and Cluster 4). This typology may aid federations and practitioners within athletic career development in providing individual assistance for elite athletes.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T06:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221090941
       
  • Mental health literacy practices within Australian football league next
           generation academy clubs: An exploratory study

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      Authors: Samantha Diamond, Lee Wallace, Madeleine English, Cristina M. Caperchione
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeTo explore and describe the extent and quality of Mental Health Literacy (MHL) resources, information and education currently available within the Australian Football League (AFL) Next Generation Academy (NGA) programs and identify limitations/gaps in existing MHL practices within these programs.MethodsAn exploratory mixed-method descriptive design was utilised in two phases. Phase One consisted of a researcher led MHL audit of publicly available data associated with each NGA program. Phase Two included a web-based open-ended questionnaire distributed to key NGA personnel and focused on mental health practices within the programs. Descriptive statistics were used to present Phase One data and thematic analysis was utilised in Phase Two.ResultsIn Phase One, the total mean standardised score for resources on mental health, raising awareness on mental health and culture of support within the clubs were 47% (SD = 16, range 18–89), 51% (SD = 23, range 0–77) and 61% (SD = 27, range of 9–97). In Phase Two, eight participants responded to the questionnaire (44% response rate). Three themes emerged from the thematic analysis: 1) current initiatives and resources within the club; 2) training, education and support for staff; 3) the gender divide.ConclusionMainstream mental health resources do exist within the AFL and there is some support within the professional league. However, these are not effectively tailored for youth elite athletes, nor have they been implemented into NGA programs despite the willingness of staff in supporting the mental health of these athletes.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T07:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221092099
       
  • Professional padel tennis: Characteristics and effectiveness of the shots
           played to the fence

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      Authors: Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz, Rafael Martínez-Gallego, Jesús Ramón-Llin Mas, Miguel Crespo, Diego Muñoz, José Miguel López Martínez, Alejandro Sánchez-Pay
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Padel tennis is played on different surfaces and the padel tennis court is made of different materials. This influences how the ball can be played back after it hits or bounces on them. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of shots played to the fence in professional padel tennis. A total of 489 shots to the fence played by the 8 best pairs (16 male and 16 female players) competing in an international professional tournament were recorded. Using an observational methodology, variables such as the distance of the shot to the net, the side of the court from which the shot was played, the trajectory of the shot and the type of shot were analysed and compared according to gender and effectiveness. The results showed that in women's padel, the overhead shot was significantly more used to play the ball to the fence (48.4%) as compared to men's padel (39.9%), where volleys were significantly more used (39.5%) as compared to women's padel (30.5%). Crosscourt shots were significantly more effective (24.2%) than the down the line ones (16.8%). Groundstrokes were the strokes which produced significantly higher number of winners (25.2%) as well as errors (31.1%). As the distance to the net increased, the effectiveness of the shot played to the fence significantly decreased. These data can serve as a reference for padel players and coaches when planning training sessions adapted to the characteristics of the competition.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T06:47:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221093765
       
  • Comparing the Yo-Yo intermittent and Bronco tests and their associations
           with match demands among amateur rugby union referees

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      Authors: Ricardo T Sant’Anna, Simon P Roberts, Lee J Moore, Wilbur J Kraak, Keith A Stokes
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study compared the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (YYIR1) and Bronco tests among amateur rugby referees and examined whether the results of these tests were associated with actual match demands. Sixty-seven (65 male, 2 female; 30 ± 11 years; 77.4 ± 13.1 kg; 175 ± 8 cm) amateur rugby referees participated. Match demands were assessed using Global Navigation Satellite System technology and heart rate (HR) recordings. Significant correlations (all p < 0.05) were found between the YYIR1 and Bronco test results (r: −0.88). The YYIR1 test was significantly correlated with match demands including total (r: 0.56) and high-intensity (r: 0.70) distance covered, maximal speed reached (r: 0.73), and the number of high-intensity accelerations (r: 0.54) and sprints (r: 0.68) completed. Furthermore, YYIR1 test maximum HR was significantly correlated with maximum HR (r: 0.72), average HR (r: 0.54), and internal load (r: 0.55) during match play. In contrast, the Bronco test was only significantly correlated with match demands including maximal speed reached (r: −0.68) and the number of high-intensity accelerations (r: −0.61). Moreover, Bronco test maximum HR was significantly correlated with maximal (r: 0.84) and average HR (r: 0.73) during match play. The results suggest that while the YYIR1 and Bronco tests might both be efficient tools to guide training prescription, the YYIR1 test might be as the more valuable test to assess match fitness in rugby referees.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T06:38:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221078280
       
  • Anticipatory information sources of serve and returning of elite
           professional tennis players: A qualitative approach

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      Authors: Jan Carboch, John Brenton, Eliska Reischlova, Tomas Kocib
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Kinematic and contextual information is important for players as they can use these for anticipation and facilitating motor responses. The interaction of the use of this information with an understanding of how the mind works in elite players is crucial but difficult to obtain by empirical research methods. The aim was to: (i) explore and identify anticipatory information sources among professional tennis players, (ii) verify findings of Vernon et al. and elaborate on these findings based upon the perspective of European players and coaches. We interviewed 9 active or former professional players (current coaches) for 30–60 min each, replicating the same methodology and questions as Vernon. An open-coding analysis approach was used, with codes to identify common themes extracted from the transcribed interviews. Our findings were generally in support of Vernon's findings, verifying the importance of ball toss kinematics, contextual information sources such as the score or weather, as well as the importance of constantly updating the available kinematic and contextual information sources throughout the match. We elaborate on these findings by providing more detail regarding Vernon's findings, and add new sources of information mentioned by the interviewed players such as server's rear foot position and server's gaze. Participants shared information about their returning strategies, how they build pressure on the server, and their own service return practice, noting that this is not practiced as much as they would like it to be. Overall, focus on developing and improving visual anticipation skill is limited, even at this level of expertise.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221092345
       
  • Coaches’ opinions about teaching defensive skills for youth handball
           teams

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      Authors: Vinicius da Silva Musa, Rafael Pombo Menezes
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeIt can be observed that coaching in youth sports may be based on technique development, while it is inspired by high-performance sports. As it is observed a lack of research that addressed the coaching process with youth handball teams in the Brazilian context, this study aimed to analyze what is expected for the defensive phase and how it is taught.MethodsWe interviewed 22 handball coaches from the U-12, U-14, U-16, and U-18 teams addressing the teaching of defensive skills when facing different offensive systems and the approaches used in the training sessions. The interviews were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD) method.Results and discussionThe coaches’ discourses revealed an increasing expectation due to players’ experience, but with stimulation of high-level sport since the youngest teams. The discourses also emphasized the use of traditional approaches and game-based approaches to apply the learned skill in the game context, independently of the age group. It was noted that the expectations of the coaches about players’ technical-tactical development and the approaches are controversial, especially when comparing the specific skills with the use of the traditional approach in the younger teams (U-12 and U-14 teams). It is suggested that more attention must be paid when choosing the defensive skills to be taught for youth players, and the chosen teaching approaches must promote a reflexive environment to learners.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221091092
       
  • Practice and match workload of a female tennis player in two annual
           seasons: A single-case study

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      Authors: Ales Filipcic, Miguel Crespo, Tjasa Filipcic
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this single case study was to monitor the external workload of a professional female tennis player between 314 training sessions and 115 matches. A wearable device was used during two fully consecutive tennis seasons (24 months). External workload was determined using time indicators (total and active session times), shots indicators (shots per week, session, hour, rally and minute) and frequency distribution of rallies. This case study showed that the workload during practice sessions was higher compared to matches in terms of active time, percentage of active time, shots per hour and rally, and frequency distribution of rallies with more than nine shots. The number of shots executed per minute was lower in the practice sessions than in the match. It is concluded that the recommended number of shots per hour in a 90-min practice session is for the player to perform 400 to 800 shots. The recommended average number of rallies in practice sessions is 144 and 70% of the rallies should consist of four shots. The pace of rallies in open match situations in the practice sessions should reach the level of official matches. These conclusions could be useful guidelines for determining the workload of female tennis players participating in entry-level professional tournaments.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:45:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221088836
       
  • Cycling coaches’ trauma–specific education, familiarity with
           post-traumatic stress, and coaching efficacy

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      Authors: Amanda P. Leibovitz, Scott B Martin
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The primary purpose of this study was to assess cycling coaches’ trauma-specific education and familiarity with post-traumatic stress (PTS). A secondary purpose was to examine the relation between trauma-specific education, familiarity with PTS, and coaching efficacy specific to coaching trauma-impacted athletes, after controlling for general coaching experience. Descriptive statistics indicated that most coaches lacked trauma-specific education but reported a relatively high degree of familiarity with PTS. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that familiarity with PTS helped to explain additional variance in coaching efficacy over and above demographic and general coach experience variables. Findings indicate that trauma-informed coaching appears to be a distinct area of research and highlights the need for improved continuing education opportunities for coaches related to psychological trauma and PTS.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221088578
       
  • Night-to-night sleep variability in adolescent rugby players compared to
           non-athlete matched controls

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      Authors: Oussama Saidi, Giovanna Del Sordo, Paul Peyrel, Anthony Sudlow, Freddy Maso, Stéphane Walrand, Pascale Duché
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the importance of sleep monitoring in the context of sport, few studies to date examined night-to-night sleep variability among adolescent athletes. This study compared night-to-night sleep variation between junior rugby players and age-matched non-athlete adolescents across seven consecutive nights of the in-season competitive phase. This investigation is based on data from a single centre, observational prospective study including 30 adolescents (15 junior rugby players and 15 non-athlete age-matched controls). Sleep was continuously monitored using ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. While the non-athlete controls catch-up on their sleep debt during the weekend by delaying their wake-up time, junior rugby players opt for an earlier bedtime to cope with sport-related travel (Fri: −00:57 h:min; p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:45:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221084680
       
  • Nap to perform' Match-day napping on perceived match performance in
           professional rugby union athletes

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      Authors: Angus R Teece, Martyn Beaven, Minh Huynh, Christos K Argus, Nicholas Gill, Matthew W Driller
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundDaytime napping on match-day is a strategy used by athletes to alleviate sleep debt or to avoid boredom. However, the utilization of pre-match napping and its effect on self-rated performance has not been evaluated in professional Rugby athletes.MethodsOver a 17-match season, 30 professional Rugby Union athletes (mean ± SD: 23 ± 3 y) completed a weekly questionnaire on their daytime napping practices on match day. Questions included whether they took a nap, the duration of nap, their mood state upon waking and, their perceived performance during the subsequent match. Additionally, three team coaches evaluated the match performance of each participant. Finally, each participant was asked a questionnaire focusing on their napping preferences and individual habits of match-day napping at the conclusion of the season.ResultsPre-match naps were used by 86% of athletes, with an average nap duration of 32 ± 19 min. A significantly greater number of naps were taken during away matches compared to home matches (60% vs. 40%, p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:45:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221084146
       
  • Characteristics of a person-centred coaching approach

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      Authors: Paul Garner, William M Roberts, Colin Baker, Jean Côté
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Within this paper we propose a need to better understand what is meant by a person-centred approach to coaching and in particular, to consider the intention that drives coach behaviours. Much of the extant coaching literature focuses on pedagogical models and theories of learning; without detracting from this important body of work, we suggest that a holistic approach requires a greater focus on coaches’ inter- and intra- personal knowledge. In this paper, video stimulated recall was used to guide interviews with Alpine ski coaches, to explore their thought processes and intentions behind person-centred delivery. The findings suggest these coaches adopted other-centred intentions that are facilitated by an accurate self-assessment, a big picture perspective and a willingness to learn. Consequently, the concept of humility is proposed as a guiding principle for person-centred coaching, and a conceptual model (POWA) is presented as a solution to the challenges we identify throughout the paper.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221077052
       
  • Effect of match-related contextual factors on positional performance in
           the national rugby league

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      Authors: C. J. Wedding, M. A. Gomez, C. T. Woods, W. H. Sinclair, A. S. Leicht
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo examine the effects of match-related contextual variables on positional groups and success in the National Rugby League (NRL).MethodsData relating to match location, match outcome, quality of opposition and match type (absolute score differential) from all matches across the 2015–2019 NRL seasons were collected, in addition to 14 previously identified Factors (technical performance indicators). A decision tree, grown using the Exhaustive Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) algorithm, was used to model the effect of each of these match-related contexts on positional contribution according to match outcome.ResultsThe accuracy of the exhaustive CHAID model in explaining the influence of positional groups on match outcome was 66%. The model revealed four primary splits: interchange forwards, utility backs, adjustables and a group containing the remaining three positional groups (forwards, backs, and interchange).ConclusionsResults suggest that interchange forwards, utility backs and adjustables could have a definitive role within the team compared to the remaining positional groups in determining match outcome. In contrast to team-level research, there is a greater emphasis on the importance of defensive actions (e.g. try causes, tackles made) at a positional level than attacking performance indicators. The moderate classification accuracy justifies the use of this approach for examination of the interactions between match-related contextual variables, performance indicators and positional groups.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T02:19:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221092525
       
  • Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic: Insights into effective training
           strategies for physical development in football

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      Authors: Liam Anderson, Craig Flannigan, Paraskevas Polychronopoulos, Robbie MacKenzie, Barry Drust, Jordan Milsom
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Professional soccer players typically perform regular training sessions and match play for most of the yearly macrocycle with limited time focused on solely developing physical development. The COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 caused mass disruption to professional soccer but provided an opportunity for an alternative approach to training in attempt to develop professional soccer players physical fitness levels. In a non-randomised and non-controlled study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of a 13-week remote based physical training programme on physical fitness levels in elite professional soccer players. Twenty professional soccer players undertook body composition assessments, a countermovement jump (CMJ) test, eccentric hamstring strength test and a submaximal 30–15 intermittent fitness test (IFT) pre- and post-remote based training programme. Body mass (79.3 ± 6.7 vs. 80.0 ± 7.3 kg), skinfold thickness (54.1 ± 14.8 vs. 56.7 ± 15.2 mm), maximum CMJ height (38.4 ± 3.4 vs. 40.9 ± 4.1 cm), eccentric hamstring strength (1035 ± 158 vs. 1009 ± 140 n) and percentage max heart rate reached in submaximal 30–15 IFT (81.3 ± 5.2 vs. 82.3 ± 7.3%) were maintained (all P> 0.05) from pre- to post training programme, respectively. Although team-based soccer specific training load was removed, and the training programmes prescribed had an increased physical focus, fitness levels were maintained. This suggests that alternative modes of training can potentially be used in instances where team-based soccer specific training load isn’t required or is unavailable, without negatively impacting physical development.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:56:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221081782
       
  • Quiet eye training during the rugby union goal-kick: Practice and transfer
           effects in low- and high-pressure conditions

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      Authors: Retief Broodryk, Lee J. Moore, Ankebe Kruger
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to examine the effect of a quiet eye training (QET) intervention compared to a technical training (TT) intervention on the visual control and performance of rugby union goal-kickers. Male rugby union players (n = 18, Mage = 21.35 years, SD = 2.03) were randomly assigned into a QET or TT group. Participants completed a pre-test, retention test 1, pressure test, and retention test 2 over six weeks, including a two-week intervention programme. The QET focussed on the QE and performance, while TT focussed on technical aspects of rugby goal-kicking. Each participant performed a total of 50 kicks that consisted of 15 kicks during the pre-test, retention test 1, and retention test 2, and five kicks during the pressure test. Using a Dikablis eye-tracker the QE was measured before (QE-pre), and during (QE-online), the run-up of the goal-kick. The results indicated that QE-pre durations increased from the pre-test to both retention tests and the pressure test for the QET group only (all p's < 0.05, all d's ≥ 0.08). The QET group also displayed longer QE-pre durations during the pressure and retention tests (all p's < 0.05, all d's ≥ 0.80), and longer QE-online durations during the pressure test (d = 0.73), compared to the TT group. Finally, the QET group outperformed the TT group during the pressure test (d = 0.72). Thus, overall, our results revealed that a short QET intervention benefitted attentional control and goal-kicking performance, particularly under high-pressure.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T11:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221082631
       
  • Sequence and efficacy of game complexes in high-level women’s
           volleyball: A novel perspective through Social Network Analysis

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      Authors: Lorenzo Laporta, Gustavo De Conti Teixeira Costa, Leonardo Gasparini Fernandes, Iago Augusto Pastori, Augusto Cézar Rodrigues Rocha, Raúl Hileno, Ricardo Franco Lima, Henrique de Oliveira Castro, José Afonso
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The stereotyped sequence of volleyball actions allows organising them into six game complexes (K), each with specific dynamics. The purpose of this study was to verify the game flow in high-level women's volleyball through the sequencing of game complexes, their relative importance within the game and their relationship to attack efficacy. Seven matches of the Women's Brazil Cup’2020, knockout competition played by the 8 best teams of the 2019/2020 Superliga, were analysed (31 sets, 1268 rallies). The matches were obtained through the online video platform www.youtube.com. Pearson's chi-squared test (χ2) with Monte Carlo correction was used to assess the association between the variables, and Social Network Analysis with Eigenvector Centrality for the understanding of the nodes interactions their relative importance in a global context. The highest frequencies occurred for K0 (28.75%), KI (25.54%), and KII (23.39%), followed by KIII (15.60%), KV (3.73%), and KIV (2.99%). Positive associations occurred between KI and error; K0 and first KIV and continuity; and between KI, KII, first KIII, second KIII, first KV or second KV and point. The highest Eigenvector Centrality values occurred in first KVE1 and first KIVE1, and the lowest in K0E0, K0E2 and seventh KIIIE0. The results showed that the game complexes unfold in sequences with different frequencies; the sequences K0E1-KIE2, K0E1-KIE1-KIIE2; K0E1-KIE0 and K0E1-KIE1-KIIE1-KIII(1)E2 are the most frequent, which is informative for approximating the regularities of the training sessions to those of the matches.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T03:37:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221087688
       
  • Importance of disguising groundstrokes in a match between two top tennis
           players (Federer and Djokovic)

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      Authors: Milos Dimic, Ryosuke Furuya, Kazuyuki Kanosue
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      At the elite level in tennis, players tend to “disguise” their stroke intentions, confuse the receiver's judgment, and interfere with their anticipatory response. How frequent and effective disguised strokes are used remains unclear. We tried to answer these questions by analysing performance differences in the two consecutive sets of the match in the 2019 Wimbledon final, played by two tennis greats. Our hypothesis was that by effectively disguising their stroke intention, the hitters in this match could establish tactical superiority. By utilizing frame by frame video analysis, we determined whether each groundstroke was done with disguised intention or not. A disguised stroke was defined as the stroke, whose Initial Stroke Intention (ISI) of the ball direction in the pre-contact phase differed from the actual post-contact trajectory. To judge the ISI, we analysed the hitters’ cues during the pre-contact period, court movement before the loading phase (contextual observation), and body posture during the set-up phase (preparing the body for force generation). To investigate the effectiveness of disguised strokes, we evaluated the receiver's anticipatory movement as well as subsequent point dynamics. Our results show that both players, as hitters, created advantageous point dynamics (APD) (winners or advantage) while as receivers made incorrect anticipatory responses significantly more frequently to the disguised strokes than that of the undisguised strokes. As hypothesized, disguised strokes in the match between two tennis experts can be not only highly unpredictable but also efficient in creating a tactical advantage for the hitter and a disadvantage for the receiver.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T03:36:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221075728
       
  • Teamwork and performance in professional women's football: A network-based
           analysis

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      Authors: Laura M.S. de Jong, Paul B. Gastin, Lyndell Bruce, Dan B. Dwyer
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Analysis of the underlying tactics and teamwork in women's football is rare and it is unknown how professional women's teams cooperate to be successful. The aim of this study was to investigate teamwork using network analysis while comparing match-outcome, match-type, ladder halves and tournament phases, to determine whether teamwork is related to success. Ball transfer data in 694 matches from the 2015, 2016 and 2017/18 Football Association Women's Super League (FA WSL) seasons; 2016–2018 National Women's Football League (NWSL) seasons; 2013 and 2017 European Cups; and 2011 and 2013 World Cups were analysed. The network metrics: edge density, transitivity, mean distance, out degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality were calculated. Success was categorised in match outcomes, ladder halves, tournament phases and ladder positions. It was found that successful professional women's football teams are highly connected (p = 0.006), and the distribution of ball possession is centralised (p = 0.001). There is a tendency for key players to send out a high number of passes, but there is no dependency on these key players for the total ball flow within a team, which is a characteristic that may be unique to women's football. Differences in teamwork exist between single matches and full seasons or tournaments, with successful teams having more effective ball movement and successful passes over the course of a season or tournament (p < 0.001). Moreover, successful league teams have more players with connecting roles than tournament teams and match tactics should be adapted to this.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T03:03:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221092355
       
  • Quantifying the unfairness of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification

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      Authors: László Csató
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the fairness of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying competition via Monte Carlo simulations. The qualifying probabilities are calculated for 102 nations, all teams except for African and European countries. A method is proposed to quantify the degree of unfairness. Although the qualifications within four FIFA confederations are constructed fairly, serious differences are found between the continents: for instance, a South American team could have tripled its chances by playing in Asia. Choosing a fixed matchup in the inter-continental play-offs instead of the current random draw can reduce the unfairness of the competition. The move of Australia from the Oceanian to the Asian zone is shown to increase its probability of participating in the 2018 FIFA World Cup by about 65%. Our results provide important insights for the administrators on how to reallocate the qualifying berths.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T03:02:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211073455
       
  • Rule-directed and discovery learning in SCUBA-diving

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      Authors: Fabian Möller, Uwe Hoffmann, Fabian Steinberg, Tobias Vogt
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Time efficiency is crucial when teaching SCUBA-diving with limited practice time. Safety skills must be learned with sufficient quality and still be mastered after long breaks and in critical situations. We hypothesized a rule-directed learning approach (RL), which provides the learners with information on the best way to perform a skill, to show good initial results but less stability over time. Discovery learning (DL), which enables learners to experience more variability and to find individual solutions, might support greater stability over time and higher robustness to stress and fatigue.25 beginners (age:22.5 ± 2.7; 5 females) were randomly assigned to RL (N = 13) or DL (N = 12) and received the same general criteria for successful deployment of a surface marker buoy. Only RL got additional visual presentation and explicit instructions. Six acquisition trials were conducted. Three evaluation trials were performed, video-recorded, and independently rated for water-position/trim, time, and safety-aspects (Pre). Another three rated trials were performed after 45 (±5) days without further practice (Retention).Safety performance was rated higher for RL both during Pre (P 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T12:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221091453
       
  • The impact of different playing surfaces on physiological parameters in
           collegiate DI American football athletes

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      Authors: Floris C. Wardenaar, Kaila A. Vento, Carmen P Ortega-Santos, John Connolly, Jennifer K Vanos
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Heat conditioning aids in acclimatization to support health and performance, yet heat safety is an important factor. This quasi-experimental pilot study investigated differences in micro-environmental conditions and physiological outcomes in n = 5 Division I collegiate American football players over different playing surfaces during summertime in the southwest U.S. Participants performed three practice sessions on hot days (∼33°C): outdoors on artificial turf (AT) and natural grass (NG); and an indoor dome (ID). Microclimate parameters, including net radiative fluxes, and physiological markers (core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate, and hydration) were continuously and simultaneously monitored. Microclimate conditions varied across the three environments. Outdoors, the largest differences were observed in surface temperatures between AT and NG (67.0°C and 32.8°C, respectively), resulting in higher emitted longwave radiation (infrared heat), slightly increasing air temperatures. Indoors, the lack of radiation lessened the overall heat load, yet higher humidity and lower airflow were observed. Physiologically, similar baseline Tc and Tsk and self-reported heat stress levels were recorded. During exercise, a significantly higher Tsk value was found on the AT (higher heat load), followed by the NG (moderate) and ID (lowest). The same pattern was reflected in Tc, RPE, and self-reported heat stress, even with lower solar radiation on AT. No differences between environments were reported for estimated energy expenditure, pre/post-body weight, bodyweight loss, fluid intake, or sweat rate. Small changes in microclimates affect overall heat loads and measured and perceived heat stress, which coaches can use in decision-making for session type, heat safety, and/or acclimatization goals.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T12:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221089748
       
  • The pre- and post-pitch-entry physical and technical responses of rugby
           league interchange players according to starting status

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      Authors: Samuel P. Hills, Zachary L. Crang, Mark Russell, Rich D. Johnston
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study quantified the activities of interchange players during the 15 min before and 20 min after initial pitch-entry (INTentry) or re-entry (INTre−entry) for substitutes and starters, respectively, and identified relationships between pre- and post-pitch-entry responses. Fourteen semi-professional rugby league players wore Microelectromechanical Systems and were filmed throughout 10 matches in which they were interchanged (68 observations). Twelve physical and technical variables were analyzed for the pre-match warm-up, five, 10, and 15 min before INTentry or INTre−entry (physical variables only), and five min epochs following match-introduction. Linear mixed models indicated that during the 0–5 min following INTentry, physical and technical responses were typically greater (∼7.1% to 66.3%) than subsequent epochs while total (∼6.2%) and high-speed (37.1%) distance also exceeded the 0–5 min after INTre−entry (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T12:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221089306
       
