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Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2096-6709 - ISSN (Online) 2662-1371
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • International Standard for TCM Technology: Specification of Health Tai Chi
           (Heart–Lung Benefiting Tai Chi)

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      PubDate: 2023-01-11
       
  • A Comparison of Acute High- and Moderate-Intensity Exercise on Cardio-
           Metabolic Function and Sleep Among Shift Workers

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      Abstract: Purpose To assess the acute effect of moderate and high-intensity exercise on markers of cardio-metabolic function among rotational shift workers. Methods Sedentary men (n = 26, age: 38 ± 8 years; BMI: 32.2 ± 6.0 kg/m2, VO2peak 32.6 ± 6.7 mL/kg/min) employed in rotational shift work were recruited and underwent objectively assessed sleep quality (~ 7 days actigraphy) prior to reporting for laboratory testing. Baseline venous blood was collected to analyse fasted glucose, insulin and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Participants were randomly allocated a 30 min cycling intervention of either high intensity interval training (HIIT): 1:4 ratio of 60 s at 100% and 240 s at 50% VO2peak, or moderate intensity continuous training (MICT); continuous cycling at 60% VO2peak. Fasted venous blood was collected post intervention (0, 30, 60 min) before subsequent night’s sleep was assessed via actigraphy. Results HIIT (P < 0.016) and MICT (P < 0.016) significantly increased IL-1Ra immediately and 30 min post exercise. Significantly decreased wake after sleep onset (WASO) were observed following MICT (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for supplementary sleep variables, insulin sensitivity, IL-6 or TNF-α for either intervention group (P > 0.05). Conclusion High- and moderate-intensity exercise acutely increase anti-inflammatory markers post exercise and MICT significantly reduces sleep fragmentation in rotational shift workers. Results which are associated with improved cardio-metabolic function and indicate the potential validity of exercise as an intervention to offset the hypothesised adverse health effects of rotational shift work.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
       
  • Kubios Threshold-Based Artefact Correction Affects Heart Rate Variability
           Parameters in Elite Athletes

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      Abstract: Purpose Kubios is an intuitive software intended to provide heart rate variability (HRV) processing. It is widely used to assess athletes’ readiness for new training sessions and autonomic balance responses to the training programme. However, Kubios’ filtering levels’ effect on artefact correction for elite athletes is still unclear. This study aims to assess the impact of different Kubios threshold-based artefact correction levels on the HRV-derived parameters in male and female elite athletes. Methods One hundred and seventeen elite athletes (55 females) from 21 Olympic sports participated in this study. All participants underwent an HRV recording in the morning after 24 h of no intense exercise, caffeine, and alcohol consumption. The heart rate signals were acquired with the Polar V800 monitor, and time and frequency domain-derived variables were calculated with and without Kubios’ five levels of filtering. Results Kubios filtering levels significantly affected the HRV results in both time and frequency domains in female and male elite athletes. “Medium”, “Strong”, and “Very Strong” filtering resulted in an interpolation larger than 5% (above recommended by the software developers) in 3.4%, 28.2%, and 95% of the entire group data, respectively. Moreover, the “Very Strong” filter significantly lowered HRV variables and promoted mean values exceeding the 5% interpolation for females (33.35%) and males (38.17%). Conclusion The “Very Low” and “Low” threshold-based artefact correction levels were more suitable for processing HRV data from female and male elite athletes when Kubios was used.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
       
  • Effects of Exercise Around the Ventilation Threshold on Renal Blood Flow
           in Healthy Individuals

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      Abstract: Purpose High-intensity exercise reduces renal artery blood flow (RBF) compared to other forms of exercise. However, it is unclear whether moderate-intensity exercise, including those at the ventilation threshold (VT), decreases RBF. Additionally, attenuated renal autoregulation and associated blood flow can cause renal injury in patients with underlying disease. Therefore, this study aimed to confirm the changes in RBF after moderate-level exercise in healthy subjects, which will have implications for the study of renal arterial blood flow in patients with renal failure. Methods Cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed by 10 healthy male participants (mean age, 31 ± 8 years): 3 min constant work-rate exercise tests, varying in exercise intensity 1 min before VT (pre-VT), after VT (post-VT), and after the respiratory compensation point (RCP). The RBF was measured using ultrasonic inspection equipment following each exercise. The VT was determined using the ventilatory equivalent method (VEQ method), while the RBF was calculated from the time-averaged flow velocity (TAV) and cross-sectional area (CSA). Results At baseline (resting phase), RBF was 461 ± 142 mL/min. While RBFs at pre-VT were not significantly different from those at baseline (482 ± 142 mL/min; P = 0.82), significant differences were observed at post-VT (289 ± 111 mL/min; P < 0.01 vs. baseline). RBFs at the RCP were also different from those at the baseline (212 ± 56 mL/min; P < 0.01 vs. baseline). Conclusions In healthy individuals, exercises varying in intensity up to the vicinity of the VT can be performed without any significant decrease in RBF. Trial Registration Number and Registration Date The trial was approved by an independent ethics committee at the Asahi University Hospital (approval No. 1/May/2018) and was registered (Name of the registry: Changes of renal blood flow with exercise load. Consideration using ultrasonic inspection equipment. UMIN000035598, https://center6.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi'recptno=R000040561, 24/January/2019).
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
       
