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Laisvalaikio Tyrimai
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2345-0339
Published by Lithuanian Sports University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Physical Activity Assessment of Overweight and Obese Physicians

    • Authors: Martirija Fominaitė, Saulė Sipavičienė, Vilija Bitė Fominienė
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. Physical activity (FA) is a preventive measure to protect and enhance public health (World Health Organization, 2011), and its insufficiency is associated with several diseases. Meanwhile, a person’s low physical activity is often associated with the risk of being overweight or obese (Chatterjee et al., 2020). Despite this, there is not a lot of scientific data on the physical activity of health care professionals especially doctors who are overweight or obese, results, state the situation when doctors do not follow the recommended physical activity recommendations and are affected by overweight or obesity, are often determined by both the research methodology, the contingent of subjects, and the specifics of the country or region. The purpose of the study: is to reveal the physical activity habits of overweight and obese physicians. Research object: physical activity habits. The results. The conducted study revealed that slightly more than half of the examined doctors are overweight or obese. There are more men than women in these categories of body mass index, and higher readings of obesity are found in those subjects with more than 10 years of work experience. Slightly more than a quarter of the subjects demonstrate unhealthy physical activity habits. In terms of gender, men dominate compared to women. An analysis of overweight and obese physicians based on their physical activity skill category revealed that overweight and obesity among the studied physicians tended to be associated with their physical activity skill category. Keywords: physical activity, body mass index, obesity, overweight, healthcare professionals.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i23.1455
       
  • Formation of an Effective System of Personnel Motivation at
           Industrial Enterprises of Ukraine

    • Authors: Dmytro Savenko
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: It is found that the level of competitiveness of enterprises, and stability of functioning largely depends on the efficiency and results of the work of personnel, and the level of their skills. The quality and timeliness of tasks, production, and the formation of creative ideas depend on the qualifications of employees. Therefore, an important indicator of a company’s staff efficiency at the enterprise is labour productivity, the level which depends on the personnel policy, and the motivation system. It is determined that forms and methods of motivation affects the level of labour productivity, satisfaction with working conditions, interaction, and teamwork. It is determined that at industrial enterprises it is expedient to introduce modern forms of motivation of employees, which will affect not only the quality of staff work, increase interest in the results of work, but also the level of profitability, production, and sales volumes. Likewise, it is proved that the introduction of various forms of stimulation of personnel in a complex will ensure the efficiency of work, and stability of the functioning of the enterpriset is found that the use forms and methods of motivation allows to establishment of the process of personnel management and ensures the efficiency of their work. Among the problems of personnel motivation at enterprises are defined as limited amount of financial support, low level of wages, unfavourable psychological climate in the team, limited access to information data, non-use of indirect methods of motivation, and inefficiency of personnel policy. Recommendations for improving the motivation of personnel at enterprises have been formed: conducting training and webinars for employees; advanced training and training in the field of software application; hiring qualified employees; study of the psychological climate in the team to prevent problems and solve them; improvement of the system of formation of premiums; formation of a social package; promoting self-development and teamwork. It is proved that motivation affects labour productivity, personnel management and the functioning of the firm , work results, and formation of competitive advantages. The system of personnel motivation for industrial enterprises has been improved, which consists of a set of elements and stages of formation, approbation, implementation, and improvement, which will contribute to increasing the effectiveness of employees, and the efficiency of enterprises. Keywords: motivation, personnel, productivity, industrial enterprises, efficiency, personnel management, personnel motivation system.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i23.1456
       