  • A game for the ages: Understanding and overcoming the relative age effect
           in Australian football

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      Authors: Adrian J Barake, Heather Mitchell, Constantino Stavros, Mark F Stewart
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in sport refers to the over-representation of those born earlier in a defined age group. This discriminatory effect leads to market inefficiencies and can have profound impacts upon career pathways, dropout rates and the quality of sport. This research examines how this effect influences the recruitment and performance of a cohort of Australian footballers as they progress from junior competitions to the professional level. While the RAE results from bias influencing the selection process of junior pathways, we demonstrate that those who survive to the final stages of selection and were born later in their age groups actually emerge with an advantage (rather than the expected disadvantage). The selection of these younger players results from recruiters explicitly taking account of the RAE. When the performance of these advantaged players is assessed at the professional level, they perform relatively well, suggesting that the recruiters are expertly considering the consequences of the RAE; although their task would be considerably easier if they were not dealing with a legion of young footballers whose characteristics had already been heavily shaped by the RAE. We consider a range of implications of this effect and suggest policy measures to address it.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T07:33:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221081135
       
  • Periodisation in professional tennis: A macro to micro analysis of load
           management strategies within a cluttered calendar

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      Authors: Thomas Perri, Rob Duffield, Alistair Murphy, Tom Mabon, Machar Reid
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      AimThis study analysed the periodisation of internal loads across training and competition blocks of future top 250 (T250) professionally ranked tennis players’ professional transitions.MethodsRetrospective data was analysed from 10 male and 8 female Australian tennis players aged between 16 to 18 who later achieved professional rankings inside the T250. Session-rating of perceived exertion training load (sRPE TL) was collected from all sessions using an online application. Data were collected from official matches, on-court skill-based training, and off-court sessions (i.e., strength, conditioning, body management) and classified according to their occurrence in either training or competition blocks. Weekly sRPE TL was quantified for respective training and competition periods. One-way analysis of variance and effect size analyses compared within-sex training loads between training and competition blocks.ResultsTraining blocks lasted longer than competitions for both sexes (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T06:57:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221091087
       
  • Effects of brief periods of combined plyometric exercise and high
           intensity running training on the fitness performance of male U17 handball
           players

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      Authors: Nawel Gaamouri, Mehrez Hammami, Roy J. Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly, Beat Knechtle, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Sabri Gaied
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the effects of 8-week combined plyometric exercise and high intensity running training (combined training) on the performance fitness in male U17 handball players. Participants were randomly divided between experimental (E; n = 15; age: 16.5 ± 0.4 years) and control (C; n = 13; age: 16.7 ± 0.3 years) groups. The E group performed combined training (4 workshops) twice a week over 8 weeks. Each session lasted approximately 35 min. The C maintained regular in-season training. Before and after the combined training, both groups underwent repeated sprint ability (RSA), sprint performance (5m, 10m, 20m and 30m), change of direction test (Modified change-of-direction T-test (T-half)), vertical jump (squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), counter-movement jump with aimed arms (CMJA)), horizontal jump (five-jump test (5JT)), strength (1-RM half squat), and 20-meter shuttle run. Group x time interaction showed significant increases on sprint performance (p < 0.01, 8.6%; p < 0.001, 7.3%; p < 0.05, 6.9%; and p < 0.01, 8.9% over distances of 5m, 10m, 20m and 30m respectively) in E relative to C. The T-half also showed significant gains for E (p < 0.05, 6.8%), as did vertical jumping (p < 0.01, 32.7%; p < 0.001, 32.6% and p < 0.001, 23% for SJ, CMJ and CMJA respectively) and horizontal jumping (p < 0.05, 13.3%) compared to C. Moreover, there were significant improvements of RSA and 20 m shuttle run in E compared to C. However, there were no significant differences in 1-RM half squat between groups. We conclude that the allocation of short periods of a combined training is effective in enhancing performance fitness and thus can be commended to male U17 Handball participants as a potentially useful component of their training.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T06:57:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221090932
       
  • Does jumping conducted before the swimming start elicit underwater
           enhancement'

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      Authors: Jesús Juan Ruiz-Navarro, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Christopher Papic, Ana Gay, Esther Morales-Ortíz, Gracia López-Contreras, Raúl Arellano
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The effects of pre-activation exercises on undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) have not been studied. This research aimed to: 1) assess the effects of a jumping-exercise strategy upon UUS performance and kinematics variables; 2) test the different effects on males and females, and; 3) to explore if stronger participants exhibit greater post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE). Ninety-two age-group national level swimmers randomly assigned into control (17 males and 18 females) and experimental groups (27 males and 30 females) took part in a cross-sectional study designed to test two maximal 15-m UUS performance efforts. The experimental group performed four maximal tuck jumps before the first or the second UUS effort. Performance and kinematics variables were analyzed using instantaneous velocity data via speedometer. Maximal lower-limbs force was obtained during a countermovement jump through a linear-encoder. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA test and linear regression analysis were used to explore variable interactions between baseline and PAPE, and the association between the PAPE response and strength of the swimmers, respectively. Despite trends toward improvements in push-off velocity (Δ = 1.33%; d = 0.12), the results did not show enhancements nor deterioration in UUS performance and kinematics after the tuck jumps. No specific PAPE responses modulated by sex or by the strength level of the swimmers were observed for this age-group (p < 0.05). Four tuck jump repetitions executed prior to diving could be insufficient to acutely enhance UUS performance. The fact that the exercise performed during warm-up was a body-weight based exercise, was possibly not enough to evoke PAPE.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T06:56:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221078279
       
  • Integrated evaluation of team strategy, training practices and game
           performance of a basketball team

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      Authors: Wellington Rangel, Gilbert Fellingham, Felipe Santana, Leonardo Lamas
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      An important task of a basketball coach is to transfer information between game performance and team preparation. Therefore, the goals of this study were twofold: i) to define a framework encompassing the steps of team strategy, training practices, and game performance – the Team Learning Cycle (TLC); ii) to test TLC’s support for evaluation of team preparation-competition coherence with a junior basketball team. Team plays were assigned as an independent variable, systematically measured along the TLC. Frequency, diversity, and efficiency (points per possession) of plays performed in a game were compared both with alternatives of plays in the team strategy and emphasis during practices. TLC was implemented in a customized software for improving data acquisition reliability. We used a cluster analysis to group team plays according to similarities of offensive features and we applied Bayesian methods to compute the posterior distributions of the parameters describing minutes planned for team plays and training variables. Plays proportions were compared between practices and game. The 25 plays variations were grouped in seven clusters suggesting strategic diversity. Training presented significant tendencies towards offense phase, with opposition (emphasis on tactics) and situational practices (games and competition) – p(robability)> .90. The seven clusters of plays had a large variance in their training volume. The most frequently performed plays in the game were not those most trained but they had the most points per possession in the game. Results evidence the TLC may help coaches interpret the ongoing learning process of the team, improving team’s preparation.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T09:02:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221076621
       
  • Sabotage in dynamic tournaments with heterogeneous contestants: Evidence
           from European football

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      Authors: Yangqing Zhao, Hui Zhang
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyses how sabotage, measured as the number of fouls and yellow and red cards, is affected by the relative performance of and asymmetries between teams, determined based on score margin and the odds gap between one team and its opponent. By applying detailed controls for within-match dynamics and differences in team quality, we first observe that badly losing favourites are more willing than losing underdogs to increase their unsporting behaviour in heterogeneous contests. There are more yellow cards and fouls as the game progresses. We further find that most sabotage (yellow cards) can be observed when the (absolute) goal difference is equal to 1. Teams decrease their level of sabotage (fouls) by increasing the number of goals of lead or trail. In addition, weaker teams have an incentive to engage in more unfair and destructive strategies, such as committing more fouls, including those penalized with yellow cards. However, the incidence of red cards is not influenced by the score margin or strength gap.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:12:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221078647
       
  • Effects of repeated-sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary
           hypoventilation on performance during ice hockey off-season

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      Authors: Franck Brocherie, Gregory Cantamessi, Grégoire P. Millet, Xavier Woorons
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to assess the effects of an off-season period of repeated-sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (RSH-VHL) on off-ice repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in ice hockey players. Thirty-five high-level youth ice hockey players completed 10 sessions of running repeated sprints over a 5-week period, either with RSH-VHL (n = 16) or with unrestricted breathing (RSN, n = 19). Before (Pre) and after (Post) the training period, subjects performed two 40-m single sprints (to obtain the reference velocity (Vref)) followed by a running RSA test (12 × 40 m all-out sprints with departure every 30 s). From Pre to Post, there was no change in Vref or in the maximal velocity reached in the RSA test in both groups. In RSH-VHL, the mean velocity of the RSA test was higher (88.9 ± 5.4 vs. 92.9 ± 3.2% of Vref; p < 0.01) and the percentage decrement score lower (11.1 ± 5.2 vs. 7.1 ± 3.3; p < 0.01) at Post than at Pre whereas no significant change occurred in the RSN group (89.6 ± 3.3 vs. 91.3 ± 1.9% of Vref, p = 0.11; 10.4 ± 3.2 vs. 8.7 ± 2.3%; p = 0.13). In conclusion, five weeks of off-ice RSH-VHL intervention led to a significant 4% improvement in off-ice RSA performance. Based on previous findings showing larger effects after shorter intervention time, the dose-response dependent effect of this innovative approach remains to be investigated.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T06:43:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221079531
       
  • Technical and physical performance across five consecutive seasons in
           elite European Soccer

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      Authors: Ryland Morgans, Patrick Orme, Eduard Bezuglov, Rocco Di Michele
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The technical and physical demands of elite soccer match-play may vary considerably across a season and from season-to-season in relation to a myriad of factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the technical and physical performance trends over five consecutive seasons (2016–2021) for twenty-two soccer players from a team participating in an elite European league, the Russian Premier League (RPL). Match data were recorded and analysed via an Optical Tracking System, and a selection of technical and physical performance variables were examined. From matches analysed, we observed small within-season changes (ES 0.17 to 0.37) for technical performance variables, and small to moderate changes (ES 0.31 to 0.86) for physical performance variables. Dribbles, percentage of successful dribbles, total distance covered, high-intensity and sprint distances, and maximal acceleration showed an average increase from the 2016–2017 to the 2018–2019 season, followed by a decrease in the subsequent seasons. Conversely, tackles, high-intensity accelerations and peak acceleration showed a decreasing trend from the 2016–2017 to the 2020–2021 season. Moderate to large correlations (r = −0.58 to 0.46) were apparent between changes in technical and physical variables. In summary, we observed between-season changes in match technical and physical variables in a RPL team, while there were no differences between the first and second phases of the season. The present findings may provide coaches with knowledge about long-term variations in technical and physical match performance, that can be practically useful to assess and interpret change in individual and team performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T06:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221089247
       
  • Understanding the sleep of ultra-marathon swimmers: Guidance for coaches
           and swimmers

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      Authors: Ian C Dunican, Emma L Perry, Maisey Gemma, Elena Nesci, Spencer Roberts
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Open water swimming ultra-marathon events ≥10 km have become increasingly popular amongst master athletes. However, very little is known about the timing of training sessions and the impact on sleep. This study aimed to examine sleep behaviours, sleep problems and disorders and the relationship with training timings.This study used a longitudinal observational design for 42 nights with 24 masters' swimmers (n = 13 females), aged 39 ± 11 years, body mass index of 26 ± 3 kg/m2 during a training squad for an ocean ultra-swim (19.7 km) in Western Australia. Objective measures of sleep were obtained from a wrist-activity monitor, the Readiband™ (Fatigue Science Inc., Canada). Swimmers completed a survey instrument related to sleep problems, disorders, chronotype, anthropometric and demographic information. Generalised linear mixed models were fitted to examine relationships between predictor variables and sleep responses.Body mass index was associated with a decline in Total Sleep Time (TST), each one-unit increase in BMI was associated with 5 min less TST (p = 0.04). Swimmers with a “high risk” of sleep apnea had 21 min more wake time (p = 0.04) and 5% lower Sleep Efficiency (p = 0.04). Sleep Offset on the morning of a morning training session was earlier by 48 min (p < 0.001) resulting in less TST by 39 min (p < 0.001).This study provides evidence that coaches need to consider sleep behaviours and problems before designing training schedules. Swimmers need to plan and allocate an adequate sleep opportunity and those who have a suspected sleep disorder or problem should seek the support of a sleep physician.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T07:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221089385
       
  • Winning the second half: The perceived and actual impact of the coach's
           half-time speech on basketball players’ performance

