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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Journal of Athlete Development and Experience
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2642-9276
Published by Bowling Green State University Homepage  [5 journals]
  • The Career Transitions of High-Profile Student-Athletes: Identity, Role
           Engulfment, and Psychological Well-Being

    • Authors: Claire C. Zvosec et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to build upon previous literature on the stages of career preparation of college student-athletes by examining identity, role engulfment, and psychological well-being as it relates to preparation for ‘post-playing days’ life. More specifically, the authors endeavored to examine the relationship between role engulfment and psychological well-being and how it affects post-athletic career transitions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 former Division I college football student-athletes who were previously student-athletes at 14 different Division I institutions. Utilizing identity, role engulfment, and psychological well-being as conceptual frameworks, this study discusses the how and why behind the experiences of high-profile student-athletes as they transition from athlete to their post-playing careers.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2023 06:11:06 PDT
  • Perceived Effectiveness of Study Skills Training for Division III College
           Athletes: A Pilot Program

    • Authors: Jill W. Lassiter et al.
      Abstract: College athletes experience high levels of stress and academics is one of the primary causes. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a study skills training workshop designed around the theory of Multiple Intelligences. The pilot-workshop was developed with minimal resources, tailored to college athletes, and focused on helping them adopt personally meaningful active study strategies. An inductive, naturalistic evaluation approach was used to analyze the qualitative responses of 55 athletes who participated in the workshop. Findings showed that those who adopted active study strategies experienced benefits in the areas of decreased stress, perceived effectiveness, perceived efficiency, greater variety of options for how to study, and academic benefits. While benefits to active studying far outnumbered barriers, participants did identify some challenges including time, lack of applicability to all classes, and the challenge of learning something new. The results of this study provide support for utilizing individualized study skills training that empowers students to capitalize on their personal learning strengths. Such programs can be built into the academic support structures delivered by academic advisors and learning specialists, with potential benefits in the areas of both mental health and skill development to support academic success.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2023 06:10:59 PDT
  • “You need to allow yourself to grieve that loss and that identity.”
           College Athletes’ Transition to Life After College Sport.”

    • Authors: Clare Manthey et al.
      Abstract: Only a small percentage of collegiate athletes compete at the professional level of sport after they graduate, leaving most athletes to transition out of a life involved in sport. Research reviewing life after competitive sport for college athletes and the consequences associated with such a transition is plentiful, however, additional research also argues that life transition research is necessary to maximize the understanding of such a phenomenon. A case study approach used Schlossberg’s Theory of Transition (2011) to research recently retired collegiate college athletes and their time transitioning away from competitive college sports. Several themes emerged from the qualitative results including, the stress of transition, athletics unites hardworking individuals, freedom after college, physical change, college athlete identity, and a sense of loss in transition. The current study reviewed results to offer new insights into retired college athlete transition as well as how athletic departments and coaches can better prepare their athletes for this transition. Based on the research, those that prepare for such a transition should consider a grieving process as a part of the transition.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2023 06:10:54 PDT
  • The Production of Docility in Professional Ice Hockey

    • Authors: Andre Michael Andrijiw et al.
      Abstract: The social relations and practices that imbue the sport of ice hockey have prompted several limiting and problematic outcomes for athletes. Concerned by such outcomes, and informed by the anatomo-politics of French poststructuralist philosopher Michel Foucault (1991), an examination into the relations of power that govern North American professional ice hockey was undertaken. The examination revealed that athletes were routinely subject to disciplinary power and a commonplace set of practices that closely resemble Foucault’s (1991) ‘means of correct training’: managers, in partnership with coaches under their remit, choreographed and engaged in constant supervision (e.g., scouting and monitoring), organized highly ritualized examinations (e.g., combines, training camps), rewarded conformity (e.g., contractual benefits), and punished deviance (e.g., inter- and intra-team reassignments). These practices were additionally undergirded by clearly identifiable panoptic arrangements that stretched across the athletic lifespan. Ultimately, the observed workings of disciplinary power served not the development of a whole individual, but rather the production of docility.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2023 06:10:47 PDT
  • Female Adolescent Athletes’ Experiences of Body Dissatisfaction Across
           Individual and Team Sports

