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Journal of Athlete Development and Experience
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2642-9276
Published by Bowling Green State University Homepage  [5 journals]
  • A Primer on the Income Tax Consequences of the NCAA’s Name, Image and
           Likeness (NIL) Earnings for College Athletes

    • Authors: Marena M. Messina et al.
      Abstract: NCAA domestic college athletes can now financially benefit from their name, image, and likeness (NIL). The purpose of this article is to “educate” athletes on the new NIL rules in financial literacy. With new NIL income flowing to athletes, federal income tax consequences of these transactions must be addressed. This article results in a detailed introduction to the applicable federal tax rules regarding NIL income for athletes to stay in compliance with those laws. From understanding NIL income, to how the tax formula works, what tax forms apply, and what taxes may be due, this article provides a comprehensive toolkit for athletes who will be financially benefitting from NIL. Athletes must learn to understand the tax rules associated with the income from the NIL. In general, most athletes earning equal to or less than $12,550 in NIL income should have no federal income tax due. However, athletes likely must fill out tax returns, and as self-employed taxpayers, may owe self-employment taxes. Most athletes have spent many hours weekly and yearly mastering the sport and more than likely not as much time holding jobs. As such, there is a lack of basic understanding of the United States’ income tax system.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:01:15 PDT
  • High Performance Judoka’s Views On Their Athlete Journey And The
           Need For Athlete Education

    • Authors: Katrina McDonald et al.
      Abstract: High-performance sport has been the subject of controversy and scandal, coming under heavy scrutiny within the broad issue of “Duty of Care” in terms of the welfare and holistic development of athletes. The United Kingdom has many different schemes and mechanisms that are available to athletes to support them in their development on their athlete journey. However, there is a lack of research exploring whether these schemes and mechanisms fulfill athlete needs and facilitate athlete development. Utilizing Charmaz’s constructivist grounded theory method, twelve full-time, high-performance Judoka (Judo athletes) were intensively interviewed, exploring the experience of their journey as an athlete. Three emergent categories: Development, Support and Environment revealed distinct areas the athletes experienced on their journeys. The three categories interlink and have the topic of athlete education and athlete learning interwoven among them. A pertinent finding was the lack of structured education that athletes received on their own development. Further research is needed to clearly understand what athletes need in this area to ensure that their wellbeing and welfare is at the forefront of athlete development and not just medal success.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:01:07 PDT
  • A Survey of the Mental Health of UK Olympic and Paralympic Sport Athletes.

    • Authors: Sandra D. Leyland Dr et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThis study examined the prevalence of psychological distress and well-being amongst elite athletes in the UK.An online survey was emailed to 753 athletes within the English Institute of Sport. Response rate 52.3%. 371 participants (median age 25) completed measures of psychological distress and subjective well-being alongside demographics and sport-related variables.High or very high psychological distress was reported by 23.7%. Poor subjective well-being was reported by 18.8%. Of those reporting psychological distress, 9% also reported good subjective well-being. The odds of psychological distress and poor well-being increased if the athlete was female (OR 2.03, distress; OR 2.00, poor well-being), currently injured or ill (OR 1.87; OR 1.93) or planning to retire (OR 4.74; OR 8.10). Likelihood of poor well-being increased if a non-podium athlete (OR 0.98). Paralympic sport athletes reported greater psychological distress than Olympic sport athletes (p = .040). Winter sport athletes reported higher psychological distress than summer sport athletes (p = .044). Overall mean score (17.9, SD 6.5) was indicative of a moderate level of psychological distress.Mental health support plans should include regular athlete screening of both psychological distress and subjective well-being.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:00:57 PDT
  • "Do You Really See Us'":Black College Athlete Perceptions of Inclusion
           at DI Historically White Institutions