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      Authors: Sima Zach, Simcha Avugos, Liat Bakalo-Kuffler, Michael Bar-Eli
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study was designed to explore coaches’ half-time speeches and whether players perceive these speeches as having an impact on their performance later in the game. A mixed-methods convergent design was used. Participants were nine male basketball players aged 19–34 (M = 27, SD = 4.76) from a team playing in the Israeli Basketball Premier League, as well as their head coach (aged 41) and two assistant coaches (aged 51 and 34). Data were collected on the coach's speeches at half-time in games during the regular season. In addition, face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the players and the two assistant coaches were conducted at midseason. The average speech duration was approximately 3 min, and messages were delivered at an average pace of one theme every 13 s. The most frequent theme was psychological, with more negative themes delivered compared to positive ones. Psychological themes appeared 50% more than informational. We discuss the differences in the features of the talks between games in which the team was trailing at half-time, and games in which they reached half-time with a leading score. A surprising gap exists between the participants’ perception regarding the contribution of the half-time speech to players’ performance, and the actual score at the end of the game.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T07:24:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221089743
       
  • An assessment of the World Rugby law application guidelines for the
           breakdown on sanctioning and player adherence

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      Authors: Scott L. Mitchell, Gregory J. Tierney
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      World Rugby’s law application guideline for the breakdown was developed to make the breakdown safer, fairer, and simpler to understand. The aim of this study was to use video analysis to assess the impact of these guidelines by comparing player adherence from the 2019 Rugby World Cup (pre-guidelines) to the 2020 Autumn Nations Cup (post-guidelines) as well as the rate of sanctioning by match officials. Contested breakdowns (n = 1444) were individually analysed by coding any infringement that occurred as well as the sanctioning outcome. The chi-square and probability (p) values were calculated to compare proportions before (pre) and after (post) the law application guidelines. No change in the rate of infringements was observed (p = 0.207), though the rate of infringements penalised increased (p = 0.001). Reductions in the rate of infringements of two of the five offences targeted by the guidelines were observed; “offside” (p = 0.008) and “remains on feet” (p
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T07:24:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221088577
       
  • Analysis of tactical behavior in full- and small-sided games: Comparing
           professional and youth academy athletes to enhance player development in
           soccer

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      Authors: Israel Teoldo da Costa, Marcos Paulo de Freitas Silvino
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aims to compare the tactical behavior of youth academy and professional players, in order to ascertain the contribution of full- and small-sided games for the development process. One hundred and eighty individuals were selected from three age groups (U-8, U-10 and U-12). A competition was held in which all teams faced each other once in each format (Full- and Small-Sided Games). In addition, 9 matches of the 2018 Brazilian Championship were analyzed. The paired t tests, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests was performed to the comparison between the tactical behavior of youth academy players in each game format with the professional players (p < 0.05). Youth academy matches generated more and shorter offensive sequences, interactions were less frequent and less variable, and players cooperated less with one another. In the small-sided game, specifically, there was a demand for ball circulation in terms of velocity and amplitude similar to that of professional matches. Elements were found that support the need to use small-sided games in training, as it provides similar stimuli to what players will find in the professional category in the future. The speed and width of ball circulation, a large number of shots on goal, and the constant exchanges of ball possession - which helps in the development of cooperative and oppositional relationships between the phases and moments of the game - are enough elements to sustain that the game settings discussed here are beneficial for player development.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T07:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221074992
       
  • Nutrition and the elite and highly trained junior and young adult tennis
           player: A scoping review

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      Authors: James Andrew Fleming, Robert Joseph Naughton, Liam David Harper
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe primary objective of this scoping review was to examine existing evidence regarding the dietary intake and nutrition habits of elite and highly trained junior and young adult tennis players.MethodsSystematic searches of MEDLINE, EBSCOHost and Scopus were undertaken from the earliest record to December 2021. Reference lists of articles selected were manually searched. A five-stage protocol informed by Arkey and O’Malley's framework with consideration for the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology from scoping reviews was followed.ResultsThe initial searches yielded an initial 145 records following the removal of duplicates. Following the screening process 14 articles were accepted for analyses. Three major themes were identified: (1) dietary intake and negative energy balance, (2) sub-optimal nutrient intake/habits, and (3) the use and impact of dietary supplements/ergogenic aids.ConclusionResearch indicates sub-optimal nutritional practices amongst elite and highly trained junior and young adult tennis players. Particular concerns have emerged regarding insufficient calorie consumption to support performance, growth, and wellbeing.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T03:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221087687
       
  • Relationships between flow state and motivation in junior elite tennis
           players: Differences by gender

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      Authors: Salma Mouelhi-Guizani, Sarah Guinoubi, Mokhtar Chtara, Miguel Crespo
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the relationships between differing types of motivation and the flow state and possible gender differences. A sample of 94 junior elite tennis players (44 boys and 50 girls), ages 11 to 14 years (12.05 ± 1.2) completed the French Flow State Scale-2 (F FSS-2) and the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) questionnaires. Results reported a moderate link between intrinsic motivation and flow state (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). Amotivation was negatively related to all dimensions of flow state except for transformation of time (r = -.02, p
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T08:29:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221082990
       
  • Gender differences in parental educational styles in athletes: Competition
           level and sport success

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      Authors: Higinio González-García, Francisco Daniel Martínez-Martínez, Antonia Pelegrín
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this research was to know whether there are differences in parental educational styles depending on gender in athletes and parents, the level of sports success (local successes, national successes and international successes) and the competition level (local competition, national competition and international competition). The sample was made up of 357 Spanish athletes. An ad hoc sociodemographic questionnaire, the Multifactor Self-Assessment Test of Child Adjustment (TAMAI) and the Oviedo Scale of Infrequency of Response (INF-OV), were used to measure the different variables. Results showed that women athletes perceived more protective fathers and men perceived more authoritarian mothers. MANOVA analyses revealed that no gender differences were found depending on the competition level and the level of success. In conclusion, fathers should be aware that they unconsciously can be more protective with girls, otherwise, mothers can be more authoritarian with boys. Thus, these results should be considered by practitioners to create programs to intervene with parents depending on athlete's gender differences.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T07:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221087205
       
  • A systematic review of the criterion validity and reliability of technical
           and tactical field-based tests in soccer

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      Authors: Filipe Manuel Clemente, Gibson Praça, Rafael Oliveira, Rodrigo Aquino, Rui Araújo, Rui Silva, Hugo Sarmento, José Afonso
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundField-based tests are important since they can guarantee ecological validity. Although most such tests are designed to assess physical fitness, tactical and technical dimensions are also determinants in a full battery of tests.ObjectivesThis systematic review aimed to (a) summarize the criterion validity and reliability of technical and tactical field-based tests applied in soccer and (b) list valid and reliable technical and tactical field-based tests.MethodsA systematic review of EBSCO, PubMed, Scielo, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. The eligibility criteria included (i) population (soccer players from any age group, competitive level, or sex); (ii) exposure (exposure to technical and/or tactical field-based tests covering individual technical skills, tactical behaviours, tactical knowledge, and decision-making in the field); (iii) comparator (a laboratory test and/or a criterion field-based test); (iv) outcome (measures of reliability); and (v) no restrictions concerning study design. The synthesis of results focused on the outcomes considered in the eligibility criteria.ResultsA total of 5008 titles were identified, of which 21 met the eligibility criteria. Eight studies’ analyses centred on tactical tests. Of those, six studies tested the same instrument (FUT-SAT), one study examined divergent thought, and one study used a soccer-specific skills test Among the 10 included studies involving technical tests, only two repeated the same test (the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test). Three studies included tests concurring with physical ones. According to the main findings, the eight studies that used tactical tests revealed that the outcomes obtained from the tests and observers were reliable. The 10 studies that used technical tests, as well as the three concurrent studies, revealed similarly high reliability. Of the eight studies that used tactical tests, seven involved youth participants. Furthermore, three of the 10 studies that conducted technical tests were done on adults. Of the concurrent tests, three involved youth athletes. Only one study including a tactical analysis presented values for validity, while three others provided information about validity. The four studies provided information about test validity.ConclusionsOverall, the selected technical and tactical tests, most of which were carried out on youth players, revealed their validity and reliability. Although most studies focused on reliability (which was confirmed regardless of the test included), criterion validity was also observed in the few studies that analysed such factors. Thus, the tests currently proposed for assessing technical and tactical behaviours possess acceptable criterion validity and reliability.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T07:23:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221085236
       
  • Analysis of match report indicators in men's volleyball olympics and world
           championships (2014–2021) depending on the type of final score

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      Authors: George Giatsis, Sotirios Drikos, Afroditi Lola
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to explore the match and technical indicators between winning and losing teams in the Olympics and World Championships (2016–2021) depending on the final score of the matches. A total of 273 volleyball match reports were analyzed from the Men's Olympics (2016 and 2021) and World Championships (2014–2018). Discriminant function analysis determined which skill(s) contributed significantly to winning in matches with various score types. This study showed that for 3- and 4-set matches attack was the best predictor for team's success, while block and serve had also meaningful contribution. In 5-set matches serve and block points were the main predictors of a team's success. The results on the importance of scoring skills highlight the necessity of sustained trainability of all match actions, not favoring one, such as attack, too much. The essential for this balance is confirmed by the fact that teams do not increase their probability of winning a match by success only in attack, but also in the other terminal actions such as serve and block.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T09:37:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221086779
       
  • On the relationship between individual differences in motives and motor
           performance

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      Authors: Florian Müller, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Motor performance is characterized by individual differences. Motive research posits that individual differences in motives (achievement, affiliation, power) predict what types of incentives individuals experience as motivating. It follows that in order to incentivize and optimize performance, models explaining determinants of such differences are integral to design appropriate interventions or training settings. Therefore, in the current study, we tested the utility of a motive-based approach in explaining motor performance differences in a competitive sports context. Specifically, we trained and assessed sport science students’ performance in a series of motor tasks (i.e., darts, beanbag throwing, golf putting) in small groups. Beforehand, students’ motives were assessed employing both projective and self-report measures. As hypothesized, students’ projectively measured power motive (and to a lesser extent achievement motive) showed a positive relationship to motor performance. In contrast, none of the self-reported motives were related to performance. These findings highlight the utility of the achievement and power motive in explaining individual differences in motor performance and suggest feasible intervention and training strategies.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T09:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221085940
       
  • A qualitative study exploring tactical performance determinants from the
           perspective of three Rugby World Cup coaches

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      Authors: Carmen M. E. Colomer, David B. Pyne, Mitch Mooney, Andrew McKune, Benjamin G. Serpell
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Experiential knowledge of elite international coaches was investigated to reveal insights on successful rugby union strategies and tactics required to prevail in international competition. Three elite coaches who coached at a Rugby World Cup were interviewed using an in-depth, semi- structured approach. They were asked about specific strategies and tactics which they believed were required to be successful in an upcoming international tournament and a thematic analysis of qualitative data followed. Particular interest was paid to the influence of potential constraints and how these factors impact performance behaviours over time. The importance of an effective tactical kicking game in attacking strategies was highlighted, along with an adaptable defensive structure following a turnover. Unsuccessful performance behaviours in international rugby were reported to be connected with an irrational kicking game, a weak defensive line and losing possession off set-piece plays. These results support the need for a multidisciplinary approach, where exploring coaches’ knowledge presents an opportunity to enhance understanding across the performance analysis field. Further research is needed to complement experiential knowledge with quantitative research in rugby performance analysis.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T09:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221087384
       
  • The effect of time of day on adolescent fast bowling performance: A pilot
           study

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      Authors: Belinda C Campbell, Jonathan P Davy, Lee Pote, Candice J Christie
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The game of cricket is played at various times of the day and no studies have investigated the time of day effects on perceptual, physical and performance measures of cricketers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to focus on adolescent fast bowlers and their responses when bowling at different times of the day. First team, adolescent male fast bowlers (N = 5, Mean age 17.00 ± 0.55 years; stature 185.2 ± 6.5 cm and mass 86.06 ± 17.56 kg) were required to complete a fast-bowling simulation protocol whereby perceptual, physical and bowling-specific performance measures were tested at three different times of day (10:30, 14:30, 18:30). Over all the spells over one was significantly slower than all the other overs. There were no significant changes in bowling speed between the time intervals. However, there was a large increase in bowling speed at 14:30 compared to 10:30 (ES – 1.25) and a moderate increase in bowling speed (ES = 0.67) between 10:30 and 18:30. There was no significant change in accuracy at the different time intervals although it was best at 10:30 followed by 18:30 although the latter had a greater variance. In conclusion, this investigation found time of day did not significantly impact the responses, but the effects sizes show that bowling accuracy was worst at 14:30 despite the other parameters, such as speed of delivery, being best at this time, which may suggest a speed-accuracy trade-off. Additionally, both 10:30 and 18:30 were found to be times conducive to bowling performance with regards to accuracy.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T09:16:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221080630
       
