A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted by number of followers
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Turfgrass Society Research Journal     Free   (Followers: 13)
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health Promotion & Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Reabilitacijos Mokslai : Slauga, Kineziterapija, Ergoterapija     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Football(s) : Histoire, Culture, Économie, Société     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Strategies : A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Law and Governance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Corpoconsciência     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Kinder- und Jugendsport : Zeitschrift für Forschung, Transfer und Praxisdialog     Hybrid Journal  
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Arrancada     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access  
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access  
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Conexões     Open Access  
Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of National Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Türkiye Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Science     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Physical Education of Students     Open Access  
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Therapeutic Recreation Journal     Full-text available via subscription  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.435
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 38  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1747-9541 - ISSN (Online) 2048-397X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • The “sports wars”: A contest theory approach to cities hosting
           game

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yizhaq Minchuk
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The competition among cities to host a sports team or a large-scale international sports event is modeled as a winner-pay contest with an entry fee. In the first stage, each contestant (city) decides whether to pay the entry fee (infrastructure required by the team, for example), which allows it to participate in the second stage, that is, the actual contest. We show that the contest organizer’s choice of the optimal entry fee does not depend on the number of contestants. Furthermore, in some cases, the result is a form of zero-sum game, in which the sports team or event organizer is the main beneficiary. The findings shed light on this type of competition and under what conditions on the entry fee a city might benefit from hosting a sports team or large-scale international sports event.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-02-13T06:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231226415
       
  • Menstrual cycle characteristics, hormonal contraceptive use and
           perceptions of related effects in resistance-trained athletes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kimberly SantaBarbara, Eric Helms, Mike Armour, Nigel Harris
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      There has been an increased interest in the effects the menstrual cycle (MC) may have on sports performance. As a part of the MC, many females experience a wide range of symptoms related to hormonal fluctuations and menstrual bleeding, including physical pain and mood disturbances. Currently, there is a lack of data on the MCs of females who participate in resistance training. The dearth of information on the regular MC in female athletes may lead to poorly informed training recommendations which may be detrimental for female athletic advancement. The purpose of this survey was to determine the average MC characteristics, hormonal contraceptive (HC) use and perceived effects of the MC on training in resistance-trained athletes, and to determine if there are differences in these variables when comparing recreationally trained women to competitive-level athletes. A survey addressing questions about the MC, HC use and perceived effects of the MC was accessed by 906 participants who self-identified as resistance-trained athletes. Resistance-trained athletes, competitive or not, experience MCs similar to data on other exercising females and the general population. MC symptoms are widespread and, for some, can be quite severe and limiting. Competitive athletes were not more likely to experience MC irregularities than non-competitive females. Nearly half of the participants reported using HCs. Most participants perceived that their MC had a negative effect on their performance and that their MC caused reductions in training load or workout program adherence, although most competitive-level athletes did not withdraw from competitions due to MC symptoms.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-02-09T07:10:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541241228986
       
  • Coaches’ experiences of performance support teams

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Andrew Burns, Dave Collins, Louis Nolte
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Supporting high-level performance is increasingly seen as a team game, reflected in the growth in support services. Coaches and management must work effectively with various practitioners to deliver the required support to athletes. To date, how coaches experience these support teams has yet to be explored. Accordingly, we utilized a qualitative research design with semistructured interviews to examine coach-consumers’ perceptions of more or less effective practice. Eight high-level coaches were recruited, and data was analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Key themes generated included the make-up and conduct of high-performing teams, prioritizing coach–practitioner relationships, and professional development considerations for both coaches and practitioners. Data suggest that practitioners are seen as playing a crucial role in elite sports performance, and coaches generally have a positive view of the contributions of sports science teams. Notably, however, several challenges were identified, including communication issues, conflicts over the allocation of resources, recruitment of, and the need for sports scientists to understand the demands of sports and the coaching process. Findings have practical implications for support teams and coaches working in high-performance sports; specifically, in the recruitment and development of sports science and medicine practitioners and coaches.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-02-09T07:10:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541241228814
       
  • Throwing it out there: Grip on multidimensional performance
           characteristics of judoka – a systematic review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Suzan Schoof, Froukje Sliedrecht, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Judo is a dynamic and complex sport, and therefore talent programs may benefit from a multidimensional approach to identify clear and reliable performance characteristics in order to monitor and train athletes. However, from both a practical and theoretical point of view, understanding on this topic is limited. This systematic review therefore aimed to (1) identify which multidimensional performance characteristics can discriminate between different performance levels of judoka and (2) find the gaps in literature. To categorize the findings the Groningen Sport Talent Model (GSTM) was applied. A systematic search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. In total 23 studies with good to excellent methodological quality were included. All performance characteristics of the GSTM (anthropometrical, physiological, technical, tactical, and psychological) were represented in the included studies. There is strong evidence to suggest that a broad set of physiological characteristics is needed to manage the demands of judo combats. Additionally, there is strong evidence that performance characteristics related to grip fighting discriminate between judoka of different performance levels and higher performance level judoka are characterized by the ability to throw their opponent and to variate in technique. The findings of this review can be used as a basis for talent development and identification in judo, and to optimize training programs. Future research should focus on increasing the understanding of psychological characteristics of judoka and the multidimensional talent trajectory by conducting longitudinal studies.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-02-05T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231223160
       
  • Decoding the decade: Analyzing the evolution of technical and tactical
           performance in elite padel tennis (2011–2021)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alexandru Nicolae Ungureanu, Corrado Lupo, Matteo Contardo, Paolo Riccardo Brustio
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the recent popularity of padel tennis and extensive scientific research on technical and tactical performance, anthropometric, biomechanical, and physiological characteristics, there is still a lack of long-term retrospective investigation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze key performance indicators (KPIs) to provide the changes in these indicators over a decade spanning from 2011 to 2021. The sample included 45 (i.e. 100 sets; 957 games; 5743 points; and 54,918 shots) professional men's matches (Padel Pro Tour and World Padel Tour finals and semifinals) from three different sports seasons (2011, 2016, and 2021). KPIs related to time motion and technical and tactical analysis (i.e. unforced errors and winner shots) were examined. A series of linear mixed models was performed to investigate difference among competition years (2011, 2016, and 2021). Comparing the evolution of the game across the observed decade, it emerged a more progressive intense game (more explosive and rapid playing actions), decreasing number of shots per point (8.8 vs 9.5), and an increasing number of shots per minute (44.2 vs 40.0). Further, an increase in the importance of efficiency in overhead shots (unforced errors from bandeja/vibora +116% from 2011 to 2016) and responding to serve shots (unforced errors from serve return +17% from 2011 to 2021) emerged. Therefore, the present findings are able to highlight the evolution playing of professional padel (i.e. fewer shots per point, shorter effective playing time, decreased average point durations, higher number of shots per minute), thus providing references to potential valuable training plans.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-02-01T07:20:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541241228059
       
  • Recovery management in sport: Overview and outcomes of a nine-year
           multicenter research program

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thimo Wiewelhove, Christoph Schneider, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, Tim Meyer, Alexander Ferrauti
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The nine-year multicenter research project, titled REGman—Optimization of Training and Competition: Management of Regeneration in Elite Sports—aimed to advance the understanding of recovery management in sports and generate practical recommendations. In this article, we outline the overarching research program that links the specific research strands and outputs during the two federal funding cycles (2012–2021) and summarize the main project findings. The two-stage conceptual framework involved investigating monitoring measures for short-term fatigue and recovery, as well as assessing the efficacy of various recovery interventions. These interventions encompassed psychological relaxation and recovery strategies, sleep, cooling techniques like precooling, percooling, cold water immersion, or whole-body cryotherapy, compression garments, active recovery, stretching, heating interventions such as sauna or contrast water therapy, massage, and foam rolling. The findings revealed inconclusive or marginal effects of recovery interventions at the group level, while indicating possible interindividual differences in responses. Additionally, the findings highlighted the effectiveness of diverse monitoring measures, showing satisfactory sensitivity in tracking performance changes related to fatigue and recovery. The use of individualized reference ranges significantly improved classification accuracy compared to group-based reference ranges. Athletes and coaches are encouraged to prioritize fundamental aspects of training and recovery: meticulous training planning and execution, effective sleep management, and proper nutrition. Furthermore, monitoring and analyzing individual responses, even though it demands suitable methodologies and presents challenges in high-performance sports environments, can yield valuable insights for personalized recovery management. If these aspects are comprehensively addressed, and resources allow, additional recovery strategies might be explored.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-02-01T06:06:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541241227527
       
  • The influence of coaching behaviors, experience, and training on
           children's physical activity levels during youth sport practices

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Emily Ruxton Shull, Russell R Pate, Kerry McIver, Eva Monsma, Alexander C McLain
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine how coaching behaviors, coaching experience, and coach training relate to physical activity (PA) levels of children during their participation in a youth sport program. Youth soccer teams (N = 27) serving children ages 6–11 years were directly observed during one practice using momentary time-sampling procedures consisting of 30-s intervals (10-s observation, 20-s recording). Team coaches reported prior coaching experience, training, and demographic characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to describe associations between coaching behaviors and intensity of children's PA. Interaction terms were added to the models to determine if the associations differed across girls-only, boys-only, and coed teams. ANOVAs were used to describe associations between coaching experience, coach training, and team PA level. Children were more likely to engage in moderate or vigorous PA when coaches were watching without verbal feedback (Odds Ratio [OR], 3.2, 95% CI = 1.70–5.83) or watching with verbal feedback (OR, 2.1, 95% CI = 1.27–3.59), compared to when the coach was disengaged, regardless of team sex composition. The number of prior seasons coached was positively related to team PA levels. These findings can be used to inform coaching strategies for promoting increased PA during youth sport practices.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-02-01T06:05:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231223161
       
  • A stochastic analysis of the 4 × 100 m relay

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Niklas Karlsson, Anders Lunander
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The baton exchanges are undoubtedly the most critical parts of the 4 × 100 m relay race. Timing of the outgoing runner is critical. In this paper we analyze the race as a minimization problem under uncertainty. We formulate a stochastic model in which the outgoing runner at the baton exchange cannot perfectly assess the incoming runner's exact location relatively a checkmark position, and therefore potentially misjudges the right moment to start running. Also, the team members’ daily shape is subject to uncertainty. To understand the effect of these two random variables—incoming runners’ distance to checkmark and the daily shape of the running team—we conduct a simulation study to investigate the trade-off between the team's expected race time and their probability of being disqualified due to overrunning the takeover zone. Conditioning on a low disqualification probability, the difference in expected race time is shown to be substantial between teams with different variation in distance assessment and forecasting running performance, respectively.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-02-01T06:05:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231219969
       
  • Accuracy and reliability of perception of bar velocity loss for
           autoregulation in resistance exercise

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Drumond Gilo da Silva, Rodrigo Fabio Bezerra da Silva, Petrus Gantois, Vitor Bertoli Nascimento, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Fabiano de Souza Fonseca
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundThe perception of bar velocity loss (PVL) can be used as an alternative method for autoregulating intraset repetitions during velocity-based training. This study analyzed the accuracy and reliability of the PVL as a method to autoregulate the intraset repetitions using a moderate velocity loss (VL) threshold (15–30%).MethodsA total of 22 resistance-trained men were familiarized with the PVL in a single session. Test–retest was performed in two sessions 1 week apart, in which participants completed three sets of bench press and back squat at 40, 60, and 80% 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Participants stopped the sets when they reached a moderate VL zone using their PVL. Accuracy was assessed by analyzing whether the mean VL (actual) and the lower and upper limits of the confidence interval (CI) (95%) of each set were within the established VL range and quantifying the relative frequency of correctly interrupted sets. Test–retest reliability was examined by the intraclass correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation.ResultsPVL showed acceptable accuracy in both exercises at 60 and 80% 1RM (50–65% success rate) and retest for all loads (53–76% success rate). Similar PVL percentages were observed between most of the sets for the test and retest (p > 0.05). Accuracy improved during the retest, especially for bench press (40% 1RM) and back squat (40 and 80% 1RM). PVL was not reliable in the test–retest comparison.ConclusionPVL can be a strategy with acceptable accuracy to autoregulate the intraset repetitions in a moderate zone (VL15–30%), but its reliability does not appear satisfactory after one familiarization session.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-01-31T05:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231226413
       
  • Stakeholder perceptions of a tackle law variation to reduce concussion
           incidence in community rugby union: A qualitative study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Riaan van Tonder, James Craig Brown, Sean Surmon, Pierre Viviers, Wilbur Kraak, Keith A Stokes, Sharief Hendricks, Wayne Derman, Marelise Badenhorst
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of key stakeholder groups, i.e. coaches, players, and referees, of a reduced maximum legal tackle height law variation trial in a collegiate amateur rugby competition. A pragmatic qualitative approach was used. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were performed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three main law trial-related themes and four additional contextual themes were identified. The most important contextual factors include perceptions of resource scarcity of the implementation context, deficient concussion knowledge and lack of education among all stakeholder groups, tackle technique deficiencies, and an entrenched culture of a dismissive attitude towards serious injuries and non-disclosure of concussion by players. Real-world challenges such as inconsistent sanctioning during gameplay, multi-tackler tackles, and player fatigue underscore the gap between the theoretical knowledge of the law and the complex, dynamic nature of its execution. Furthermore, deeply ingrained issues like entrenched tackle techniques, the quality of coaching, and prevailing attitudes towards concussion compounded these challenges, indicating a need for a more comprehensive approach to bridge the divide between understanding and implementation. Despite these challenges, several participants felt the law variation was still more effective than the existing law; and that it created more awareness around concussion, while sending a clear message that player welfare is being taken seriously. Collectively these factors indicate the difficulty of addressing a complex problem such as concussion, with a law variation intervention in a challenging (resource-constrained) setting.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-01-31T05:55:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541241227329
       
  • Association between concussion understanding and stakeholder knowledge
           translation in collegiate sports

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Debbie Giguere, Martha Barnes, Brent E. Faught
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an association between concussion understanding and stakeholder knowledge translation in collegiate sports following the mandate of Rowan's Law in Ontario, Canada. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine concussion knowledge translation within a sport network using social network analysis. A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate 76 collegiate athletes (54 females, 21 males, 1 not identified), aged 20.55 years (SD = 3.4) who completed a survey on sport demographics, concussion knowledge and stakeholders who provided concussion information during the sport season. Athlete concussion knowledge scores and reported stakeholders were examined. An average of three key stakeholders provided concussion information to 82% of the varsity athletes in our study. Athletes reported that a coach or athletic trainer most often provided concussion knowledge. Overall, athlete concussion knowledge scores were the same for athletes who sought concussion knowledge from stakeholders and those who did not. Over 95% of athletes in the study did not access the Rowan's Law website for mandated concussion education. These findings suggest that Rowan's Law is hugely neglected resulting in stakeholder knowledge translation having minimal influence on an athletes’ understanding of concussions. Future recommendations include verified review of mandated concussion education resources and testing of concussion knowledge for all persons associated with sport in Ontario. Due to the number of athletes seeking concussion knowledge in their varsity athlete network, accurate sport specific resources should be provided to support stakeholders who are in direct contact with athletes.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-01-11T05:44:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231224273
       
  • Fear of failure and perception of the motivational climate under the coach
           pressure

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Manuel Gómez-López, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, David Manzano-Sánchez, Juan González-Hernández
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The motivational climate perceived by players is a psychosocial process that has an impact on how they adjust their psychological response to performance situations with greater or lesser efficiency and balance. The aim of this study was to identify distinctive profiles of fear of failure and basic psychological needs in young handball players according to perceived motivational climate (mastery vs. performance). It examined differences in the distribution of gender and age and satisfaction of basic psychological needs and fear of failure within each profile. The study participants were 681 young (M = 16.16 years; SD = 0.92) handball players. A battery of scales adapted to Spanish was administered to measure motivational climate, fear of failure, and basic psychological needs. Central tendency, correlational, cluster, and comparative analysis (multivariate analysis) were applied to determine two profiles (Cluster 1 vs. Cluster 2). The Cluster 1 was characterized by those players with the highest values in the perception of a mastery climate, and the Cluster 2 included those players with a mixed mastery/ performance climate. The results may provide relevant information suggesting that a climate high in mastery and performance is preferable to a climate that is moderately high in both dimensions. They are useful to coaches in designing and adjusting training programs so that their athletes can enhance resources under balanced psychological efforts that reduce discomfort and flight, thus improving adaptation skills to coping with competitive demands and pressure.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-01-05T09:15:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231223652
       
  • Physical education orientation and activity among youth ice hockey coaches

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Iina Raudasoja, Tommi Vasankari, Mikko Simula, Jari Villberg, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Sami Kokko
      First page: 64
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Sixty-two percent of Finnish children and adolescents aged 9–15 participate in sports club activities, yet only one-third of sports participants reach the recommended 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The inadequate physical activity of participants underlines the need for physical education among those participating in sports club activities. Sports coaches have significant potential in promoting participants’ weekly overall physical activity beyond sports training, given their role of authority. However, coaches in Finland mainly work on a voluntary basis, with varying knowledge and capabilities. The aim of the study was to investigate the physical education orientation and activity of sports coaches, and the associations of these with the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity of young sports participants. Questionnaire data from coaches (n = 26) and young sports participants aged 6–18 (n = 201), and accelerometer data from young sports participants (n = 293) were included in the analysis. The results indicated that even though sports coaches recognized the importance of physical education, they have not fully embraced their role as physical educators and promoters of weekly overall physical activity among young sports participants. The role of families was considered most significant in physical education. Coaches perceived their possibilities to influence the physical activity behavior of the participants as limited. Coaching education and experience had a positive relationship with the coaches’ activity in implementing physical education, highlighting the importance of coaching education. The findings suggest that there is a need to increase collaboration with coaches and families to ensure an adequate amount of weekly overall physical activity of children and adolescents.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2024-01-23T05:47:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231225182
       
  • Managing concussion in the real world: Stakeholder perspectives of New
           Zealand Rugby's concussion management pathway

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Danielle Margaret Salmon, Simon Walters, James Brown, Zachary Yukio Kerr, Amanda Clacy, Sierra Keung, S John Sullivan, Johna Register-Mihalik, Chris Whatman, Gisela Sole, Marelise Badenhorst
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The potential adverse consequences associated with poor concussion management highlights the need to improve the translation of concussion guidelines into consistent use in real-world sport settings. To facilitate this process, New Zealand Rugby developed a community concussion management pathway to support concussion recognition, diagnosis, and management. This study adopted a pragmatic, descriptive qualitative approach to explore key stakeholders’ perceptions of the concussion management pathway, with the aim to inform policy and practice. Interviews were conducted with 123 participants, including players, parents, coaches, healthcare professionals, and school and provincial union representatives. The framework method was used to analyze data. Themes were organized according to the principles of realist process evaluation that considers contextual factors and mechanisms influencing a program's operation to produce specific outcomes. Contextual factors influencing the concussion management pathway's implementation included governing bodies’ support, existing local resources, general concussion attitudes, or concussion severity. The optimal functioning of the concussion management pathway (mechanism) was influenced by (i) pathway resources, (ii) roles and relationships, (iii) buy-in and support towards the concussion management pathway, and (iv) diligence and communication. Outcomes identified included (i) hitting the target (optimally managed and enhanced awareness) or (ii) missing the mark (dissatisfaction or management gaps). Overall, participants found the concussion management pathway valuable. However, the acceptability of certain policy-related aspects and the underlying attitudes associated with these perceptions, are some areas requiring further investigation and support. Tailoring programs according to end-users’ perceptions is crucial in developing context-sensitive interventions appropriate for a specific setting. These findings may act as a foundation for investigations of concussion management in other settings.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-29T06:13:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231218518
       