  • Application of Virtual Reality in Lithuanian Museums

    • Authors: Jasonas Skopas, Kristina Mejerytė-Narkevičienė
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Research background. In the 21st century, ever-improving technologies and the related improvement of other services have encouraged the modernisation of the processes of all organisations. Museums are no exception (Šimanskienė, Valiušienė, Sloka, 2017). This rapid jump over the past year has been fuelled by the onset and rapid acceleration of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in numerous bans and restrictions. The pandemic has forced humanity to broaden its horizons or even change its interests. The museums started making virtual tours of exhibitions, video stories about works and expositions, or creating newsletters that packed virtual art games, discoveries, and gifts. To attract as many visitors as possible, museums have likewise attempted to improve their inventory but also to implemented never-before-seen virtual reality plans or projects while maintaining the originality characteristic of culture. The tourism sector was particularly affected, as the activities of travel or cultural organisations and companies were restricted or suspended. Only a part of organisations or companies carried out their activities remotely. The research problem. During the pandemic, Lithuanian museums were not ready to present themselves in a digital format, but quickly reoriented themselves. They started making virtual tours showing exhibitions, video stories about works and expositions, or creating newsletters that packed virtual art games, discoveries, and gifts (Tomkevičiūtė, 2020). To attract as many visitors as possible, museums have likewise attempted to improve their inventory but also to implemented never-before-seen virtual reality plans or projects while maintaining the originality characteristic of culture. The offer of museum services still lacks integrated virtual services that would improve the museum’s expositions and increase the number of visitors, so it is essential to find out why the integration of these services is not being expanded so rapidly. The aim of the study is to analyse the integration of virtual reality in the museums of Lithuania. The subject of study is the integration of virtual reality in museums. Methods. To reveal the object of the research - the application of virtual reality in museums, the research was carried out in several stages, choosing research methods such as scientific literature analysis, semi-structured interviews for data collection, and qualitative content for data analysis. Taking into account the selected research strategy, the selection of subjects was guided by the provision that all 5 specialists/experts working directly with service VR “Angelų takais” in the National M.K. Čiurlionis museum departments in Kaunas and Druskininkai will be interviewed. The interview questionnaire consisted of categories: preparation, service evaluation, service impact, and satisfaction. The questions are based on Gutowski and Klos-Adamkiewicz (2020) assessment model. The model consisted of virtual reality content, navigation, interactivity, functionality, additional options, graphics, accessibility for all groups, intuitiveness, multi-language capabilities. The collected data were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. The application of virtual reality has been a major impact on the revival of the cultural sector affected by the pandemic and has given a second life to museums. According to the experts, there was also a great impact on society - those who were not interested in art began to be interested in it in the virtual reality form. The qualitative research showed the possibilities of applying this kind of virtual tour service “Angelų takais” to other offerings at the M.K. Čiurlionis National Museum of Art. Till now this tour doesn’t have an educational function, but it will be integrated soon, the shortcomings and advantages of the service were noted, and the peculiarities were described. The success of this service was influenced by the reputation of the artist himself, whose paintings the museum is named after. Keywords: virtual reality, virtual tour, VR museum, VR service.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i23.1459
       
  • The relationship between emotional intelligence and sports motivation in
           athletes

    • Authors: Ilona Tilindienė
      Pages: 26 - 35
      Abstract: Athletes’ motivation is a dynamic construct that may change due to some factors. For example, the experience of pleasure, enjoyment, competition, and appropriate expectations factors to participate in sports and to achieve high performance (de Franco Tobar, Meurer, & Benedetti, 2013). However, emotional intelligence (EI) also plays a significant role, as athletes experience both positive and negative emotions when faced with achievement, stress, or competitive pressure during sport and competition, which is common in both youth (McCarthy, Allen, & Jones, 2013) and adult sport (Campo et al., 2018). Athletes’ EI may also manifest as an inability to express and manage emotions appropriately (e.g., unbridled anger, aggression, lack of control), particularly in competitive situations itcan negatively affect both athletic performance and withdrawal from sporting activity. Meanwhile, the ability to understand and effectively manage emotions can influence interpersonal relationships within the team better sports performance, and enhance motivation to participate in sports (Ramajayam, 2017). Research purpose – to determine links between athletes’ emotional intelligence and sports motivation. The study involved 245 adult athletes from team sports. Among them were 109 men and 136 women. The mean age of the athletes was 21.8 ± 3.09 years. The following instruments were used in the study emotional intelligence was studied using Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (Schutte et al., 1998). Sport motivation was investigated using The sport motivation scale II (Pelletier et al., 2013). Socio-demographic questions about athletes’ age, gender, and represented sport were also provided. Statistical data processing was used to analyse the results. Results. It was determined that the emotional intelligence of athletes is higher than average. It was found that athletes can be most characterised by integrated motivation and least characterised by motivation. Women are more likely to have higher EI compared to men. Women better than men value the ability to control the emotions of others and perceive them. Men all dimensions of sports motivation were statistically significantly higher than for women, except introjected motivation. It was determined that the overall EI and EI dimensions of the participant were statistically significantly related to internal, identified, and injected motivation. The dimensions of their emotion management and perception of emotion are inversely related to motivation . Keywords: emotional intelligence, sports motivation, athletes.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i23.1460
       