  • Devils or angels when in love' An exploratory study investigating
           romantic love among high-risk athletes

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      Authors: Fabio Cannas Aghedu, Mariapia Ghedina, Jais Adam-Troian, Laurence Lux-Sterrit, Pierluigi Graziani, Patrizia S. Bisiacchi
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, research on high-risk athletes has focused mainly on personality traits, highlighting a complex and often ambivalent personality structure. Although scholars pointed out emotional difficulties amongst high-risk athletes, there exists to this day no in-depth investigation of the affective aspect. In an effort to address this so-far neglected question, this study offers the first thorough exploration of patterns of romantic relationships among high-risk athletes. Two groups were selected: people who practice extreme sports (N = 189; Extreme) and those who practice other types of sports (N = 207; Non-extreme). A series of tests were administered to evaluate romantic love, personality traits and self-esteem. Results showed that Extreme tend to display less intense feelings than their Non-extreme counterparts; conversely, their sentimental relationships are characterized by positive emotions and stable feelings, avoiding negative emotions. Hence, despite stereotypes which characterize Extreme as thrill-seekers prone to impulsivity, it seems that this group do not in fact seek as many thrills in their love life, but rather seek stability and contentment. Although still in it explorative phase, this study produced preliminary data which should be considered in devising further assessment and therapeutic strategies for this population of athletes.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T09:16:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221086596
       
  • The reliability and validity of mobalytics proving ground as a
           perceptual-motor skill assessment for esports

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      Authors: Matthew A. Pluss, Andrew R Novak, Kyle J.M. Bennett, Derek Panchuk, Aaron J Coutts, Job Fransen
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the test-retest reliability and discriminant validity of the Mobalytics Proving Ground™ assessment for League of Legends. Forty participants (age: 24.15 ± 3.68 y, sex: male = 31, female = 9) were a priori classified into two expertise groups: (1) esports players (age: 22.98 ± 3.64 y, sex: male = 18, female = 2), and (2) controls (age: 25.31 ± 3.42 y, sex: male = 13, female = 7). Participants completed three separate trials (60 s each) online. To assess test-retest reliability, variables displaying normal distributions were analysed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates for two-way mixed-effects models with 95% confidence intervals. The average ICC for all the independent variables in the esports group and control group were moderate (ICC esports = 0.53 and ICC control = 0.72). The average 95% confidence intervals for the independent variables in the esports and control group were ICC = 0.30–0.75 and ICC = 0.55–0.86, respectively. A Friedman test revealed an effect size of 0.11 in the esports group and 0.07 in the control group. In terms of discriminant validity, there were significant differences for 17 variables when comparing the best scores of each group. Overall, the Mobalytics Proving Ground™ assessment used in the current study can, to some extent, distinguish esports players from controls.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T03:29:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221086793
       
  • The Working Conditions of Performance Analysts in Oceania

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      Authors: Leaha Dickey, Codi Ramsey, Richard Humphrey, Simon Middlemas, Eoin Murray, Kirsten Spencer
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Performance analysis (PA) has become an essential tool in the sports industry and employment in this sector is growing across all levels in Oceania. Despite the continued growth of research on PA there is little known about the specific working conditions of the analysts. The aim of this research is to understand the working conditions of performance analysts employed in the Oceania region and to and identify ways to better support practitioners. An online survey distributed to performance analysts in Oceania collected data on PA demographics, job type, remuneration and job satisfaction. Sixty-five performance analysts across a wide range of the industry completed the survey. Data analysis involving descriptive statistics, a T-test and a Mann Whitney U test showed that responding performance analysts were predominantly young males earning an average of $62,000 per annum, with six years of experience and a bachelor’s degree or higher qualification. Pay varied significantly across the industry and analysts frequently travelled and worked above their agreed hours without extra remuneration, all conditions that have been shown to lead to burnout and poor long-term retention in similar industries. However, the participants primarily responded ‘strongly agree’ or ‘somewhat agree’ to six out of the nine intrinsic work quality questions and overall, the analysts felt valued in their workplace and were satisfied with their job.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T03:29:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221085775
       
  • The relationship between physical qualities and contact technique in
           academy rugby union players

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      Authors: Steve den Hollander, Michael Lambert, Ben Jones, Sharief Hendricks
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the relationship between physical qualities and contact technique proficiency in rugby union players. Thirty-eight (n = 38) male academy rugby union players participated in the study. Physical measures of anthropometry, functional mobility, strength endurance, strength, power, speed, agility, and anaerobic and aerobic endurance were assessed. Tackler, ball-carrier, and ruck technique were assessed using video analysis of a standardised two-on-two contact drill. Seven physical qualities were moderately associated with tackler technique; Push-ups (r2 = 0.2; β = 0.04; p = 0.005; ES = 0.26), Sit-ups (r2 = 0.2; β = 0.08; p = 0.004; ES = 0.27), Relative 1RM Bench Press (r2 = 0.2; β = 2.32; p = 0.003; ES = 0.29), Broad Jump (r2 = 0.2; β = 0.03; p = 0.009; ES = 0.22), Agility (r2 = 0.2; β = −0.47; p = 0.019; ES = 0.19), 40m-Speed with Ball (r2 = 0.1; β = 0.93; p = 0.027; ES = 0.16) and Functional Mobility (r2 = 0.2; β = 0.16; p = 0.007; ES = 0.25). There was a large association between ball-carrier technique and Medicine Ball Throw (r2 = 0.3; β = 1.13; p = 0.001; ES = 0.37), and a moderate association between ruck technique and agility without (r2 = 0.2; β = −0.75; p = 0.005; ES = 0.21) and with (r2 = 0.2; β = −0.55; p = 0.015; ES = 0.29) the ball. The findings demonstrate the important contribution of physical strength and conditioning to contact technique in rugby union players. Contact technique training should be accompanied with physical strength and conditioning, as improvements in physical qualities may serve as foundational components to underpin improvements in technique.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T04:39:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221076297
       
  • Research of visual attention in basketball shooting: A systematic review
           with meta-analysis

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      Authors: Matic Sirnik, Frane Erčulj, Jernej Rošker
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Visual attention has a significant impact on shooting performance in basketball. Over the past 35 years, researchers have explored individual concepts of visual attention, such as gaze fixation, the number and direction of saccades, and their effects on shooting accuracy. The last gaze fixation, also known as the quiet eye, was found to be particularly important. The aim of this paper was therefore to systematically review the literature to present how visual attention and the quiet eye contribute to shooting performance and how they are affected by anxiety, training, defensive pressure, and fatigue. The 26 articles selected were divided into two categories; the first category included studies that examined visual attention during free throws, and the second category included studies examining jump shots. In addition, we performed a meta-analytic comparison to determine whether the duration of the quiet eye differs with respect to temporal constraints. Results show that for both jump shots with or without defence and free throws, a longer quiet eye durations and a lower number of gaze fixations are associated with better performance. For a successful shot, the quiet eye phase must occur at the right moment, which is likely due to visuomotor reaction latency prior to elbow extension. Furthermore, improvement in shooting performance can be achieved through quiet eye training or traditional training. Nevertheless, individual factors such as quiet eye timing, systematic training, and visual attention in top basketball players of different playing positions need to be further explored as this will provide even more information for individual’s improvement.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T01:47:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221075740
       
  • Strength and conditioning practices for the optimisation of speed and
           accuracy in cricket fast bowlers: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Akhilesh Kumar Ramachandran, Utkarsh Singh, Timothy JH Lathlean
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The most important determinants of a cricket fast bowler's performance are bowling speed and accuracy. Even though various strength and conditioning practices (resistance, plyometric and modified-implement training) have been employed to improve these parameters, there is still ambiguity as to the effectiveness of such training programmes. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the influence of various training interventions on fast bowling speed and accuracy. Searches were conducted across PubMed, Web of science, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies that: were original research or conference presentations; recruited fast bowlers as participants; involved a physical training intervention; written in English; and included bowling speed or accuracy as outcome measures. Ten articles met our inclusion criteria for qualitative and eight for quantitative analysis. The quality of the studies assessed using Downs and Black checklist ranged from low to moderate with a mean ± SD of 64.5 ± 8.14%. There was a moderate and significant effect of plyometric training intervention on bowling speed (SMD = 0.75; Z = 2.98; p = 0.003). Further, a small and non-significant effect of resistance training on bowling speed was observed in our study (SMD = 0.40; Z = 1.39; p = 0.164). A small but non-significant difference was found in the ball speed post modified ball weight training intervention (SMD = 0.30; Z = 1.14; p = 0.252). The findings from our study are useful for strength and conditioning coaches in helping to design and implement fast-bowling specific training programmes for improved bowling speed.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T01:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211070938
       
  • Multifactorial analysis of football penalty kicks in the Portuguese First
           League: A replication study

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      Authors: Carlos Humberto Almeida, Anna Volossovitch
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Although penalty-kick outcomes in football are thought to be affected by different factors, many of them have not been sufficiently analysed yet. This study sought to replicate and extend the findings of a previous multifactorial analysis of penalty kicks in Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) club competitions. For that purpose, we used a larger sample (n = 833), collected from eight consecutive seasons of the Portuguese First League (from 2013–2014 to 2020–2021) and adding the variables season, team quality and the penalty taker's playing status (starter or substitute) to the analysis. Chi-square tests of independence only showed significant associations of performance-related factors (shot horizontal and vertical directions, and goalkeeper's action) with penalty-kick outcome. Multinomial logistic regression model revealed significant increases in the odds of penalty kicks being saved when (1) shots were directed to the centre-left zones compared to the right zones (penalty taker's perspective), (2) shots were directed to the low zones of the goal and (3) goalkeepers dived to the correct side of the ball. In addition, the probability of missing the target or hitting the goalpost/crossbar significantly increased when shots aimed the high zones of the goal. Noteworthy, the risk of a penalty being saved when the shot was directed to the bottom zones of the goal outweighed the “miss factor” of shooting high. These findings enable coaches to develop optimal strategies for taking and saving penalty kicks, thus increasing the likelihood of both players to succeed in competitive matches, regardless of individual attributes and/or casual competitive circumstances.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T04:19:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221075722
       
  • Improved performance in youth netballers using two different length
           netball specific warm-ups

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      Authors: Suzanne Belcher, Chris Whatman, Matt Brughelli, Robert Borotkanics
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeNeuromuscular warm-up has been shown to reduce injury risk and improve performance; however, barriers to implementation are common. To improve uptake by coaches Netball New Zealand developed two warm-ups of differing complexity and duration. This multi-site trial investigated the association between two netball specific warm-ups and improvements in performance outcome in youth netball players.MethodsTwelve teams from six schools performed either the NetballSmart Dynamic Warm-up (NSDW, n = 37); or Power warm-up (PWU, n = 40), three times a week for 12 weeks. Performance was measured using 505 change-of-direction (COD), isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), Y-balance, vertical jump (VJ) and horizontal jump (HJ) tests. Paired t-tests assessed mean differences pre and post the interventions. Generalised linear mixed effects models evaluated effects between the NSDW and PWU groups.ResultsThere was no significant difference between the NSDW or PWU for any of the outcomes (all p> 0.05). Significant improvements were found in Y-balance (NSDW: Right (R) = 6.4 cm, Left (L) = 7.5 cm, p = 0.001; PWU: R = 4.2 cm, p = 0.004, L = 4.2, p = 0.006) and IMTP (NSDW: 162N; p = 0.001 PWU: 151N, p = 0.001) for both warm-up groups, and the NSDW also enhanced 505 performance (-0.07 s, p = 0.024). VJ and HJ failed to improve for either warm-up.ConclusionBased on performance outcomes coaches should be free to choose the warm-up they feel best fits their team environment, reducing barriers to implementation. Additionally, they may benefit from adding further COD, horizontal and vertical jumping movements to either their warm-up or skills training sessions.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T04:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221077252
       
  • Can early golfing lead to acetabular and lower limb changes' A
           cross-sectional study

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      Authors: Grégoire Prum, Christophe Sauret, Maxime Bourgain, Olivier Rouillon, Philippe Rouch, Patricia Thoreux
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Golf is a sport which is sometimes started early, in particular for players who become professionals. The combination of an early practice (before growth peak) with high training loads could further increase the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to comparing the morphological and positional parameters of the acetabular and lower limbs of golfers with early or late involvement in the golf practice. Two populations: golfers with early involvement in golf practice (before adolescent growth peak, 12 y.o.), golfers with late involvement (after adolescent growth peak). Subjects underwent a low-dose biplanar radiograph in standard standing position allowing the 3D reconstruction of bones. Morphological parameters were automatically computed from it. Thirty-five male golf players were included: 13 in early group (mean age 27 y.o.), 22 in late group (mean age 56 y.o.). The index of cumulative torsions (sum of the tibial and femoral torsions) was different between sides in early: 7° on the lead-side; 20° on the trail-side (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T01:51:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211073955
       