  • An investigation into the variability of rugby union small-sided game
           demands and the effect of pitch size and player number manipulation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Charles Dudley, Rich Johnston, Ben Jones, Trent Hacking, Robert McCafferty, Jonathon Weakley
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to quantify the variability of physical, technical, and subjective task-load demands in small-sided games (SSGs), and the effect of manipulating of pitch size and player numbers in SSG in adolescent rugby union (RU) players. Twenty-six subjects completed six conditions in a crossover study design. In each condition subjects played 4 × 3-min periods of an SSG. Games were completed with either 4 × 4, 6 × 6 or 12 × 12 players on either a small (W: 25 m, L: 30 m), medium (W: 30 m, L: 40 m), or large (W: 35 m, L: 50 m) sized pitch. Match demands were assessed using global navigation satellite systems, heart rate (HR) monitors, ratings of perceived exertion, National Aeronautical Space Association task-load index and video analysis. Statistical analysis comprised of typical error, coefficient of variation (CV) and intra-class correlations to assess variability, and the use of linear mixed effects modelling to assess differences between conditions. A range of variability was observed in technical (CV = 25.00% to 52.38%), physical (CV = 4.12% to 51.18%) and subjective task-loads (CV = 7.65% to 17.14%) between identical games. Reducing player numbers increased physical demands such as m/min (ES range = 0.45 to 1.45), technical exposures such as total involvements (ES range = 0.04 to 0.63) and effort, physical and temporal task-loads. Increasing pitch size caused greater movement demands such as m/min (ES range = 0.11 to 0.79), but did not change the technical demands.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-25T10:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231220288
       
  • Analysis of the competition programmes of elite and sub-elite swimmers:
           The influence of sex, stroke and race distance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Karen L. Johns, Peter M. Philipson, Cormac Powell
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to analyse contemporary performance data in elite and sub-elite Irish swimmers, to explore the number of days and races required for swimmers to achieve their fastest competitive performances and how this may be influenced by sex, stroke and race distance. The initial dataset consisted of n = 3930 observations on n = 56 swimmers, with n1 = 2709 (68.9%) long course (LC) observations and n2 = 1221 (31.1%) short course (SC) observations. The main findings indicated that, firstly, the swimmers (LC & SC) produced their fastest swim in their first race of the season, approximately 39% of the time. Secondly, there were no significant differences between male and female swimmers regarding the number of days and races required to achieve their fastest performances. The final key finding identified the number of days and races between first and fastest performance was influenced by (a) stroke, for example, LC and SC freestyle and individual medley swimmers required less races and shorter timeframes to fastest swim, with breaststroke requiring the greatest number of mean days in LC and SC formats and (b) race distance, for example, across LC and SC, 400 m swimmers required fewer races (n = 1.83 & 1.64) and shorter time frame (n = 24.83 & 21.26 days) to fastest swim than other distances. These findings are valuable to coaches and practitioners, as (a) they can provide guidelines when designing competition programmes, and (b) support exploration of what a swimmer's competition may look like in terms of volume and duration to support the fastest performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-19T05:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231217839
       
  • A systematic review of coach augmented verbal feedback during practice and
           competition in team sports

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ross Corbett, Mark Partington, Lisa Ryan, Ed Cope
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Coaches use of augmented verbal feedback (AVF), often measured through systematic observation, is acknowledged as having a vital role in athlete learning. The purpose of this review was to identify coaches’ use of AVF, through systematic observation, in developmental and performance contexts. A literature search was conducted using EBSCO HOST and SCOPUS databases. Studies were reviewed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data were extracted from 31 studies which met the inclusion criteria. Analysis revealed three themes: (a) variation in observation tool and feedback types observed; (b) evidence base surrounding feedback types observed; (c) quality of coach feedback. The multiple feedback types measured across the studies suggests there is limited agreement on the types of feedback most important to measure. For the impact of feedback to be better understood, feedback types captured via systematic observation need revising in line with research that has identified the important characteristics of feedback. A greater evidence-informed approach to the observation of feedback may help to develop a greater understanding of the feedback process in learning and performance. Where there were consistencies in feedback type, the quality of AVF delivered by coaches could be questioned.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-13T04:32:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231218665
       
  • The influence of the field orientation on the representativeness of the
           positional dynamics in soccer small-sided games

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bruno P Couto, Gibson M Praça, Tim J Gabbett, Marcelo S Luchesi, Mariana P Oliveira, Mark GL Sayers
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to compare the positional dynamics in soccer small-sided games (SSGs) with either greater length (SSGlength) or width (SSGwidth) with official games. Twenty four Brazilian U-20 national-level players participated in six SSGs training sessions with two different SSG configurations: SSGlength (4v4, 40 m length and 26 m width) and SSGwidth (4v4, 26 m length and 40 m width). Positional dynamics variables were monitored and compared to official games. Linear mixed regression model was fitted using the situations as fixed effect, and, when appropriate, player and/or group as random effects. When compared to SSGlength and SSGwidth, official games showed a greater Relative Team Length, LPWratio, Spacial Exploration Index (SEI), and Strech Index, with a large or very large effect size. The SSGlength elicited higher values of Relative Team Width, LPWratio, and SEI when compared to SSGwidth. No significant differences were found between SSGlength and SSGwidth for Relative Team Length (small effect size), and SI (small effect size). Both group and player as random effects showed low variances. We concluded that the tactical behaviours during the 4v4 SSG differed substantially from the competitive tactical behaviour during the official games. In addition, changing the orientation of the playing field did not make the positional dynamics of the SSGs more similar to the official games.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-13T04:31:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231217078
       
  • The perceived influence of menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on
           training and performance: Comparison between football, handball, and
           orienteering

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Linda Ekenros, Philip von Rosen, Guro S Solli, Øyvind Sandbakk, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Angelica L Hirschberg, Cecilia Fridén
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, we published self-reported data concerning the perceived effects of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on the training and performance of 1086 female athletes participating in 57 sports. However, studies comparing differences between sports with large sample sizes are lacking. The aim of this ancillary study was to compare the impact of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on training and performance between the three largest sports in the cohort, that is, football, handball, and orienteering, as well as the knowledge and support provided to the female athletes engaged in these sports. The results are from a web-based questionnaire completed by 312 football players, 243 handball players, and 93 orienteers. A total of 54% of the orienteers planned their training based on the menstrual cycle, which was a higher proportion compared to football (45%) and handball (29%) players (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-13T04:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231216403
       
  • Aligning online and remote coaching with the digital age: Novel
           perspectives for an emerging field of research and practice

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Blake Bennett, Christoph Szedlak
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In the context of contemporary coaching, it is necessary to explore approaches that cater to the needs and preferences of modern learners. Given the emergence of online/remote coaching and coach development (ORC/CD) in recent years, this could involve the exploration of frameworks and onto-epistemologies that better ensure alignment with contemporary understandings of learning in the digital era. In the current article, we take the opportunity to explore some of the possible theoretical considerations that can inform future research in this emerging area; and thus support the application of technology-enhanced coaching/learning in sport coaching contexts. First, we philosophically position our arguments within a ‘new culture of learning’ (NCOL) – a framework that is congruent with online learning experiences. From there, we consider Connectivism – as an expression of New Materialism – as a suitable onto-epistemology to guide future research given its recognition of networked ways of being in the twenty-first century. We conclude by suggesting heutagogy (self-determined learning) as an appropriate signature ‘∼gogy’ for ORC/CD environments.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T07:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231217077
       
  • Game sides technical-tactical differences between professional male padel
           players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rodrigo Ampuero, Oscar Mellado-Arbelo, Juan Pedro Fuentes-García, Ernest Baiget
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The main objective of this study was to analyze how professional male padel players technically-tactically behave and to whether determine if there are any differences between one game side and the other (left game side, LGS; right game side, RGS). The sample included 12.851 shots corresponding to 8 matches from the quarterfinals, semifinals, and finals of the Premier Padel circuit held in 2022 where 16 different professional right-handed padel male players participated. All matches were analyzed through systematic observation using an ad-hoc instrument. Variables such as, type of strokes, outcomes, hitting zones and switching displacements, were taken into account. Significant differences (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-06T10:30:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231218379
       
  • The role of sport coaches on student-athletes’ life skills development
           and transfer: Using multilevel model analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Junsu Bae, Taehee Lim, David Michael O’Sullivan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      A structured sport environment is known to provide adequate conditions for the development and transfer of student-athletes’ life skills. However, recent research not only emphasizes the environment but also argues that the intentional effort of coaches such as life skills coaching is important. This study examines the role of coaches’ life skills coaching on the development and transfer of athletes’ life skills using a multilevel model. A total of 28 high school athletic teams (28 coaches, 291 student-athletes) were recruited to participate in the study, using cluster sampling. The life skills coaching of Level 2 (coaches) in sports were measured using the Korean version of the Coaching Life Skills in Sport Questionnaire (CLSS-Q). The life skills of the student-athletes at Level 1 were measured using the Life Skills Scale for Student-Athletes (LSSSA) and Korean version of Life Skills Transfer Survey (LSTS). Multilevel model analysis was conducted to analyze dyadic data. The result of analysis showed that three hypotheses were supported. Specifically, life skills development of student-athletes affected life skills transfer (Hypothesis 1), life skills coaching affected student-athletes’ life skills transfer (Hypothesis 2), and the interaction effect between life skills coaching and development affected life skills transfer of student-athletes (Hypothesis 3). We conclude that coaches should use intentional life skills coaching strategies to maximize student-athlete life skills development and transfer to daily life.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-12-06T10:30:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231217368
       
  • Factors influencing the intentions of people with disabilities to
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ye Hoon Lee, Wonsang Shin, Heetae Cho
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence the intention of people with disabilities to participate in e-sports and actual participation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used as a theoretical framework to guide this study. Involving 243 participants with a mean age of 42.56 years (SD = 18.14), this study encompasses a range of disabilities, predominantly physical (47.0%), representing diverse educational backgrounds with 20.1% having at least a college education. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. We found that both attitudes toward e-sports and perceived behavioral control to engage in e-sports were positively associated with e-sports participation intention. Intention, in turn, was positively associated with actual e-sports participation. Furthermore, e-sports participation intention mediated the relationship between attitude toward e-sports and perceived behavioral control. This study has the potential to contribute to the academic discourse by identifying factors that may influence the intention of people with disabilities to engage in e-sports, employing the TPB. The results can help researchers and practitioners understand how to design effective interventions to promote e-sports participation among people with disabilities.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-30T06:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231216411
       
  • Tactical skills in tennis: A systematic review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eneko Sanchez Mencia, Josep Campos-Rius, Xabier González Santamaría, Erika Borrajo Mena
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The present work consists of a systematic review of studies related to tactical skills in tennis. Through the PRISMA methodology, studies related to the subject are identified, categorised and analysed using four of the most important databases: Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO SPORTDiscus and APA PsychInfo. For the present review, 34 studies published on the subject between the years 2000 and 2022 are used to demonstrate the authorship and participating subjects, as well as the skill level, methodology used, tactical aspects analysed and the results/conclusions most relevant to each of the investigations. The results are deductively divided into eight detected variables: anticipation, game knowledge, strategy, problem representation, situational awareness, execution, player skill level and identity. Finally, possible future lines are presented for a better understanding of tactical skills.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-28T08:25:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231216268
       
  • On the relationship between flexibility and jump performance across age
           and sex: A 15-season retrospective longitudinal study on 229 alpine ski
           racers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Filippo Bertozzi, Dino Tenderini, Federica Camuncoli, Manuela Galli, Marco Tarabini
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Alpine skiing performance depends on several qualities, including lower limb strength, power production and flexibility. However, how these physical skills, as well as their relationship, differ between sexes and evolve in growing skiing athletes is still unclear. We analysed sit-and-reach (SR) and three jump test (height and peak power) scores of over 200 alpine ski racers collected across 15 sports seasons. We stratified data among sex and age categories to assess differences and to interpret the relationships between flexibility and jump performance. The mixed models showed a significant age category and sex effect (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T08:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231216815
       
  • A coach's perspective on augmented feedback (and technology) in cricket

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kevin Tissera, Dominic Orth, Minh Huynh, Amanda C Benson
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Coaches utilise augmented feedback to help channel learning and skill acquisition in sports. However, the rationale and pedagogical approaches underpinning feedback (and technology) strategies employed by coaches remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore cricket coaches understanding towards the role of feedback, and how feedback (and technology) strategies are enacted within practice settings, viewed within pedagogical frameworks. An online questionnaire (Qualtrics) consisted of fixed-text and free-text questions. Fixed-text responses were analysed exploring associations (frequencies, chi-square) or differences (Mann-Whitney U) between coaching groups, with free-text questions examined through reflexive thematic analysis, exploring approaches to presenting athletes with feedback (and technology use). Overall, 134 coaches (94% male, 6% female) aged 18–69 years from 12 countries responded to the questionnaire. Following silhouette and k-modes cluster analysis, results were explored for two coaching groups: community cricket coaches (n = 84, 63%) and higher-performance coaches (n = 50, 37%). Significant differences showed greater coaching experience, qualifications, and time spent coaching per week for the higher-performance coaching group (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T08:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231213540
       
  • Dealing with de-selection from youth international football: A case study
           of English Premier League academies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dom Edwards, Paul Michael Brannagan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the perceptions of players and football club staff regarding de-selection from the youth international football environment. Prior research into youth football de-selection focuses on players’ experiences of being released from their club environment; however, research is yet to understand the effect of de-selection from international football. The authors completed semi-structured interviews with 11 current youth international footballers and nine members of leadership staff from English Premier League youth academies, including academy directors, technical directors and heads of coaching. It was found that players had a strong identity as an international footballer and that once de-selected, it could be difficult to adapt to a change in status within their group at the club. The club staff also suggested that clubs do little to support the player once de-selected as although they perceive the player as being part of their development programme, they viewed international football as an area that was not their responsibility. Practical applications are discussed, including the need for clear justifications of de-selection and ‘after-care’ solutions.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T08:04:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231216873
       
  • An observational study of player behaviours under varying task constraints
           in professional Australian football players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rhys Tribolet, William B Sheehan, Andrew R Novak, Mark L Watsford, Job Fransen
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      An evaluation of player behaviour and performance across different playing conditions in team sport is difficult. This study examined integrative (indegree and outdegree importance) and individual (goals, kicks, handballs, marks, tackles, kick and handball proficiency) level behaviours at one professional Australian Football club across three different conditions: small-sided games (SSGs), match simulation and competitive Australian Football League (AFL) matches. Estimated marginal means identified negligible changes for integrative measures across conditions. This may suggest larger changes to control parameters are required to modify these behaviours, as it relies on interdependent cooperative behaviour. Individual level behaviours demonstrated varied responses across changing conditions. AFL matches revealed the lowest kicks and marks per minute compared to the other conditions, whilst having the highest rate of tackles. Players had lower kick proficiency in conditions with a higher number of players. Moreover, one SSG with a floater (player who participates in attack for both teams) elicited a higher number of handballs per minute relative to every other condition. These findings provide implications for measuring the (in)stability of individual and integrative level behaviours and how changes to constraints may alter these metrics. This method may provide a foundation for future hypotheses testing and for player monitoring that can assist practitioners to examine the changes in players behaviours in response to changing constraints.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T08:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231215896
       
  • Using neural networks and hierarchical cluster analysis to study goal
           kicks in football

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Andres Roger Arnau Notari, JM Calabuig, Cesar Catalan, LM Garcia Raffi, JM Pardo Gila, Roberto Pons Anaya, EA Sánchez Pérez
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study is to build a mathematical model that predicts the success of a goal kick in soccer. The model is based on an ensemble of neural networks whose inputs are five features extracted directly from the goal kick and one more that depends on the opposing team. This new variable is calculated using a hierarchical cluster analysis and divides the possible opponents by their defensive strategy. It is shown that it has a relevant importance in the result of a goal kick, which validates the idea of using the presented methodology that takes into account the opponent’s tactics when analyzing specific plays of a soccer match.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T07:09:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231207184
       
  • Basketball experience: Exploring Nigerian basketball coaches' perspectives
           of grassroots sport-for-development programming as a tool to enhance
           well-being

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Adam S Kroot, Lindsey C Blom, Khushbu Patel, Chelsea Davis, Matt A Moore, Thalia M Mulvihill
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Considering the disparity between mental health services and resources available in Nigeria, researchers have highlighted the need for organizations, policymakers, and health service providers to revamp their approaches. Due to its unifying nature and cultural importance in the youth population, grassroots sport programming has been shown to be an effective mechanism in promoting education and life skills. In Lagos, Nigeria, the Basketball Experience program was designed to promote physical well-being, healthy living, mental health, and life skills in Nigerian youth utilizing principles from the Resilience and Youth Development Module. Researchers interviewed seven female and three male coaches using a phenomenological approach to investigate their perspectives of the program's impact on themselves and the youth they coach. Results suggest that implementing mental health education and resilience development, specifically through positive mentorship and strategies such as breathing and mindfulness exercises, into a sport for development program can assist with increased knowledge and reduced mental health stigma. Coaches strongly endorsed increased use of programs like Basketball Experience to promote positive development and combat the disparity in mental health literacy and policy, and they suggested that such programs have the power to help restructure the longstanding cycle of negative stressors inherent to life in Nigeria. Based on these perspectives, the authors discuss how grassroots sport programming can be an effective tool in the development of both coaches and youth. Moreover, the authors advocate for the Resilience and Youth Development Module as an impactful theoretical framework for facilitating resilience and life skills in coaches and youth.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-15T08:34:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231213552
       
  • Differences in performance parameters between winning and losing pairs in
           men's and women's professional padel

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Iván Martín-Miguel, Diego Muñoz, Adrián Escudero-Tena, Víctor Toro-Román, Bernardino J. Sánchez-Alcaraz
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The study aims to analyze the differences between winning and losing pairs depending on the sex and the round of the tournament in professional padel. A total of 814 matches (438 men and 376 women) from the draw rounds of eight World Padel Tour Open and Master tournaments played during the 2022 season were analyzed by systematic observation. The results indicate that the winning pair obtains more points won (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-15T08:03:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231213544
       
  • A smile can go a long way: The effects of dominant and rewarding smiles of
           coaches on athletes in an evaluative performance context

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Philip Furley, Fanny Thrien
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Non-verbal expressions from other people play an important role in everyday life. We tested the psychological and physiological effects of different non-verbal facial expressions given by a coach to athletes in a performance context. In a study with 60 athletes, we tested how dominance versus reward smiles shown by a coach after various performances affected athletes’ subjective affective state, stress levels, and their own facial expressions. Results showed that athletes who perceived dominant smiles after their performances had higher heart-rates than those who received rewarding smiles. Athletes receiving dominant smiles also reported feeling less happy after their performances than athletes receiving rewarding smiles. No effects were evident on subjective stress levels and facial expressions of emotion measured by Noldus FaceReader. The present results are the first to show that subtle differences in facial expressions of coaches can affect an athlete's heart rate and affective state in an evaluative performance context. The results join research on the interpersonal effects of non-verbal behaviour between athletes and their coaches. They provide evidence that the facial expressions of coaches have communicative content that is perceived by the athletes and influences them on different levels.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-15T08:03:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231213307
       
  • Effects of 16-weeks of strength training on jump height and anthropometric
           variables in U19 semi-professional male soccer players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Francisco Tomás González-Fernández, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Lorena Rodríguez-García, Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeThe aim of our study was to examine the effect of 16 weeks of strength training on anthropometric characteristics and jump height in semi-professional male players after a pre-season period.MethodsA parallel two-group, longitudinal (pre, post) design was used with physical tests performed before (preintervention) and after (postintervention) the 16-week intervention period. The soccer players were assigned and matched into two groups, an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG), based on the team of which they were a part.ResultsA two-way ANOVA was performed with group and time as factors. The results of a two-way ANOVA revealed no time×group interaction for body composition or jump height. Nevertheless, a paired measures t-test of weight, fat mass, lean mass, and countermovement jump (CMJ) test metrics (pre-post) and group (CG and EG) showed an improvement in all measures (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-15T08:02:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231210093
       
  • Declarative tactical knowledge from 12 to 22 years old in a professional
           football club: Real Sociedad