    • Authors: Shannon Jolly et al.
      Abstract: While recent sport research has highlighted benefits of racial diversity on teams and in the workplace, few studies have examined how demographic composition is perceived by college athletes. Fewer have investigated how racially marginalized athletes experience the phenomena. Thus, the current study explores the intersection of race, gender, and athletic identity in Black college athletes at DI Historically White Institutions (HWIs), perceptions of inclusion, and its influence on sense of belonging. Employing critical race theory, two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews that incorporated vignettes were conducted with six current Black athletes at DI HWIs in the Southeastern U.S. Findings revealed five emergent themes: (a) overcompensation for racial marginalization, (b) gendered racism, (c) commitment to social justice activism and allyship, (d) athletes bubble on campus, and (e) invisibility of holistic identity. This research highlights the nuanced experiences of Black college athletes at HWIs and provides implications for coaches, administrators, and faculty to foster a true inclusive environment.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:00:52 PDT
  • College Athletes’ Views on Academics: A Qualitative Assessment of
           Perceptions of Academic Success

    • Authors: Amanda M. Brouwer et al.
      Abstract: The primary purpose of the current study was to give “voice” to college athletes regarding their views on academics. Given their perspectives, means of promoting their academic achievement were suggested. Research describing athletes’ experiences and the impact of socio-emotional stressors on academic success, especially for those not at a Division I school, is needed. Therefore, a qualitative study exploring the academic experiences of college athletes was conducted. Twelve focus groups of college athletes (N = 62) from six teams were held. Results revealed that college athletes are motivated to achieve by external factors and see grades as an external evaluation of performance. Athletes communicate with one another about grades, but this is generally limited to specific assignments rather than semester-long evaluations. Reaching out to academic support staff early in one’s career was reported as helpful, and academic performance could be improved with better communication with professors and more time management skills. The findings provide tools to develop more effective and tailored support programs for college athletes.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 10:00:43 PDT
  • Is Same-Gender Mentorship Important for Division III Female College
           Athletes': An Application of the Mentor Role Theory

    • Authors: Nicholas Swim et al.
      Abstract: In the last twenty years, opportunities for women in intercollegiate athletics have grown exponentially. Unfortunately, women still represent a small number of head coaches in intercollegiate athletics, creating a disparity in numbers between female college athletes and female head coaches. This disparity has led to an imbalance for female college athletes searching for female role models and mentors. This study investigated the mentoring experiences of NCAA Division III female college athletes based on their lived experiences with both male and female head coaches. Using Mentor Role Theory (MRT), a set of qualitative responses were collected and analyzed. The participants highlighted career and psychosocial functions of MRT, with responses emphasizing positive and negative experiences with their past and present head coaches. Overall, female college athletes noted the importance of both career and psychosocial functions in their experiences with both male and female coaches. However, the college athletes’ experiences with their female head coaches were predominately positive, whereas, the participants were found to hold mixed experiences (both positive and negative) with their male coaches. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for Division III athletics, mentor role theory, and the importance of the coach/athlete relationship.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:06:14 PDT
  • “It’s just a lot they are asking from us”: College Athlete
           Experiences of Division III to Division II Reclassification

    • Authors: Alexandra R. Mitchell et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of college athletes who were directly impacted by their institution’s pursuit of gaining membership to a different NCAA division (i.e., divisional reclassification). More specifically, this study sought to understand specific changes that accompany the Division III to Division II transition, which include: 1) divisional philosophy, 2) financial aid, 3) level of competition, 4) athletically related activities, and 5) academic standards. Conceptually, this study was guided by the stress appraisal and coping process. The Brief COPE inventory of coping responses was applied as a framework from which to understand how college athletes coped with the financial, athletic, and academic changes to the college athlete experience. Research participants were Division III college athletes who reclassified with their athletic program to become Division II college athletes, and who participated in semi-structured interviews that allowed for rich descriptions of their experiences through the reclassification process to be captured. Findings suggest that reclassification was a relative stressor meaning that the process was perceived as stressful by some but not all the reclassifying college athletes interviewed. In coping with the relative stresses, college athletes demonstrated a greater tendency to engage in emotion-focused coping, which included the venting of emotional distress. More specialist support services are proposed to encourage more problem-focused coping responses among affected college athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:06:08 PDT
  • Athlete Identity and Mental Health Among NCAA Division III