  • The use of player tracking data to analyze defensive play in professional
           soccer - A scoping review

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      Authors: Leander Forcher, Stefan Altmann, Leon Forcher, Darko Jekauc, Matthias Kempe
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The analysis of tracking data in tactical game analysis is a topic of rising interest, as more detailed insights into performance structure in soccer can be obtained compared to traditional (e.g. notational) analyzes. Compared to the variety and detailed analyzes of offensive play, the number of studies analyzing the defensive play is low. However, in recent years, an increasing number of studies investigating defensive play have been published, so it seems useful to provide an overview of the current state of research in this area. Therefore, this study aims to identify the approaches that have been used to analyze the defensive play in professional soccer using player tracking data and to reveal the findings on successful defensive play. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed (n = 604), Web of Science (n = 593), and SPORTDiscuss (n = 872)) was conducted according to the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Studies that were included used tracking data of professional adult male soccer and analyzed defensive play. The result is a total of 23 studies that were analyzed in detail using the standardized quality assessment checklist for systematic reviews in sports science. The synthesis of results was carried out descriptively by organizing the results into different levels of tactical play (individual level, group level, team level). All included studies were of good methodological quality. The approaches to investigate defensive play using tracking data are highly heterogeneous (e.g. analysis of defensive pressure, analysis of synchronization, behavioral analyzes, ball recoveries). Successful defensive play is characterized by high pressure at the individual level, by high inter-team and intra-team synchronization and balanced defense at the group level, and by a compact coordinated organization at the team level. By summarizing the state of research on defensive play in soccer using sophisticated analysis approaches that showcase the possibilities of tracking data, this study provides an important foundation for future research in this area.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T05:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221075734
       
  • Variations in Attack Patterns between Female and Male outside hitters in
           top-level Volleyball

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      Authors: Sotirios Drikos, Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Sofia Gkreka, Marina Tsakiri, Karolina Barzouka
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In volleyball outside hitters have wide participation in the offensive game. This study aims to analyze the variables that predict attack effectiveness in top-level volleyball depending on gender. Inferential statistics, multinomial logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis were applied to analyze 1931 attacks (1154 for women and 777 for men) from the six top-ranked teams in the Men and Women World Championships 2018. The analysis revealed that the two genders vary in some aspects of the game at the top level. In order to increase the odds for a winning attack, male volleyball teams must pass the ball to the setter accurately, setting in 2nd fast tempo to zones 4 and 6, enriching offensive options across all the net to avoid attack against an organized block. On the other hand, female teams must set in 2nd fast tempo to the offensive zone (positions 4 & 2), to avoid off-speed attacks, to spike primarily parallel and to take advantage of no block situations. A similarity between genders is that attack against a single block is more difficult and causes lower effectiveness than spike versus open double block.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:10:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221075723
       
  • A survey on the English FA heading guidelines for youth soccer: Evidence
           of compliance, but with limited knowledge of safety

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      Authors: James W Roberts, Christopher P Towlson, James J Malone
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Soccer heading may be problematic for neurocognitive function. The English Football Association (FA) recently introduced guidelines in order to limit the number of headers within training for youth soccer. However, it remains to be seen what the influence of these guidelines has been on the leaders of soccer teams that are primarily responsible for implementing the guidelines. Thus, we aimed to explore grassroot youth coaches’ knowledge of, views on, and adherence to the heading guidelines. An online survey was distributed to team representatives across Local County FAs. The survey comprised of three sections: (1) background information, (2) heading practices including details on heading activities and views on heading safety, and (3) heading guidelines including levels of awareness, knowledge, and compliance. 240 coaches responded by stating they rarely (21%) or never (73%) practiced heading, although they mostly perceived heading as being somewhat safe (36%). While respondents indicated being only somewhat aware of the guidelines (43%), they scored very high on their perceived (92%) and actual (based on retrospective accounts of heading) (87%) compliance with the guidelines. There was a mixed perceived change within practice following the introduction of the guidelines (disagree = 26% vs. agree = 22%), and they were perceived as safe (86%) and appropriate (81%). Factors that were identified as being potential barriers were only marginally agreed upon (
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T05:46:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221075213
       
  • The influence of coaching efficacy on trust and usage of technology in
           golf instruction

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      Authors: Benjamin SP Rittenberg, Heather F Neyedli, Bradley W Young, Lori Dithurbide
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The rise of technology in sport has provided coaches with another tool to aid athlete development, but there is little research on its relationship to coaching practices. Research in non-sport domains has demonstrated a relationship between user trust in and use of technology. The user's confidence can also affect this relationship, where higher confidence is typically associated with less technology use. Minimal work has examined factors that influence technology use within the sports domain; therefore, the present study sought to determine whether coaching experience and coaching efficacy could predict golf coaches' use of technology in training. A one-time survey that gathered demographic information, and measured coaching experience, coaching technique efficacy, trust in technology and use of technology was completed by 83 registered Professional Golfer's Association golf coaches and instructors. Results showed that coaching technique efficacy was predictive of coaches’ use of technology in training, where more technique efficacy resulted in increased use of technology. Mediation analyses showed that this association was mediated by their levels of trust in technology. There was no relationship between coaching experience and use of technology. Therefore, coaching technique efficacy, rather than experience, seems to be an important variable in predicting coaches' use of technology in training and instruction. Further, because higher efficacy predicted increased usage, the results illustrate the differences between the sport training environment and other non-sport domains regarding the factors that influence technology use. These findings are an important first step towards investigating how technology can be used by coaches to best improve athlete performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:45:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211061703
       
  • Perceptions and practices of fundamental movement skills in grassroots
           soccer coaches

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      Authors: Michael J. Duncan, Anthony Weldon, Lisa M. Barnett, Natalie Lander
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents the perceptions and practices of fundamental movement skills (FMS) in grassroots soccer coaches. One hundred and twenty-eight coaches (123 males, 5 females) completed an online mixed-method survey comprising 32 questions relating to: participant demographics, education, and qualifications; FMS perceptions, practices, and assessments, and the importance of FMS constructs; and other factors related to FMS. Frequency analysis was used to assess and report responses to fixed response and Likert-scale questions, and thematic analysis used for open-ended questions. Results indicated that grassroots soccer coaches have an awareness of the concept of FMS and value FMS as a contributor to developing general movement and soccer specific skills. However, there was a tendency for the coaches to conflate FMS with fitness. Coaches in the current study reported that developing FMS was useful to improve soccer development. The coaches suggested they assessed FMS but the measures they employed predominantly focused on more general movement outcomes. No coach used a valid or reliable process-oriented FMS assessment. Coaches used resources to inform their practice for FMS development, but the quality of resources accessed lacked an evidence base, with a reliance on social media. While the coaches in the current study reported valuing FMS, there are gaps in coach education and available evidence-based resources which inhibit the effective development of FMS within grassroots soccer practice. Providing training, qualifications and additional support for coaches related to FMS will aid implementation in practice.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T04:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211073547
       
  • Analyzing acute and daily load parameters in match situations – a
           comparison of classic and 3 × 3 basketball

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      Authors: Christina Willberg, Dennis Wellm, Michael Behringer, Karen Zentgraf
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose3 × 3 is a variation of classic basketball (BB) that imposes new demands on both athletes and coaches. The objective of this study was to comprehensively describe similarities and differences in load structures between 3 × 3 and BB.MethodBetween January 2020 and July 2021, internal and external load parameters of 90 elite BB and 3 × 3 athletes were monitored during 84 games using a local positioning system (10 Hz) and inertial movement sensors (100 Hz).ResultsMale BB games last about 90 min; female games are shorter (82 min). Game duration in 3 × 3 is about 16 min. Compared with BB, 3 × 3 athletes perform more medium- and high-intensity accelerations and decelerations, explosive efforts, jumps, and changes of direction (CODs) per min. Average heart rates do not differ between the two disciplines, yet 3 × 3 games are rated as more exhausting than BB games. During a 3 × 3 tournament, no decrease in load characteristics is found in the final games. However, ratings of perceived exertion increase consecutively. Average possession duration in 3 × 3 is 5.4 s in which 1.4 passes are played. Most 2-point shots and turnovers occur in the last minutes (11 min – end) of the game.ConclusionThe findings of this study will help 3 × 3 coaches and athletes to design more effective training programmes and improve athletic performance. They indicate a need to focus on high accelerations, transitions, COD skills, and shooting under pressure in 3 × 3.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T04:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211067989
       
  • Does education improve adherence to a training monitoring program in
           recreational athletes'

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      Authors: Hannah E. McGuigan, Peter Hassmén, Nedeljka Rosic, Heidi R. Thornton, Christopher J. Stevens
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Monitoring athletes’ training may help prevent negative consequences such as overtraining and burnout. However, acceptance or willingness of athletes to participate is a barrier to an effective training monitoring program. Educational strategies may potentially increase adherence. Therefore, our aims are to i) assess the impact of training monitoring education on adherence to a monitoring program; ii) determine the effect of the education intervention on burnout, stress, and recovery, and; iii) qualitatively investigate athlete perspectives of the education and training monitoring experience. Recreational athletes (18 male/17 female; age = 42.6 ± 12.0) were randomised to either a control (n = 19) or education (n = 16) group and completed daily training monitoring through a smartphone application over 10 weeks. Pre-post assessments using the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, the Acute Recovery Stress Scale, and a perceived knowledge of training monitoring questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews were performed. Adherence was low, with no differences between the control group ([mean ± SD]; 43.0 ± 38.8%) and the education group (45.8 ± 36.7%). There were also no differences (p>0.05) between the groups on the standardised inventories. There was a significant effect of time (p
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T02:37:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211070789
       
  • Estimating team possessions in high-level European basketball competition

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      Authors: Evangelos Charamis, Christos Marmarinos, Ioannis Ntzoufras
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The focus of this work is to estimate the number of team possessions in Euroleague basketball for seasons 2017–18, 2018–19 and 2019–20. To achieve this goal, we implemented the approaches proposed by Kubatko, et al. (2007). The statistical analysis on Euroleague data suggests a model similar to the one which is currently used in NBA with one, minor, difference. In Euroleague data, the coefficient of the percentage of the free throw attempts that ends a current possession is slightly higher than the corresponding coefficient in NBA (0.454 vs. 0.44). In a second stage, we have implemented the estimated Euroleague possessions equation in order to construct indicators for the performance evaluation of each Euroleague team. The most important indexes for team performance evaluation are the Net Rating and the Four Factors of Dean Oliver (2003). However, by applying a backwards stepwise regression analysis, a slightly improved model, in terms of fit to the data, has been identified. The new proposed “Three Pillars” model includes the offensive and defensive True Shooting percentage, Offensive Rebound percentage and Turnover percentage. Hence, this new proposed “Three Pillars” model can be used for the performance evaluation of European teams instead of the standard Four Factors model.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T02:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211070788
       
  • Development of a novel biofeedback system for the sprint start

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      Authors: Jorge Cortes Gutierrez, Sean Peter Walton, Neil Edward Bezodis
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study developed and evaluated a novel concurrent biofeedback system for the sprint start. Previous studies have investigated sprint start biofeedback applications, but these have either not considered important kinematics, coaching implications or key motor learning principles. The biofeedback system was developed to convey rear knee angle information, obtained from 3D motion capture to novice participants as changes in the colour of an LED start line when they were in the “set” position. Based on initial user feedback, the system indicated whether the participants’ rear knee angles were within ± 2° of 130° (green) or not (red). A two-group experimental study was then employed to explore the acute responses of novices to the use of the biofeedback system during the sprint start. When exposed to biofeedback, the experimental group (EXP, n = 10) exhibited less deviation (4.0 ± 2.4°) from the target rear knee angle than they did in either a pre-test (11.9 ± 6.9°) or post-test (10.4 ± 4.4°) condition without biofeedback. The control group (CON, n = 10) with no biofeedback exhibited greater deviation from the target rear knee angle than the EXP group in all three condition blocks (pre-test = 21.8 ± 15.1°, no intervention = 15.6 ± 7.3°, post-test = 14.3 ± 6.5°) but the group × condition interaction effect was not significant (P = 0.210). The novel biofeedback system can be used to manipulate selected “set” position kinematics and has the potential to be incorporated with different input systems (e.g. inertial measurement units (IMUs)) or in longitudinal designs.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T01:17:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211072729
       
