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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2351-6496 - ISSN (Online) 2538-8347
Published by Lithuanian Sports University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Exploring the Preliminary Effects of Resistance Training on Total
           Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Levels in Elderly Individuals: A
           Pilot Study

    • Authors: Skaistė Eidukaitė, Nerijus Masiulis, Mindaugas Kvedaras
      Pages: 4 - 10
      Abstract: Background: Studies have shown that exercise modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and resistance training, in particular, has received increasing attention for its potential to enhance BDNF production. Most studies investigating exercise-induced BDNF changes have focused on free or mature BDNF, while the measurement of total BDNF, encompassing both proBDNF and mature BDNF, may provide a more comprehensive understanding of BDNF regulation. This pilot study aimed to explore the preliminary effects of resistance training on total BDNF levels in elderly individuals participating in a resistance training program. Methods: A small sample of participants (n=6) was recruited and engaged in a structured resistance training program for 12 weeks, with 6 participants in a control group. Total BDNF levels were measured at baseline and post-intervention using reliable laboratory assessments. Additionally, an isokinetic dynamometer was used to determine muscle strength to explore the effect of the resistance training program on muscle performance. Results: The findings revealed a significant increase in total BDNF levels following the 12 week resistance training intervention (p<0.05). However, improvements in physical performance measures, knee extension peak torque and isometric maximal voluntary contraction, were not observed. Conclusion: In conclusion, this pilot study provides preliminary evidence of the positive effects of a 12 week resistance training intervention on total BDNF levels. The measurement of total BDNF levels serves as an important marker in assessing the response to resistance training. Further research with larger sample sizes and longer intervention periods is warranted to further explore the relationship between resistance training and total BDNF levels and to confirm these preliminary findings. Understanding the impact of resistance training on total BDNF levels can have implications for optimizing training programs and potentially improving exercise-related outcomes. Keywords: muscle strength, exercise, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuroplasticity, healthy ageing.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v2i129.1377
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 129 (2023)
       
  • Peculiarities of Emotional Intelligence of Pedagogues and Parents of
           Children in Private and Public Sector Pre-School Education Institutions

    • Authors: Eisvina Burbaitė, Ilona Tilindienė, Saulius Šukys
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Background. A child’s personality is formed at an early age. This is the most favorable time to develop a child's emotional intelligence (EI), which is an important factor for further social, emotional, and cognitive development. Parents and teachers are important actors in a child’s social environment and can have a significant impact on a child's emotional development and behavior. Adults with high emotional intelligence can teach a child empathy, emotional perception, problem-solving, and other skills, as well as help the child learn to manage their emotions, understand and express feelings, and find appropriate ways to control inappropriate behavior or resolve conflicts. High emotional intelligence also correlates with the ability to understand a child's behavior better and choose appropriate educational strategies. In Lithuania, there is a lack of comprehensive research on the expression of EI among pre-school children’s parents and teachers, and differences identified between the public and private pre-school education sectors can be useful in further analyzing factors related to education quality. In this context, we aim to analyze the characteristics of EI among parents and teachers of pre-school children, as well as the differences that occur between representatives of private and public education sectors. Methods. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale, which consists of 33 statements (Schutte et al., 1998). Results. It was determined that the overall EI score of the participants was higher than average. After comparing EI indicators of different education sectors, it was determined that private sector educators have statistically significantly higher EI scores than their public sector counterparts. Parents with children in private sector education institutions had the highest EI level, while educators of the public sector education institutions had the lowest. No emotional intelligence differences based on gender were identified. Conclusions. Educators in the private education sector have higher EI compared to their public sector counterparts. Parents choosing private education sector for their children have the highest EI levels in the entire study population. Keywords: emotional intelligence; teachers; parents; early education; different types of educational institutions.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v2i129.1379
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 129 (2023)
       
  • The Effect of Sports Activities on The Self-Esteem of Socially
           Excluded Men