    • Authors: Sarah Stokowski et al.
      Abstract: Student-athletes often identify with the athlete role and demonstrate high levels of athlete identity. High athlete identity leads to many unintended consequences such as low career maturity and difficulty adapting to a life beyond sport. Additionally, high athlete identity often leads to mental health concerns among the student-athlete population. Informed by self-categorization theory (Turner, 1982), the purpose of this study was to explore athlete identity and mental health among NCAA Division III student-athletes. The Athlete Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 were completed by 332 NCAA Division III student-athletes. The results demonstrated that Division III student-athletes did not identify highly with the athletic role and did not show concerning levels of anxiety, depression, and/or stress. Further, no relationship between athlete identity and mental health was found. This study strives to provide a keen insight into the athlete identity and mental health of Division III student-athletes in hopes of better understanding this population.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:06:00 PDT
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in NCAA Division III
           Collegiate Athletes

    • Authors: Sayre Wilson et al.
      Abstract: Mental health disorders are important health concerns among collegiate athletes. Estimations of elevated depressive symptoms in this population range from 1.1-26%. However, these data are derived mostly from NCAA Division I institutions or professional athletes. Evidence from lower divisions (e.g., NCAA Division III) is currently sparse in the literature. Hence, the primary purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in NCAA Division III collegiate athletes. The secondary purpose was to examine which mental health indicators predict depressive symptoms. In total, 186 participants completed several mental health scales (e.g., PHQ-9, DASS-21). The results revealed a prevalence of 16.2% of elevated depressive symptoms. A multiple regression predicted 46.1% of the variance of depressive symptoms. Significant predictors were stress, anxiety, devaluation, and emotional exhaustion. While NCAA Division III collegiate athletes may face lower athletic expectations, the prevalence of mental health concerns is similar to those observed in Division I collegiate athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:52 PDT
  • Mental Health Prevalence in NCAA Division III Collegiate Athletes

    • Authors: Katelin Valster et al.
      Abstract: Stressors related to academic requisites, sport participation and pressure to perform may increase college athlete risk for mental health symptoms (Cox, Ross-Stewart, & Foltz, 2017; Sudano & Miles, 2017; Yang et al., 2007). The purpose of this study was to identify the level of clinically relevant self-reported mental health symptoms in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III athletes and variations based on sport participation (i.e., men’s or women’s athletics; team or individual sports) over a two-year period. A nonexperimental, trend study design was used. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi square test, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) which used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for follow-up procedures. A MANOVA revealed a significant interaction of gender and sport type for general symptoms [F(1, 564) = 9.583, p = .002] and depression [F(1, 564) = 6.945, p = .009] but not anxiety [F(1, 564) = 3.332, p = .068, ƞ2 = .006]. The project was able to describe mental health symptoms in a population that is not often included in the literature. Knowledge of collegiate athlete mental health prevalence is important because prevention and early intervention is a key component of community-based health programming.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:44 PDT
  • “I Might as Well Get My Education”: The Experiences of Black Male
           Division III College Athletes

    • Authors: Lisa M. Rubin et al.
      Abstract: Division III college athletes have been largely ignored in the growing literature involving college sport. Given that the majority of college athletes that participate in high profile sports are athletes of color, there is a need to explore the experiences of this population, specifically at the Division III level. Informed by the Excellence Beyond Athletics (EBA) framework, which empowers students of color, especially Black male athletes, the purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of Black male athletes at two rural Division III institutions. Ten Black male Division III athletes took part in semi-structured interviews. Using inductive analysis and descriptive coding, six final themes were established: College Choice/Financial Issues, Academics, Time Management, Athletic Identity/Culture, Commitment to Athletics, and Campus Climate/Black Experience. This study strives to better understand the experiences of Black male college athletes at the Division III level in hopes of enhancing the student experience through impactful programming.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:38 PDT
  • Collaborative Initiative to Improve DIII Student-Athlete Well-Being

    • Authors: Bonni C. Hodges Ph.D
      Abstract: The professional literature contains little focused specifically on NCAA DIII. NCAA Goals data provide an overview of common characteristics and challenges of DIII student-athletes. However, the large number and variety of DIII member institutions merit DIII athletic programs assessing the needs and well-being challenges of its particular student-athletes and to create and tailor programs and interventions to support student-athlete well-being. A needs assessment of student-athlete well-being issues was carried out at an institution with a large DIII program. Part one, reported here, used focus groups of student-athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and athletics administrators. Results suggested well-being challenges at this institution were largely associated with poor diet, stress, lack of adequate sleep, and alcohol use. Fear of missing out, lack of and poor coping skills, poor interpersonal communication, lack of self-advocacy skills, and lack of other “adulting” skills made it difficult to manage and balance their lives. Lack of balance along with lack of resilience emerged as main contributors to the behaviors and environments creating well-being challenges for the SAs. Part two should further document and validate factors impacting student-athlete well-being through a survey of all student-athletes. This needs assessment can serve as a model for others.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:34 PDT
  • Introduction to the Special Issue: NCAA Division III College Athlete
           Development and Experience