  • Effects of different sprint training programs with ball on explosive,
           high-intensity and endurance-intensive performances in male young soccer
           players

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      Authors: Hamza Marzouki, Ibrahim Ouergui, Bilel Cherni, Karim Ben Ayed, Ezdine Bouhlel
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study compared the effects of different sprint ball-based training programs on fitness-related performances in youth soccer players. Forty male players (age: 15.2 ± 0.6 yrs) participated in a short-term (8 weeks) randomized parallel fully controlled training study, with pre-to-post measurements. Players were randomly assigned to 3 sprint ball-based training groups: training with combined sprint (performing linear and change of direction sprints; CST), or using linear sprint (LST), or performing sprint with change of direction (CODT) and to a control group (CONT). Pre- and post-training players completed a test battery involving linear sprinting (10 and 20 m, and flying 10 m), 505 test (COD), 15 m test with ball (CODB), countermovement jump test (CMJ test) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). All physical performance’ variables improved after the training intervention (all p < 0.05; ES ≥ 0.2). No main effect of groups was observed in linear sprinting, CMJ and VO2max (p> 0.05; ES < 0.2). A training group main effect was found (p < 0.0001; ES = 0.50) for COD with CODT induced better performance than LST and CONT (all p 0.8). Also, a training group main effect (p = 0.009; ES = 0.35) was found for CODB with CODT elicited better performance than LST and CONT (all p = 0.001; ES> 0.80). Our findings suggest that ball-based training programs were more effective to improve fitness levels in youth players during the in-season period and that CODT modality was more effective to improve COD and CODB performances.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T01:17:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211072225
       
  • The strength and conditioning practices and perspectives of soccer coaches
           and players

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      Authors: Anthony Weldon, Sing T Wong, Nuno Mateus, Michael J Duncan, Neil D Clarke, Matthew Pears, Adam L Owen, Chris Bishop
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Strength and conditioning (S&C) is implemented across various sports and levels, but there is limited understanding of the personnel responsible for this, including their S&C practices and perspectives. Whereas recent evidence has shown that coaches and players are often tasked with the responsibility. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate: 1) the personnel responsible for delivering S&C across different levels of soccer, 2) the practices and perspectives of soccer coaches and players, and 3) to ascertain whether the practices employed align with contemporary evidence and guidelines. Forty-two soccer coaches and 30 soccer players completed an online survey with six sections: (a) informed consent, (b) background information, (c) education, qualifications, and prescription, (d) views on S&C, (e) exercise selection and preferences, and (f) issues and improvements. Frequency analysis was used to report responses to fixed-response questions and thematic analysis for open-ended questions. Most respondents reported S&C to be ‘important’ to ‘very important’ for all soccer, physical fitness, and injury parameters, with perspectives being predominantly aligned with S&C guidelines and research in soccer. Although S&C coaches were mostly responsible for delivering S&C sessions, over 60% of respondents disclosed S&C sessions were delivered independently or by support staff. This is problematic given only four coaches held S&C qualifications, and issues and improvements were mostly regarding a lack of S&C expertise and education. This study provides valuable information for S&C and soccer organizations. Particularly regarding the additional support required to ensure those responsible for delivering S&C in soccer have the appropriate knowledge and qualifications.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T01:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211072242
       
  • Comparison of two measurement devices for obtaining horizontal
           force-velocity profile variables during sprint running

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      Authors: Erin Feser, Kyle Lindley, Kenneth Clark, Neil Bezodis, Christian Korfist, John Cronin
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study established the magnitude of systematic bias and random error of horizontal force-velocity (F-v) profile variables obtained from a 1080 Sprint compared to that obtained from a Stalker ATS II radar device. Twenty high-school athletes from an American football training group completed a 30 m sprint while the two devices simultaneously measured velocity-time data. The velocity-time data were modelled by an exponential equation fitting process and then used to calculate individual F-v profiles and related variables (theoretical maximum velocity, theoretical maximum horizontal force, slope of the linear F-v profile, peak power, time constant tau, and horizontal maximal velocity). The devices were compared by determining the systematic bias and the 95% limits of agreement (random error) for all variables, both of which were expressed as percentages of the mean radar value. All bias values were within 6.32%, with the 1080 Sprint reporting higher values for tau, horizontal maximal velocity, and theoretical maximum velocity. Random error was lowest for velocity-based variables but exceeded 7% for all others, with slope of the F-v profile being greatest at ±12.3%. These results provide practitioners with the information necessary to determine if the agreement between the devices and the magnitude of random error is acceptable within the context of their specific application.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T01:16:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211067211
       
  • Understanding the pedagogical practice in futsal teaching and learning
           process based on the TGfU approach

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      Authors: Guy Ginciene, Camila Amato, Eduardo Rodrigues de Oliveira, Ivan Oliveira dos Santos, Eduardo Dell Osbel, Thiago José Leonardi
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the current study is to understand the pedagogical practice of coaches of youth futsal players based on the TGfU approach. Action Research (AR) approach, developed according to the planning, teaching, observing and reflecting spiral steps, was applied for the teaching of futsal for 12 children aged 9–11 years. An eight-member research group (five student coaches, one research coach and two university professors) was subjected to the same practice. Information was collected from class planning meetings, diagnostic assessment and field diaries of participant and non-participant observers. Based on results, changes in the pedagogical practice were aimed at helping players understanding and using actions to support futsal improvements. AR application also highlighted the emerging understanding about student-coach practices, the influence of coaches who adopt reflective practices or not; and the relevance of using critical player observation at the time of reflecting on how to develop supportive pedagogical practices. Results have shown that the pedagogical practice of coaches has changed over time. The researcher-coach practice and the assistant coach (student-coach 1) was influenced by the perceptions of student-coaches and reflections made in meetings.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T02:09:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211070790
       
  • Breaking up the play: The relationship between legal stops and winning in
           team handball

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      Authors: Aron Laxdal, Andreas Ivarsson
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between legal stops and winning in team handball. Real-time analysis was performed on all games played in the Icelandic elite division for both males and females (regular season and playoffs) between 2017–2021 (854 games [570 male games, 284 female games], 32,392 legal stops in total). Legal stops were assessed as any physical action by a defensive player that resulted in the stop of play, without the defensive player being penalized or the offensive player receiving a 7-meter throw. The results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that legal stops were significantly associated with winning games in the male league. No statistically significant relationship was found between illegal stops and game outcome for either sex. However, 2-minute suspensions were found to be positively associated with winning in the male league.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T02:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211070787
       
  • Small-sided games do not replicate all external and internal loads of a
           football match-play during pre-season: A case study

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      Authors: Guilherme de Sousa Pinheiro, Roberto Chiari Quintão, Vitor Bertoli Nascimento, João Gustavo Claudino, Adriano Lima Alves, Israrel Teoldo da Costa, Varley Teoldo da Costa
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the differences in external and internal load during pre-season training sessions carried out with different SSGs and a friendly match in top-class professional football players. The study was conducted over a full pre-season. Participants were 9 male top-class professional football players (25 ± 5 years; 74 ± 8 kg; 177 ± 8 cm). The following variables were measured: training session duration (min), average heart rate (bpm), total distance (m), distance covered per minute (m/min), the total number of accelerations> 2.5 m/s2, number of accelerations> 2.5 m/s2 per minute, average distance of accelerations (m), the average value of acceleration (m/s2). One-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the variance of all evaluated variables. No differences were found in the average accelerations (m/s2) (0.128) among all the training formats. Moderate differences were found in number of accelerations> 2.5 m/s2 per minute (η2 = 0.396, moderate effect) and average distance of accelerations (η2 = 0.545). Strong differences were found in HR (η2 = 0.788, large effect), total distance (η2 = 0.797, strong effect), distance per minute (η2 = 0.775 strong effect), total number of accelerations> 2.5 m/s2 (η2 = 0.699 strong effect). Significant correlations were found just for the number of accelerations> 2.5 m/s2 and the number of accelerations> 2.5 m/s2 per minute with the 4v4, 8v8 and the FM (r = 0.828–0.890, r2 = 69% – 79%; p < 0.01). External and internal loads differ across different SSGs and a FM during the pre-season training sessions.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T02:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211069935
       
  • Asymmetry in internal oblique muscle thickness: Not the key to a cricket
           fast bowler's performance

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      Authors: Benita Olivier, Franso-Mari Olivier, Nkazimulo Mnguni, Oluchukwu Loveth Obiora
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposePrevious studies found that trunk muscle asymmetry may play a role in preventing injury in cricket fast bowlers, while the association with bowling performance has not been investigated. This study aims to describe the side-to-side differences in trunk muscle thickness and determine the association between bowling performance and these side-to-side differences in trunk muscle thickness in adolescent fast bowlers.MethodsIn this observational cross-sectional study, bowling performance, namely ball release speed and bowling accuracy, was recorded in adolescent fast bowlers. Ultrasound imaging measured external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness.ResultsFast bowlers (n = 46) with a mean age of 15.9 (±1.2) years participated. On the non-dominant side, the external oblique and internal oblique at rest were thicker than on the dominant side (external oblique: p = 0.011, effect size = 0.27; internal oblique: p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T02:08:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211065844
       
  • Oliver’s four-factor model: Validation through causality

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      Authors: Alessandro Cecchin
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      While there has been a growing interest in sports analysis in recent years, much research first focused on a classical statistical approach and later on an artificial intelligence approach. This article aims instead to propose a causal inference approach to sports analysis. In particular, the present article intends to review the famous four-factor model proposed by Dean Oliver for assessing the winning ability of National Basketball Association (NBA) teams through a causal inference approach. A structural equation model is used to validate Oliver’s model. The present paper considers the winning percentage and the factors’ statistics over entire seasons from [math] to [math]. The statistics for the [math] season are considered only on a subset of the games. This is because the games played in the Orlando bubble under the particular COVID-19 situation have been regarded as outliers compared to the games played in the other NBA seasons, hence they have not been taken into account. The second goal of the article is to analyse if the fitting ability of the four-factor model changes when it is fitted over the pre[math] and post[math] basketball eras datasets, considering the year [math] as the turning point for the NBA playing style.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T02:08:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211049287
       
  • The influence of the field orientation on physical demands in soccer
           small-sided games

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      Authors: Marcelo S. Luchesi, Bruno P. Couto, Tim J. Gabbett, Gibson M. Praça, Mariana P. Oliveira, Mark G.L. Sayers
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to compare the physical demands of SSG with either greater length (SSGlength) or width (SSGwidth) with official soccer matches. Sixteen Brazilian U-20 national-level soccer players participated in two sessions with SSGlength (4v4, 40 m length and 26 m width) and two sessions with SSGwidth (4v4, 26 m length and 40 m width). External and internal load variables were monitored and compared to official games (12.8 ± 8.9 games per player). Data were standardized to the time and compared between the experimental conditions by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures (level of significance set at p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T11:12:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211068830
       
  • The content and load of preseason field-based training in a
           championship-winning professional rugby league team: A case study

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      Authors: Matthew Fairbank, Jamie Highton, Matthew Daniels, Craig Twist
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study reports on the content and periodisation of the preseason field-based training for a professional rugby league team. Thirty professional male rugby league players (26 ± 5 years, 180.9 ± 6.5 cm, 94 ± 9 kg) completed an 8-week preseason. Global positioning system devices and heart rate were used to monitor physical and physiological responses of different field-based training components (speed, conditioning, rugby skill and game-based training). Rugby skill training contributed the most to the total distance covered, conditioning was the greatest contributor to high-speed running (>15 km/h) and game-based training provided the greatest high metabolic distance (>20 W/kg) and overall external load. Game-based training provided the greatest time with heart rate ≥80% estimated maximum. The weekly preseason cycle had lower loads on Monday and Thursday whereas Tuesday and Friday produced the highest loads. The preseason described herein adopted a progressive overload comprising a weekly undulating cycle. This study emphasises how skill and games-based training contributes significantly to the overall load of a professional rugby league team's preseason with more traditional conditioning promoting high-speed running load and high metabolic load.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T11:12:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211064872
       
  • The influence of different game formats on technical actions and playing
           time parameters – A study with under-7 and under-9 soccer players in a
           competitive context

