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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Laisvalaikio Tyrimai
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2345-0339
Published by Lithuanian Sports University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Investigation of the factors determining the shadow economy

    • Authors: Jūratė Savickienė, Jurgita Šitkauskienė
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The shadow economy is damaging the whole economy, the overall growth of the "good", it is not reaching state regulation, it is no longer under tax control. It is always very important to find out what factors affect the shadow economy. Then can be pursued reductions in the informal economy in order to reduce poverty, increase economic and social security, and improve revenue collection in the national budget. What is important is that income inequality, the extent of poverty and the wedge between the most vulnerable groups become apparent during various economic downturns or pandemics. Then is needed again new research of the factors influencing the shadow economy. Question arises. In order to find out which factors and causes have the greatest impact, it is necessary to examine the areas in which the shadow economy occurs. The problem of the research is what factors influence the shadow economy. Object of work determinants of the shadow economy. The aim of this article is to find and evaluate the determinants of the shadow economy. To achieve the goal at first is necessary to describe the shadow economy and identify the factors that determine it, then to develop an appropriate method and perform calculations based on it. The methods chosen for the research are analysis of scientific literature, synthesis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, reliability tests. The calculated results allowed to estimate that the annual net earnings and the tax burden have a correlation relationship with the shadow economy. The performed multiple regression analysis showed the suitability of the model and allows to statistically reliably state that the identified independent variables affect the shadow economy. Importantly, the regression equation states that increasing the annual net earnings will not prevent the growth of the shadow economy because direct dependence has been established. It is also important that the chosen model interprets that 79% of the changes in the shadow economy are caused by the change in the annual net earnings and tax burden when other factors are constant. Conclusions: The shadow economy is characterized by such features as undeclared income, avoidance of income, value added, payment of other taxes, circumvention of established rules - minimum wage, maximum working hours. Factors that may affect the shadow economy are highlighted. Excise duty rate on alcohol, excise duty rate on tobacco, corruption perception index, household indebtedness. The research methodology consists of a correlation analysis describing theRelationship between independent variables and a dependent variable (SE) and a multi-regression analysis. Additional studies were used to assess the reliability of the multiple regression model: a multicollinearity test showing whether a relationship exists between the independent variables themselves; heteroskedasty analysis showing whether all assumptions for modeling are satisfied, whether there is no violation of normality, or whether there is a nonlinear relationship between independent variables; autocorrelation test for interdependence of residual errors; Bonferroni standardized residue test and Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Calculations have shown that a statistically significant relationship exists betweenthe independent variables and the size of the shadow economy. Multiple regression analysis and model reliability tests showed that the chosen model is statistically reliable and found that the size of the shadow economy is influenced by the excise rate on alcohol, the rate of excise duty on tobacco, the corruption perception index, and household indebtedness. As the size of the independent variables increases, so does the size of the shadow economy. Key words: shadow economy, tax burden, independent variables.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i19.1226
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 19 (2022)
       
  • Forming the values of the digital sociality and the digital human in the
           conditions of the fourth industrial revolution

    • Authors: Valentina Voronkova, Vitalina Nikitenko, Regina Andriukaitienė
      Pages: 15 - 23
      Abstract: Relevance of the research topic. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that the impact of digitalization on the formation of value orientations in the conditions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is becoming increasingly important, because we live in a digital era, which is determined by algorithms, bits, big data, reformatting the physical world. The purpose of the study is to conceptualize the formation of value orientations in the conditions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, associated with the formation of the concept of a digital society, a digital person, digital culture and their influence on a person, his consciousness, worldview, culture, identity. The digital society is changing not only what we do, but also who we are and should become. The new technological revolution affects what values ​​a person has, how hierarchical structures are built, how human capabilities expand. Research objectives: 1) to reveal the model of thinking for the formation of the Fourth Industrial Revolution; 2) identify the conditions for the formation of the concept of a digital society, digital person, digital culture in the context of theoretical and methodological foundations; 3) justify the application of the methodology - a set of axiological, synergistic, cultural-creative methods necessary for deep penetration into the essence of digital values; 4) identify revolutionary innovations (from biotechnology to artificial intelligence) that redefine what it means to “be human” in the digital era and what are its value orientations. Digital technologies are pushing the modern boundaries of lifespan, health, cognition and potentiality in ways that were previously considered fantastic. Today we have to think about how to respond to new phenomena like the extension of life, "engineered children", the removal of information from human memory, and much more. Research result. A model of thinking is revealed, which is based on certain digital orientations for the formation of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The conditions for the formation of a digital society, a digital person, a digital culture that affect the change in the values ​​of a digital society are identified. The application of the methodology is substantiated - a set of methods of axiological, synergistic, cultural-creative analysis necessary for deep penetration into the essence of the values ​​of the digital society. Revolutionary innovations (from biotechnology to artificial intelligence) have been identified that redefine what it means to “be human” in the digital age. Key words: digital society, digital society values, Fourth Industrial Revolution
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i19.1227
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 19 (2022)
       