    • Authors: Bonni C. Hodges Ph.D et al.
      Abstract: There is abundant literature on a plethora of topics associated with intercollegiate athletics. Yet, when one begins to dig deeply into the previous literature, it becomes apparent that most of the attention of this work has focused on Division I (DI) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA]. To that end, while the NCAA Division III (DIII) level contains a greater number of institutions and more athletes than either of the other divisions of play, this group has largely been ignored throughout the previous literature (NCAA, 2021a; Williams, et al, 2020). This lack of previous literature, combined with the fact that each NCAA division has its own unique characteristics, underscore the need for additional research throughout intercollegiate sport levels of play. We sought to identify and showcase work being done to understand the well-being challenges and initiatives to enhance the Division III athlete’s experience.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2022 06:05:30 PDT
  • Validation of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale in Youth Academy
           Soccer Players

    • Authors: Tom Mitchell Dr. et al.
      Abstract: The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) is a popular measure of Athletic Identity (AI). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factor structure (7-item single factor and 3 factor model; Social Identity, Exclusivity and Negative Affectivity) of the AIMS within youth academy soccer players. A total of 259 male youth academy soccer players aged 12-18 years completed the AIMS. A series of confirmatory factor analyses, independent cluster modelling indicated support for the 7-item single-factor (AI) and the three-factor models but not within the same analysis. The results support the use of AIMS for the measurement of AI in elite male youth soccer players. Practitioners seeking to explore AI in youth soccer populations should use the three-factor model to glean further insight from the three subscales to support the design of more specific interventions where appropriate.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 05:46:00 PST
  • Exploring English Youth Academy Footballers’ Experiences through
           Role Strain Theory

    • Authors: Rick Hayman et al.
      Abstract: Throughout adolescence and early adulthood, talented athletes must dedicate increasing personal resources to their sport. Recent empirical research found that applying Role Strain Theory (RST) was useful to contextualise international junior golfers’, acrobats’, gymnasts’ and Australian Rules footballers’ experiences of how they combined and coped with the competing role demands of sport and education. Findings demonstrated how role strain (RS) severity and regularity fluctuated during their youth careers but subsided during the latter teenage years. Surprisingly, limited research exploring how youth academy footballers simultaneously combine sport, education and social demands exists. This study determined the extent to which RS was experienced by six high performing male youth footballers who each had between four and five consecutive years’ experience within the foundation and youth development stage squads at an English professional football academy. Implications for most effectively supporting elite level youth players during crucial developmental and transitional career stages are provided.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 05:45:53 PST
  • Collegiate Athlete Experiences with COVID-19 and Attitudes About Returning
           to Sport

    • Authors: Morgan Davies et al.
      Abstract: When COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, collegiate athletic departments faced the difficult decision to postpone or cancel sport activities. Aside from concerns of transmission, disruptions in sport impacted college athletes broadly. This study was designed to investigate athletes’ experiences during the pandemic toward developing a better understanding of athletes’ attitudes about COVID-19 and returning to sport. Participants included 245 varsity collegiate athletes across NCAA sports and divisions who voluntarily completed an online survey between August and October 2020. Collegiate athletes reported significant impacts of COVID-19 on areas including mental health, physical fitness, and academic progress. Approximately one in four participants reported that they had tested positive for COVID-19 at some point between the onset of the pandemic and completing the survey. Less than half of the respondents, however, endorsed worry about exposure to COVID-19 while participating in their sport. Most collegiate athletes reported satisfaction with their athletic department’s response to COVID-19 and adherence to guidelines and recommendations. Temperature checks, sanitation of equipment and regular COVID-19 testing were among the top recommended procedures endorsed by participants. Some athletes, however, reported concerns about feasibility of safety procedures for their particular sport. Overall, respondents demonstrated eagerness to return to sport despite COVID-19 related risks.Keywords: athlete mental health, college-athlete, COVID-19, pandemic, return to sport
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 05:45:46 PST
  • Division I College Athletes’ Self-Perception: Investigating the Impact
           of Race and Discrimination