  • Sustainable Development in Leisure Events. Case Study of “Granatos
           Live”

    • Authors: Rasa Užkurytė, Artūras Simanavičius
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Relevance of the research. After assessing the fact that the collected information about the currently declared aspirations of the music festival “Granatos Live” to implement the principles of sustainable development during the festival shows, that the aspirations of sustainable development are not declared either on the official website of the festival or among the organisers themselves, it was decided to conduct a quantitative study, applying the survey method and interviewing the visitors of this festival. This helps to gather information on how the participants themselves perceive the implementation of sustainable development principles during the festival. It is determined that the festival visitors want the implementation of the principles of sustainable development, a more sustainable festival, recommendations, and proposals can be made to the organisers to prepare a plan for the implementation of the principles of sustainable development and consider it when organising festivals in the future. The object of the research is the need for the implementation of the principles of sustainable development from the point of view of the participants of the “Granatos Live” festival. The aim of the research is to determine how the participants of the “Granatos Live” festival evaluate the implementation of the principles of sustainable development during the festival, and what the needs of the participants are related to the principles of sustainable development. The tasks of the research:
      To investigate how the participants of the “Granatos Live” festival perceive the essence and principles of sustainable development.
      To determine the main expectations of the participants, related to the implementation of the principles of sustainable development during the music festival “Granatos Live”
      Submit recommendations and suggestions to the organizers of the music festival “Granatos Live”. Outcomes and conclusions. After examining the expression of festival sustainability indicators at the “Granatos Live” festival, sustainability deficiencies were identified in the following areas of the festival: education of the participants and the festival organization team on the topic of sustainable development; the selection of traders does not focus on fair trade, local regional or organic goods; there are too few actions of the festival organisers to ensure environmental protection because environmental specialists are not consulted; it is not observed what economic benefits the festival creates for the local region, although such calculations are more beneficial for the local region, it shows that there is lack of communication between them; a small cost to keep the festival going. Therefore, it is necessary for the festival organisers to take the actions that the festival participants want from them and to introduce more sustainable development principles during the festival. Keywords: principles of sustainable development, leisure events.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2024-04-18
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i23.1461
       
  • Sustainable Environment Problems Arising from Sports Facilities

    • Authors: Ahmet Atalay, Biruta Švagždienė
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. In recent years, in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the traditional education system, including various non-formal education activities, has faced enormous challenges and problems. This pandemic not only claimed millions of lives, but also affected people's daily lives and lifestyles. Most of the economic sectors in Lithuania also encountered various problems. Education, which traditionally carried out educational activities in physical environments, was not an exception and faced the sudden and strict closure of all institutions. In this situation, the application of technology and digital learning practices became the main solutions that helped to ensure the continuity of education and training, including non-formal ones (González, Bonal, 2021). Unfortunately, this decision had a particularly painful impact on organized sports for children and youth (Reece et. al., 2020). This area, of course, faced an even greater challenge than other, more theoretical, subjects, since sport, being a physical, practical and interactive activity, is not easily and simply transferred to an online environment (Iuliano et al., 2021). The problem. The idea of the problem has been increased by the fact that direct social interaction between the coach and the athlete is considered an essential condition in order to supervise the actions performed by the athletes and to ensure the high-quality implementation of the sports program (Emery & Tyreman, 2009). In the context of the pandemic, researchers began to emphasize the changed organization and execution of sports activities (Ratten, 2020; Escamilla-Fajardo et al., 2020), but there is still a lack of research-based data on the characteristics of these activities. In Lithuania, this topic has so far been little studied in the context of school sports. And although the sports activities implemented in sports schools, as state educational institutions, are regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the orders and instructions of the Ministry of Science, Education, Science and Sports, there is no data in the scientific literature about how informal sports education programs were implemented in them during the COVID-19 pandemic' The purpose of the study: To highlight the challenges of non-formal sports education during the Covid-19 pandemic. Research object: Challenges of informal sports education. The results. Research data revealed that the sports activities organized and carried out in sports schools during the COVID-19 pandemic had certain characteristics associated with the challenges experienced by coaches as providers of non-formal sports education programs and the challenges experienced by schoolchildren participating in sports. During the pandemic, the decrease in the motivation of young athletes to play sports, their inability to fulfill the training conditions and the negative influence of the environment in which they train on sports activities became apparent. The coaches, adapting to the changed conditions, were led to search for additional information, invest their own funds in the training process, understand the peculiarities of conducting training remotely, demonstrate their ingenuity while conducting classes, and constantly raise the motivation of athletes. However, when faced with these obstacles, they did not avoid ignoring the existing rules for the organization of sports activities. Keywords: sustainable environment, sports, nature, problems
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i21.1311
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 21 (2023)
       