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      Authors: Fynn Bergmann, Michael Braksiek, Christopher Meier
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Soccer competitions in childhood should ensure a high involvement of all players regardless of their talent. The purpose of the present study was to compare soccer players’ technical actions and playing time parameters in 7v7 in comparison to 3v3 (on mini-goals without goalkeepers; under-7) and 5v5 (on 1.65 × 5 m. goals with goalkeepers; under-9) game formats in a competitive context. Using a quasi-experimental within-subject design, tournaments with under-7 (n = 42) and under-9 (n = 43) players were conducted. Technical actions and playing time parameters were rated. Based on the total number of technical actions in 7v7, median splits of the samples were conducted to compare differences between high-involved (dominant) and low-involved (non-dominant) players. No differences in the effective playing time comparing game formats within the age groups were found. In total, 7884 technical actions were rated. In both age groups, the total number of technical actions was higher in the smaller game formats. In under-7, the number of technical actions in all variables was higher in 3v3. In under-9, the number of technical actions was also higher in 5v5 except for unsuccessful passes as well as successful 1v1 situations. More unsuccessful 1v1 situations were found in 7v7. Concerning the total number of technical actions, both dominant and non-dominant players in both age groups performed more technical actions in small-sided games. Due to the higher involvement of the children, better conditions for the acquisition of soccer-specific skills in the smaller game formats compared to 7v7 game formats can be concluded.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T11:12:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211051654
       
  • The role of mental fatigue in soccer: a systematic review

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      Authors: Sixto González-Víllora, Alejandro Prieto-Ayuso, Felippe Cardoso, Israel Teoldo
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Because of the role of mental fatigue in the development of elite soccer players, it has been a topic of interest for researchers in the last decades. First, we aim to shed light on the literature published about mental fatigue in soccer in the last 10 years. Second, based on the results obtained, we propose a new perspective on the role of cognitive effort in soccer. A systematic review (SR) was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines and registered in PROSPERO. A total of 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The results showed an increase in the publications related to mental fatigue from 2014 onward. They were compared according to focus, sample, instruments and outcomes. Our proposal assumes that physical-physiological, technical-motor and tactical-cognitive demands entail a cognitive load that reduces the performance of players. Studies that prioritise controlling behavioural and physiological responses in cognitive tests are still needed.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T12:28:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211069536
       
  • Into the Eyes of the Referee: A Comparison of Elite and Sub-Elite Football
           Referees’ On-Field Visual Search Behaviour when making Foul Judgements

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      Authors: T. van Biemen, R.R.D. Oudejans, G.J.P. Savelsbergh, F. Zwenk, D.L. Mann
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In foul decision-making by football referees, visual search is important for gathering task-specific information to determine whether a foul has occurred. Yet, little is known about the visual search behaviours underpinning excellent on-field decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the on-field visual search behaviour of elite and sub-elite football referees when calling a foul during a match. In doing so, we have also compared the accuracy and gaze behaviour for correct and incorrect calls. Elite and sub-elite referees (elite: N = 5, Mage ± SD = 29.8 ± 4.7yrs, Mexperience ± SD = 14.8 ± 3.7yrs; sub-elite: N = 9, Mage ± SD = 23.1 ± 1.6yrs, Mexperience ± SD = 8.4 ± 1.8yrs) officiated an actual football game while wearing a mobile eye-tracker, with on-field visual search behaviour compared between skill levels when calling a foul (Nelite = 66; Nsub−elite = 92). Results revealed that elite referees relied on a higher search rate (more fixations of shorter duration) compared to sub-elites, but with no differences in where they allocated their gaze, indicating that elites searched faster but did not necessarily direct gaze towards different locations. Correct decisions were associated with higher gaze entropy (i.e. less structure). In relying on more structured gaze patterns when making incorrect decisions, referees may fail to pick-up information specific to the foul situation. Referee development programmes might benefit by challenging the speed of information pickup but by avoiding pre-determined gaze patterns to improve the interpretation of fouls and increase the decision-making performance of referees.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T12:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211069469
       
  • Pro-agility unpacked: Variability, comparability and diagnostic value

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      Authors: James W. D. Forster, Aaron M. Uthoff, Michael C. Rumpf, John B. Cronin
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Change of direction (COD) is an important component of athlete performance and measuring and comparing athletes is an integral aspect of strength and conditioning practice. This article aimed to determine pro-agility shuttle utility, by quantifying variability and normative values for different sports, skill-levels and positions. Limitations of the pro-agility shuttle are identified, as are future research directions. A total of 67 studies were included for review. Pro-agility shuttle reliability was reported in 10 studies across 6 sports; however, comprehensive reliability statistics were absent in most papers. Additionally, only reliability of total-time from stopwatch and timing lights were reported. Data of 32,891 subjects in 12 sports (American football, basketball, cricket, general athletes, hockey, lacrosse, recreational athletes, resistance-trained athletes, rugby, soccer, swimming, and tennis) were extracted and aggregated, establishing sport, skill-level (elite, sub-elite, and novice) and positional normative values, where practical. Elite athletes showed the fastest performance times, whereas sub-elite and novice athletes showed similar spreads in performance, suggesting similar athletic capabilities. In conclusion, the pro-agility shuttle currently has limited diagnostic value and the variability of smaller performance sub-components within pro-agility shuttle should be examined. Furthermore, the value of other technologies such as smart phone, inertial sensor or radar should be investigated.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T12:27:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211069338
       
  • Investigating the role of age and maturation on the association between
           tennis experience and cognitive function in junior beginner to
           intermediate-level tennis players

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      Authors: Mitchell Turner, Toru Ishihara, Philipp Beranek, Kate Turner, Job Fransen, Philipp Born, Travis Cruickshank
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Sport engagement, including tennis, and physical activity have been shown to have a positive influence on cognition in children. However, age has also been found to have a strong association with cognition in youth athletes. This study examines the threshold hypothesis by investigating the moderating role of age and maturation on the association between tennis experience and cognitive measures in Australian and German junior beginner to intermediate-level tennis players. The demographic information, which includes years of tennis experience, and anthropometrics (e.g. height and weight) was collected for 48 junior tennis players. A comprehensive cognitive testing battery was then completed to assess cognitive performance, with a principle component analysis used to determine an overall cognitive performance score. Multiple regression analyses were then performed to test the relationship between tennis experience and cognitive performance as well as the moderating effects of age and maturation. The results of this study indicate that the age and maturation rather than the exposure to tennis training are related to cognitive performance. Additionally, the positive relations of tennis experience to cognitive performance were stronger in younger participants, specifically those younger than 12 years old. Therefore, tennis may not provide a stimulus large enough for further cognitive improvement once players have developed a high level of cognitive performance. While age and biological maturity will largely dictate cognitive performance in adolescents, tennis experience may play some role in the cognitive performance of children (specifically
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T09:47:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211055841
       
  • Exploring youth sport coaches’ perceptions of intended outcomes of
           leadership behaviours

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      Authors: Matthew EC McGuckin, Jennifer Turnnidge, Mark W Bruner, Jordan S Lefebvre, Jean Côté
      First page: 463
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Youth sport coaches play an important role in shaping the sport experience and positive development of youth athletes. One salient approach to examining how the interpersonal behaviours of coaches influence young athletes has been through the lens of leadership theories. However, there is limited understanding surrounding the underlying processes associated with coach leadership behaviours, such as how and why behaviours are applied. This study sought to examine why do youth sport coaches use specific leadership behaviours and what are their intended outcomes when using these behaviours' Eleven coaches (Mage = 42.3, SD = 14.5) were recruited from competitive youth soccer and volleyball clubs (athletes’ Mage = 15.8, SD = 1.9). Coaches participated in a video-stimulated recall interview, during which coaches reflected upon their own coaching behaviours and provided insight into the application of leadership behaviours in youth sport. Findings of the study revealed that contrasting leadership behaviours (e.g. transformational vs. transactional) are associated with distinctive coach objectives (promoting confidence vs. establishing respect). This study can serve to facilitate knowledge mobilization by strengthening our understanding of coaches’ intentions for the implementation of leadership behaviours in a real-world setting.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T01:47:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221076247
       
  • The role of coaching identity and life purpose orientations in holistic
           athlete development

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      Authors: Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, Gitima Sharma
      First page: 477
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Life purpose plays an important role in the wellbeing of adults. The current study considered domain-general and domain-specific purpose of NCAA coaches to examine whether purpose orientation in life predicted coaching purpose related to holistic athlete development directly and indirectly through coaching identity. A cross-sectional design was used. Collegiate coaches (N = 380, 62.1% male) from NCAA Division I and III institutions completed questionnaires assessing purpose orientation (career-focused, others-growth, and self-growth), coaching identity (winning-centered, holistic development-centered), and coaching purpose related to athlete development (sport-specific competence, sport-general competence, confidence, connection, and character). Structural equation modeling indicated the following: Coaching purpose related to sport-specific competence was predicted directly and indirectly via winning-centered coaching identity by career-focused purpose orientation. The four dimensions of coaching purpose (sport-general competence, confidence, connection, and character) were predicted indirectly via development-centered coaching identity by others-growth purpose orientation and by career-focused purpose orientation. Others-growth purpose orientation emerged as a significant direct predictor of coaching purpose related to connection. Inconsistent mediation emerged between others-growth purpose orientation and coaching purpose related to confidence. Overall, the findings highlight that purpose orientation can predict coaching purpose and that coaching identity centered around athletes’ holistic development and growth plays a salient role in explaining these relationships.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T12:01:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211073546
       
  • If you build it, will they come' Assessing coaches’ perceptions of a
           sport psychology website

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      Authors: Jade Farhat, Sarah Deck, Marc Mitchell, Craig Hall, Barbi Law, Melanie Gregg, J. Paige Pope, Kendra Nelson Ferguson
      First page: 490
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Sport psychology has become widely applied in coaching practices to assist in athletic success. Despite the increased use, there is a lack of evidence-based sport psychology information available to coaches in the form of informal sources. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot test to explore coaches’ perceptions and use of an evidence-based sport psychology website. Eight coaches participated in semi-structured interviews. Based on engagement, five of the coaches’ data was analyzed using thematic analysis on their experiences and revealed two main themes, website use and website enhancements. The remaining three coaches’ data was analyzed for their reasons for having limited engagement with the website and used to help identify ways it could be enhanced. In general, coaches perceived the website to be a reliable source that offered practical information (e.g. worksheets) that could be used directly with athletes, and was perceived as easy to navigate and to access information. There were, importantly, various improvements suggested for the website including delivery modality and guides for navigating the order for reading the information. This study offers evidence on the value of online resources in providing coaches with informal and evidence-based sport psychology learning opportunities, and also addresses a number of barriers to engagement as insight for website developers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T01:43:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211066382
       
  • Using sport science data in collegiate athletics: Coaches’
           perspectives

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      Authors: Erica L Rauff, Augustine Herman, Douglas Berninger, Sean Machak, Sarah P Shultz
      First page: 500
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Limited research has examined American collegiate coaches’ perceptions of collecting data for informing training practices. The purpose of this study was to examine collegiate coaches’ perspectives and needs for collecting data from their athletes using a qualitative approach. Four focus groups were conducted with NCAA Division I coaches (N  =  13) at a mid-sized liberal arts university. Coaches were asked how they could benefit from collecting data from their athletes, how they would use the data to answer questions about athletes’ performance, what data they would want to collect, and what concerns they had regarding data collection. Principles of thematic analysis were used to analyze the interviews. Most coaches (54%) felt that collecting data would provide evidence needed to support training methodologies, and they would benefit (i.e. make improvements to coaching and athlete training) from monitoring progress in their athletes (61%). Regarding performance questions, coaches were interested in utilizing a biomechanist to conduct movement analyses (23%) and assessing athletes’ mental and emotional states (23%). Coaches wanted to monitor athletes’ fatigue, recovery, mental health states, and health behaviors (i.e. sleep and diet; 15%). Coaches expressed concerns over finding an optimal time to test athletes (8%) and effective presentation of data to athletes (23%) while limiting body composition assessments due to athlete discomfort (15%). Findings from these focus groups suggest that coaches would like to collect data to learn more about athletes’ physical and mental states, but several logistical and practical concerns still exist regarding how to efficiently collect and utilize the data.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T12:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211065146
       
  • Predicting change-of-direction performance in elite young badminton
           players: A multiple regression analysis on acceleration- and
           deceleration-related qualities

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      Authors: Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Francisco Alvarez-Dacal, Jonathan Martinez-Maseda, Tomás T. Freitas, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez
      First page: 583
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between direct (sprint and change-of-direction [COD] velocities) and indirect measures (COD-deficit [CODD], deceleration deficit [DD], and sprint momentum) of speed-related performances in young badminton players. Thirty young male badminton players (age: 16.8 ± 1.4 years; body-mass: 61.5 ± 7.9 kg; height: 170 ± 5.8 cm) performed a 20-m sprint followed by 505 COD tests, on the same day. A Pearson product moment test was applied to determine the relationships among variables. A multiple regression analysis was used to verify whether the combination of CODD and DD increased the capacity to predict COD performance. Large and significant relationships were observed between COD and linear sprint velocity and sprint momentum (r ranging from 0.62 to 0.84; P 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T12:27:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541211068827
       
 
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