    • Authors: Alicia Deogracias-Schleich et al.
      Abstract: There is an abundance of research explaining the physical and psychological benefits of sport and exercise. Some research suggests sport and exercise may act as a protective factor against body dissatisfaction for adolescent females (Fernández-Bustos et al., 2019; Soulliard et al. 2019). However, it is unclear if adolescent females’ experiences in specific sport settings contribute to perceptions about their bodies. Therefore, this study investigated body perception and its sociocultural influences in adolescent females in team sports versus adolescent females in individual sports. Three focus groups of team sport athletes and two focus groups of individual sport athletes, ages 14-16 years, were conducted. The following four core themes were identified around influences and messaging in sport related to the athletes’ bodies: relationships among teammates and coaches, self-concept, functionality, and social influence. Based on these themes, the findings indicate adolescent female athletes may view sport as a helpful tool to reduce or counteract body dissatisfaction, particularly in team sport athletes. However, sport may not entirely reduce the negative impact from normative and potentially harmful messages surrounding body weight and image, both of which are pervasive in society, the media, and relationships with influential individuals, such as friends, family, and coaches.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Nov 2022 05:25:57 PST
  • Utilization and Impact of Career Services Among Collegiate Athletes

    • Authors: Evan A. Davis et al.
      Abstract: Career readiness is a concern within the American educational system, particularly among student-athletes that must manage intense time commitments both on and off the field. Student services have emerged in higher education to support career preparation, but the utilization and impact of these services for collegiate athletes is largely unknown. The systems-theory framework (STF) of career development identifies a multitude of internal and external factors that influence individual career development. Guided by STF, the purpose of this study was to predict the factors that influence collegiate athletes' utilization of career services and resulting perceived career skills. An online questionnaire was distributed to collegiate athletes at a Division I university, resulting in 143 collegiate athletes completing the questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated collegiate athletes’ familiarity with career services significantly predicted their utilization of career services. In turn, utilization of only four of nine career services investigated (i.e., Careers Online, Career Fairs, Career Workshops, and Athletic Academic Advisor) significantly predicted perceived career skills positively. Implications for the design and marketing of career services for collegiate athletes are discussed.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Nov 2022 05:25:47 PST
  • Psychological Experiences During Previous High School Sport Participation
           Predict College Students’ Current Psychological Health

    • Authors: Jonathan D. DeFreese et al.
      Abstract: Adolescent sport participation has been positively associated with psychological health outcomes. Yet, further research is needed to explore how psychosocial health benefits from sport may be maximized or minimized based on one’s psychological experiences during previous sport participation. The present study examined associations among retrospective psychological experiences of high school sport participation and markers of current college students’ psychosocial health. American college students (N = 300) self-reported retrospective high school sport experiences (i.e., burnout, engagement, and stress) and current psychosocial health outcomes (i.e., social support, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction) via an online interface. Moderated multiple regression analyses showed high school sport burnout, stress, and engagement to predict significant variance in college social support (p < .05), anxiety (p < .01), depressive symptoms (p < .01), and life satisfaction (p < .01). Results provide evidence that retrospective accounts of high school sport participation experiences (i.e., low burnout, low stress, and positive engagement) were associated with more adaptive post-high school psychosocial outcomes in college. This information may guide future prospective studies and aid practitioners by proving a broader understanding of psychosocial outcomes of sport participation.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Nov 2022 05:25:41 PST
  • Organizational Support Factors for Minor League Baseball Player

    • Authors: Christopher M. McLeod et al.
      Abstract: This study examines organizational support in the context of minor league baseball to better understand how organizations can support athletes’ development. Exploratory results show that English and Spanish players identify salary/pay, off-season training opportunities, and nutritious food as their most important unmet development needs. English and Spanish respondents differently prioritized playing opportunities, communication with front office staff, health care, and equipment as unmet needs. Explanatory results show that organizational support factors (private problem support and second career support) explain 17% of the variation in minor league baseball players’ self-perceptions of development. The results provide guidance for Major League Baseball and its affiliates as they restructure the development system and for non-profits seeking to help players. Better pay and other financial support appear to be the most critical unmet needs where organizations can better support athletes.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Nov 2022 05:25:34 PST
  • A Primer on the Income Tax Consequences of the NCAA’s Name, Image and
           Likeness (NIL) Earnings for College Athletes