  • The Influence of Digital Marketing On the Communication of Football
           Clubs

    • Authors: Aušrinė Šidlauskė, Antanas Ūsas
      Pages: 16 - 24
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. Today, the role of marketing is to satisfy the consumer's curiosity through transparent and valuable content (Sawicki, 2016). More than 4 billion people around the world regularly use online services to find their products, entertainment, friends and even romances, and the behavior of customers and the way companies sell their products to both consumers and businesses has changed a lot (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). As the use of the Internet has grown, so have related activities such as digital marketing. The main difference between traditional and digital marketing is that digital marketing focuses on the customer, offering him a personal message and a response to his request (Ištvanić, Crnjac Milić & Krpić, 2017). Digital marketing is an integral part of the digital business transformation process. It includes new marketing methods based on information and communication technologies. Todor (2015) the study is based on a study by ZenitOptimedia, which shows that internet use has increased significantly over the past five years, while the use of other media has decreased or only slightly increased. The situation is as follows: internet (+105 %.), outdoor advertising (+3%), television (-8%), cinema (-11%), radio (-15%), magazines (-23%), newspapers (-31%).  For this reason, its application in practice is a prerequisite for the successful development of business in modern market conditions (Veleva & Tsvetanova, 2020). The problem. Football fans around the world are increasingly communicating with each other on social networks (Parganas et al., 2017), and football clubs, regardless of their degree of professionalism, include a large number of social media/media platforms for their online campaigns (Helleu, 2017). Bagchi, Sreepada (2020) in the survey conducted, respondents expressed their opinion about the social networks of their favorite football club and why they follow the news of the club in them.  Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, the influence of social networks on football has increased. The clubs tried to give interesting and new content to the fans. Some organized social media quizzes, others made videos with a message that the stadium missed the fans (Szczepkowski, 2021). The aim of the study is to analyze the influence of digital marketing on the communication of football clubs in the case of Lithuania. The subject of the study is the influence of digital marketing on the communication of football clubs. The choice of assessing the influence of electronic marketing on the communication of football clubs was determined by the popularity of the sport in the world, the constantly growing sports market and a large fan base. The quantitative research method chosen for the survey is a questionnaire survey. The quantitative study examined the opinions and behavior of fans of Lithuanian football clubs – consumers – related to the applied online marketing tools. In order to assess the influence of digital marketing on the communication of football clubs, literary analysis and empirical research were chosen. The questionnaire was compiled on the basis of Vale & Fernandes (2018) “Social media and sports: driving fan engagement with football clubs on Facebook” research. To obtain a targeted sample of those who responded in the study, paniotto's sample size formula (Bokor et al., 2011) was used to avoid going beyond the 5 percent error. A total of 451 respondents participated in the survey. Results and conclusion. The largest part of football clubs follow with the help of social networks and even note that they monitor the news on a daily basis thanks to social media platforms. All categories of questions were dominated by the influence of social networks on the communication of the football club. From the results of the study, it is noted that clubs use various strategies, but dominate and fans like social networks the most. Their rating from the presented means was the best. In addition, the respondents were quite unanimous in answering the questions of involvement in the activities of the community - they agree that the activities of the supported football club are important to them. The vast majority of the study participants are happy to get involved in the activities of the communities of clubs and organizations, which give them good emotions, relax them, help them escape from the routine and reduce the feeling of loneliness. The vast majority emphasize that they see basic information about the activities of the clubs there. Also on the Internet buys club products (tickets, merchandise), which also shows that digitalization has progressed in the football world. In conclusion, it can be noted that social networks dominated throughout the study, both on the part of football organizations – communication is developed thanks to this tool and from the part of fans – they recognize it as the most effective tool. Keywords:   digital marketing in football, football club communication, A League
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i21.1314
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 21 (2023)
       