    • Authors: Oksana Mačėnaitė, Jūratė Požerienė
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract:            Background. Self-esteem is one characteristic of personality, a construct of self-confidence, self-respect, and harmonious interaction with oneself (Breslin, Leavey, 2019). Research devoted to the analysis of men's self-esteem reveals that a positive self-evaluation of men requires an image of a physically active man, which the man could compare with other men who demonstrate physical strength (Conzelmann, Schmidt, 2019). A man's physical self-perception is part of the assessment of a physically healthy and strong person and an aspect that ensures his sociality (Crawford, 2017). Scientific research establishes clear links between a man's physical attractiveness (Anderson-Butcher, 2019), sociability and self-esteem (Anderson, White, 2017). Men who systematically engage in active physical activity are physically healthier and more attractive (Burrmann, 2018). They are also emotionally more stable, their emotional self-control is more focused and their self-confidence is higher (El Ghali, 2018). Aim of the research. To reveal the effect of sports activities on the self-esteem of men experiencing social exclusion. Methods. To determine men's self-esteem changes The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was chosen,  and the Data were processed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science), version 22.0. Results. A study in which men experiencing social exclusion participated in independent and team sports activities for half a year revealed a positive change in their self-esteem. When analyzing the changes in men's self-esteem before and after the activities, the distance between the estimates of the Rosenberg test before the experiment and 6 months after it ended is 1 standard deviation on the z-scale of the standard normal distribution. According to Cohen's concept of effective size, such a difference between standardized means can be considered as large. Despite the relatively small sample (N=30), the test met the very strict condition of statistical reliability (p≤0.001). Conclusion. The study revealed that when socially excluded men were included in sports activities held for half a year, their self-esteem changed from 15 points (low self-esteem) to 25-30 points (high self-esteem). Keywords: social exclusion, self-esteem, sports activities  
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v2i129.1380
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 129 (2023)
       
  • Enhancing Soccer-Specifc Motor Skills Through Visual Training: A
           Quasi-Experimental Study in Young Soccer Players

    • Authors: Evangelos Bekris, Aristotelis Gioldasis, Athanasios Souglis, Emmanouil Zacharakis, Athanasia Smirniotou
      Pages: 28 - 38
      Abstract: In team sports like soccer, the ability to make quick decisions is essential for successful performance. Players
      must perceive and understand the available affordances in their environment to effectively utilize the information
      and make accurate decisions on the feld. Visual exploratory actions play a crucial role in acquiring the necessary
      information, allowing players to anticipate action possibilities and plan their subsequent actions. This study aimed to
      evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative training protocol based on visual exercises in improving soccer-specifc
      motor skills of U12 soccer players. Thirty young male soccer players participated in the study and were randomly
      assigned to one of three groups: Technique Group (T-G), Visual-Technique Group (VT-G), and Control Group (C-G).
      The T-G received technical training, the VT-G received the same training with the addition of visual stimuli, and the
      C-G received regular in-season training. Pre- and post-test measurements were conducted on soccer-specifc motor
      skills. The results showed that the VT-G demonstrated signifcant improvements in motor skills compared to the T-G
      and C-G. These fndings suggest that incorporating targeted visual training into soccer training programs can enhance
      perceptual-cognitive and visual skills, leading to improved agility and overall on-feld performance.
      Keywords: soccer, agility, visual training, youth sports, motor skills.
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v2i129.1381
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 129 (2023)
       
  • The Plight of Athletic Training Graduates in a Third World Country: An
           Obscure and Unregulated Profession in Jamaica

    • Authors: Van Der Rowe
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Background: Sports treatment and rehabilitation in Jamaica appears to be a costly struggle for athletes of all ages, with very few facilities and specialists on the island. However, the introduction of the athletic training (AT) profession can bridge the gap in sports treatment and rehabilitation by creating a solid foundation for athletes, especially at the high school level. After 12 years of establishing the course of study in Jamaica, athletic trainers (ATs) are still not recognized and are unable to practice. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to highlight the aspirations of the athletic training profession in Jamaica. Methods: The study was conducted using an explanatory case study design that used an open-ended survey to collect data from AT graduates. A total of 20 participants were selected using a combined sampling method that utilized purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Google forms were used to create the open-ended questions and a content analysis method that utilized multi-analyst coding was used to establish relevant themes and categories from the responses. Results: The results of the study indicated that graduates are fnding it extremely difcult to get jobs as athletic trainers, due to the lack of awareness, promotion, and ambiguity of AT in Jamaica. Despite the challenges, graduates believed that a national AT association is crucial for seeking licensure and promoting awareness of the profession in Jamaica. Conclusion: If recognized, ATs can signifcantly help to boost sports treatment in Jamaica and contribute to greater sporting performances. Keywords: allied health professionals, athletic trainers, developing profession.
      Keywords: Health, Rehabilitation and Adapted Physical Activity
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v1i128.1334
       