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rubén Sánchez-López, Ibon Echeazarra, Jon Mikel Arrieta, Julen Castellano
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This work aimed to measure and compare the declarative tactical knowledge (DTK) of the total number of academy players (n = 163; 16.75 ± 2.42 years) from the seven teams that make up the men's section of a Spanish professional football club. The ‘TESTACTICO for F7’ tool was used to access the DTK of the participants in May 2022 (last part of the season), analysing the results obtained according to the age category (U14, U16, U19 and U23), and ensuring an adequate sample strength (f = 0.26) via G*Power. The analysis of variancewas used, through Tukey's HSD contrast test for post hoc multiple comparisons, evaluating the magnitude of the differences found by pairs of age categories through Cohen's d effect size. The macro-level comparisons between age categories evidenced differences (p ≤ .017) with different effect sizes (2.17  0.55) in global, offensive and defensive scores, revealing two homogeneous groups: U14 + U16 and U19 + U23. In addition, the offensive score was higher than the defensive score in all age categories. At the meso-level, differences were found (p ≤ .008) with different effect sizes (1.24  0.22) in 12 variables. At the micro-level, offensive behaviours outside of the game centre linked to depth, width and positioning, as well as defensive situations in which a tackle must be made are not declaratively dominated in any age category. It is concluded that, in a specific performance-oriented context, although the overall DTK scores are influenced by the age, different changes between age categories were verified.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-15T08:02:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231208928
       
  • No-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu: A Markovian analysis of elite-level combat
           dynamics

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Leonardo Lamas, Matthew Heiner, Mario Ferreira, Arthur Moura, Wellington Rangel, Gilbert Fellingham, Victor Lage
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      No-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a grappling-based combat sport performed without the jiu-jitsu uniform. It’s fast-growing popularity has been influenced by the contributions to competitors’ performance in mixed martial arts tournaments. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of actions, the transitions between them, and their reward–risk balance—the probability of submitting minus the probability of being submitted—among top-level competitors. Data encompassed all 93 matches (90 competitors) of the World Submission Fighting Championship-2019. Reliability was assessed by two experts (sports scientists, more than 10 years as no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors). Data analyses used Bayesian methods for inference. Posterior distributions of the mean frequencies of actions indicate that the main actions (e.g. takedown, sweep, and back-take) tended to occur less than once per competitor in each match, except by the submission attempt (point estimate of 1.03 per match). The highest estimates for the transition probabilities between match actions were within-competitor—a guard pass action to another guard pass action (0.30); between-competitors—a takedown attempt to a submission attempt (0.15). Most of the actions presented positive reward-risk balance, particularly for the back-take, which showed the highest probability of direct transition to submission (0.45). The dynamic analysis of no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu matches evidenced some preferential actions’ transitions associated with winning. Findings should enhance the accuracy of performance prediction and provide evidence-based recommendations for coaches.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-10T08:19:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231210979
       
  • Determinant biomechanical variables for each sprint phase performance in
           track and field: A systematic review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Túlio Bernardo Macedo Alfano Moura, Juliane Cristine Leme, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Jefferson Rosa Cardoso, Felipe Arruda Moura
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Sprint studies present several variables and methodologies for biomechanical analysis in different phases of running. The variability in the analysis of the sample and distance covered may impede the application of the results in track and field athletes. The objective of this systematic review was to characterize the determinant biomechanical variables analyzed in the literature in each sprint phase. Four electronic databases were used (MEDLINE, Web of Science, SportDiscus, and Scopus). Only biomechanical studies with track and field athletes were selected. After the identification, screening, and eligibility process, 109 studies were included for qualitative synthesis and analyzed by the risk of bias assessment. The studies were classified in different sprint phases, according to the sprint task described by the authors (sprint start = 27, acceleration = 32, constant speed = 8, deceleration = 4, and not specified = 38). Factors such as the center of mass position, contact time, force applied on the rear block, and athletes’ ability to generate high amounts of force in the shortest possible time influence the sprint start performance. The acceleration phase is characterized by step frequency and step length transition, propulsive force, and minimization of braking force. Consequently, directing the resulting force as vertically as possible in the braking phase and as horizontally as possible in the anterior direction during the propulsive phase is important during the constant speed phase. In the deceleration phase, the decrease in step frequency and the increase in contact time may influence speed maintenance and, consequently, the result.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T07:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231200526
       
  • Upper limb biomechanical differences in volleyball spikes among young
           female players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lukáš Slovák, Javad Sarvestan, Fatemeh Alaei, Takehiro Iwatsuki, David Zahradník
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The performance assessment of relevant biomechanical factors is essential for appropriate age-related training progression in volleyball spike (VS). This study aimed to investigate the differences in upper limbs’ (a) range of motion (ROM), (b) angular velocities, and (c) muscular activity during VS among under 16- (U-16), under 18- (U-18), and under 20- (U-20) year-old female volleyball players. The kinematic variables of the spike performances were recorded using six optoelectronic cameras (Vicon Motion system, UK). Additionally, the wireless Trigno system (Delsys, USA) was used to record the electromyographic signals. The one-way ANOVA (1d SPM analysis) exhibited a significantly greater wrist internal rotation (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T07:29:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231211679
       
  • Differences between genders and competitive levels on technical-tactical
           parameters in padel: Implications for training

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ana Fernández de Ossó, Javier Pecci, Horacio Sánchez-Trigo, Diego Muñoz, Adrián Escudero-Tena, Juan León
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Padel is a complex racket sport with a wide variety of technical actions and tactical possibilities. The aim was to compare the duration of the rallies, the number of shots, the shot frequency and the shot frequency between elite and amateur padel players of different genders, which is necessary to guide the training process. The results show that the duration of the rally is longer in elite padel than in amateur padel, both in men (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T07:28:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231211667
       
  • Barriers to coach decision-making during Australian football matches and
           how it can be supported by artificial intelligence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mitchell F Aarons, Will Vickery, Lyndell Bruce, Chris M Young, Dan B Dwyer
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Elite sport coaches are often expected to make high-stakes decisions in time-constrained environments, such as during matches. The quality or efficiency of these decisions is bound by context-specific constraints on their decision-making. Artificial intelligence-based tools could alleviate some of these constraints. In Australian football, it is not yet known what these context-specific constraints are, nor is there any understanding of the thoughts and perception of elite Australian football coaches towards the use of artificial intelligence to support their decision-making. This study is the first to explore these issues in the context of elite Australian football and aims to inform the effective design and integration of tools to support the in-match decision-making of coaches in a manner that is welcomed by coaches. Using semi-structured interviews with elite Australian football coaches (n = 6) and reflexive thematic analysis, two domains were explored: ‘barriers to decision-making’ and ‘thoughts and perceptions of a decision support system (DSS)’. Coaches discussed seven ‘cognitive’ and ‘environmental’ barriers, some of which may be addressed using artificial intelligence. Meanwhile, four themes were generated for the second domain, namely ‘willingness to adopt’, ‘expectation’, ‘concern and criticism’, and ‘DSS role’. The findings enable practitioners to design tools that are intended to address some of these barriers, while also providing insights into important considerations for the implementation and design of these tools that may increase the likelihood of achieving the endorsement of elite coaches and their support staff.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-11-06T06:14:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231206682
       
  • Interest as a supplementary criterion in the detection of talent: The
           identification of differing types of children at primary school age

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fabienne Spies, Larissa Heger, Tim Bindel, Mark Pfeiffer
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Current efforts to design an effective method of detecting talent are now focused on the differing interests of children (preferences) and not just their sport-related motor skills (ability). When a person-oriented approach is used, it is important to profile different types to design movement offers that effectively target the relevant groups and prevent dropouts. The aim of this study was to investigate in the elementary school context what types it is possible to identify in terms of both interests and ability. A total of 159 children (age 8–11.5) were assessed to determine their interests and their ability using a sequential design approach. ‘Preferences’ were scored on a seven-point Likert scale during a video-assisted interview. ‘Ability’ was assessed using seven sport-related motor skills tests. The mixed-methods approach consisted of a quantitative step 1, a cluster analysis (SPSS27, Ward's method, squared Euclidean distance). Based on the clusters, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in step 2. Analysis revealed five clusters of children that exhibited significant differences in terms of ability and interests. The qualitative interviews clarify the characteristics of the types (e.g. special interest in recreational activities or in competing at a high level with high or low own performance) and describe their experiences and desires. The data indicates that children's interests are determined by positive experiences and prior knowledge. Schools, sports practice, and sports science are faced with the task of responding suitably to children with different combinations of ability and preferences in the early phase of talent detection.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T08:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231203497
       
  • A culture of constraints: How head coach turnovers affect the backroom
           staff and player development in professional football

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Matheus Galdino, Pamela Wicker
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In professional football, head coach turnovers are arbitrarily perceived as a shortcut solution to convert losing streaks into winning results within time-limited competitive seasons. Despite a speculative mentality guiding turnover decisions, a new coach is invariably appointed with the expectation of improving performance. As often overlooked, however, coaching replacements inevitably create unintended club-wide spillover effects. This study addresses two related club-wide research questions: (1) How do head coach turnovers affect player development at the team level'; and, (2) What are the spillover effects for backroom staff' Undertaken in Brazil, where turnover rates exceed those in Europe, 30 backroom staff practitioners (i.e., assistant coaches, goalkeeping coaches, fitness coaches, physical therapists, physiologists, and a medical doctor) completed semistructured interviews focused on their experiences. A reflexive thematic analysis revealed an overarching culture of constraints driven by conflicting behaviors and working practices. Three themes were highlighted at the team level: pragmatic playing style, methodological mismatch, and delaying team cohesion. At the individual level, four themes were identified: internal disruption, repetitive adaptations, job insecurity, as well as mental and emotional unrest. The findings indicate how within-season coaching turnovers represent a hazard that unintentionally constrains the mutual collaboration among the stakeholders directly involved with player development.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T08:30:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231207704
       
  • Multi-sports training in English soccer academies: A survey exploring
           practices, practitioner perspectives, and barriers to use

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jonathan M Taylor, Charlie Quigley, Jonathan Madden, Matthew D Wright
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Despite interest in multi-sports training as a strategy to enhance long-term player development in soccer, current practice within English professional soccer academies is not well understood. This study explored the use of multi-sports training by English professional soccer academies (i.e., if multi-sports training was used, how often, session duration, activity type and age-group variations), and practitioners’ perspectives with respect to player development (i.e., perceived physical/sociological benefits of; and barriers to use) using an online survey. One practitioner per club, per age category (i.e., Foundation (
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T08:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231210746
       
  • Strength and conditioning practices of judo coaches

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rafael Lima Kons, Daniele Detanico, Filipe Estácio Costa, Emerson Franchini, Xurxo Dopico-Calvo, José Morales Aznar, Irineu Loturco, Anthony Weldon
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Strength and conditioning (S&C) is applied across various sports and levels. However, more evidence is needed regarding the practices and perspectives of those delivering S&C, with recent evidence in particular sports and countries showing that sports coaches and support staff are often tasked with this responsibility. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate judo coaches’ S&C practices and perspectives across different countries. Thirty-three judo coaches completed an online survey with six sections: (a) informed consent, (b) background information, (c) education, qualifications, and prescription, (d) views on S&C, (e) exercise selection and preferences, and (f) issues and improvements. Frequency analysis was used to report responses to fixed-response questions, and thematic analysis for open-ended questions. All respondents (n = 33) reported S&C as “important” to “very important” for all judo aspects. The most important exercises prescribed were squats including variations for strength, weightlifting and derivatives for speed and power, judo-specific movements for agility and fitness, and stretching/mobility for injury reduction. Regarding perceived issues, disadvantages, desired improvements, and future developments in S&C, the most frequent responses were related to motivation, increased staffing, expertise, and technology integration, respectively. This study provides valuable information for those pursuing or currently delivering S&C within judo. Judo coaches can use the presented data to compare, align, and explain their practices with fellow coaches, athletes, and support staff.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T08:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231206910
       
  • Group cohesion profiles in athletes: Relationships with two waves of
           coping and affects in competition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Higinio González-García, Guillaume Martinent, Michel Nicolas
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The study aimed to identify group cohesion profiles in athletes and examine whether athletes from distinct profiles significantly differed in affects and coping in competition. A total of 296 competitive athletes participated in the study and completed a series of self-report questionnaires in a temporal design with different measurement points. The athletes completed the questionnaires 2 days before competition, 2 h prior to competition and 2 h after competition. Results from latent profile analysis (LPA) model revealed that three profiles were the most suitable solution: (a) Low group cohesion profile, (b) a mixed group cohesion profile and (c) a high cohesion profile. In particular, (c) athletes from the high group cohesion profile revealed lower scores in intensity of negative affects after the competition, lower precompetitive relaxation, lower precompetitive mental distancing, lower precompetitive mental distraction, lower intracompetitive relaxation, lower intracompetitive logical analysis, lower intracompetitive mental distancing, lower intracompetitive mental distraction and lower intracompetitive disengagement. As a whole, the (b) mixed group cohesion profile revealed the worst combination of the three profiles in terms of coping strategies, which may be a profile at risk of not performing in competition. Thus, it is necessary to understand group cohesion as a multivariate experience for a better comprehension of this phenomenon.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T07:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231210190
       
  • Effects of warm-up duration on acute physical performance in highly
           trained male futsal players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nuno Silva, Bruno Travassos, Bruno Gonçalves, João Brito, Fábio Nakamura, Eduardo Abade
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Warm-up is a traditional pre-match routine that aims to enhance players’ readiness to subsequent activity. Manipulating the warm-up structure may be important to enhance acute performance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different warm-up durations on futsal players’ physical performance. Twelve highly trained male futsal players participated in this study during the in-season. All players performed three different warm-up protocols on consecutive days that differed on its total duration: normal (28-minute), short (15-minute) and very short (10-minute). All protocols included the same exercises, performed in the same sequence and with equal time percentage. Testing included 5 and 10 m linear sprint, 505 change of direction, countermovement jump (CMJ) and reactive strength index (RSI) and was performed in three different moments: pre warm-up, post warm-up and post10’ warm-up. CMJ and RSI improved in all protocols at post warm-up, with greater effects observed after very short protocol. However, no effects were observed at post10’ for vertical jump after all protocols. Sprint was improved in post warm-up after short and very short warm-up. Normal warm-up promoted positive effects in sprint at post10’. None of the protocols promoted positive effects in COD at post10’. Very short warm-ups appear to positively influence jumping and running performances, although these effects may be attenuated over time. Normal warm-ups could be valid for maintaining readiness during longer inactive periods that may characterize pre-match routines. Also, different responses may emerge from the same warm-up structure, which reinforces the need of adjusting warm-up according to players’ individual profiles.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T07:53:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231208009
       
  • Creating a shared mental model of performance: Coaches’ perspectives of
           key position-specific soccer actions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sam Barraclough, David Piggott, Kevin Till, Adam Kerr, Stacey Emmonds
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Important decisions surrounding talent identification (TID), talent development (TD) and (de)selection within elite youth soccer are often grounded in the subjective opinions of coaches. These opinions often stem from coaches’ observations of player performance, which have been shown to be susceptible to several biases. Additionally, previous research has failed to establish specific criteria on which such opinions are based, aside from a coach's own intuition and practical experience. This study aimed to create a communal language and aligned criteria for the specific purpose of evaluating players’ performances. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with nine experienced coaches (13.6 ± 10.8 years) from a professional UK soccer academy to identify coaches’ perceptions of key position-specific soccer actions, performed during differing moments of the game, for evaluating individual match performance. Thematic analysis of the interview data permitted the extraction of several themes , posited to encompass the position-specific soccer actions highlighted by the coaches. Themes for outfield positions included attacking skills; defending skills; movements to receive, create or exploit space; receiving and releasing skills; support play; end product; press, recover to the ball, man or space; and tactical understanding. Goalkeeper themes included tactical understanding, positioning relative to the ball, danger, teammates and opponents, play forward, support play, choice of action and range of distribution. This study highlights an applied approach of creating a shared mental model for appraising player performances, which can facilitate discussion and knowledge exchange between coaches and practitioners, with the intention of improving decision-making around TID, TD and (de)selection decisions.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T07:50:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231205473
       
  • Mental health training for high school coaches and athletic directors:
           Community-based participatory research to Coach Beyond

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Samantha Bates, Dawn Anderson-Butcher, Doug Ute, Dale McVey, Sydney Mack, Emily Nothnagle, Rebecca Wade-Mdivanian, Jerome Davis, Josh DeVoll, Joe Vassaloti, Jason Hix, Kaz Pata, Chris Ludban, Nathan Bobek, Keith Myers, Kevin Porter, Jeff Quackenbush, Joe Roberts, Nick Hajjar, Pat Durbin, Tyler Wolfe, Nick Magistrale
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Training to improve high school sport coaches’ and athletic directors’ knowledge, skills, and competencies to address and respond to rising mental health concerns is more important than ever. High school student-athletes are at increased risk for mental health concerns, given the pressures of balancing sport, school, and other responsibilities. This paper describes a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study that guided two years of public impact and social change efforts to improve coach education and training in one large Midwestern state in the United States. Our collective goal was to empower coaches and athletic directors to coach “beyond the Xs and Os.” Using a CBPR framework, we describe the decision-making process that led to the co-development and implementation of a mental health training program piloted with 147 high school coaches and athletic directors. We also describe intermediate outcomes associated with our collective change efforts demonstrating the value of using a CBPR approach. Our “Coach Beyond” processes and outputs showcase how CBPR can lead to transformative action and social change to reorient sport as a context focused on the holistic health, wellness, and development of student-athletes.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T07:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231201257
       
  • A practical guide to improve sleep and performance in athletes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Amy M Bender, Kari A Lambing
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Sleep is vital for optimal mental and physical health. For athletes, optimizing sleep is becoming a popular strategy to enhance athletic performance. Athletes often complain of sleep problems including insufficient sleep and insomnia symptoms and are also at a higher risk for sleep disordered breathing. Sleep disorders and insufficient sleep can contribute to excessive sleepiness, daytime dysfunction, and performance problems. In contrast, better sleep provides benefits for physical health and athletic performance. For athletes, multiple factors can contribute to insufficient sleep. Sport-specific factors include frequent travel across time zones, competition and training schedules, high training loads, and sleeping in an unfamiliar environment. Non-sport-related factors include work, social, and family commitments; attitudes and sleeping beliefs; individual characteristics, such as chronotype or preference for morning or evening; and lifestyle choices. Fortunately, there are strategies that can be implemented to improve sleep in athletes including (a) education and emphasis on the importance of sleep; (b) sleep screening; providing extra sleep opportunities like (c) banking sleep and (d) napping; improving sleep hygiene like (e) proper light exposure; (f) a good pre-sleep routine; (g) a conducive sleep environment; (h) a strategy for supplementation; (i) utilizing circadian timing adjustments; and (j) jet lag management. Increased recognition of the importance of sleep from sport professionals and screening for sleep disorders and disturbances will be key for future athlete health, well-being, and performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T07:47:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231201105
       
  • Optimizing video feedback for snatch technical error correction in young
           weightlifters: Comparing the effectiveness of different video playback
           speeds

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mohamed Abdelkader Souissi, Omar Trabelsi, Olfa Tounsi, Aymen Hawani, Sofien Fekih, Hichem Souissi, Adnen Gharbi, Ahlem Amor, Swantje Scharenberg, Nizar Souissi
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers are actively recommending optimal modes of usage for techno-pedagogical tools to ensure that athletes reap the benefits of technology in their training. In this study, we investigated the most effective video feedback viewing speed among normal-speed (NS), half-speed (HS), and quarter-speed (QS), for technical error correction in young weightlifters during the snatch movement. A total of 37 weightlifters (25 boys and 12 girls), aged 11–12 years, were randomly divided into three groups, namely the normal-speed (control group), the half-speed, and the quarter-speed group. Participants completed a pretest (T0), a seven-week snatch learning unit, and a posttest (T1), as well as a retention test one week later (T2). Video-mediated technical analysis of the snatch movement was conducted using the Kinovea motion analysis software. The main results showed that weightlifters who viewed their feedback videos at a quarter of the normal speed (QS) achieved significantly greater improvements in the displacement of the bar in the first pull Dx2 (T1 vs. T0: 27.41 ± 26.10%, Hedges’ g = 0.87, p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-24T04:17:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231208917
       