  • The Peculiarities of Physical Literacy Assessment in Primary School
           Students

    • Authors: Audronė Vizbarienė , Arūnas Emeljanovas , Brigita Miežienė
      Pages: 25 - 33
      Abstract: Over the last decade, academics, professionals, and politicians have become increasingly interested in the assessment of children’s and adolescents' physical literacy in physical education. Physical literacy has been measured and quantified as a multidimensional term comprising behavioral, psychological, and physical components. The majority of this research was conducted on children and adolescents in educational settings, emphasizing the importance of this age group in establishing the foundations of physical literacy, which will influence lifetime physical activity, health, and well-being. Since there are no studies in the population of Lithuanian primary school students, evaluating children's physical literacy or the validity and reliability of individual physical literacy assessment instruments, the current overview may be useful in guiding the development of future research in this area in our country. The objective of this study is to review the assessment of physical literacy in primary school children from a theoretical standpoint. Methods: analysis of scientific literature and assessment instruments for physical literacy. Conclusions:
      1. There is no consensus on the assessment of children's physical literacy. Representatives of the idealistic approach suggest using subjective, qualitative, and interpretive methods to monitor a student’s progress on their individual path to physical literacy. Supporters of the pragmatic approach view physical literacy as the result of practical activities that must be measured and assessed using instruments to evaluate fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, motivation, etc. Physical literacy in primary school students could be assessed across four domains: affective, behavioral, cognitive, and physical. The affective part of the assessment tools for elementary school children is indicated by the child's motivation and self-confidence. The behavioral part is reflected by the child's objective physical activity, subjective physical activity, variety and frequency of physical activities, and participation in physical activities in different places and at different times of the year. The cognitive part is shown by the child's knowledge of physical activity and the benefits of taking part in physical activities, as well as by the child's understanding of how to plan and carry out physical activities. The physical part is demonstrated by physical fitness, movement skills, and self-perceived competence. Keywords: physical literacy, primary school students, assessment.
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i21.1313
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 21 (2023)
       