    • Authors: Marena M. Messina et al.
      Abstract: NCAA domestic college athletes can now financially benefit from their name, image, and likeness (NIL). The purpose of this article is to “educate” athletes on the new NIL rules in financial literacy. With new NIL income flowing to athletes, federal income tax consequences of these transactions must be addressed. This article results in a detailed introduction to the applicable federal tax rules regarding NIL income for athletes to stay in compliance with those laws. From understanding NIL income, to how the tax formula works, what tax forms apply, and what taxes may be due, this article provides a comprehensive toolkit for athletes who will be financially benefitting from NIL. Athletes must learn to understand the tax rules associated with the income from the NIL. In general, most athletes earning equal to or less than $12,550 in NIL income should have no federal income tax due. However, athletes likely must fill out tax returns, and as self-employed taxpayers, may owe self-employment taxes. Most athletes have spent many hours weekly and yearly mastering the sport and more than likely not as much time holding jobs. As such, there is a lack of basic understanding of the United States’ income tax system.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:01:15 PDT
  • High Performance Judoka’s Views On Their Athlete Journey And The
           Need For Athlete Education

    • Authors: Katrina McDonald et al.
      Abstract: High-performance sport has been the subject of controversy and scandal, coming under heavy scrutiny within the broad issue of “Duty of Care” in terms of the welfare and holistic development of athletes. The United Kingdom has many different schemes and mechanisms that are available to athletes to support them in their development on their athlete journey. However, there is a lack of research exploring whether these schemes and mechanisms fulfill athlete needs and facilitate athlete development. Utilizing Charmaz’s constructivist grounded theory method, twelve full-time, high-performance Judoka (Judo athletes) were intensively interviewed, exploring the experience of their journey as an athlete. Three emergent categories: Development, Support and Environment revealed distinct areas the athletes experienced on their journeys. The three categories interlink and have the topic of athlete education and athlete learning interwoven among them. A pertinent finding was the lack of structured education that athletes received on their own development. Further research is needed to clearly understand what athletes need in this area to ensure that their wellbeing and welfare is at the forefront of athlete development and not just medal success.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:01:07 PDT
  • A Survey of the Mental Health of UK Olympic and Paralympic Sport Athletes.

    • Authors: Sandra D. Leyland Dr et al.
      Abstract: This study examined the prevalence of psychological distress and well-being amongst elite athletes in the UK.An online survey was emailed to 753 athletes within the English Institute of Sport. Response rate 52.3%. 371 participants (median age 25) completed measures of psychological distress and subjective well-being alongside demographics and sport-related variables.High or very high psychological distress was reported by 23.7%. Poor subjective well-being was reported by 18.8%. Of those reporting psychological distress, 9% also reported good subjective well-being. The odds of psychological distress and poor well-being increased if the athlete was female (OR 2.03, distress; OR 2.00, poor well-being), currently injured or ill (OR 1.87; OR 1.93) or planning to retire (OR 4.74; OR 8.10). Likelihood of poor well-being increased if a non-podium athlete (OR 0.98). Paralympic sport athletes reported greater psychological distress than Olympic sport athletes (p = .040). Winter sport athletes reported higher psychological distress than summer sport athletes (p = .044). Overall mean score (17.9, SD 6.5) was indicative of a moderate level of psychological distress.Mental health support plans should include regular athlete screening of both psychological distress and subjective well-being.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:00:57 PDT
  • "Do You Really See Us'":Black College Athlete Perceptions of Inclusion at
           DI Historically White Institutions

    • Authors: Shannon Jolly et al.
      Abstract: While recent sport research has highlighted benefits of racial diversity on teams and in the workplace, few studies have examined how demographic composition is perceived by college athletes. Fewer have investigated how racially marginalized athletes experience the phenomena. Thus, the current study explores the intersection of race, gender, and athletic identity in Black college athletes at DI Historically White Institutions (HWIs), perceptions of inclusion, and its influence on sense of belonging. Employing critical race theory, two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews that incorporated vignettes were conducted with six current Black athletes at DI HWIs in the Southeastern U.S. Findings revealed five emergent themes: (a) overcompensation for racial marginalization, (b) gendered racism, (c) commitment to social justice activism and allyship, (d) athletes bubble on campus, and (e) invisibility of holistic identity. This research highlights the nuanced experiences of Black college athletes at HWIs and provides implications for coaches, administrators, and faculty to foster a true inclusive environment.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:00:52 PDT
  • College Athletes’ Views on Academics: A Qualitative Assessment of
           Perceptions of Academic Success