  • Exploring strength and conditioning practitioners’ perceptions about
           using priming exercise as a pre-competition strategy to improve
           performance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Patrick M. Holmberg, Scott Russell, Katherine A. O’Brien, Lachlan P. James, Vincent G. Kelly
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The term ‘priming exercise’ has recently been introduced to describe exercise stimuli prescribed to enhance performance within 1–48 hours of that stimulus. Despite evidence of these activities being utilised in competitive settings, the reasoning underpinning the application of priming exercise is not yet clear. Therefore, this study aimed to explore practitioners’ perceptions about using priming exercise as a pre-competition strategy to improve performance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 practitioners involved in prescribing training programs to elite Australian athletes. Reflexive thematic analysis revealed six organising themes (i.e. ‘limited and inapplicable research findings’, ‘consideration of athletes’ training age’, risk-return of priming session outcomes’, ‘logistical concerns’, ‘buy-in’ and ‘priming exercise prescription’) later grouped into a global theme, representing the ‘challenges of applying priming exercise’. The findings highlight contextual factors influencing practitioners’ use of priming exercise and, based on these considerations, draw attention to the apparent uncertainty about whether these stimuli can be prescribed effectively to improve competition performance in sports. In addition to gaining insight into applied priming strategies, the present findings may be used to inform externally valid and relevant study designs that subsequently guide practice.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-24T04:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231207951
       
  • Wearable technology metrics are associated with energy deficiency and
           psychological stress in elite swimmers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Emily A. Lundstrom, Mary Jane De Souza, Kristen J. Koltun, Nicole C.A. Strock, Hannah N. Canil, Nancy I. Williams
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Energy deficiency (ED) and psychological stress affect athlete health. Given the emerging capabilities of wearable technology, the purpose of this study was to explore associations of wearable technology metrics in relation to lab-based measures of ED and psychological stress. We investigated the associations between (a) wearable-derived heart rate variability (HRV), resting heart rate (RHR), exercise strain and recovery, and (b) laboratory-derived measures of metabolism (resting metabolic rate (RMR), total triiodothyronine (TT3)) and a validated stress assessment (Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ)-52 items) in NCAA swimmers (n  =  23, 10 male, 13 female) during heavy training. Swimmers were grouped by degree of metabolic adaption to ED using the ratio of actual-to-predicted RMR (utilizing the validated cutoff of
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-24T04:16:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231206424
       
  • The pre-match talk: A multiple-method examination of youth-elite football
           coaches’ motivational content

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pablo E Raya-Castellano, Tomás García-Calvo, Miguel A López-Gajardo, Joaquín Martín Marzano-Felisatti, Juan J Pulido
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Pre-match meetings are popular scenes in team sports, with coaches typically gathering the full squad within the dressing room and sharing their thoughts before the warm-up and/or competition. Whilst researchers have outlined the effects of informational or emotional talks, little is known about the actual verbal strategies that coaches adopt to influence their players. Therefore, this study examined the motivational content of football coaches’ verbal behaviours and underpinning perceptions of pre-match talks’ delivery. Five coaches (Mage = 36.2 years) working at a La Liga academy were involved in six pre-match talks (n = 30) and one semi-structured interview each. Talks were analysed using a two-stage coding process after adaptation of validated and motivationally relevant instruments, and interviews were assessed following thematic analysis procedures. Game strategy units were the most commonly employed topic across all coaches, which involved ‘neutral’ behaviours such as role description, game objective specification, and opposition statements. These were complemented with autonomy and competence supportive messages such as facilitating choices/opinions, offering rationales, supporting past performance, or ego-oriented and social climate support dimensions, depending on the coach. Data suggested that contextual factors could strengthen or attenuate the use of these verbal behaviours/dimensions. Build-up play contents were more likely to feature autonomy support game strategy comments than defending aspects, whereas lower-ranked and underdog opponents were associated with increased disapproving past performance and ego-involving statements compared to when facing higher-ranked opponents or playing derbies. Thus, it is suggested that the use of autonomy-, competence- and relatedness-supportive dimensions in addition to task-oriented messages should be reconsider by coaches if attempting to convey a need-supportive motivational climate.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-12T07:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231207254
       
  • Comprehensive preparation strategies for a world-class endurance athlete
           competing in major international competitions in hot environmental
           conditions: A case study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Amelia J Carr, Avish P Sharma, Megan LR Ross, Brent S Vallance
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeTo document a world-class race walking athlete's preparation for the 2019 International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships (Doha, Qatar), including periodized training, physiological data, cooling strategies and nutritional practices.MethodsPhysiological data (VO2max, mL·kg−1·min−1; submaximal economy, mL·kg−1·min−1; and %VO2max), training volume (km) and intensity (min·km−1) were recorded (January–May 2019). Additional training strategies and interventions (altitude training, heat acclimation/acclimatization, cooling methods and pre- and during-race nutrition) were described (February–October 2019). Performances in IAAF-sanctioned 20 km races were also reported.ResultsThe athlete's highest VO2max result was 74.6 mL·kg−1·min−1, and his highest 4 mmol·L−1 walking speed was 15.7 km·h−1. The best submaximal economy measures (the lowest proportional oxygen use at 13 km·h−1) were 48.4 mL·kg−1·min−1 (65.2% VO2max). The best performance outcome was a bronze medal-winning performance at the 2019 IAAF World Championships (32°C; 77% RH). Six blocks of altitude training were performed (119 days). Five blocks of heat acclimatization training (127 days), one block of heat acclimation training (8 days) and two blocks of post-training passive heat sessions (16 days) were completed. Internal and external cooling strategies were used, and the athlete's nutritional intake focused on carbohydrate and fluid intake prior to and during races, pre-race supplementation with sodium bicarbonate using chronic and acute protocols, caffeine supplementation during races and pre-race hyperhydration.ConclusionThe strategies used by this elite athlete included repeated heat acclimation, heat acclimatization, passive heat exposure, hypoxic training and heat mitigation strategies. Similar strategies may provide benefit to elite athletes preparing for major international competitions in hot conditions.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-09T07:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231194126
       
  • Does game-based training replicate match inside-50 entries in elite
           Australian Rules football'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Olivia Wallace, Will Vickery, Lyndell Bruce
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this research was to determine if the training design of an elite Australian Rules football team replicated match conditions for inside-50 entries. Notational analyses of one professional Australian Rules football club's training and match footage were conducted for every disposal that entered the inside-50 during either game-based training or matches. Analysed variables included how the ball was received, time in possession and location. Statistical analyses were undertaken using Mann–Whitney tests, a multivariate analysis of variance and a decision tree analysis. Significant differences were identified between game-based training and competition matches for 34 of the 54 inside-50 entry variables. Of these 34 variables, 10 showed a strong effect between session types. When examining the efficiency of inside-50 entries, only effective disposals produced a significant difference between training and matches, with no differences for neutral and ineffective disposals. The session type, how the ball was received, decision (e.g., kick vs. handball) and pressure acts were the most important contributors to effective inside-50 entry disposal efficiency. The results suggest this professional Australian Rules team does not participate in training sessions that reflect inside-50 match conditions. This study may provide a framework for elite Australian Rules teams on which to structure their inside-50 training.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-06T05:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231204114
       
  • Integration of golf practise and strength and conditioning in golf:
           Insights from professional golf coaches

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alex Bliss, Ben Langdown
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Strength and conditioning (S&C) interventions for golfers consistently demonstrate improvements in performance metrics such as clubhead speed. Golfers typically employ Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA) coaches to support technical and tactical development. These coaches need to ensure golfers balance S&C training alongside competitions and technical golf practise, although no empirical data exist that demonstrates how this integration occurs practically. This study aimed to investigate the perceptions and practises of PGA Professional golf coaches and how S&C is integrated into the golf year. Forty-three (male = 35; female = 8) PGA coaches completed a mixed-methods survey with questions on themes such as coaching approach, perceptions of S&C, annual planning and goal setting. Results show that formal planning processes are highly variable or absent. The majority (n = 29; 70.7%) of PGA coaches stated they worked with an S&C coach and see the role of the S&C coach to support golfers with their input. However, when planning the season, 63.4% (n = 26) of coaches do so without input from the S&C coach. These and other related disconnects between desire for S&C intervention and inclusion of the S&C coach in planning processes were evident throughout survey responses. There may be subsequent risks of conflict or misunderstanding between PGA coach, S&C coach and golfer. It is recommended golf coaches, golfers and S&C coaches work collaboratively as a multidisciplinary support team to ensure coordinated golfer support is obtained.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-06T05:49:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231199657
       
  • An investigation of data-driven player positional roles within the
           Australian Football League Women's competition using technical skill
           match-play data

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Braedan van der Vegt, Adrian Gepp, Justin Keogh, Jessica B. Farley
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding player positional roles are important for match-play tactics, player recruitment, talent identification, and development by providing a greater understanding of what each positional role constitutes. Currently, no analysis of competition technical skill data exists by player position in the Australian Football League Women's (AFLW) competition. The primary aim of the research was to use data-driven techniques to observe what positions and roles characterise AFLW match-play using detailed technical skill action data of players. A secondary aim was to comment on the application of clustering methods to achieve more interpretable, reflective positional clustering. A two-stage, unsupervised clustering approach was applied to meet these aims. Data cleaning resulted in 165 variables across 1296 player seasons in the 2019–2022 AFLW seasons which was used for clustering. First-stage clustering found four positions following a common convention (forwards, midfielders, defenders, and rucks). Second-stage clustering found roles within positions, resulting in a further 13 clusters with three forwards, three midfielders, four defenders, and three ruck positional roles. Key variables across all positions and roles included the field location of actions, number of contested possessions, clearances, interceptions, hitouts, inside 50s, and rebound 50s. Unsupervised clustering allowed the discovery of new roles rather than being constrained to pre-defined existing classifications of previous literature. This research assists coaches and practitioners by identifying key game actions players need to perform in match-play by position, which can assist in player recruitment, player development, and identifying appropriate match-play styles and tactics, while also defining new roles and suggestions of how to best use available data.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-10-05T05:41:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231203895
       
  • Feasibility and acceptability of a new shoulder-specific warm-up programme
           to prevent injuries in community youth rugby union as compared to the FIFA
           11+

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Vincent R. Singh, Keith Stokes, Carly D. Mckay
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Injury prevention exercise programmes (IPEPs) are efficacious, though there is no IPEP specifically designed to reduce shoulder injuries in rugby. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of the Rugby Active Shoulder Injury Prevention (RASIP) programme. Three community rugby union clubs participated in a 12-week pilot study (players, n = 51; coaches, n = 7). Two teams were randomly allocated to the RASIP programme and one to the FIFA 11+ (IPEP) intervention. Feasibility was examined by players’ adherence to the IPEP, and acceptability was described by players’ and coaches’ perceptions of the IPEP. On average, more players were exposed to 11+ training sessions (100%) than the RASIP programme (19 out of 36 players, 53%). Higher percentage of exercises was completed over the season in the 11+ (97%) than the RASIP programme (58%). Across both groups, there were different approaches followed in delivering the allocated intervention. The coach-led, prescriptively followed 11+ IPEP was better at achieving higher adherence with exercises. Coaches were concerned of not having enough time in their sessions to include the IPEP. This pilot study has shown that the intervention is feasible to deliver and is acceptable with improvements recommended by community stakeholders, coaches and players in a community youth rugby setting.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-09-20T11:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231192170
       
  • Talent development in childhood: Early specialization or sampling' From an
           either… or… question to a 2 × 2 × 3 question cuboid

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bryan Charbonnet, Achim Conzelmann
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      A central, yet still unresolved, question about optimal youth talent development asks whether children should specialize and train systematically in one sport—early specialization—or gain different playful experiences in several sports—early sampling. Based upon theoretical considerations, we problematize dichotomous discussions and offer a complex 2 × 2 × 3 question cuboid differentiating between two goals (performance in adulthood and positive youth development), two continuum-based dimensions (task-specificity and exercise mode), and three perspectives (nomothetic, group-specific, and idiographic). Accordingly, resolving the question about optimal youth talent development involves assembling answers derived from 12 different questions. Through our theoretical contribution, we identified several nomothetic principles offering stakeholders initial recommendations and orientations to estimate the appropriate need for high task-specificity and exercise mode in relation to each goal. We suggest adapting these recommendations according to group-specific characteristics, such as sport and age, and idiographic fine-tuning according to children's biopsychosocial characteristics.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-09-19T07:53:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231197225
       
  • Importance of fundamental movement skills to predict technical skills in
           youth grassroots soccer: A machine learning approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michael J. Duncan, Emma L. J. Eyre, Neil Clarke, Abdul Hamid, Yanguo Jing
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study determined the contributors to soccer technical skills in grassroots youth soccer players using a machine learning approach. One hundred and sixty-two boys aged 7 to 14 (mean ± SD = 10.5 ± 2.1) years, who were regularly engaged in grassroots soccer undertook assessments of anthropometry and maturity offset (the time from age at peak height velocity (APHV)), fundamental movement skills (FMS), perceived physical competence, and physical fitness and technical soccer skill using the University of Ghent dribbling test. Coaches rated player's overall soccer skills for their age. Statistical analysis was undertaken, using machine learning models to predict technical skills from the other variables. A stepwise recursive feature elimination with a 5-fold cross-validation method was used to eliminate the worst-performing features and both L1 and L2 regularisation were evaluated during the process. Five models (linear, ridge, lasso, random forest, and boosted trees) were then used in a heuristic approach using a small subset of suitable algorithms to achieve a reasonable level of accuracy within a reasonable time frame to make predictions and compare them to a test set to understand the predictive capabilities of the models. Results from the machine learning analysis indicated that the total FMS score (0 to 50) was the most important feature in predicting technical soccer skills followed by coach rating of child skills for their age, years of playing experience and APHV. Using a random forest, technical skills could be predicted with 99% accuracy in boys who play grassroots soccer, with FMS being the most important contributor.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-09-19T07:20:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231202015
       
  • Analysing match-related performance indicators in Super Rugby
           Competitions: A study of the 2017–2019 seasons

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mark Nicholls, Derik Coetzee, Robert Schall, Wilbur Kraak
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the factors that contribute to success or failure in Super Rugby is paramount for teams aiming to achieve positive results. This study compares winning and losing teams by analysing match-related performance indicators from 2017 to 2019, offering valuable insights for coaches, players, and performance analysts. Significantly, winning teams exhibited notable disparities in their attacking play, surpassing losing teams in total tries (4.5 vs. 2.4), offloads (12.5 vs. 11.2), number of kicks (22.2 vs. 19.4), and line breaks (3.1 vs. 2.2) (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-09-15T06:25:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231198211
       
  • The effect of an internal, external and holistic focus on the learning of
           a soccer shooting task in male children

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rasool Abedanzadeh, Seyyed Mohammadreza Mousavi, Kevin Becker
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The benefits of an external focus in motor learning have been well-established in adults, but findings in studies with children have been far more variable. Recent research also suggests that a holistic focus of attention may also enhance motor learning relative to an internal focus, but few studies have tested this strategy with children. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of an internal (IF), external (EF), holistic focus (HF) and no focus control condition on the learning of a soccer shooting task in male children. Male participants (N = 60) between the ages of 9 and 11 completed 60 acquisition trials shooting at a low target at a distance of 7 m while focusing on an assigned cue. After 48 h, participants returned for a 10-trial retention test and a 10-trial transfer test shooting from a distance of 8 m. Results showed that the EF group was more accurate than control throughout acquisition (p = .027). In retention, all focus groups were more accurate than control (p's 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-09-11T07:46:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231198613
       
  • Toward a definition and classification of lost move state: Perceptions of
           elite trampolining coaches

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Élise Marsollier, Denis Hauw
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Several severe performance blocks have been described in the sport psychology literature, in particular the lost move and the yips. Beyond the identification of the traumatic situations associated with these problems, there is a lack of understanding of the process that ultimately culminates in performance blocks. In the present study, a situated and dynamic analysis of a specific type of block in acrobatics was conducted to: (i) identify the propensities of trampolinists to develop lost move, (ii) categorize the types of moves involved, (iii) determine the circumstances of the occurrence of lost moves as typical situations, and (iv) describe the evolution of the loss and its duration. The nine national and international-level French-speaking coaches we interviewed were asked to describe the lost moves they had experienced as coaches. Prior to their interview, each coach had to answer a questionnaire in which they were asked to identify the number of lost moves they experienced. Based on our results, lost moves appeared as evolutive adaptative processes with four steps: disruption, manifestation, contamination, and final adaptation. The phenomenon appeared as observable behavioral manifestations emerging from the interaction between athletes’ dispositions and the situations in which they find themselves throughout their sporting careers. Thus, lost moves might be considered as transitional states in skill development to which an athlete’s performance can branch off. Three main levels of concrete interventions were described, including careful consideration of the athletes’ dispositions and life-course circumstances, avoiding contamination, time off, and engaging in other activities.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-30T08:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231196472
       
  • Between-day reliability of inertial measurement unit parameters during
           soccer-specific change of direction test

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Aki-Matti Alanen, Zachary Barrons, Matthew J Jordan, Reed Ferber, Kati Pasanen
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study assessed the between-day reliability of change of direction (COD) biomechanics and speed in youth soccer players using inertial measurement units (IMUs) and high-speed video. A soccer-specific COD test including a 180° pivot turn was performed in both directions by 15 elite female (age: 15.3 ± 0.6 years; height 162.6 ± 5.5 cm; body mass: 56.7 ± 7.1 kg) and 22 elite male (age: 15.4 ± 0.5 years; height 169 ± 5.9 cm; body mass: 58.5 ± 8.5 kg) youth soccer players in two consecutive days. The reliability of the variables was quantified by using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis with limits of agreement (LoA) and Bland–Altman plots. Based on the results, neither peak resultant acceleration (PRA) nor peak angular velocity (PAV) during final foot contact was sufficiently reliable for 180° pivot turn biomechanics (poor reliability, ; > 0.7). However, when analyzing females and males separately, the PRA and angular velocity ICC's for females had poor to acceptable reliability, when turning left, and were statistically different from males (Z-score > 1.96). Acceptable to good reliability with reasonable (max 15% difference) LoA implies that speed measures in different phases of COD could reliably reproduce individual differences in 180° pivot turn COD speed. Sex-related differences in repeatability of acceleration and angular velocity call for more comprehensive research in the future. PAV and PRA would not be recommended for the purpose of analyzing individual repeatability of specific steps of COD movement.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-30T07:50:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231196733
       
  • Barriers, supports and constraints on women coaching in tennis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shane Pill, Jasmine Petersen, Deb Agnew, Ivanka Prichard, Kate Ridley
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundIn Australia, there are fewer women in tennis coaching roles. Identifying the barriers (and supports) for women in sport coaching roles is necessary to inform the development of strategies that will address this underrepresentation of women in such roles.AimThis study aimed to examine the experiences of women in tennis coaching roles in Australia.MethodsSemi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 women coaches (Mage = 45.5 ± 11.6 years) purposefully sampled from Tennis Australia ‘coach members’. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted. The investigation was underpinned by the ecological systems theory.FindingsFive themes were drawn from the analysis of the interview transcripts: (a) stereotypically male profession, (b) career instability and longevity, (c) family/work-life tension, (d) organisational support and (e) career advancement opportunities.ConclusionThis study provides important insight into strategies that may assist in addressing the gender disparity that exists in the sport coaching profession. Specifically, increased provision of support (e.g. organisational support), guidance in relation to pursuing a coaching career, developmental opportunities and financial support will be important to attracting and retaining women in coaching roles.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-24T10:20:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231191596
       
  • Psychometric properties of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire
           (CART-Q) in a sample of Brazilian youth and adult athletes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: José Roberto de Andrade do Nascimento Junior, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire, Andressa Ribeiro Contreira, Ricardo T. Quinaud, Sophia Jowett, Marina Pereira Gonçalves, Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, Lenamar Fiorese
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the psychometric properties of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q) in a sample of 1344 Brazilian youth and adult athletes. Participants completed the CART-Q and the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale (BNSSS). Data analysis was conducted through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability, multigroup analysis, and Pearson's correlation (p .70). SEM model showed an acceptable fit (χ² (56) = 593.28; χ²/df = 2.71; CFI = .90; TLI = .90; RMSEA = .057), indicating that the three dimensions of the CART-Q predicted positively all basic needs satisfaction subscales (β range = .11 to .38). CART-Q was revealed to be invariant across gender, sport type, and age group. It was concluded that the CART-Q can satisfactorily be used in research studies involving Brazilian athletes regardless of their age group, gender, and sport.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-18T08:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231194758
       