  • Factors Determining the Success of Crisis-Driven Innovation Implementation

    • Authors: Tadas Chochlovas , Edmundas Jasinskas
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: During the Covid-19 pandemic, the simplest economic, economic and social activities were restricted in many countries. The introduction of pandemic restrictions particularly affected sports organisations: it was forbidden to provide sports services, organise mass sports events, and restrictions were applied on group training and any social gatherings. Various organisational, technological, marketing, communication, public relations and other innovations allowed sports organisations to discover new operational opportunities, generate cash flows, and maintain the continuity of sports organisations’ activities in crisis conditions. The success of innovation is determined by certain factors, named as innovation implementation planning, strategic leadership, etc. Therefore, it is relevant to study what factors determine the success of a sports organisation implementing crisis innovations. The purpose of the study is to determine the factors determining the success of the implementation of crisis-driven innovations in sports organisations. Work tasks:
      To examine the theoretical aspects of implementing crisis-driven innovations in sports organisations; 2. To determine what crisis-driven innovations are implemented in the studied sports organisations; 3. To determine what factors led to the success of the implementation of crisis-driven innovations in the studied sports organisations. Research methods: analysis of scientific literature; structured interview; content analysis. Main results. The research results show that during the pandemic, the studied basketball clubs implemented the following crisis-driven innovations: 1. Necessary innovations according to legislation (disinfection innovations, separation of zones, temperature measurement technologies); 2. Marketing innovations (advertising innovations, innovations in the development of social network marketing, e-commerce, including the sale of licensed products); 3. Innovations in remote communication with fans (innovation of match previews on online platforms, "cardboard image" innovation, development of social networks, fans inclusion in the commercialisation of social media, creation of a virtual community of fans, e-sports); 4. Innovations to support the internal work of the club (remote communication within the club using Teams software, online training of basketball players). The most successful crisis-driven innovations were communication within the club and in the office through Teams; content marketing in social networks and its commercialisation, as well as solutions for selling advertising content during pandemics. Conclusion of the work: The success of the implementation of crisis-driven innovations of the basketball clubs studied during the pandemic was determined by the entrepreneurial spirit of the organisation, know-how in the field of innovation, strategic and tactical, quick planning, effective teamwork and having specialists in the organisation, managerial and innovative competence of managers, charismatic and innovative leadership, work with personnel (strengthening microclimate, encouraging the cooperation, psychological support for employees, motivation, openness in communication with employees), sufficient financial and human resources. Keywords: crisis innovation; implementation of innovations; success factors.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i22.1438
       
  • Expression of Leadership in Sports Organizations: Attitude of Managers and
           Employees of Lithuanian Sports Organizations

    • Authors: Skaistė Drupė
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. It is observed that leadership and its expression in various different environments are constantly updated. It is actively researched, empowered by it, learned, and efforts are made to understand how leadership emerges and develops (Damkuvienė et al. 2019). These needs do not bypass the sports sector, whose organizations operate in conditions of complete uncertainty in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In such a context, leadership becomes an important condition for the effective operation and development of a sports organization. The problem under consideration and the level of its research. The phenomenon of leadership has been studied by scientists (Andriani, Kesumawati, and Kristiawan 2018; Budrienė, Vaitiekienė, and Vaitiekus 2019; Damkuvienė et al. 2019; Hartley 2018; Holmes et al. 2021; Kulshreshtha and Sharma 2021; Miles and Scott 2019). The issue of leadership has been examined exclusively in the sports sector (Ajeigbe, Owolabi, and Alasinrin 2021; Hutchens et al. 2020; Macquet and Stanton 2021; Martinez-Moreno, Cavas-Garcia, and Diaz-Suarez 2021; Megheirkouni 2017; Sabaliauskas 2017; Stewart et al. . 2020). Most of the time, research on the expression of leadership chooses to apply quantitative methods, which prevents a deeper experience of both managers of sports organizations and their subordinates in the field of leadership. Therefore, this article aims to refine and present insights based on qualitative research in the field of leadership communication. The goal is to evaluate the expression of leadership in sports organizations after examining the theoretical assumptions of leadership. Tasks: To reveal the theoretical assumptions of expression of leadership in sports organizations; Determine the characteristic and desirable qualities of a leader of a sports organization; To refine the leadership functions in sports organizations; To identify obstacles limiting leadership in sports organizations and to reveal the potential for strengthening leadership. Methods. Results. Quantitatively, the expression of leadership in sports organizations is evaluated in various aspects, but there is a lack of qualitative research in this area. This circumstance prompted the choice of a qualitative strategy for the study of leadership expressions in sports organizations. The qualitative strategy is applied in accordance with the following methodological provisions: social reality is perceived and interpreted individually; each individual actively creates reality based on personal experience; social reality is different for different individuals, but it is shared through interaction with other individuals (Damkuvienė et al., 2019, p. 40). The block of questions for the assessment of leadership expression is formulated according to Winston's (2004) insights about leadership expression. Conclusions. Summarizing the results of the empirical study of the expression of leadership in sports organizations, it can be stated that the ideal leader in a sports organization is usually associated with focus, motivation, connections with sports, and flexibility. In the opinion of most of the representatives of the sports sector, existing leaders are characterized by motivation, flexibility, activity, and sharing of responsibilities. Leaders in sports organizations usually perform functions of planning, task allocation, control and monitoring, and organization, which traditionally fall within the content of the concept of leadership. It has been determined that there is potential for improving leadership in the country's sports organizations. Keywords: leader, transformational leadership, shared leadership, sport, motivation.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i20.1299
       