  • Development of the digital economy in the conditions of globalization and
           digital society (by the example of China)

    • Authors: Victoria Maryenko
      Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: The relevance of the study of the topic is that the development of the digital economy in the context of globalization and the digital society has received great development. Globalization is the free movement of markets, capitals, people, finances, capitals, technologies, goods, services, information that develops across national borders and is the result of a multi-scale need in many industries, including automotive and aviation, mobile operating systems, retail, web servers. The purpose of the study is to analyze the development of the digital economy in the context of globalization and the digital society (on the example of China). Research objectives: 1) to reveal the directions of development of the digital economy in the context of globalization and digital society; 2) justify the development of the global economy of China as the most powerful world leader; 3) show the expansion of China's regional influence through the development of digital technologies that contribute to the improvement of the digital society and its image. Methodology. The study of the digital society in China is based on Agile methodology and Agile philosophy as a new methodology of the digital economy, representing the methodology of complexity, as well as systemic, informational, institutional methods and approaches, which made it possible to fully represent a country like China and its development prospects . Methods of analysis and synthesis, generalization and systematization, historical and logical and comparative and axiological methods were used. The scientific novelty of the study is that the development of China's digital economy in the context of globalization and digital society is associated with advanced innovative technologies that are just entering the forefront of historical development and show how one can become a competitive state on the world stage. China today is a large digital and industrial state, which is on the path of a market and digital economy, developing digital strategies at all levels. The mania for new economies in anticipation of a new "economic miracle" began with China, which has been growing very fast for two decades, and since 1998 at 8% annually. The lucky number 8 has become the iron law of the Chinese economy. Digital market mechanisms are a powerful microeconomic tool in China. The digital economy is based on learning, gaining the skills needed for greater deregulation, free markets, and a clear focus on short-term income generation. China's economic development was only one part of the "economic miracle", but it is not felt by the entire population of China, most of whom feel insecure. The People's Republic of China has a mixed economy with a three-tier enterprise system, consisting of large government companies, local hybrid and foreign firms, and small businesses. The development of the digital economy in the context of globalization and China's digital society in the face of exponential reality and stochastic uncertainty has shown that technology is making us increasingly interconnected, dependent and vulnerable. The value of the study lies in the development of practical recommendations for improving the digital economy based on knowledge and digital technologies, within which new opportunities for society, business and the state are realized. Key words: digital economy, globalization, digital society.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i19.1228
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 19 (2022)
       
  • Theoretical and methodological aspects of state national security policy

    • Authors: Tatyana Sergienko
      Pages: 33 - 44
      Abstract: Relevance and novelty. The relevance of the study of the topic is that the problem of national security is a problem that seriously worries public and state figures, scientists and ordinary citizens. This is due to traditional threats - war, political instability, natural disasters, as well as the emergence at the beginning of the XX-XXI century of a large number of qualitatively new threats to national security, directly related to the life of the country and the population. All this, in turn, necessitates the search for a new security paradigm in the interests of the survival of all mankind. The processes of globalization have increased the interdependence of nature and society, man and society, which means scientific understanding, comprehensive analysis and development of theoretical views that can adequately reflect in scientific categories the ideas about modern processes on which national security depends. The purpose of the study is to consider the theoretical and methodological aspects of the state policy of national security. Research objectives: to conduct a theoretical and conceptual analysis of the security phenomenon; explore the conceptual and categorical apparatus of national security. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of dialectics, objectivity, historicism, which made it possible to carefully comprehend the object of study, take into account the multidimensionality of problems in the field of security policy, avoid tendentiousness and bias, reveal the evolution of security policy as a complex and controversial political process. The system method was used in the interpretation of security policy as an integral element of the policy of the state and citizen. The historical method made it possible to track the evolution of scientific approaches to understanding the relationship between security and the concept of a welfare state. The dialectical method made it possible to reveal contradictions between the interests of the state in relation to national security and the interests of individuals in ensuring security. The scientific novelty of the results obtained is based on the substantiation of a new approach to understanding security policy and the conceptualization of its features and role in the modern world. The value of the study is based on the study of the features of state policy in the field of national security. Outcomes and conclusions. Having carried out a theoretical and conceptual analysis of the phenomenon of security, we note that security can be considered as the protection of such areas of the individual, family, nation and humanity: objectively spiritual being - spiritual life in their sociality: spiritual values, faith, morality, identity, culture, mentality; material-subject being - the material conditions of existence, provided through the activity of creating the necessary objects, primarily in the labor, economic, household spheres of being; socio-historical being - these are real social and international relations in historical time and in a certain geopolitical space, the preservation, development and transformation of existing states, countries, civilizations; subjective-personal being - and the diversity that occurs only with them, and which thereby differ from the general course of life. What swings national security is the state of protection of the vital interests of the individual, society and the state from internal and external threats, the ability of the state to maintain its sovereignty and territorial integrity and act as a subject of international law. Key words: national security, politics, government, hybrid warfare, geopolitics
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.33607/elt.v1i19.1229
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 19 (2022)
       
 
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