  • Curved sprinting in soccer: The influence of radius

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stefan Altmann, Ludwig Ruf, Alberto Fílter, Sascha Härtel, Tobias Naujoks, Marvin Rauprich, Claudia Seyler, Hussein Baydoun, Alexander Woll
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aims of this study were (i) to compare the sprint times between linear-sprint (LS) and curved-sprint (CS) tests of different radii, and (ii) to examine the relationships between sprint times in these tests in soccer players. Nineteen elite youth male soccer players (age, 18.6 ± 0.6 years) completed an LS test and three CS tests with different radii both from the left and the right side (11.15-m radius = CSwide, 9.15-m radius = CSmedium and 7.15-m radius = CSnarrow), each with a distance of 17 m. Differences in sprint times were examined using analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons and Cohen's d effect sizes (ES). Relationships between sprint times were determined by Pearson's product-moment correlations (r). Significantly lower sprint times were evident for LS compared to all three CS tests (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-17T06:45:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231193807
       
  • Exploring the use of individualized consideration by minor hockey coaches

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alysha D Matthews, Karl Erickson
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Transformational leadership has been presented as a tool for coaches to foster positive youth development. One component of this concept is individualized consideration (IC), where leaders show care through supporting their followers’ individual needs. Examining the unique context of minor hockey will provide a more nuanced and complex description of IC. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to demonstrate how minor hockey coaches consider individual differences and tailor their practice to athletes’ needs. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 male minor hockey coaches whose teams consisted of 9- to 13-year-old, predominantly male, athletes. Findings show these coaches demonstrated the use of IC through three steps (a) gathering information about their athletes (e.g. engaging in interactions), (b) assessing individual needs (e.g. developmental) and (c) acting to support IC (e.g. adjusting coaching practices). Findings suggest (a) IC can be implemented to support basic and more complex needs of athletes, (b) IC can be implemented with teams of athletes and (c) the context of minor hockey is constraining the implementation of IC.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-17T06:18:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231193302
       
  • Injuries in Padel players: What is known' A scoping review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Valerio Giustino, Flavia Figlioli, Antonino Patti, Domenico Savio Salvatore Vicari, Giuseppe Alamia, Antonio Palma, Castillo-Lozano Romualdo, Ewan Thomas, Antonino Bianco
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundPadel has spread rapidly in several countries around the world. Although this racket sport seems to have several health benefits, the number of scientific papers on this sport is still very few. This scoping review aimed to systematically map the evidence regarding injuries in Padel players by identifying, synthesizing, and assessing the studies currently existing in the scientific literature.MethodsThis scoping review was conducted following the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews and the Population, Concept, Context framework was adopted. Articles were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus.ResultsA total of seven studies were included in this review. The most frequent injury location is in the elbow, followed by shoulder, and low back. As for lower limbs, knee represents the most affected body region. Although not all the studies included described the type of injuries, tendon, joint, and muscle are the body structure most injured.ConclusionThis scoping review can aid in a better comprehension of the location and type of injuries that occur in Padel players. However, it is worth noting that all the studies existing concerns nonprofessional athletes. Hence, these findings could be useful to coaches as they add knowledge on the risk of injury in padel that can allow the planning of suitable training programs for amateur and recreational players in order to prevent injuries.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T07:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231191739
       
  • Relations between empowering and disempowering motivational climate with
           burnout, fear of failure and grit

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Caroline Birr, António Hernández-Mendo, Diogo Monteiro, Regina Brandão, António Rosado
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The coach-created motivational climate refers to the environmental factors that influence the athletes’ emotional, cognitive, physical and social experiences and could be more or less empowering. The present study aimed to determine the connection between the empowering and disempowering motivational climate (EDMC) with other variables, from several sports (328 males and 118 females; M age = 17.60 years; SD = 6.27) completed questionnaires assessing perceptions of coach-created motivational climates, burnout, fear of failure and grit. Structural equation modeling revealed that the empowering motivational climate is negatively related with burnout and with fear of failure. In addition, the disempowering motivational climate is positively related with burnout and with fear of failure. In turn, the grit dimension, perseverance of effort, was not significantly associated with burnout; it showed, however, a significantly negative association with fear of failure. The EDMCs were not related with grit-perseverance of effort and grit-consistence of interests. Overall, this study suggests that creating empowering environments can play a crucial role in mitigating emotional and physical exhaustion, as well as the fear of failure that athletes often experience in the context of sports.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231191086
       
  • The key role of context in team sports training: The value of played-form
           activities in practice designs for soccer

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Grégory Hallé Petiot, Mike Vitulano, Keith Davids
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Played-form activities in soccer are customized variants of the original game, configured to emphasize important informational and task constraints in the way players perform in practice. Parameters of play such as the shape and dimensions of the playing area, number of participants involved, and conditions of play are key properties that activities are designed from. These properties impact on the specific practice contexts in which players are challenged to perceive information, make decisions and perform actions, during competitive performance preparation and player development. There are countless possible configurations of played-form activities that can provide development or training opportunities for players to improve performance. Although there are no standard guidelines for designing such practice tasks, here we propose how a theoretical rationale like ecological dynamics can frame the configuration of activities, modelled on typical formats, specific task constraints and key developmental needs. In this article, these formats are depicted with reference to common coaching licence curriculum needs and scientific literature. This insight paper presents a continuum of played-form activities, exemplifying characteristics of different practice designs in soccer. This integration of knowledge provides a valid continuum of play practice designs, based on an extent of specific opportunities for actions in different phases of play. Our insights suggest how coaches and trainers in team sports could gain a deep understanding of how specific played-form activity configurations impact on skill adaptation in players, providing opportunities for coaches to function as learning facilitators.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T07:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231191077
       
  • Identifying the characteristics, constraints and enablers to creating
           value in applied performance analysis: A commentary

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Claire Mulvenna
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T07:21:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231190798
       
  • Concussion knowledge, attitudes and reporting intention amongst UK
           university student-athletes: Implications for institutions, coaches and
           future research

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dominic Malcolm, Jack Hardwicke, James Andrew Kenyon
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports on a survey of concussion knowledge (CK), attitudes (CA) and reporting intention (CRI) amongst a multisport cohort of UK university student-athletes. A cross-sectional study design was used, with 217 student-athletes completing the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey – Student Version. The findings show that CK is broadly aligned with previous study cohorts including research in North America, and that sport type had no effect on CK, CA and CRI. Whilst gender did not affect CA or CRI, males returned higher CK scores than females. The respondents’ concussion history did not affect CA. Paradoxically, respondents with a history of concussion had significantly greater CK scores yet were more likely to report an intention to continue playing with SRC symptoms. There are three key implications of these findings. The comparison of findings between males and females highlights the need for a more nuanced conceptualisation of safety and risk in relation to SRC. Second, the evidence suggests a strong need for UK universities to introduce bespoke education programmes and policies formalising the healthcare support and return to learn of students post-SRC. Third, awareness of the complex interplay between SRC knowledge, experience and behaviour will enable coaches across all sports to exercise caution when managing SRC amongst students. The article concludes by arguing that there is a need for further qualitative research to understand how concussion is experienced by UK university students and provided for and accommodated within UK universities.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T07:20:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231190154
       
  • English academy football practitioners’ perceptions of training load,
           maturation and injury risk: A club case study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David Johnson, Sean Williams, Sheree Bekker, Ben Bradley, Sean Cumming
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The management of training load in youth team-sport athletes is important. There is, however, a lack of research on practitioners’ perceptions and understandings of managing training load during this period and what this means in terms of maturational status and injury risk. This study aimed to investigate academy football practitioners’ perceptions and understanding of training load, maturation and injury risk in young male footballers. Coaches, sports scientists, medical staff and key stakeholders from a professional football club academy in England participated in focus groups investigating their understanding and perceptions of training load, maturation and injury risk. A qualitative descriptive methodology utilising framework analysis was used to capture and better understand participants’ views. Findings revealed that practitioners consider managing training load during adolescence to be comprised of, and mediated by, three key elements: club philosophy, factors inside the club's control (periodisation strategy; staff member practice), and factors outside the club's control (life load; growth and maturation). This study is an important addition to the current literature on managing injuries through the growth spurt by investigating how different stakeholders perceive training load, maturation and potential strategies to mitigate risk.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T07:20:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231188071
       
  • ‘Bridging the gap’: Differences in training and match physical load in
           1st team and U23 players from the English Premier League

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ronan Kavanagh, Christoper Carling, Shane Malone, Rocco Di Michele, Ryland Morgans, David Rhodes
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo explore the differences in training and match load in English Premier League (EPL) 1st team and U23 players. Identifying differences in relative and absolute physical outputs in relation to Maximal Aerobic Speed (MAS) and Maximal Sprint Speed (MSS) and how this informs monitoring and training prescription.MethodsTwo groups of full-time professional football players (1st team, n = 24 and U23 squad, n = 27) participated in this study. Training and match data were categorised into weekly blocks from Monday to Sunday. Each player's weekly total was then averaged to provide a squad average for each metric examined.ResultsMatch analysis identified significantly higher distance covered above 120% MAS and distance between 120% MAS and 85% MSS (p = .04, effect size [ES] = 0.64; p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-27T05:25:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231186227
       
  • Examining how data becomes information for an upcoming opponent in
           football

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Saumya Mehta, Philip Furley, Dominik Raabe, Daniel Memmert
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      As the sport industry witnesses a surge in the type and volume of data-driven decisions, the general question of the process of information development remains: how is data used to develop meaningful information' And does the presence of novel quantitative data sources lend greater objectivity to match analysis' Study 1 examines how 12 football analysts use the same qualitative (video) and quantitative (event and position) data to develop information constituting a typical opponent report for an upcoming match, while Study 2 investigates the agreement between grade evaluations of these opponent reports by numerous professional coaches. Findings of Study 1 through independent-samples t-tests (t(18) = 3.922, p = 0.001) indicate a clear dominance of qualitative video data over quantitative event and position data in all opponent reports. Despite the presence of quantitative data sources, analysts tend to prefer annotated video data. Possible relations to previous experience and familiarity with data, coach–analyst preferences and biases are discussed. Results from Study 2 show extremely weak intra-class correlations (ICC) (r = 0.147; p = 0.011) between different grades awarded to the same video, depicting a clear lack of agreement in what coaches consider a good opponent report. Furthermore, coaches most valued the comprehensibility and relevance of the report. No significant associations were found between use of either data type and better grades. The subjectivity of the coaching process highlighting preferences regarding data validity and negotiations of adopting new key performance indicators (KPIs) is discussed, alongside limitations of the sample as well as the level of coach–analysts involved.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-25T08:38:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231187871
       
  • Evaluating the impact of a digitally implemented subjective standard on
           professional rugby union player management decision-making

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jayamini Ranaweera, Dan Weaving, Marco Zanin, Gregory Roe
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Using a pre-post-test design, this study evaluated the impact of implementing a standard on the reliability of player management decision-making within a professional rugby union environment. Five practitioners from a High-Performance Unit (HPU) rated 22 instances of Global Positioning System (GPS)–based external training load information of 14 players across the 2021–2022 season. This rating was whether a peak/trough/normal exposure in load had occurred. The ratings were repeated at four time points (separated by 2 weeks) before (Pre1, Pre2) and after (Post1, Post2) implementing a consensus statement as a subjective standard (using a dashboard) developed previously within the same environment to identify peaks/troughs in player external training loads. Inter-rater agreement between individuals at each voting round was assessed using Light's Kappa, while pre-post-standard intra-rater agreement was determined from Cohen's Kappa (both with 95% confidence intervals). Changes to dashboard usability from implementing the standard were assessed by administering the System Usability Scale to 11 HPU staff at the four time points. Pre-standard moderate inter-rater agreement (Pre1: 0.53 (0.36–0.69), Pre2: 0.60 (0.42–0.77)) increased to almost perfect agreement (Post1: 0.74 (0.57–0.89), Post2: 0.90 (0.79–1)) post-standard. The intra-rater agreement of 2/5 participants was almost perfect post-standard, while it remained within substantial levels for the others. A linear mixed model (χ2(3) = 8.85, p = 0.03) illustrated a slight increase in dashboard usability after incorporating the standard (Pre1: 84.09, Pre2: 81.36; Post1: 87.73, Post2: 87.27). Overall, the results highlighted that the subjective standard enhanced reliability of practitioner agreement for the selected decision.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-25T07:57:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231188065
       
  • Relationship between judo coaches’ authentic leadership and judo
           athletes’ perceived performance: Mediating effect of self-management

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: KwangWoo Nam, CheolYong Kim, SangJin Yoon
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In Judo, one of the combat sports, athletes must endure high intensity, long-term training sessions that extend for long durations to achieve outstanding performances. Authentic leadership plays an essential role in this combat sport by supporting players who may experience slower growth and in enduring the rigorous and long-term training. Despite this leadership type being essential for fostering development and success in judo, few studies have been conducted on authentic leadership in the context of sports. This study investigated the relationship between judo coaches’ authentic leadership and judo athletes’ self-management and perceived performance; it also investigated the mediating effects of self-management on the relationship between authentic leadership and perceived performance. We used a convenience sampling method to recruit 274 Korean judo athletes. We conducted frequency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. The results showed that judo coaches’ authentic leadership had a significant effect on athletes’ self-management, but no significant effect on their perceived performance. Additionally, judo athletes’ self-management had a significant effect on perceived performance. Further, self-management had a mediating (complete) effect on the relationship between judo coaches’ authentic leadership and athletes’ perceived performance. Our results show that judo coaches’ authentic leadership does not directly affect athletes’ perceived performance, but has an indirect effect through the mediating effect of self-management. In other words, judo coaches’ authentic leadership can directly enhance athletes’ self-management and indirectly enhance athletes’ perceived performance, thereby suggesting that it is an important factor in athletes’ performance progress.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-25T07:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231190036
       
  • Peak physical demands of elite women's soccer: Assessing playing position
           and post-goal locomotor patterns

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Naomi Datson, Antonio Dello Iacono, Greg Doncaster, Richard Michael Page, Andy McKeown, Viswanath B Unnithan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      It has recently been identified that the assessment of peak periods of activity better considers the stochastic nature of match-play and the influence that contextual factors have on these peak periods. Limited research exists attempting to link the tactical and physical aspects of performance, especially in female players. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess post-goal locomotor patterns and positional differences on peak match demands in elite female soccer players. Using 10 Hz global positioning system units, a total of 133 player match observations were recorded from 14 matches played by an elite Scottish women's professional soccer team. The total distance (TD), high-speed running distance (>18 km/h) (HSRD) and PlayerLoad™ (PL) were assessed for 1, 3 and 5-minute peak periods using a rolling epoch approach. Playing position and post-goal activity were used as modulating factors. Linear mixed models established a main effect for playing position for the HSRD at peak 1-minute (p
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-25T07:12:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231189240
       
  • Perceived benefits and receptivity to sport psychology consulting services
           of elite athletes in developing nations of the Oceania region

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David L Neumann, Timothy M Piatkowski, Robyn L Moffitt, Clare L Minahan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Sport psychology consulting services are commonly used by elite athletes in developed countries, but little is known about the athlete's perceptions of such services in developing countries. The present study examined the accessibility, receptivity, and perceived benefit of sport psychology services (via a sport psychology services questionnaire) through a cross-sectional survey of elite athletes (N = 32; Mage = 23.06 years, SD = 5.81) from 12 nations of the Oceania region who participated in the Gather, Adjust, Prepare, Sustain programme. These nations were Vanuatu, Fiji, Tuvalu, Tonga, Solomon Islands, Cook Islands, Norfolk Island, Niue, Nauru, Kiribati, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea. The results revealed that only a quarter of the athletes had ongoing access to sport psychology consulting services. Over half reported that they were receptive to sport psychology services and perceived that these types of services would be beneficial. The most desired services related to performance enhancement (e.g. performance under pressure). The athletes reported mixed levels of knowledge regarding mental skills, and most knowledge concerned the use of mental skills in competition. Specifically, most athletes rated their knowledge of mental skills at either the low (e.g. imagery) or high (e.g. goal setting, focus, and self-talk) range, and relatively fewer athletes rated their knowledge in the mid-range. The athletes demonstrated interest in learning more mental skills to enhance their performance. These findings indicate that a need exists for sport psychology service providers among athletes in the Oceania region. Existing non-local providers may also consider supplying services through digital modalities.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-17T05:05:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231188455
       
  • Identification of football teams styles of play by cluster analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fabian Alberto Romero Clavijo, Ricardo Drews, Renata Alvares Denardi, Bruno Travassos, Umberto Cesar Corrêa
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to characterize performance patterns of attack and defence of football teams, and the inter-team's relation throughout the game. First and second leg of the Brazilian Cup Final 2018 Under-20 category were recorded using two video cameras. Three hundred twelve attacks and defences sequences in the two football matches were analyzed. All players and the ball were tracked throughout the matches, then notational and spatiotemporal variables were measured: attack duration, number of actions per attack, occupied area, team centroid, ratio between number of action and attack duration, total centroid trajectory, and ball displacement. Those variables were grouped using Ward's minimum variance method. The results showed that: (i) teams presented variated styles of play in attack and defence intra and intermatches; (ii) spatial variables such as positions and displacements contributed the most to separate the patterns; (iii) the interteams synchrony found throughout the game revealed different outcomes; and (iv) specific attacking patterns led to shoot to goal. We concluded that football teams vary their style of play within match and intermatches; spatial variables such as positions and displacements contributed the most to separate the patterns; and the interteam relation revealed synchrony throughout the game.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-17T05:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231186796
       
  • Facilitators and barriers associated with youth player transition to
           professional first-team football: A key stakeholder perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mark McGuigan, Antonio Dello Iacono, Allistair McRobert, Daryl Cowan, Viswanath B Unnithan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The transition of elite youth footballers through academy systems towards the first team is highly complex, competitive, and often unsuccessful. A myriad of factors including technical competence, physical prowess, and the development environment combine to determine youth player progression. Current research has focused on broad investigations of multiple clubs and stakeholders, providing a valuable overview of the key aspects associated with elite youth player transition. This study aimed to provide an in-depth, context-specific investigation of key stakeholders within an elite level club in the United Kingdom (UK). Seven key stakeholders including the head of the academy (n = 1), the head of sports science (n = 1), coaches (n = 3), and lead sports scientists (n = 2) were recruited. Framework analysis led to the development of a practical framework outlining the key facilitators and barriers of youth-to-first-team transition. Facilitators of transition included overcoming adversity, high-level physical prowess, exceptional technical competence, and possessing at least one elite-level attribute. Barriers to transition included a lack of opportunity, lucrative youth player contracts and a lack of development-specific coaching. In addition, the developmental environment and developing individuals within a team environment were key influences on youth-to-first-team transition. This study complements recent broad investigations of the UK and global stakeholders by corroborating many of their findings while providing transferable, context-specific accounts of applied issues related to successful transition to first-team football.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-17T05:02:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231184022
       
  • There is low adoption of injury prevention programs in community netball

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lauren Davies, Tess Saad, Michelle D Smith
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Although neuromuscular injury prevention programs decrease injuries, implementation is challenging. Netball Australia developed the Netball KNEE program – a netball-specific warm-up program designed for netball coaches, players and support staff to enhance movement efficiency and prevent injury. It contains exercises for warm-up/footwork, strength, balance/landing and agility. This study aimed to explore the Reach, perceived Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and intended Maintenance of the Netball KNEE program in community netball. Community netball coaches (n = 257) from 52 community netball clubs completed an online survey on their familiarity with the KNEE program (Reach), satisfaction and perceived effectiveness (Effectiveness), use of the program in training (Adoption), use of specific program components and provision of feedback (Implementation) and intended future use of the program (Maintenance). 66.5% of coaches who responded to the survey were familiar with the KNEE program (Reach), and 43.0% of coaches reported using the program weekly (Adoption). Most coaches who were familiar with the program were satisfied with it (87.2%) and perceived it to be effective in reducing injuries (77.0%) (perceived Effectiveness). Only 58.7% of the 155 of coaches who adopted the program reported using all activity categories (warm up/footwork, strength, balance/landing and agility) (Implementation). Warm up/footwork activities were reported to be used most commonly (by 99.4% of coaches). Reported provision of feedback on program key principles (e.g., take off, landing, deceleration, changing direction) was variable (54.2%–97.4%) (Implementation). Study findings suggest the need for strategies to improve the reach, adoption and implementation of the KNEE program in community netball.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-07T07:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231185917
       
