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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2345-0339
Published by Lithuanian Sports University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Sustainable Environment Problems Arising from Sports Facilities

    • Authors: Ahmet Atalay, Biruta Švagždienė
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. In recent years, in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the traditional education system, including various non-formal education activities, has faced enormous challenges and problems. This pandemic not only claimed millions of lives, but also affected people's daily lives and lifestyles. Most of the economic sectors in Lithuania also encountered various problems. Education, which traditionally carried out educational activities in physical environments, was not an exception and faced the sudden and strict closure of all institutions. In this situation, the application of technology and digital learning practices became the main solutions that helped to ensure the continuity of education and training, including non-formal ones (González, Bonal, 2021). Unfortunately, this decision had a particularly painful impact on organized sports for children and youth (Reece et. al., 2020). This area, of course, faced an even greater challenge than other, more theoretical, subjects, since sport, being a physical, practical and interactive activity, is not easily and simply transferred to an online environment (Iuliano et al., 2021). The problem. The idea of the problem has been increased by the fact that direct social interaction between the coach and the athlete is considered an essential condition in order to supervise the actions performed by the athletes and to ensure the high-quality implementation of the sports program (Emery & Tyreman, 2009). In the context of the pandemic, researchers began to emphasize the changed organization and execution of sports activities (Ratten, 2020; Escamilla-Fajardo et al., 2020), but there is still a lack of research-based data on the characteristics of these activities. In Lithuania, this topic has so far been little studied in the context of school sports. And although the sports activities implemented in sports schools, as state educational institutions, are regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the orders and instructions of the Ministry of Science, Education, Science and Sports, there is no data in the scientific literature about how informal sports education programs were implemented in them during the COVID-19 pandemic' The purpose of the study: To highlight the challenges of non-formal sports education during the Covid-19 pandemic. Research object: Challenges of informal sports education. The results. Research data revealed that the sports activities organized and carried out in sports schools during the COVID-19 pandemic had certain characteristics associated with the challenges experienced by coaches as providers of non-formal sports education programs and the challenges experienced by schoolchildren participating in sports. During the pandemic, the decrease in the motivation of young athletes to play sports, their inability to fulfill the training conditions and the negative influence of the environment in which they train on sports activities became apparent. The coaches, adapting to the changed conditions, were led to search for additional information, invest their own funds in the training process, understand the peculiarities of conducting training remotely, demonstrate their ingenuity while conducting classes, and constantly raise the motivation of athletes. However, when faced with these obstacles, they did not avoid ignoring the existing rules for the organization of sports activities. Keywords: sustainable environment, sports, nature, problems
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i21.1311
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 21 (2023)
  • The Influence of Digital Marketing On the Communication of Football