    • Authors: Amanda M. Brouwer et al.
      Abstract: The primary purpose of the current study was to give “voice” to college athletes regarding their views on academics. Given their perspectives, means of promoting their academic achievement were suggested. Research describing athletes’ experiences and the impact of socio-emotional stressors on academic success, especially for those not at a Division I school, is needed. Therefore, a qualitative study exploring the academic experiences of college athletes was conducted. Twelve focus groups of college athletes (N = 62) from six teams were held. Results revealed that college athletes are motivated to achieve by external factors and see grades as an external evaluation of performance. Athletes communicate with one another about grades, but this is generally limited to specific assignments rather than semester-long evaluations. Reaching out to academic support staff early in one’s career was reported as helpful, and academic performance could be improved with better communication with professors and more time management skills. The findings provide tools to develop more effective and tailored support programs for college athletes.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:00:43 PDT
  • Is Same-Gender Mentorship Important for Division III Female College
           Athletes': An Application of the Mentor Role Theory

    • Authors: Nicholas Swim et al.
      Abstract: In the last twenty years, opportunities for women in intercollegiate athletics have grown exponentially. Unfortunately, women still represent a small number of head coaches in intercollegiate athletics, creating a disparity in numbers between female college athletes and female head coaches. This disparity has led to an imbalance for female college athletes searching for female role models and mentors. This study investigated the mentoring experiences of NCAA Division III female college athletes based on their lived experiences with both male and female head coaches. Using Mentor Role Theory (MRT), a set of qualitative responses were collected and analyzed. The participants highlighted career and psychosocial functions of MRT, with responses emphasizing positive and negative experiences with their past and present head coaches. Overall, female college athletes noted the importance of both career and psychosocial functions in their experiences with both male and female coaches. However, the college athletes’ experiences with their female head coaches were predominately positive, whereas, the participants were found to hold mixed experiences (both positive and negative) with their male coaches. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for Division III athletics, mentor role theory, and the importance of the coach/athlete relationship.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:06:14 PDT
  • “It’s just a lot they are asking from us”: College Athlete
           Experiences of Division III to Division II Reclassification

    • Authors: Alexandra R. Mitchell et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of college athletes who were directly impacted by their institution’s pursuit of gaining membership to a different NCAA division (i.e., divisional reclassification). More specifically, this study sought to understand specific changes that accompany the Division III to Division II transition, which include: 1) divisional philosophy, 2) financial aid, 3) level of competition, 4) athletically related activities, and 5) academic standards. Conceptually, this study was guided by the stress appraisal and coping process. The Brief COPE inventory of coping responses was applied as a framework from which to understand how college athletes coped with the financial, athletic, and academic changes to the college athlete experience. Research participants were Division III college athletes who reclassified with their athletic program to become Division II college athletes, and who participated in semi-structured interviews that allowed for rich descriptions of their experiences through the reclassification process to be captured. Findings suggest that reclassification was a relative stressor meaning that the process was perceived as stressful by some but not all the reclassifying college athletes interviewed. In coping with the relative stresses, college athletes demonstrated a greater tendency to engage in emotion-focused coping, which included the venting of emotional distress. More specialist support services are proposed to encourage more problem-focused coping responses among affected college athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:06:08 PDT
  • Athlete Identity and Mental Health Among NCAA Division III

    • Authors: Sarah Stokowski et al.
      Abstract: Student-athletes often identify with the athlete role and demonstrate high levels of athlete identity. High athlete identity leads to many unintended consequences such as low career maturity and difficulty adapting to a life beyond sport. Additionally, high athlete identity often leads to mental health concerns among the student-athlete population. Informed by self-categorization theory (Turner, 1982), the purpose of this study was to explore athlete identity and mental health among NCAA Division III student-athletes. The Athlete Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 were completed by 332 NCAA Division III student-athletes. The results demonstrated that Division III student-athletes did not identify highly with the athletic role and did not show concerning levels of anxiety, depression, and/or stress. Further, no relationship between athlete identity and mental health was found. This study strives to provide a keen insight into the athlete identity and mental health of Division III student-athletes in hopes of better understanding this population.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:06:00 PDT
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in NCAA Division III
           Collegiate Athletes