  • A Qualitative Investigation of Athletes’ Views on Clean Sport

    • Authors: Beatričė Hoppen, Saulius Šukys
      Pages: 4 - 10
      Abstract: Background. Doping is a real problem in sport and continues to be one of the most controversial topics, despite significant advancements in doping prevention. Lack of knowledge of the anti-doping regulations is one of the risk factors for doping. Currently, anti-doping education is focused on clean sport promotion. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the views on clean sport and doping prevention among athletes from various sports. Methods. A qualitative approach was used to examine athletes’ views on clean sport. Following a purposeful sampling technique, we interviewed eight men and one woman (Mage = 24.00, SD = 2.73 years) who were competing in various sports at the national level or above in Lithuania. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results. Analysis of interview data allowed to distinguish the following three broad themes related to athletes’ views on doping education and recommendations for improving it. The research participants shared their thoughts about the concept of clean sport, possible reasons that may encourage athletes to compete in sport clean, and discussed clean sport education. Conclusion. Clean sport can be understood as cheating-free sport. Possible reasons to compete clean in sport are unwillingness to experience shame and fear of damaging health. Athletes believe that current doping prevention is ineffective. Our findings show the importance of clean sport education for young athletes, however, adult education about clean sport could be more difficult. Keywords: doping, clean sport, anti-doping education.
      Keywords: Social Sciences in Sport
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v3i130.1402
       
  • Professional Experiences, Leadership Growth, and Progression Approaches
           Adopted by Women Working Within Professional Sports Organisations in
           Ghanaanisations in Ghana

    • Authors: Abena Adasa Nkrumah, Daniel Apaak, Stephen Kyenkyehene Addae
      Pages: 11 - 24
      Abstract: The study explored experiences, leadership growth, and progression approaches adopted by women working within higher professional sports leadership organisations in Ghana. An interpretive research paradigm was adopted. The data was collected using interview guides and analysed with the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The study revealed interest in a particular sport propelled women in sports leadership positions to select sports-related careers and accumulate the best knowledge and experience that placed them in such advantageous positions to make meaningful contributions to sports in Ghana. The study established that women with clear-cut career advancement pathways have it easy when it comes to assuming leadership positions. It was recommended that qualitative and quantitative examinations be made to understand the differences in the experiences of males in similar sporting positions. Keywords: leadership, progression, approach, professional sports, leadership.
      Keywords: Social Sciences in Sport
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v3i130.1416
       
  • Research on the Carbon Footprint Caused by Micro-Level Sports Facilities:
           Carbon Footprint of Ardahan University Sports Facilities in Turkey

    • Authors: Ahmet Atalay
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to calculate the carbon footprint of 2 sports complexes located at the Ardahan University Campus in Turkey. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculation methodology (Tier 1 method) was used for the analysis of the data obtained. As research data, the electricity and natural gas consumption amounts used in 2021 in 2 sports complexes located in Ardahan University Campus were used. The research was limited to Ardahan University due to insufficient data and pandemic conditions. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, the carbon footprint of 2 sports complexes for 2021 was calculated as 7,621,285.5 tons. According to the calculations, 98.4% of the carbon footprint of the sports complexes on the university campus is due to natural gas consumption. This situation can be attributed to the need for natural gas from an intense heating source due to the long and harsh winter seasons due to the geographical location of the province of Ardahan. As a result, it can be said that in order to reduce the carbon footprint of sports facilities, it is necessary to turn to renewable energy sources, to use materials suitable for recycling in the construction of the facilities and to control waste generation.
      Keywords: environmental sustainability, carbon footprint, sports, sports facilities, sustainable
      development.
      Keywords: Social Sciences in Sport
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v1i128.1338
       
  • Doping in Teams: A Simple Decision Theoretic Model

    • Authors: Alexander Dilger
      Pages: 21 - 24
      Abstract: Background. There are many examinations of doping in individual sports but less so in team sports. Methods. A simple decision theoretic model is constructed and analysed for the doping incentives and decisions of team member in professional sports. Results. Depending on the detection probability and the punishment of dopers, team sports members do not dope at all, at a medium or at the maximal level. The whole team has a higher incentive than an individual team member that at least some of its members dope. Conclusion. The doping incentives are different in team sports compared to individual sports. That there are less proven cases of doping in team sports could be because doping is less effective or because the incentives to cover it are higher than in individual sports. Keywords: decision, doping, incentive, sport, team.
      Keywords: Social Sciences in Sport
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v1i128.1339
       
  • Understanding the Determinants of Suicidal Behaviours Among People in
           Southwest Nigeria