  • The Body in Christianity on the Basis of the Crisis of the Corporeal in
           Modern Culture

    • Authors: Оlga Dolska, Jakov Tararoyev, Tetyana Dishcant
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. The article is devoted to the meanings and practises of the body in Christian culture and the issue of preserving and continuing this tradition in contemporary culture. Since it is about the semantic contexts of the body, the article uses the phenomenological method in combination with hermeneutic analysis. The authors consistently deploy several logical lines. The first line is related to the description of such a direction as hesychasm, its practises and attitude to the body. At the same time, the ethical potential of hesychasm and the pathos of physicality as an instrument of morality are emphasised. The second line revolves around the practical attitude to the body in modern culture: the preservation of the Christian tradition, the natural characteristics of the body, and understanding the meaning of the body. The third line is connected with the loss of the “sanctity” of the body and the unawareness of this loss on the part of the common citizen and, as a result, the erosion of the ethical and natural meaning of the body. According to the authors, history will show how terrible these changes in meaning can be. The “distortion” of the meaning of the body in modern cultures makes it possible to emphasise the emergence of the phenomenon of unconsciousness of paradoxical events, the enormity of the consequences of which few people still understand. The problem. Today, the events that unfold around the topic of the corporeal directly and indirectly touch on the topic of human relations and, as a result, there is a need to once again talk about the role and significance of the body in the Christian tradition and about the consequences of ignoring the biblical commandments in modern everyday life. The purpose. To clarify the meanings of the corporeal, based on the tradition of hesychasm. Research object. The role and significance of the body in the Christian tradition and about the consequences of ignoring the biblical commandments in modern everyday life. Results. In the article, it was shown that the body and its meaning have a special ethical pathos because its understanding was formed under the enormous influence of Christianity, which laid the foundations for the formation of the context of the general civilisational development of mankind. Modern culture “distorts” the meaning of the body, and the actual material of sports competitions makes it possible to record the phenomenon of unawareness in most people that there is a departure from universal values (this is what is called a crisis of culture). History moves in such a way that sometimes it is impossible to trace the trajectories of its development. And yet, despite the incomprehensible lines of development, does the question of the relationship with the Absolute remain relevant for a man' If the Christian meanings of the body fade into the background of life, then what other religion will be able to promote the ideas of ethics and morality' Keywords. Hesychasm, Christian tradition, meanings of the body, transgender, sports competitions, the pathos of the body, contemporary culture.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i22.1439
       
  • Directions for the Implementation of Innovative Analytical and Statistical
           Technologies as a Tool for Corruption Counteraction

    • Authors: Yuliia Yatsyna , Igor Kudinov
      Pages: 17 - 29
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. The article sets out to explore the potential of innovative analytical and statistical technologies in monitoring, detecting, and counteracting corruption within state systems. The central objective is to clarify key concepts, determine the nature and content of these technologies, and analyse their applications in anti-corruption efforts. The research methodology combines the scrutiny of official documents, legislations, public authority websites, and software providers with a focus on their anti-corruption capabilities. The study reveals that analytical and statistical technologies constitute a specific form of information technology, embodied in functional information systems that fulfil organisational objectives and assist in decision-making processes. They assist primarily in the identification and prediction of probable cases of corruption or fraudulent activities, utilising mathematical methods and advanced analytical algorithms. Key areas where these technologies can significantly contribute include data collection and processing, communication and office processes, general management processes, decision-making processes, and expert systems development. The problem. Corruption remains one of the largest socio-economic issues affecting a country’s development and undermining citizens’ trust in governing structures. Innovative analytical and statistical technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, big data analysis, and others, hold the potential to provide effective monitoring and detection of corrupt schemes. The purpose of this article is to determine the directions for implementing innovative analytical and statistical technologies as a tool for monitoring, detecting and counteracting corruption in the state. Research object: Application of innovative analytical and statistical technologies in the fight against corruption. The results. Innovative analytical and statistical technology is a type of information technology, which is embodied in the form of a functional information system aimed to fulfil organisational objectives and assist in decision-making processes. These technologies are considered essential tools for countering corruption at the state level, primarily by identifying and predicting probable cases. The application of mathematical methods and advanced analytical and statistical algorithms can reveal inconsistencies and potential corruption or fraudulent activities. Counteracting corruption has also benefitted from advancements in information technologies. Currently, efforts to counter corruption focus on digital government services, crowdsourcing platforms, transparency portals, big data, and artificial intelligence. In this context, there are five key areas where analytical and statistical technologies can contribute: data collection and processing, communication and office processes, general management processes, decision-making processes, and the development of expert systems. Keywords: corruption counteraction, artificial intelligence, machine learning, information
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i22.1440
       