  • Peer-initiated motivational climate, mental health and adherence in
           competitive youth sport

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Colin D McLaren, Achuthan Shanmugaratnam, Mark W Bruner
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Through interactions with important social agents (coaches, parents, and peers), youth athletes will infer that being successful in sport falls somewhere along the continuum between (a) improvement and hard work and (b) winning at all costs. The environment created as a result of these interactions has important implications for athlete mental health and future sport participation. This study examined the relationships between peer-initiated motivational climate, athlete wellbeing, and intention to return to the team. Youth athletes (N = 130; Mage = 13.45 years) from nine competitive ice hockey teams completed a questionnaire near the end of season. Using mixed-effects linear modeling, findings revealed that a task-related peer climate significantly predicted wellbeing (β = 0.32, 95% CI [0.18, 0.47]) and intention to return (β = 0.43, 95% CI [0.17, 0.68]), whereas an ego-related peer climate was not significantly related to wellbeing (β = 0.10, 95% CI [−0.07, 0.26]) or intentions to return (β = −0.29, 95% CI [−0.58, 0.01]).
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-07T07:05:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231179879
       
  • Wet bulb globe temperature variability and its implications on heat stress
           monitoring

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Andrew Grundstein, Earl Cooper, Yuri Hosokawa
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is widely used in athletics for assessing heat stress. Sports governing bodies provide a wide variety of recommendations on how often to take WBGT measurements during activities like practices and competitions. This can leave coaching staff and other sports medicine personnel in a quandary as to what is the “best practice.” Our study is the first to use a large dataset to quantify the variability of WBGT within practice and competition sessions, and to identify the impact of using different measurement rates on the WBGT. The study leverages 6 years of data from thousands of American football practice and competition sessions from across Georgia, USA. We observed that, on average, WBGTs are coolest in the morning (26.67°C) and evening (24.84°C), and hottest in the midday (30.23°C) and afternoon (27.21°C). The variability within sessions tended to be greater for morning, midday, and afternoon than evenings, with session standard deviations of 0.96°C to 1.27°C and ranges of 2.67°C to 3.55°C when controlling for duration. WBGTs also tended to increase over time in morning sessions and decrease over time during afternoon and evening sessions. These changes are clinically important. We found that Georgia High School Association (GHSA) WBGT activity modification categories often changed during sessions, especially in the morning, midday, and afternoon where a change in GHSA category of ≥1 occurred in 57% to 76% of sessions. Considering this variability, our results indicate that more frequent measurements better capture maximum WBGT values over a session and reduce the likelihood of misclassifying activity modification.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-07-06T06:42:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231186146
       
  • Macro periodisation of competition in international women's tennis:
           Insights for long-term athlete development

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thomas Perri, Rob Duffield, Alistair Murphy, Tom Mabon, Isabel McGillivray, Machar Reid
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      AimsThis study reports the multi-year periodised international competition engagement of elite top 100 [T100] and 250 [T250] female tennis players during their youth.MethodsTournament data was analysed for 258 female players from 13 to 18 years of age. Players were categorised into groups based on peak professional ranking of T100 or T250. ‘Fast’ or ‘slow’ achieving T100 players were further classified according to the years taken to achieve a professional T100 status. International tournament and match volumes were quantified for junior and professional categories, along with measures of competition density (i.e., time between tournaments and consecutive tournaments). Tournament quality and category were determined by ranking point offerings. A two-way analysis of variance determined the effects of age and ranking group on tournament play.ResultsSignificant interaction effects for age and ranking group were observed for all junior and professional category tournaments (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-06-28T06:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231171695
       
  • Concussion education for New Zealand high school rugby players: A
           mixed-method analysis of the impact on concussion knowledge, attitudes and
           reporting behaviours

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Danielle M. Salmon, Marelise Badenhorst, James Brown, Janelle Romanchuk, Zachary Yukio Kerr, Simon Walters, Amanda Clacy, Sierra Keung, S. John Sullivan, Johna Register-Mihalik, Chris Whatman
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Players who lack the knowledge to recognise the signs and symptoms of concussions may be less likely to disclose their injury. New Zealand Rugby's Community Concussion Initiative includes an interactive education session highlighting peer-recognition of concussions. This mixed-method study examined the effect of an education session on high school players’ concussion knowledge and attitudes as well as the impact of player demographics on these variables. Focus groups were used to explore player experiences. The RoCKAS-ST was used to measure concussion knowledge/attitudes before and after the education session. Multiple linear regression examined associations between demographic variables, including school decile (relative wealth of the geographic region the school serves), and pre-education concussion knowledge/attitudes scores. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared pre-concussion and post-concussion knowledge/attitudes scores. Qualitative data were analysed via thematic analysis. Overall, 532 players completed questionnaires; 75 players participated in focus groups. Pasifika players had lower concussion knowledge than NZ Europeans (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-06-23T08:04:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231156159
       
  • Match analysis in wheelchair basketball: An observational analysis of the
           best team in the world (USA) in the 2020 Paralympic Games

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rubén Arroyo, Roberto Alsasua, Javier Arana, Daniel Lapresa, M. Teresa Anguera
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This work shows the possibilities that observational analysis can offer to match analysis in Wheelchair Basketball, outlined in a study of the sequences that end in a shot, in the men's team considered to be the best in the world (USA), in the Tokyo Paralympic Games 2020. Data recording and coding the 527 sequences that end in a shot was carried out via the LINCE software, and inter-rater reliability guaranteed using Cohen's Kappa coefficient. Two diachronic behaviour analysis techniques – lag sequential analysis and T-pattern detection – were applied complementarily, thus allowing us to characterise effective and ineffective sequences. Effective behaviours are highlighted as being those which incorporate a final reception and shot by players with less functional limitation; or those in which the shot is made from the paint. Ineffective behaviours are those carried out by players with greater functional difficulty; or those which end in shots made from the offensive zone and external offensive zone.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-06-21T06:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231181616
       
  • Identifying the characteristics, constraints, and enablers to creating
           value in applied performance analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Denise Martin, Peter G. O’Donoghue, Jonathan Bradley, Sam Robertson, Denise McGrath
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      While applied performance analysts (PAs) are a well-established applied sports science practitioner group, there is no clear definition of the purpose of an analyst, their key relationships, or the expertise required to execute the role successfully. This research sought to understand how PA practitioners and educators perceive their role as applied PA practitioners. Twenty-seven applied PAs and educators with applied PA experience participated in six online focus groups, completing an online survey in advance. Reflexive thematic analysis of transcripts and survey data generated an overarching theme: embedded applied PA practitioners have a value co-creation role within performance ecosystems which is inhibited by poor professional infrastructure and a lack conceptual clarity for the role. Five sub-themes are reported; the (a) why, (b) what, and (c) how of professional practice; d) the impact of stakeholder misunderstanding on PA practitioners; and (e) issues with professional recognition, development, and renumeration opportunities. This study demonstrates applied PAs’ role as curators, translators, influencers, and educators aiming to add value to the decision-making of a wide range of stakeholders. It highlights a potential deficit in applied practice in ‘value capture’ which may be perpetuating the problems practitioners reported with stakeholder misconceptions and undervaluing of their role. It is hoped this paper will inspire those invested in applied PA practice to create a shared understanding of how they can add value within the performance ecosystem so the profession can evolve and thrive.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-06-16T12:52:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231180243
       
  • Simulating shot selection strategies and scoring outcomes in Super
           Netball’s ‘Power 5’ period

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Aaron S Fox, Lyndell Bruce
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In 2020, Australia's elite-level netball league introduced the ‘Super Shot’ – an opportunity for teams to gain two versus one goal per shot during the final 5 minutes of each quarter (i.e. Power 5 period). In this study, we ran simulations of Power 5 periods to: (i) identify expected scoring outcomes from Super Shot selection strategies and (ii) examine how Super Shot selection strategies could impact the scoring margin between teams. We ran simulations emulating Power 5 periods with different Super Shot selection strategies for teams individually and when competing against one another, and examined the scoring outputs and margins. A greater tendency for attempting Super Shots was a high-risk: high-reward strategy, where this strategy could result in both high- and low-scoring outcomes (i.e. increased scoring volatility). Average margins were not largely affected by Super Shot selection strategy in simulations between teams, yet the more volatile scoring with a higher tendency for Super Shot attempts led to wider margin ranges. We propose that a singular ‘optimal’ Super Shot selection strategy does not exist and that the match scenario should be a key driver in determining a team’s strategy.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-06-12T12:04:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231181975
       
  • The relationship between relative lower-body strength, sprint and change
           of direction ability in elite youth female soccer athletes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kristen De Marco, Mikayla Lyons, Christopher Joyce, Jenny A Conlon
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Soccer is described as a high-intensity, multidirectional sport requiring athletes to possess a high level of physical conditioning to compete at the elite level. Strength, linear sprint and change of direction (COD) abilities are key physical characteristics in soccer-specific performance, with research suggesting athletes who possess greater relative lower-body strength are superior in sprint and COD ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between relative lower-body strength with linear sprint and COD ability among elite youth female soccer athletes in Western Australia. Forty-four (U13, n  =  11; U14, n  =  12; U15, n  =  11; U19, n  =  10) athletes completed an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), 30 m sprint and 505 COD test. Results demonstrated a significant moderate correlation between relative IMTP (IMTPr) performance and 10 m (r  =  −0.315, p  =  0.037) and 30 m (r  =  −0.0347, p  =  0.021) sprint time, however, there was no significant correlation between IMTPr performance and COD deficit (r  =  −0.227, p  =  0.168). This study suggests that relative lower-body strength is moderately related to greater sprint performance but not COD ability in elite youth female soccer athletes. Overall, relative lower-body strength appears to be advantageous to linear sprint performance in elite youth female soccer athletes, and therefore the inclusion of appropriate and targeted strength training in the physical preparation and long-term athlete development of this demographic may be recommended.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-06-08T06:44:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231180329
       
  • The stability of the deadlift three repetition maximum

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stuart N Guppy, Tsuyoshi Nagatani, Wayne C K Poon, Kristina L Kendall, Jason P Lake, G Gregory Haff
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the stability of three repetition maximum (3RM) strength during the deadlift. Eleven participants performed four testing sessions comprising a one repetition maximum test and 3RM tests separated by 48 h. Preparedness was assessed before each testing session using countermovement jumps and by measuring barbell velocity during each set of deadlifts. Trivial statistically significant differences were determined for the 3RM between T1 and both T2 (p = 0.012; ES [95% CI] = −0.1 [−0.58, 0.41]) and T3 (p = 0.027; ES [95% CI] = −0.09 [−0.57, −0.43]). No significant differences were noted between T2 and T3 (p = 0.595; ES [95% CI] = 0.01 [−0.49, 0.50]). No significant differences in jump height (p = 0.071), time-to-take-off (p = 0.862), eccentric displacement (p = 0.209), or mean force during any countermovement jump sub-phase were found between each session (p = 0.529–0.913). Small differences in barbell mean velocity were found between both T1–T2 (effect size statistics (ES) = −0.21–0.27) and T2–T3 (ES = 0.31–0.48), while trivial differences were found at others. Therefore, 3RM deadlift strength appears stable enough over a microcycle to continue using traditionally recommended heavy/light programming strategies.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-29T08:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231174316
       
  • Do South African international cricket pace bowlers have similar bowling
           volume and injury risk associates compared to other elite fast bowlers'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Candice J. Christie, Kayla McEwan, Catherine E. Munro, Greg A. King, Adrian Le Roux, Benita Olivier, Brandon Jackson, Shuaib Manjra, Candice MacMillan, Lee Pote
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundAlthough many cricket-playing nations have conducted research on bowling volume (BV) and injury risk, this relationship amongst international South African pace bowlers is yet to be investigated. Environmental, socio-economic and training strategy differences warrant similar research in a South African context. The purpose of this preliminary study was to establish whether South African pace bowlers have similar BV and injury associates compared to other elite fast bowlers.MethodsThis study was a prospective, observational, cohort study that monitored match and training BV and injuries amongst pace bowlers playing for the South African national team between April 2017 and April 2019. A sample of convenience that included 14 bowlers was selected. Bowling volume was quantified as the number of deliveries bowled during training and competition. Acute-, chronic- and acute:chronic BV ratios were independently modelled as association variables.ResultsThere were 39 injuries with the most being to the lumbar spine (25.64%). Moderate-to-low and a moderate-to-high acute:chronic bowling load ratios were associated with a lower risk of injury. Chronic bowling load was associated with injury (z  =  2.82, p  =  0.01). A low acute workload, low chronic workload, moderate-high chronic workload and moderate-low acute:chronic ratio were also associated with an increased risk of injury.ConclusionThese findings confirm that there appears to be a dose–response effect between training BV and the likelihood of an injury occurring with a moderate-to-low and a moderate-to-high BV ratio being optimal. Considering the small sample size, the findings should be interpreted with caution.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T06:10:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231174301
       
  • Feasibility of ‘Daughters and Dads Cricket’: A programme targeting
           fathers to improve daughters’ engagement and skills in cricket

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Philip J Morgan, Emma R Pollock, Stevie-Lee Kennedy, Myles D Young, Narelle Eather, Lee M Ashton
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundUtilising fathers to support their daughters and enhance their cricket skills may be an innovative approach to addressing traditional socio-cultural views of cricket relating to gender, by improving girls’ enjoyment, participation and long-term retention in in the sport.PurposeTo assess the feasibility of the ‘Daughters and Dads Cricket’ programme.MethodsIn a single-arm, pre–post study, fathers (n  =  34, 43.1  ±  4.4 years) and daughters (n  =  34, 9.4  ±  1.5 years) from Newcastle, Australia were recruited. The 9-week programme was delivered by trained facilitators and included weekly educational and practical sessions, plus home-based tasks. A priori feasibility benchmarks targeted recruitment (20 dyads), fidelity (≥80%), attendance (≥70%), compliance (≥70%), satisfaction (mean: ≥ 4/5) and retention (≥85%). Preliminary efficacy outcomes included cricket skill proficiency, daughters’ enjoyment in cricket, intention to keep playing cricket and long-term retention in cricket.ResultsFeasibility benchmarks were exceeded for recruitment (n  =  34 dyads), fidelity (98% education, 100% practical), attendance (88%), satisfaction (fathers: 4.6 of 5, daughters: 4.8 of 5) and retention (97%). Home-programme compliance fell short of the benchmark (64%). Preliminary efficacy was confirmed with medium-to-large effect size changes in 11 of the 13 daughters’ cricket skill proficiency outcomes. Promising findings were identified for daughters’ enjoyment of cricket, intention to continue playing and long-term retention in cricket.ConclusionA cricket-focused programme targeting daughters and dads was feasible and led to medium-to-large improvements in cricket skill proficiency among the daughters. Additionally, daughters were engaged with cricket, as shown by high levels of enjoyment, intention to continue playing and their long-term retention. Examining future efficacy in a larger trial is warranted.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T06:45:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231169096
       
  • Is a compact organization important for defensive success in elite soccer'
           – Analysis based on player tracking data

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Leander Forcher, Leon Forcher, Stefan Altmann, Darko Jekauc, Matthias Kempe
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The interest in tactical analysis in soccer has increased in the latest years, especially with the growing availability of player tracking data. With it, the defending team's compact organization, which is considered by practitioners to be an important factor in defense, was repeatedly examined. However, the connection between this defensive principle of play and the defending success remains unclear. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relation of the principle of playing defensive compact organization to the success of the defense. Based on tracking and event data of 153 games of the German Bundesliga (season 2020/21), the compactness (surface area, spread of the team, and of defending subgroups) and the organization (distances between formation lines) of the defending team was compared between successful and unsuccessful defensive plays. There were almost no differences in the compactness of the whole team, and the organizational measures between successful and unsuccessful defensive plays. The defending subgroup of five defenders closest to the ball showed a higher compactness (smaller surface area and smaller spread) in successful defensive plays compared to unsuccessful ones (−0.08 ≤ d ≤ −0.16). Our results indicate that the compactness of players in areas close to the ball seems crucial for defensive success. However, the compact organization of the entire team does not seem important to regain the ball in defense.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-16T11:36:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231172695
       
  • The FIFA 11 + : Why is adherence so challenging' Insights from a
           cross-sectional study of stakeholders in Australian amateur football
           (soccer)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Andrew G. Ross, Marnee J. McKay, Evangelos Pappas, Matthew Whalan, Elia Parsanejad, Kerry Peek
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesTo explore the usage and awareness of the FIFA 11 + (11 + ) across multiple stakeholders involved with amateur football.MethodsCoaches, players, non-coaching staff and medical personnel in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were invited to complete a cross-sectional online survey, which was disseminated using a targeted email to two Football NSW member organisations and a social media campaign. Categorical data (including age-groups and sex) are presented as counts and percentages and analysed using a Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all analyses.ResultsIn total 328 players, 55 coaches, 37 non-coaching staff and 16 medical personnel completed the survey (n  =  436). Awareness of the 11  +  was lowest among non-coaching staff (16.2%) and players (32.6%) but higher among coaches (52.7%) and medical personnel (93.8%). Once aware of the 11 + , 75.8% of all respondents used the program although 89.5% of them did so with modifications. In addition, only 40.0% of players reported completing all three parts of the 11  +  program. Veteran players were less likely to complete any type of warm-up compared with junior players (63.7% vs. 96.3%, respectively).ConclusionsAlthough awareness of the 11  +  varied amongst survey respondents, 3 out of 4 respondents who were aware of the 11  +  adopted the program. However, respondents reported modifying the 11  +  and not completing the program as intended, which suggests modification guidance is required to maintain the efficacy of the 11  +  .
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T06:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231174506
       
  • “Train as you play”: Improving effectiveness of training in
           youth soccer players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Albert Deuker, Bjoern Braunstein, Jia Yi Chow, Maximilian Fichtl, Hyoek Kim, Swen Körner, Robert Rein
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeThe present study investigates to what extend de-contextualized practice is necessary to acquire technical skills in developmental soccer training. Typically, open play is considered beneficial for acquiring tactical skills, whereas specific drills are used to support the development of technical skills like passing and shooting. Therefore, a field-based study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a Nonlinear Pedagogy (NP) approach in contrast to a classical Deliberate Practice approach to improve passing performance in young developmental soccer players.MethodForty young male players (age 10 ± 1 years) were randomly assigned to three groups (PLAY, PRACTICE, and CONTROL). The PRACTICE group performed classical passing drills, whereas the PLAY group underwent a NP training regime. Passing skill was assessed before and after a 5-week training program using a standardized passing test according to the German Football Association. Additional retention testing was performed 5 weeks later.ResultsThe results indicated that, although the test design showed no specificity to the learning environment of the PLAY group, both groups improved passing skills after training, but the PLAY group displayed better results during retention testing (PRACTICE: p = 0.004, d = 0.48; PLAY: p = 0.001, d = 0.53) compared to the PRACTICE group. These findings are suggestive of general transfer learning in dynamic learning environments.ConclusionThe findings indicate that even when there is an emphasis on “technical skill” enhancement, more effective improvement in young development players may be observed through dynamic learning environments. Consequently, this study encourages coaches to design training regimes that afford players to train as they play.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T06:36:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231172702
       
  • Changes in deadlift six repetition maximum, countermovement jump
           performance, barbell velocity, and perceived exertion over the duration of
           a microcycle

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stuart N. Guppy, Tsuyoshi Nagatani, Wayne C. K. Poon, Kristina L. Kendall, Jason P. Lake, G. Gregory Haff
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The primary aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the six-repetition maximum (6RM) deadlift over the length of a five-day microcycle and whether the fatigue induced by maximal effort testing detrimentally impacted preparedness. Twelve participants performed four testing sessions, comprising a one-repetition maximum test and three 6RM tests separated by 48 hours. Countermovement jumps were performed before each testing session, and barbell velocity was measured during each warm-up set to assess changes in preparedness. The 6RM deadlift was not statistically different between any of the testing sessions (p  =  .056; ηp2  =  0.251). Similarly, there were no significant differences in jump height or other CMJ variables between sessions (p > .05). There were small to moderate differences in mean barbell velocity between the first and second 6RM test (g  =  0.24–0.88), while there were only small differences in mean velocity (MV) between the second and third 6RM test at some of the warm-up loads (40% 6RM: g  =  0.20; 80% 6RM: g  =  −0.47). Taken collectively, these data indicate that 6RM deadlift strength is stable over five days and does not appear to induce sufficient fatigue to impact vertical jump performance or rating of perceived exertion despite some changes in barbell velocity.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T06:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231172569
       