    • Authors: Sayre Wilson et al.
      Abstract: Mental health disorders are important health concerns among collegiate athletes. Estimations of elevated depressive symptoms in this population range from 1.1-26%. However, these data are derived mostly from NCAA Division I institutions or professional athletes. Evidence from lower divisions (e.g., NCAA Division III) is currently sparse in the literature. Hence, the primary purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in NCAA Division III collegiate athletes. The secondary purpose was to examine which mental health indicators predict depressive symptoms. In total, 186 participants completed several mental health scales (e.g., PHQ-9, DASS-21). The results revealed a prevalence of 16.2% of elevated depressive symptoms. A multiple regression predicted 46.1% of the variance of depressive symptoms. Significant predictors were stress, anxiety, devaluation, and emotional exhaustion. While NCAA Division III collegiate athletes may face lower athletic expectations, the prevalence of mental health concerns is similar to those observed in Division I collegiate athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:52 PDT
  • Mental Health Prevalence in NCAA Division III Collegiate Athletes

    • Authors: Katelin Valster et al.
      Abstract: Stressors related to academic requisites, sport participation and pressure to perform may increase college athlete risk for mental health symptoms (Cox, Ross-Stewart, & Foltz, 2017; Sudano & Miles, 2017; Yang et al., 2007). The purpose of this study was to identify the level of clinically relevant self-reported mental health symptoms in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III athletes and variations based on sport participation (i.e., men’s or women’s athletics; team or individual sports) over a two-year period. A nonexperimental, trend study design was used. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi square test, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) which used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for follow-up procedures. A MANOVA revealed a significant interaction of gender and sport type for general symptoms [F(1, 564) = 9.583, p = .002] and depression [F(1, 564) = 6.945, p = .009] but not anxiety [F(1, 564) = 3.332, p = .068, ƞ2 = .006]. The project was able to describe mental health symptoms in a population that is not often included in the literature. Knowledge of collegiate athlete mental health prevalence is important because prevention and early intervention is a key component of community-based health programming.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:44 PDT
  • “I Might as Well Get My Education”: The Experiences of Black Male
           Division III College Athletes

    • Authors: Lisa M. Rubin et al.
      Abstract: Division III college athletes have been largely ignored in the growing literature involving college sport. Given that the majority of college athletes that participate in high profile sports are athletes of color, there is a need to explore the experiences of this population, specifically at the Division III level. Informed by the Excellence Beyond Athletics (EBA) framework, which empowers students of color, especially Black male athletes, the purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of Black male athletes at two rural Division III institutions. Ten Black male Division III athletes took part in semi-structured interviews. Using inductive analysis and descriptive coding, six final themes were established: College Choice/Financial Issues, Academics, Time Management, Athletic Identity/Culture, Commitment to Athletics, and Campus Climate/Black Experience. This study strives to better understand the experiences of Black male college athletes at the Division III level in hopes of enhancing the student experience through impactful programming.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:38 PDT
  • Collaborative Initiative to Improve DIII Student-Athlete Well-Being

    • Authors: Bonni C. Hodges Ph.D
      Abstract: The professional literature contains little focused specifically on NCAA DIII. NCAA Goals data provide an overview of common characteristics and challenges of DIII student-athletes. However, the large number and variety of DIII member institutions merit DIII athletic programs assessing the needs and well-being challenges of its particular student-athletes and to create and tailor programs and interventions to support student-athlete well-being. A needs assessment of student-athlete well-being issues was carried out at an institution with a large DIII program. Part one, reported here, used focus groups of student-athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and athletics administrators. Results suggested well-being challenges at this institution were largely associated with poor diet, stress, lack of adequate sleep, and alcohol use. Fear of missing out, lack of and poor coping skills, poor interpersonal communication, lack of self-advocacy skills, and lack of other “adulting” skills made it difficult to manage and balance their lives. Lack of balance along with lack of resilience emerged as main contributors to the behaviors and environments creating well-being challenges for the SAs. Part two should further document and validate factors impacting student-athlete well-being through a survey of all student-athletes. This needs assessment can serve as a model for others.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:34 PDT
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