  • Assessment of the Guide Course Training Programme and Acquired Competences

    • Authors: Gabrielė Považajevaitė , Regina Navickienė
      Pages: 30 - 38
      Abstract: Relevance. The guide is the organiser and presenter of the excursion process. It is a person who provides tourists with information about the museums, galleries, natural, cultural, scientific exhibitions or other attractions that are visited. The profession of a guide is very important because the professionalism of the guides largely depends on what impression tourists will make about the country or city they visited. Guides must have the necessary talents and knowledge, these competencies are acquired by guides in guide training courses consisting of 9 subjects taught. They apply the competencies acquired in the courses when working with tourists, and practice develops their personal qualities, which, as the guides say, are important. Keywords: guide courses, guide course training program, competencies.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i22.1441
       
  • User Perception of Quality in Sports Websites

    • Authors: Donas Špučys , Antanas Ūsas
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. The 21st century is widely regarded as the age of technology. Nowadays, no one can imagine their life without browsing various websites. As Gonzalez et al. (2015) state, websites are a dominant place for users to obtain information. Many professional sports organisations use their websites to develop relationships with their fans by providing them with news and results (Alonso-Dos-Santos, Moreno, Ríos, & Alguacil, 2017). Sports websites are especially useful for sports enthusiasts, as sports is a very globalised activity and it is physically impossible to be at all desired events. Fans are not only more engaged and interested in their favourite teams but also in their websites, thus performing a kind of news distribution function for the club (Lewis, 2013). The problem. The widespread use of information technology in various felds has made research on the adoption or rejection of these technologies an important factor in every organisation (Mohammadi & Isanejad, 2018). The rapid change and development of websites mean that users’ perception of their quality is also changing. Therefore, it is important to track the constantly changing user expectations and their engagement. A newer and more up-to-date study can help organisations to further improve their websites, thus competing with other organisations in their market. The aim of the study is to investigate user perception of quality in sports websites. The subject of the study is user perception of quality in sports websites. Research methodology. A survey was used to investigate user perception of quality in sports websites. Respondents were given an anonymous online survey. The object of the study was user perception of quality in sports websites. The study was based on the WebQual questionnaire of Gonzalez et al. (2015). The purpose of the study is to investigate user perception of quality in sports websites. The data were collected in February and March 2023. A total of 303 respondents participated in the study. Results and conclusion. A comparison of the distribution of respondents according to which website they would prefer shows that all analysed categories reflect a trend. In all four question categories, the better-rated website was X website and when respondents were asked to choose between these websites, the vast majority (69.31%) would prefer X website, while 30.69% of respondents would choose Y website. This result means that among these competing basketball websites, X website seems to be more attractive and high-quality for most users. The results of the study allowed to understand what quality criteria affect the opinion and choice of sports websites by users. Comparing the results obtained with other previous studies, it was observed that individual categories or subcategories can not only influence the choice of a website but can also interact with each other, thus affecting each other. An analysis of the survey results showed that the accuracy of information, security, website understandability, security and website attractiveness are the main features that positively affect the user and help websites gain a competitive advantage over other websites in the same feld or market. Keywords: sports website, user perception of quality, engagement.
      Keywords: Articles
      PubDate: 2023-12-22
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v2i22.1442
       
 
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