    • Authors: Segun Lakin Oderinde, Temitope Adejoke Oderinde
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Suicide is a prominent cause of mortality worldwide, and it is happening at an alarming rate in Nigeria, especially among young people. It is estimated that 800,000 individuals commit suicide each year. Previous research has found a number of factors, such as mental illness, financial hardships, marital issues, and social pressures that lead to suicidal behaviour. The causes of suicidal behaviour in Southwest Nigeria, however, have received little attention. In this study, the causes of suicidal behaviour among people in southwest Nigeria are examined. The study uses a qualitative methodology and gathers its data from secondary sources such as academic journals, books, newspapers, theses, and dissertations. The data demonstrate that major risk factors for suicide behaviour in Southwest Nigeria included sadness, anxiety, and hopelessness. Significant factors in suicide behaviour included social pressure, relationship issues, and financial hardships. The report also emphasises the role that stigma around mental health conditions and a lack of access to quality medical care play in escalating suicidal conduct. In order to encourage economic growth and development, the article advises the supply of mental health resources, the development of awareness campaigns, the construction of psychological and emotional support groups, overcoming financial obstacles, and collaboration with private organisations. The prevalence of suicidal conduct in Southwest Nigeria would decrease with the use of these approaches. Keywords: suicide, mental health disorders, physical illness, poverty, relationship issues.
      Keywords: Social Sciences in Sport
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v3i130.1417
       
  • ChatGPT is a Breakthrough in Science and Education but Fails a Test in
           Sports and Exercise Psychology

    • Authors: Attila Szabo
      Pages: 25 - 40
      Abstract: Released less than fve months ago, ChatGPT became the center of attention of scholars worldwide. This artifcial intelligence (AI) language model has over 100 million subscribers worldwide, generating many discussions concerning its accuracy, advantages, and threats to science and education. Its accuracy in law, linguistics, mathematics, and medicine has already been evaluated. Most results suggest that ChatGPT could generate a passing grade in these domains. However, its performance in sports science and psychology has yet to be tested. The large amount of information in this general area may yield more accurate performance. Still, specifc subjects in the feld, with controversial research fndings, can lead to signifcant errors, which teachers and researchers could quickly spot. In this study, ChatGPT was tested on its accuracy on exercise addiction, a sports science and psychology subject associated with more than 1,000 publications. ChatGPT gave several correct answers to 20 questions but failed the test with 45%. Its performance was like in other already tested subjects. However, when prompted to write a general introductory editorial on AI’s role in sports, ChatGPT performed well. Plagiarism detectors could not identify the AI-originated text, but AI detectors did. Therefore, it can be concluded that the system does a relatively good job on general issues but needs further development in more specifc areas. Students and scholars cannot rely on ChatGPT to do their job. Still, future versions could yield dilemmas of originality since the system does not provide information for its source(s) of information. Keywords: artifcial intelligence; computers, information; language model; plagiarism.
      Keywords: Social Sciences in Sport
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v1i128.1341
       
  • Volleyball Players Pre-Competitive Anxiety: Sex-Based Differences and
           Relationship with Sport Characteristics

    • Authors: Sintija Šadrincevaitė, Aušra Griciūtė
      Pages: 32 - 44
      Abstract: Background. The issue of pre-competition anxiety is multidimensional and there is still a lack of complex studies in multiple sports as well as in volleyball analysing the relationships of pre-competitive anxiety with multiple correlates. Methods. The research participants were male and female volleyball players from fore Lithuanian teams. The questionnaires were completed by 37 athletes (51.4% females) aged between 20 and 41 years (median age 23.0 years). Questions about Competitive State Anxiety (CSAI-2), socio-demographic and sport characteristics were answered 40 minutes before the pre-competition warm-up. Results. The level of female and male pre-competition anxiety components was similar (p > 0.05). Direct associations were found between cognitive and somatic anxiety in both sex groups (p < 0.001). In the female group, cognitive anxiety was higher compared to somatic anxiety (p < 0.05). In the male subgroup cognitive anxiety was directly associated with age (p < 0.05). Relationships with sport characteristics (N=37): the level of cognitive anxiety was directly related to the number of years of playing volleyball (p < 0.05); volleyball players who reported having sufficient knowledge to manage competitive anxiety had lower levels of cognitive anxiety (p < 0.05), and lower self-confidence (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The research data may help to better understand the manifestation of volleyball players’ pre-competitive anxiety in sex groups and the relationship with sport characteristics. On the basis of this data, specialists will be able to formulate and test hypotheses of further research as well as select areas of preventive and educational work. Keywords: volleyball, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-confidence, gender groups, sport characteristics.
      Keywords: Social Sciences in Sport
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.33607/bjshs.v3i130.1419
       
 
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