  • How functional movement variability facilitates successful skill
           adaptation during the volleyball attack

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Paulo Caldeira, Ana Paulo, António Veloso, Jorge Infante, Keith Davids, Duarte Araújo
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      From an ecological dynamics perspective, careful manipulation of task constraints can provide opportunities for action, exploited by functional movement variability of participants. The constraints-led approach (CLA) induces functional movement variability in practice designs, supporting athlete performance in satisfying task constraints and finding performance solutions to achieve intended task goals. Young male volleyball players were randomly assigned to either a traditional approach (TA) or CLA practice group. Selected spatial-temporal movement coordination variables were recorded, to explore their relations to successful performance outcomes in the attacking phase. Binomial logistic regression was used to verify the association of spatial-temporal movement variables with the percentage of successful attacks. Six spatial-temporal variables were included, and a manual backward stepwise regression was used to remove those which did not contribute to the best predictive model of successful performance. After a 6-week intervention programme, the CLA practice group displayed a significantly higher percentage of successful attack actions, when facing the opposition block. The TA group showed a small increase in successful attack actions after the intervention. The final binomial logistic regression model revealed that the variables ‘lateral deviation of the participants’ centre of mass’ at the planting step and ‘longitudinal deviation of the participants’ centre of mass’ at point of ball contact were the main predictors of successful attacking outcomes. To overcome the opposition's block in volleyball, infusing functional variability in a CLA task design, promoted superior performance in practice. Presumably, greater movement pattern variability emerged in participants to satisfy performance constraints in successful volleyball attacks.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T06:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231168012
       
  • Multivariate analysis of goalkeeper actions in youth football

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Jara, Enrique Ortega-Toro, Miguel-Ángel Gómez-Ruano, Francisco Javier García-Angulo, Pilar Sainz de Baranda
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      There is a lack of studies investigating youth goalkeepers that implement variables that can allow researchers and coaches to better understand the performances of the goalkeepers. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to identify key performance indicators of youth football goalkeepers both defense and attack. The sample was composed of 902 defensive and 896 offensive actions from a convenience sample of 32 matches of 19 teams from the Spanish National Championship of Regional Teams U12. A notational analysis was carried out using an ad hoc instrument to register the technical-tactical actions. Validity was higher than .84. In addition, intra-observer reliability was higher than .90. Classification tree analysis was used to investigate which variables were best predictors of technical actions in defense and precision in attack actions of the goalkeepers. Results showed that in the attacking phase the actions that achieve higher values of precision were those when the ball was played to zone A length and both right and left sides (X26 = 542.034; p = .000). In defense, when the goalkeeper achieve higher values of saves were those when the shot was taken from out of the penalty area and no jump or drop was performed. The present findings contribute to evidence-based practice in fostering young goalkeepers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-05-09T06:26:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231173190
       
  • Designing small-sided games for counter-attack training in youth soccer

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marcelo Rochael, Gibson Moreira Praça
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to test different designs of counter-attacking training on tactical behaviour by manipulating the number of players and time pressure (limitation on the duration of the players’ offensive action). Specifically, we compared the influence of time pressure and numerical superiority (through an additional player) on the players’ performance and tactical behaviour in small-sided games (SSGs). Forty under-17 soccer athletes participated in the study. The athletes performed 4 SSGs in the following configurations: numerical equality and time pressure (GR-4  ×  4-GR – TP); numerical equality and no time pressure (GR-4  ×  4-GR – NTP); numerical superiority and time pressure (GR-5  ×  4-GR – TP) and numerical superiority and no time pressure (GR-5  ×  4-GR – NTP). Tactical performance was evaluated using the Game Performance Evaluation Tool (GPET), and tactical behaviour using positional data measured by the Global Positioning System. The statistical analysis was performed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. There was a better tactical performance in decision-making (0.669  ±  0.135, p  =  .02 and r  =  .27) and execution (0.602  ±  0.134, p  =  .002 and r  =  .44) of technical-tactical actions in the SSG without the time pressure rule. Furthermore, the space exploration index showed lower values (5.634  ±  0.604, p  =  .007 and r  =  .32) in games with time pressure than in games without this rule, and there were no significant differences for player length and width behaviour between protocols. It is concluded that the time pressure rule reduces the exploratory behaviour of the players. Understanding these effects allows coaches to plan better training sessions that address the contents of counter-attacks in SSG.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-28T06:08:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231170830
       
  • Questioning the validity and reliability of using a video-based test to
           assess decision making among female and male water polo players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lily Dong, Nicolas Berryman, Thomas Romeas
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of a water polo video-based test to assess decision making. Ninety-five female and male elite/tier 4 (T4) or highly trained/tier 3 (T3) athletes participated using their smartphones. Males repeated the test one week later for reliability analyses. Coaches assessed males’ in-water decision making and females were noted as selected or nonselected for the national team. Although response accuracy was significantly different between T3 and T4 athletes (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-28T05:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231170278
       
  • Considering perceptual experiences and adaptive actions in performance
           analysis of elite Formula Kite riders by combining qualitative data and
           measured key indicators of performance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eric Terrien, Benoît Huet, Paul Iachkine, Jacques Saury
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Formula Kite is a high-speed sailing sport using hydrofoils, recently included in the Olympic sports list. In Formula Kite, the riders’ technical abilities to reach and maintain high speed are key to achieving performance. The aim of the present study was to analyze Formula Kite riders’ performance during speed tests in practice sessions by combining qualitative descriptions of their lived perceptual experiences “from the inside” with measured correlates of performance. The courses of experience of four expert Formula Kite riders’ speed tests were analyzed, compared, and discussed in relation to their measured Velocity Made Good. Results of the qualitative analyses provide original insight into the fine technical adaptations of the riders in their pursuit of performance. Furthermore, the comparison between the evaluated performance using speed measurements and the perceived performance assessed by the qualitative analysis shows interindividual differences as well as inconsistencies between the two modes of analysis. Based on these results, the present study opens practical perspectives for improving training practices, consisting in “calibrating” the sailors’ perceived performance with measured performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-28T05:37:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231153273
       
  • Subjective knowledge in open water activities: Scale development and
           validation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Heetae Cho, Koon Teck Koh, Lit Khoon Chian
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Subjective knowledge is a significant factor influencing individuals’ behaviors. It plays a critical role in preventing people from tragic event during open water activities (OWAs). However, a measurement scale for subjective knowledge in OWAs has not been developed and comprehensively investigated in the field of maritime and coaching studies. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a subjective knowledge scale in OWAs (SKS-OWA) to better understand participants’ safety perceptions. We collected data from individuals who participated in OWAs within three years in Singapore. This study conducted the pilot study (n = 260) and the main study (n = 453) and employed a rigorous scale development procedure to assess the psychometric properties of the SKS-OWA. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of subjective knowledge in OWAs, and the SKS-OWA can be used to help coaches and practitioners to plan their training programs, increase public awareness, and reduce the rates of deaths from drowning.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-19T06:03:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231168513
       
  • Elite athletes’ and support staffs’ experiences and perceptions of
           long-haul travel, and the self-management strategies they use

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Antonia Rossiter, Thomas M. Comyns, Ian Sherwin, Alan M. Nevill, Giles D. Warrington
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Elite athletes and their support staff are often required to travel for international competitions all over the globe, however little is known about their experiences of long-haul (LH) travel and its perceived effects on performance. The aim of this study was to explore elite athletes’ and support staffs’ perception of symptoms experienced following LH travel and the self-management strategies they used to mitigate these symptoms. Elite athletes and support staff (n = 88), who had embarked on an LH flight (> 8 hours) in the previous 2 years for training or competition, completed a survey examining their perceptions of LH travel, symptoms experienced following the flight(s) and strategies they implemented to minimise the symptoms. Associations between symptoms experienced and travel strategies used with participant and journey characteristics were examined by Chi-squared tests. LH travel was widely perceived by participants to be disruptive to physical (86.4%) and mental performance (72.7%) and to increase the risk of illness and injury (86.4%). The most common symptoms experienced were related to fatigue and disruption to sleep. All participants implemented strategies to help mitigate the negative consequences of LH travel. Moving and stretching regularly in-flight and simple strategies for aligning the body clock to destination time were most prevalent. The study findings will allow the translation of research to better inform future guidelines that address the unique needs and priorities of elite athletes and support staff as they embark on LH travel for training and competition with a view to optimising performance outcomes.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-18T05:05:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231170080
       
  • Case-study: Energy expenditure of a world class male wheelchair tennis
           player during training, Grand Slam and British open tournaments measured
           by doubly labelled water

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel G Ellis, John Speakman, Catherine Hambly, Alex Cockram, James P Morton, Graeme L Close, Tim F Donovan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The assessment of total energy expenditure (TEE) is imperative to ensure appropriate fuelling during competition and training, although the current lack of TEE research in para sport make the prescription of nutritional strategies challenging. This study aimed to assess TEE of an elite wheelchair tennis (WT) player during training and competition of the highest level. One male WT player (age 23.6 years; career high World No. 1; body mass 65.7 kg; VO2max, 45.3 ml.kg−1.min−1) participated. Prior to the assessment, VO2max and maximum heart rate, resting metabolic rate, 10 m sprint speed and upper body skinfold measurements were made. Doubly labelled water assessed TEE during a 19-day period which included the Wimbledon Championships (5 days-3 matches), training (8 days) and the British Open (BO) (6 days-7 matches). Throughout data collection, the participant continued their usual training and preparation. During Wimbledon, TEE was 3118 kcal·d−1: 60.3 kcal·kg−1 FFM: PAL 2.0 and during BO was 3368 kcal·day−1: 65.1 kcal·kg−1 FFM: PAL 2.2. Mean daily activity was 124 mins and 132 mins, respectively. During training, TEE was 3177kcal·day-1: 61.4kcal·kg-1 FFM: PAL 2.0: mean daily activity was 138 mins. These findings show the TEE of an elite WT player captured during a period of training and high-level competition, alongside data outlining the physiological profile of a world-class para-athlete.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-17T07:45:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231169033
       
  • Analysis of the return in professional men's and women's padel

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Adrián Escudero-Tena, Sergio J Ibáñez, Antonio Vaquer Castillo, Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz, Jesús Ramón-Llin, Diego Muñoz
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this research was to analyze how situational variables such as the tactical position and the direction of the serve, the return's direction, and the score affect the vertical trajectory (VT) of the return (straight or lob) in men's and women's professional padel. For this, a sample of 2752 points (1431 men and 1321 women) corresponding to 69 matches played in the 2021 season of the World Padel Tour circuit was used. The VT of the return (straight or lob), to which player it was oriented, how important the point was attending to the score, the tactical position of the serving players, and the direction of the serve by systematic observation were recorded. The results showed that situational variables had a significant influence on the type of vertical return trajectory. Men performed a significantly higher percentage of straight returns (three out of four returns) when returning to the player at serve, or at a nonkey moment, or Australian position, or when the serve was to the body or to the side wall. In contrast, women returned a significantly higher percentage of lob returns (three out of four returns) to the server's partner, or in golden point situations, or in serves to the “T” and to the body, regardless of the tactical position at serve. The return had not been analyzed considering the score, observing changes in the golden points. These results have a great impact both on carrying out specific return training and on improving pair's anticipation to serve in different return situations.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-11T05:40:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231167752
       
  • Hormonal contraceptive use, menstrual cycle characteristics and
           training/nutrition related profiles of elite, sub-elite and amateur
           athletes and exercisers: One size is unlikely to fit all

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Carl Langan-Evans, Mark A Hearris, Stephen McQuilliam, Louise M Burke, Trent Stellingwerff, Kirsty J Elliott-Sale, James P Morton
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the present study was to simultaneously audit hormonal contraceptive (HC) use, menstrual cycle characteristics and training/nutrition related profiles in pre-menopausal women from varying athletic and exercise backgrounds. Elite (n = 51), sub-elite (n = 118) and amateur (n = 392) female athletes and exercisers were examined via an anonymous quantitative/qualitative survey tool. All analyses for ratio data were conducted utilising one- and two-way ANOVA/ANCOVA and odds ratio models, with ordinal data analysed via Pearson's Chi-squared tests. HC use was similar across elite, sub-elite and amateurs (34–44%). Menstrual cycle length was not different (P = 0.08) between competitive levels (28 ± 13 days), but 66% of respondents reported cycle variability (10 ± 11 days). Training profiles were not different based on contraceptive status (P > 0.05) yet were across competitive groups (P  0.05), though elite and sub-elite groups reported a higher daily meal consumption compared to amateurs (P 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-11T05:39:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231163088
       
  • Running more than before' The evolution of running load demands in the
           English Premier League

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tom Allen, Matt Taberner, Mikhail Zhilkin, David Rhodes
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeThe purpose of this study was to assess running load trends (total distance (TD), high-intensity distance (HID; > 5.5ms−1) and sprinting distance (SprD; > 7ms−1)) in the English Premier League (EPL) between the 2014/2015 and 2018/2019 seasons using a semi-automated optical tracking system.MethodsA total of 1634 games across 5 seasons (2014/2015–2018/2019) were analysed for team and positional TD, HID and SprD. All matches were tracked using TRACAB® Gen-4 HD motion cameras. Data were analysed to identify significant team and positional differences for each metric.ResultsSmall to moderate increases were seen in team running load for TD (p  =  0.02; effect size (ES): 0.21), HID (p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T07:59:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231164507
       
  • Additional substitutions in elite European football

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Johannes Meyer, Stefanie Klatt
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      In 2020, the International Football Association Board (IFAB) introduced a temporary rule amendment of two additional substitutions in regular time. In this study, we assess the impact of this rule change with regard to player relief, tactical influence by the coaches and the development of young players. Data were collected from 3652 matches from the top 5 leagues in the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) rankings and 659 UEFA club competition matches (Champions League and Europa League) in 2 different seasons (pre-rule amendment: 2018/2019 vs. post-rule amendment: 2020/2021), comparing leagues that introduced two additional substitutions with those that did not. The results show that with two additional substitutions, the reduction in player load was increased by 46%. Despite being used infrequently, the rule change resulted in 45% more substitutions and, therefore, greater tactical influence by the coaches. Furthermore, two additional substitutions benefit young players’ development with an 81% increase in playing time. While the aim of the temporary amendment to the laws of the game was achieved with the additional substitutions by compensating for the increased load on the players, coaches’ substitution behaviour shows potential for improvement.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-31T06:28:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231164090
       
  • Not much “I” in “Team”: Content analysis of pregame speeches in
           American football

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Phil Havira, Britton W. Brewer, Judy L. Van Raalte, Donovan Jennison, Thaddeus J. France
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Although researchers have explored the effects of coach pregame speeches, little is known about the actual content, delivery, and environmental context of the speeches themselves. This study was a descriptive analysis of 127 (n = 77 intercollegiate, n = 37 high school, and n = 13 cinematic) American football pregame speeches. The speeches were viewed, transcribed, coded, and analyzed via the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC2015) software program. Actual speeches were compared with natural speech norms and speeches appearing in movies pertaining to American football. In general, the pregame speeches were characterized by use of confident, analytical, motivational, emotionally tinged language that is collectively oriented and present and future focused. The speeches delivered to high school teams were substantially similar to those delivered to intercollegiate teams. The actual speeches differed from natural speech on numerous variables and from the cinematic speeches on some descriptive variables. The findings suggest that actual American football pregame speeches are fundamentally similar to cinematic American football pregame speeches and constitute a distinct form of communication that is tailored to the unique demands of the situation.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-28T07:11:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231165135
       
  • Scientific mapping of the state-of-the-art in padel. A bibliometric
           analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: A. Denche-Zamorano, A. Escudero-Tena, D. Pereira-Payo, J. C. Adsuar, D. Muñoz
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Padel has become one of the most popular racket sports in the world, capturing the interest of researchers and thus increasing the number of manuscripts that revolve around this sport. This article describes the state of development of the science of padel and locates the most relevant journals, authors, institutions, countries and keywords on the subject. The set of publications related to padel was retrieved from the main collection of the Web of Science. The state of development of padel in science was verified. Journals, authors, institutions, countries and keywords in the topic were analysed with the VOSviewer software. A total of 116 publications were analysed, finding that the publications on padel were in a phase of exponential growth. Sánchez-Alcaraz, Courel-Ibañez, Muñoz-Marín, Ramón-Llin and Sánchez-Pay were the most prominent authors, with the University of Murcia and Spain being the main institution and country on the subject. The science of padel is growing exponentially, with Spain being the driving force behind the topic of study, with new countries joining in recent years. This study provides relevant information on the state-of-the-art padel, and it will help researchers to establish new relationships and find more relevant authors and articles.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-27T07:32:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231161993
       
  • Efficacy beliefs and motivational dynamics in early-season collegiate
           swimming relays

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Seunghyun Hwang, Kaitlynn Sedabres, Lori Dithurbide, Deborah Feltz
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the moderating effects of efficacy beliefs and perceived indispensability on individual efforts in early-season collegiate swimming relays. Effort changes from swimmers’ individual best times to relay-leg times were compared as a function of relay members’ relative strength (i.e., fastest or slowest) and serial position (i.e., first or last leg). Participants (N  =  199) were collegiate swimmers in 200, 400, or 800-yard freestyle relays at fall invitational meets providing 260 cases included for analysis. Individual lifetime best times, adjusted relay times, rank, serial position, and self-report measures (i.e., efficacy, perceived indispensability of their relay performance) were used for hierarchical multiple regressions. Results indicated that the slowest relay members came closer to their individual best times compared with their team members. The fastest members showed less effort change toward their individual best times than their team members. However, efficacy beliefs in one's teammates had a small positive moderating influence on the fastest members’ effort in relay performances. Based on our results, we recommend Division II and III collegiate coaches not be too concerned with positional order by particular rank at early season invitationals; instead, focus on how to obtain the most effort from each relay member. However, the slowest swimmers may perform better if not positioned first.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-23T06:54:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231165133
       
  • Analysing the physical output of international field hockey players
           through the lens of phase of play: A Commentary

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ted Polglaze
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-20T08:03:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231164057
       
  • Influence of the importance of the point and service tactical position in
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Adrián Escudero-Tena, Sergio J. Ibáñez, Jose A. Parraca, Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz, Diego Muñoz
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this research was to analyse the shot following the return in men's and women's professional padel according to the importance of the point and the service tactical position. The type of shot following the return, importance of the shot and tactical position of the serving pair were recorded by systematic observation. A total of 2752 points (1431 men's and 1321 women's) from 69 matches played in the 2021 season of the World Padel Tour circuit were used. The results show that while men use more forehand and backhand volleys as shots following the return, women use more trays or smashes and back wall shots. In addition, while the server is the one who plays the most third shots following a straight return in men's padel (forehand and backhand volleys) and women's (forehand volleys and backhand volleys), the server's partner is the one who plays the most third shots following a lob return in the men's category (trays or smashes and back wall shots) and women's category (trays or smashes and back wall shots). Moreover, the importance of the point and the service position are parameters that affect the shot following the return in men's and women's professional padel. Thus, these findings are very novel as it is the first investigation to analyse the shot following the return in professional padel.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-20T08:03:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231163535
       
  • Effect of the golden points and non-golden points on performance
           parameters in professional padel

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Adrián Escudero-Tena, Larissa Galatti, Bernardino J Sánchez-Alcaraz, Diego Muñoz, Sergio J Ibáñez
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Since the 2020 season the World Padel Tour (WPT) has incorporated the golden point rule, which consists of playing a point to decide the game when the score is deuce (40–40). The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the golden points and the rest of the points in men's and women's professional padel, as well as to identify the differences between both types of points. A sample of 2752 points (1431 men's and 1321 women's) was used from 394 games identified and finished with a golden point, corresponding to 69 matches played in the 2021 season of the WPT circuit. The variables recorded were the type of point (golden points and non-golden points), player serving, tactical service position, number of net exchanges, effectiveness of the partner serving and effectiveness of the last shot through systematic observation. The results indicate that during the golden points in men's padel, the Australian position is usually used more, while in women's padel the Australian position is more common when the player on the right serves and the traditional one when the player on the left serves. In addition, both in men and women, the most common serves are those directed towards the side wall. On the other hand, except for the errors in women's padel during the golden points, the winning shots are made in areas close to the net and the errors in areas at the back of the court.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-20T08:01:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231161288
       