    • Authors: Sean Strehlow et al.
      Abstract: Self-perception is the level of competency at which individuals evaluate themselves in certain areas or domains (Marsh & Shavelson, 1985). An individual’s self-perceptions contribute to their global self-worth and even predicts performance (Cuellar, 2014; Harter & Neemann, 2012). This study measures self-perception scores, as well as experiences with racial discrimination, of 306 NCAA Division I college athletes using the Self-Perception Profile for College Students (Harter & Neemann, 2012). Scores are compared across race. Findings suggest that White college athletes have significantly higher self-perception scores than college athletes of color - with recent discrimination (within the last year) as a significant predictor of multiple areas of self-perception. The implications of this study suggest that faculty and other campus stakeholders should pursue positive relationships with the college athletes they encounter. Positive relationships between college athletes and faculty may help raise college athlete self-perceptions, and in turn, performance in a variety of areas.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 05:45:36 PST
  • "I Didn't Know How All This Works": A Case Study Examining The
           Transition Experiences of Student-Athletes from High School to a Mid-Major
           DI Program

    • Authors: Mitchell T. Woltring et al.
      Abstract: The transition period from high school to college includes a myriad of issues specific to student-athletes (Bernhard & Bell, 2015; Bjornsen & Dinkel, 2017; Comeaux, 2015). The present study sought to illuminate the specific transition issues faced by mid-major, DI student-athletes by providing them the platform to describe them in their own words, and provide their own recommendations for improvement. Utilizing a semi-structured interview guide which addressed transition issues, the qualitative study included 23 student-athletes in focus group settings. Analysis of interview data led to the emergence of two themes, with accompanying subthemes: 1) Encounters with academic support, with subthemes of transitioning to campus and perceived responsibilities of athletic academic advisors; and 2) Skewed perceptions and expectations of student-athlete life, with subthemes of expectations regarding the coach-athlete relationship, lifestyle modifications, and high stress practice environments. The findings suggest a notable trend – student-athletes lack the support they need to successfully deal with the transition. The transition process itself also appears to involve three specific periods: 1) Prior to arrival on campus; 2) Initial arrival on campus; and 3) Following the initial transition to campus. The findings will help to better design standards for helping student-athletes navigate the transition process.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jul 2021 10:31:39 PDT
  • Developmental Outcomes of University Female Basketball Athletes As
           Participants in Peer Mentoring Groups

    • Authors: Jonathan Kroll et al.
      Abstract: Peer group mentoring can stimulate developmental outcomes for university basketball athletes. Seven female university basketball athletes from an NCAA Division III team participated in peer mentoring groups over the course of an academic year. By sharing about their lived experiences, the researchers were able to capture narratives that illuminated the impact of this developmental relationship. Thematic analysis was utilized to explore these descriptions and collate them into findings relevant for athletes, coaches, Athletics administrators, and others. Findings presented below indicate that these peer group mentoring experiences (a) nurtured synergistic relationships; (b) cultivated athletes’ resilience; and (c) developed athletes’ self-efficacy
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jul 2021 10:31:33 PDT
  • Welcome to Champ Camp: An observational study on the education and
           preparation of youth athletes for a multi-sport games

    • Authors: Michael L. Naraine
      Abstract: Youth multi-sport events offer athletes an opportunity to prepare and train for traditional (adult) multi-sport competitions like the Olympic Games, but simultaneously raises questions as to how athletes train and prepare for the former. Thus, the purpose of this study was to uncover how youth athletes were being educated and prepared for a multi-sport games, and whether this preparation was congruent with the circumstances that athletes would encounter. To do so, the Australian Olympic Committee’s “Champ Camp” pre-Games summit was observed, documenting the educational training youth athletes received prior to attending the 2018 Buenos Aires Youth Olympic Games. The findings indicate that youth athletes experienced an overload of information that focused on professionalization, and ignored social issues (e.g., sexual health) that were experienced at the Games. The findings underscore the importance of increasing socialization activities in preparing for a youth multi-sport competition.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jul 2021 10:31:28 PDT
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