    • Authors: Aušrinė Šidlauskė, Antanas Ūsas
      Pages: 16 - 24
      Abstract: Relevance of the topic. Today, the role of marketing is to satisfy the consumer's curiosity through transparent and valuable content (Sawicki, 2016). More than 4 billion people around the world regularly use online services to find their products, entertainment, friends and even romances, and the behavior of customers and the way companies sell their products to both consumers and businesses has changed a lot (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). As the use of the Internet has grown, so have related activities such as digital marketing. The main difference between traditional and digital marketing is that digital marketing focuses on the customer, offering him a personal message and a response to his request (Ištvanić, Crnjac Milić & Krpić, 2017). Digital marketing is an integral part of the digital business transformation process. It includes new marketing methods based on information and communication technologies. Todor (2015) the study is based on a study by ZenitOptimedia, which shows that internet use has increased significantly over the past five years, while the use of other media has decreased or only slightly increased. The situation is as follows: internet (+105 %.), outdoor advertising (+3%), television (-8%), cinema (-11%), radio (-15%), magazines (-23%), newspapers (-31%).  For this reason, its application in practice is a prerequisite for the successful development of business in modern market conditions (Veleva & Tsvetanova, 2020). The problem. Football fans around the world are increasingly communicating with each other on social networks (Parganas et al., 2017), and football clubs, regardless of their degree of professionalism, include a large number of social media/media platforms for their online campaigns (Helleu, 2017). Bagchi, Sreepada (2020) in the survey conducted, respondents expressed their opinion about the social networks of their favorite football club and why they follow the news of the club in them.  Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, the influence of social networks on football has increased. The clubs tried to give interesting and new content to the fans. Some organized social media quizzes, others made videos with a message that the stadium missed the fans (Szczepkowski, 2021). The aim of the study is to analyze the influence of digital marketing on the communication of football clubs in the case of Lithuania. The subject of the study is the influence of digital marketing on the communication of football clubs. The choice of assessing the influence of electronic marketing on the communication of football clubs was determined by the popularity of the sport in the world, the constantly growing sports market and a large fan base. The quantitative research method chosen for the survey is a questionnaire survey. The quantitative study examined the opinions and behavior of fans of Lithuanian football clubs – consumers – related to the applied online marketing tools. In order to assess the influence of digital marketing on the communication of football clubs, literary analysis and empirical research were chosen. The questionnaire was compiled on the basis of Vale & Fernandes (2018) “Social media and sports: driving fan engagement with football clubs on Facebook” research. To obtain a targeted sample of those who responded in the study, paniotto's sample size formula (Bokor et al., 2011) was used to avoid going beyond the 5 percent error. A total of 451 respondents participated in the survey. Results and conclusion. The largest part of football clubs follow with the help of social networks and even note that they monitor the news on a daily basis thanks to social media platforms. All categories of questions were dominated by the influence of social networks on the communication of the football club. From the results of the study, it is noted that clubs use various strategies, but dominate and fans like social networks the most. Their rating from the presented means was the best. In addition, the respondents were quite unanimous in answering the questions of involvement in the activities of the community - they agree that the activities of the supported football club are important to them. The vast majority of the study participants are happy to get involved in the activities of the communities of clubs and organizations, which give them good emotions, relax them, help them escape from the routine and reduce the feeling of loneliness. The vast majority emphasize that they see basic information about the activities of the clubs there. Also on the Internet buys club products (tickets, merchandise), which also shows that digitalization has progressed in the football world. In conclusion, it can be noted that social networks dominated throughout the study, both on the part of football organizations – communication is developed thanks to this tool and from the part of fans – they recognize it as the most effective tool. Keywords:   digital marketing in football, football club communication, A League
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i21.1314
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 21 (2023)
  • The Peculiarities of Physical Literacy Assessment in Primary School

    • Authors: Audronė Vizbarienė , Arūnas Emeljanovas , Brigita Miežienė
      Pages: 25 - 33
      Abstract: Over the last decade, academics, professionals, and politicians have become increasingly interested in the assessment of children’s and adolescents' physical literacy in physical education. Physical literacy has been measured and quantified as a multidimensional term comprising behavioral, psychological, and physical components. The majority of this research was conducted on children and adolescents in educational settings, emphasizing the importance of this age group in establishing the foundations of physical literacy, which will influence lifetime physical activity, health, and well-being. Since there are no studies in the population of Lithuanian primary school students, evaluating children's physical literacy or the validity and reliability of individual physical literacy assessment instruments, the current overview may be useful in guiding the development of future research in this area in our country. The objective of this study is to review the assessment of physical literacy in primary school children from a theoretical standpoint. Methods: analysis of scientific literature and assessment instruments for physical literacy. Conclusions:
      1. There is no consensus on the assessment of children's physical literacy. Representatives of the idealistic approach suggest using subjective, qualitative, and interpretive methods to monitor a student’s progress on their individual path to physical literacy. Supporters of the pragmatic approach view physical literacy as the result of practical activities that must be measured and assessed using instruments to evaluate fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, motivation, etc. Physical literacy in primary school students could be assessed across four domains: affective, behavioral, cognitive, and physical. The affective part of the assessment tools for elementary school children is indicated by the child's motivation and self-confidence. The behavioral part is reflected by the child's objective physical activity, subjective physical activity, variety and frequency of physical activities, and participation in physical activities in different places and at different times of the year. The cognitive part is shown by the child's knowledge of physical activity and the benefits of taking part in physical activities, as well as by the child's understanding of how to plan and carry out physical activities. The physical part is demonstrated by physical fitness, movement skills, and self-perceived competence. Keywords: physical literacy, primary school students, assessment.
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i21.1313
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 21 (2023)
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