  • Training in lockdown: The impact of stringency measures on the Tokyo 2020
           Olympic Games

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Vincenzo Alfano, Salvatore Ercolano
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Due to COVID-19, the 32nd Olympic Games were postponed temporarily for the first time, apart from those cancelled during the First and Second World Wars. Did the pandemic also affect the results' We aim to understand the impact of stringency measures on athletes’ performance in the Olympics. For many athletes, the Olympics are the pinnacle of their careers, and they follow intense training schedules to arrive at the Games in peak physical condition. Stringency measures may have affected their results by making it harder for them to train effectively, to access sports infrastructure, to meet teammates, and more generally to follow an athletic lifestyle. Our quantitative analysis shows that stringency measures had an effect on the number of Olympic medals won, especially in team sports. This is consistent with the idea that stricter non-pharmaceutical interventions made it harder for teams to train together and achieve the necessary chemistry and harmony to succeed in such a competitive event. Furthermore, women were more severely penalized by higher stringency measures than men in team events.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-14T09:04:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231163234
       
  • Analysing the physical output of international field hockey players
           through the lens of the phase of play

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eoin Cunniffe, Mark Connor, Marco Beato, Adam Grainger, Walter Mcconnell, Catherine Blake
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to describe the locomotor activity of men's hockey based on the phase of play and to identify if differences in locomotor activity exist between phases. Twenty-four players (age 26 ± 4) wore a 10 Hz Global Positioning System device to track locomotor activity during 10 international matches. The locomotor activity of players was allocated to five different phases: (1) established attack, (2) opposition counterattack, (3) established defence, (4) attacking counterattack and (5) offensive pressing, utilising a video analysis-based system. Linear mixed models and post-hoc pairwise comparisons, using estimated marginal means, were utilised to compare the locomotor activity in each phase of play within each position. Significant main effects were found for the phase of play on several locomotor activity metrics (p ≤ 0.05). With respect to max speed and relative total distance across positions, counterattacks present a unique challenge compared to other phases. Established attack phases evoke lower max speed values than offensive pressing phases for all playing positions as well as compared to opposition counterattacks for defenders, midfielders, and forwards. Positional differences existed during attacking counterattack phases, with defenders producing lower values than both midfielders and forwards for high-speed running, high-speed running efforts, max speed and relative total distance. Depending on the metric, this approach captured 22%–70% of a player's locomotor activity providing valuable insight into the current dynamics of international hockey. This investigation demonstrated positional differences based on the phase of play, which may explain previous research findings regarding positional differences.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-14T08:16:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231158527
       
  • Who benefits more from mindfulness' A preliminary study exploring
           moderating effect of personality traits on competition anxiety in athletes
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Youteng Gan, Ruohang Wang, Xueyu Wang, Jiangang Li, Hongying Fan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveMindfulness can help athletes better regulate their emotions, and analyzing personality traits may help identify those who would benefit more from psychological intervention activities to optimize subsequent training effects. This study sought to examine the effects of mindfulness training on athletes’ competition anxiety and to consider the role of personality traits.MethodsFifty athletes (mean age = 21.87 years, SD = 1.62; 23 females and 27 males) were randomly assigned to a mindfulness group (n = 23), which received 8 weeks of mindfulness training, and a control group (n = 27) receiving no intervention. The athletes’ personality traits, mindfulness level, and competition anxiety were measured according to the study plan before and after mindfulness training, and at an 8-week follow up.ResultsCompared with the control group, mindfulness training had a positive effect on the level of mindfulness and self-confidence in the mindfulness group, as well as a greater improvement in cognitive/somatic state anxiety. Improvements remained stable from the end of training to follow up. Additionally, athletes with high activity and high extraversion had more improvement in mindfulness levels and cognitive/somatic state anxiety, respectively, while athletes with low neuroticism demonstrated greater improvement in self-confidence.ConclusionsMindfulness training helps to reduce athletes’ competition anxieties, and personality traits might affect the improvement effect to a certain extent, which provided a reference for optimizing mindfulness training and developing more personalized psychological training for athletes who display certain personality traits.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T06:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231159171
       
  • The indirect effects of transformational leadership in soccer programmes
           for socio-economically disadvantaged individuals: Need satisfaction as a
           mechanism towards personal development

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jordan Donnelly, Rosie Arthur, Calum Arthur, Daryl Cowan
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of coach transformational leadership (TL) on the current lives of socio-economically disadvantaged individuals within a sport-based education programme.DesignCross-sectional.Methods159 participants completed questionnaires on the perceptions of their lead coaches’ TL, perceived basic need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, relatedness) in relation to programme attendance, and feelings of resilience and life-satisfaction in their current life.ResultsPROCESS analysis revealed that all differentiated TL behaviours (but high-performance expectations) had a positive indirect effect on outcomes (resilience and life-satisfaction) via competence and a negative indirect effect on outcomes via relatedness. High-performance expectations demonstrated a direct effect on life satisfaction.ConclusionThe results demonstrate how distinct coach transformational behaviours impact differently on the lives of disadvantaged individuals within a sports-based education programme. The differentiated conceptualisation of TL revealed nuanced results, furthering our understanding of how each TL interacts with the three basic psychological needs. Finally, our results demonstrate the significance competence may hold in transferring the effect of different transformational behaviours onto the everyday lives of disadvantaged individuals.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T06:54:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231158693
       
  • A career handbook for professional soccer players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Balázs Ács, Roland Kovács, László Toka
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The success of a soccer player is not entirely pre-destined by their physical ability, talent, and motivation. There are certain decisions along the way that greatly affect the arc of their career: which skills to develop, and which club to sign a contract with. In this paper, we identify the optimal strategic choices toward multiple potential aims a soccer player can have and we seek the knowledge of what made the greatest soccer players in terms of those decisions. Our two main data sources are Transfermarkt and Sofifa from which we collect data for the period between 2007 and 2021 with 29,231 players. We perform time series analysis on skill features of soccer players, and network analysis of the players’ acquaintance graph, i.e., a graph that indicates whether two given players have ever been teammates before. Finally, we create key performance indicators to check the differences in certain features, i.e., individual player skills and connectivity attributes, between top-tier and the rest of the players, and use dynamic time warping for validation. The outcome of this work is a recommendation tool that helps players to find what needs to be improved in order to achieve their desired goals. The source code and the career advisor tool for soccer players that we have implemented are available online.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-22T07:25:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231155598
       
  • Towards maximizing expected possession outcome in soccer

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pegah Rahimian, Jan Van Haaren, Laszlo Toka
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Soccer players need to make many decisions throughout a match in order to maximize their team’s chances of winning. Unfortunately, these decisions are challenging to measure and evaluate due to the low-scoring, complex, and highly dynamic nature of soccer. This article proposes an end-to-end deep reinforcement learning framework that receives raw tracking data for each situation in a game, and yields optimal ball destination location on the full surface of the pitch. Using the proposed approach, soccer players and coaches are able to analyze the actual behavior in their historical games, obtain the optimal behavior and plan for future games, and evaluate the outcome of the optimal decisions prior to deployment in a match. Concisely, the results of our optimization model propose more short passes (Tiki-Taka playing style) in all phases of a ball possession, and higher propensity of low distance shots (i.e. shots in attack phase). Such a modification will let the typical teams to increase their likelihood of possession ending in a goal by 0.025.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-22T07:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231154494
       
  • Calculating expected win percentage of an Indian Premier League team

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Aaron B Hoskins
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The Indian Premier League is the most prestigious cricket league globally. There are significant finances in terms of both team ownership and player salaries. It is, therefore, essential to understanding if a team’s record is due to luck (good or bad) or if a team’s record is due to the team’s overall performance. The research presented here is motivated by how to accurately predict a team’s winning percentage in the Indian Premier League based on underlying statistics. A similar analysis has been done in other sports, mainly based on the concept of the Pythagorean expectation. This research derives a similar model for the IPL based on historical data. However, the structure of a match in the Indian Premier League is fundamentally different than the structure of games in other sports. As a result of this structural difference, this study creates additional models using both least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and stepwise regression to identify variables that are good predictors for calculating the expected winning percentage. These models compare favorably to the Pythagorean expectation model. This article presents a model combining both the determined variables and Pythagorean expectation.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-20T09:58:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231156904
       
  • The effectiveness of two comprehensive recovery protocols on performance
           and physiological measures in elite soccer players: A parallel
           group-randomized trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Albert Altarriba-Bartes, Jordi Vicens-Bordas, Javier Peña, Fernando Alarcón-Palacios, Luis A Sixtos-Meliton, Martí Matabosch-Pijuan, Enric Giménez-Martínez, Marco Beato, Julio Calleja-González
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Elite soccer players consistently report using several recovery methods after practices and games. However, it is unclear how their subsequent performance could be enhanced using broad protocols. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different comprehensive recovery protocols in physiological, neuromuscular, and perceptual outcomes. Eighteen Mexican National Team players (19.56 ± 0.62 years) were recruited. Using a randomized parallel group design, players followed one of two recovery protocols: (a) carbohydrate and protein shake, foam roller, cold-water immersion, and tart cherry juice concentrate (n = 9) or (b) carbohydrate and protein shake, stretching, and intermittent cold-water immersion (n = 9) following the completion of an unofficial game and the day after. Muscular creatine kinase, countermovement jump, hamstring maximal voluntary contraction, perceived recovery, and muscle soreness were assessed before, immediately after, and 20-44-68 h post-game. Significant effects (set at ρ≤0.05) of time were present in both interventions. Muscular creatine kinase was normalized entirely at 68 h post-game, while neuromuscular and perceptual outcomes were homogenized at 44 h. No statistically significant effects between protocols were found. Still, the interaction effects showed changes only in the group using protocol (a) at post-game and 20 h after in neuromuscular and muscle soreness. There were large correlations between muscular creatine kinase and accelerations, decelerations, sprints, and high-speed running distances. In conclusion, the interventions are equally effective for improving physiological, neuromuscular, and perceptual outcomes. Thus, elite soccer players may benefit from different combinations of methods after practices or games to obtain positive effects on recovery after them.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-10T08:08:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231155585
       
  • Exploring the perceptions of leadership in Hong Kong rugby

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jevon Groves, Dan Clements
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The concept of leadership within sports coaching continues to fascinate and intrigue a multitude of stakeholders. There is still a need for a greater understanding of its role within a complex, dynamic field of inquiry that seemingly relies heavily on the ‘coach as leader’ for a multitude of outcomes (e.g. performance success, athlete development, social outcomes). Given the call for more contextually specific and action orientated research, the aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of coach leadership within the Hong Kong rugby union environment. The study adopted an interpretive paradigm to gain deep insight into coaches’ and players perceptions of leadership in rugby. Data was collected from 16 participants via three separate online focus groups. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse and interpret the data. The findings suggest that for leadership to be effective, coaches must possess a socio-cultural understanding of their context, have a clear vision for their team and have a principle of transformational and value-based leadership to assist with decision making. Additionally, coaches must become role models and demonstrate authentic leadership characteristics to be able to build and maintain relationships with the people in their organisation through effective communication. Sharing leadership appeared to be an effective method adopted by coaches to enhance leadership throughout a rugby organisation. We suggest that the results provide a grounding for coach learning within a unique coaching context.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-10T07:08:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231154074
       
  • Utility of video analysis and expert modelling for technique development
           in novice sport climbers: A randomized controlled study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rok Blagus, Bojan Leskošek, Luka Okršlar, Nace Vreček, Tadej Debevec
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Sport climbing is a multifaceted sport that also requires appropriate techniques to optimize movements. As augmented feedback is known to facilitate motor learning, we investigated the utility of adding video analysis and expert modelling to standardized verbal feedback for the acquisition of three climbing-specific techniques (drop knee, heel hook and high step). Twenty-six novice climbers (12 women) completed two testing sessions before and after a training intervention that consisted of three coached climbing sessions targeting the three techniques. Participants were randomly assigned to a control group, which solely received standardized verbal feedback or an experimental group that additionally received standardized video analysis and expert modelling using the Dartfish tablet application. Video recordings were subsequently evaluated by two climbing experts on a 7-point scale. The expert scores were higher in the experimental than in the control group for the high step (causal total effect (CTE) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.06, 0.68]). Improvements for the drop knee (CTE = 0.12, 95% CI [−0.24, 0.48]) and heel hook (CTE = −0.05, 95% CI [−0.42, 0.31]) were similar in both groups. For the drop knee, we, however, observed a positive causal direct effect (CDE = 0.38, 95% CI [0.07, 0.68]), which was comparable to that observed for the high step but also a negative causal mediator effect via the perceived difficulty (CME = −0.26, 95% CI [−0.51, −0.04]). Compared to verbal feedback solely, the addition of video analysis and expert modelling might facilitate the acquisition of certain climbing techniques, such as high step, in novice climbers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-03T09:08:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231152548
       
  • Differences and variability of physical and technical characteristics
           among rugby union small-sided games performed within a preseason

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marco Zanin, Jayamini Ranaweera, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Gregory Roe
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the differences in physical and technical characteristics among three specific rugby union small-sided games (SSG) and to examine the variability of these characteristics over three weeks within a preseason of a professional rugby union club. Eighteen backs and 22 forwards were recruited for the study. The three SSG designs were: backs only (SSG-B), forwards only (SSG-F) and both backs and forwards (SSG-BF). Physical characteristics were quantified using external (e.g., total distance covered [m·min−1]) and internal (i.e., Stagno's training impulse [AU·min−1]) load measures. Technical characteristics were quantified using the number of rucks, successful passes, unsuccessful passes, line breaks and tries per minute. The SSG-BF produced a greater high speed (>61%) running distance covered in comparison with SSG-B (1.97 vs. 1.32 m·min−1) and SSG-F (1.26 vs. 0.94 m·min−1), and more successful passes (9.47 vs. 9.36 count·min−1) and line breaks (0.98 vs. 0.65 count·min−1) than SSG-F. Conversely, all the other physical and technical characteristics were higher in SSG-B and SSG-F. All the physical and technical characteristics, except high speed (>61%) distance covered in forwards and unsuccessful passes and tries per minute, changed over days showing either a linear or quadratic pattern. Based on these findings, practitioners may implement position-specific SSG (i.e., SSG-B and SSG-F) to expose players to greater physical and technical characteristics. Furthermore, if SSGs were to be repeated across multiple days, practitioners should be aware of the possible variability in physical and technical characteristics due to potential adaptations to the constraints or the onset of fatigue.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-03T08:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541231153387
       
  • Assessing asymmetries and predicting performance in semiprofessional
           soccer players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jorge Arede, John FT Fernandes, Harjiv Singh, Chris Bishop, Dani Romero-Rodriguez, Marc Madruga Parera
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to (a) detail the interlimb asymmetries during multi-directional jumping, change of direction and for ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and (b) determine how asymmetries and performance in multi-directional jumping and ankle dorsiflexion predict performance during change of direction tests. Twenty-two male semi-professional players completed a testing session which consisted of unilateral ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, vertical and horizontal unilateral and lateral countermovement jumps and left and right leg 90° (COD90L&R) and 180° (COD180L&R) change of direction tests. No significant differences between limbs were observed for any of the variables (P > 0.05), though vertical countermovement jump (11.1% ± 9.1%) and dorsiflexion range of motion (10.5% ± 10.3%) imbalances were greater than those during lateral (2.7% ± 2.2%) and horizontal (2.2% ± 1.9%) countermovement jumps, and 90° (3.6% ± 3.1%) and 180° change of direction (2.9% ± 3.6%). Subjects presented 3.4 ± 1.4 real asymmetries (i.e., one greater than the coefficient of variation) across the tests, with all subjects having at least one real asymmetry. Stepwise linear regression models explained a reasonable amount of variance in change of direction180R (70%), COD90L (57%), COD90R (39%), COD180L (23%) using the countermovement jump and dorsiflexion range of motion variables (P 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-03T08:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221146220
       
  • Evolution of match performance parameters in elite men's handball
           2012–2022

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alex Pascual, Roger Font, Xavier Pascual, Carlos Lago-Peñas
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to quantify longitudinal changes in the games of the 6 Men’s European Handball Championship (EHC) celebrated between 2012 and 2022. A total of 563 match observations were examined. Specifically, the study contained the Number of Goals, Number of Attacks, Number of Shots, Number of Saves, Offensive Efficacy (Number of Goals/Number of Attacks × 100) and Defensive Efficacy (100 − Offensive Efficacy of the Opponent). Data were examined using the Kruskal–Wallis test and linear regression analysis. Results suggest that the number of goals remained relatively constant from 2012 to 2022. However, the number of attacks, shots, saves and defensive efficacy decreased, while offensive efficacy increased. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of how handball is evolving from a structural or tactical viewpoint.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T06:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221142418
       
  • Neuromuscular adaptations to different set configurations during a
           periodized power training block in elite junior Judokas

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dale M Harris, Dustin J Oranchuk, Christopher Latella
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Although the impacts of traditional sets (TS) versus cluster (CL) sets resistance training have been broadly explored among recreationally trained populations, no studies have previously compared these set configurations among elite Judokas. Twenty-two elite male and female Judokas (age = 17.5 ± 1.2 years) performed identical periodized 4-week hypertrophy and strength blocks (8 weeks in total). Following this, for the final 4-week power training block, the cohort was separated into either TS (n = 11) or CL (n = 11) set structures. CL were prescribed by including 45-second intra-set rest every two repetitions. One-repetition maximum (1RM) and peak barbell velocities of the back squat and bench press, and countermovement (CMJ) jump height were assessed before and following each 4-week mesocycle. Significant strength and power improvements were observed after the 4-week hypertrophy training block (1RM bench press = Δ3.82 kg, ES [95% CI] = 1.34 [0.76, 1.93], p 
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T07:35:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221151195
       
  • A data-driven approach to assist offensive and defensive players in
           optimal decision making

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pegah Rahimian, Laszlo Toka
      Abstract: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Ahead of Print.
      Among all the popular sports, soccer is a relatively long-lasting game with a small number of goals per game. This renders the decision-making cumbersome, since it is not straightforward to evaluate the impact of in-game actions apart from goal scoring. Although several action valuation metrics and counterfactual reasoning have been proposed by researchers in recent years, assisting coaches in discovering the optimal actions in different situations of a soccer game has received little attention of soccer analytics. This work proposes the application of deep reinforcement learning on the event and tracking data of soccer matches to discover the most impactful actions at the interrupting point of a possession. Our optimization framework assists players and coaches in inspecting the optimal action, and on a higher level, we provide for the adjustment required for the teams in terms of their action frequencies in different pitch zones. The optimization results have different suggestions for offensive and defensive teams. For the offensive team, the optimal policy suggests more shots in half-spaces (i.e. long-distance shots). For the defending team, the optimal policy suggests that when locating in wings, defensive players should increase the frequency of fouls and ball outs rather than clearances, and when located in the centre, players should increase the frequency of clearances rather than fouls and ball outs.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T06:28:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17479541221149481
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 100.26.196.222
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-
JournalTOCs
 
 

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted by number of followers
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Turfgrass Society Research Journal     Free   (Followers: 13)
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Health Promotion & Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Reabilitacijos Mokslai : Slauga, Kineziterapija, Ergoterapija     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Football(s) : Histoire, Culture, Économie, Société     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Strategies : A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Law and Governance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Corpoconsciência     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Kinder- und Jugendsport : Zeitschrift für Forschung, Transfer und Praxisdialog     Hybrid Journal  
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Arrancada     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access  
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access  
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Conexões     Open Access  
Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of National Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Türkiye Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Science     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Physical Education of Students     Open Access  
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Therapeutic Recreation Journal     Full-text available via subscription  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Similar Journals
HOME > Browse the 73 Subjects covered by JournalTOCs  
SubjectTotal Journals
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 100.26.196.222
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-