  • The Influence of Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene on the Effect
           of Physical Activity (PA) on Risk of Obesity: Scoping Review

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      Abstract: Purpose We aimed to conduct a scoping review by reviewing studies that investigated the influence of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene on the effect of physical activity (PA) on risk of obesity. The research questions of this review were: (1) “What is known from existing literature about the influence of the FTO gene on the effect of physical activity on obesity'” (2) “What are the gaps in existing literature in that area'” Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) Checklist and the five-stage methodological framework outlined by Arksey and O’Malley were utilized to conduct this scoping review. Four online databases were searched for articles between July 2021 and August 2021. The articles were chosen to be included if they were: published in English; included male and/or female adult participants (ages 18–65); looked at the effect of FTO on overweight/obesity; and included PA/exercise/physical fitness intervention or examination. Excluded studies were studies with a population that had a diagnosis of any disorder or condition other than obesity. Results Nine articles were selected for this scoping review, one of which is a conference abstract. Based on the type, the articles were categorized into intervention (n = 3), observational (n = 5), and review article (n = 1). All articles were summarized in terms of questions and main findings. Conclusion This scoping review presented evidence that the FTO gene could influence the effect of PA on obesity. The gaps in knowledge were evident in the limited number of intervention studies.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
       
  • Acute Effects of Fatiguing Low-Load Leg Extension Muscle Actions on
           Maximal Strength and Neuromuscular Function

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      Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of low-load unilateral submaximal leg extension muscle actions with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque, electromyographic (EMG) amplitude (AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF). Methods Twelve (mean ± SD; 23 ± 4 years) men performed 75 submaximal (1 × 30, 3 × 15) unilateral leg extension muscle actions with or without BFR. Before and immediately after the 75 reps, ultrasound measures and MVIC muscle actions were performed, and surface EMG was simultaneously assessed from the vastus lateralis. BFR was applied at 60% of total arterial occlusion. Separate repeated measures ANOVA’s, and Bonferroni corrected t-tests were performed to examine MVIC, EMG AMP, and EMG MPF. An alpha of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all comparisons. Results There was no significant (P = 0.077) interaction or main effect for Condition (P = 0.442) for EMG AMP. There was, however, an interaction (P = 0.014) for EMG MPF (posttest BFR decrease > posttest non-BFR decrease). There was a main effect for Time, collapsed across Condition, for MVIC torque (P < 0.001; (mean ± SD; 294.9 ± 20.1 N·m to 138.6 ± 12.2 N·m), but no main effect for Time for EMG AMP. Conclusion The findings of the present study indicated there were similar fatigue-induced decreases in MVIC torque and mode-specific decreases in EMG mean power frequency between the BFR and non-BFR conditions, but no changes in EMG amplitude. The decrease in MVIC torque may be due, in part, to the fatigue-induced buildup of metabolic byproducts that adversely affects excitation–contraction coupling and force output.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
       
  • A Systematic Review of in Vivo Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading During
           Static, Slow-Speed and Athletic Tasks

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      Abstract: Purpose An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common severe knee injuries in sports. The purpose of this review was to summarize the studies that directly quantified in vivo ACL loading as a function of knee motion in healthy individuals during static, slow-speed and athletic tasks. Methods A systematic review of the literature in multiple databases was conducted using different combinations of the terms “anterior cruciate ligament” or “ACL” and “in vivo” combined with “tensile” “strain” “stress” “force” and “loading”. Results A total of 27 studies were identified. Eleven studies utilized strain sensors, while 16 studies applied imaging techniques. The numbers of studies for static or semi-static postures, slow-speed tasks, and athletic tasks were 12, 11 and 4, respectively. Conclusion There were strong and negative correlations between ACL elongation and knee flexion angles across different tasks. Peak ACL elongation mostly occurred when the knee flexion angle was minimal. Increased tibial anterior shear forces and patellar tendon forces would increase ACL loading when the knee is kept at a constantly small angle. In addition, a high patellar tendon force could be generated by preparatory quadriceps activation to load the ACL even when the lower extremity was not in contact with the ground during athletic tasks. Furthermore, while exercise modalities might affect peak ACL loading, the relationship between exercise intensities and ACL loading was complex and should not be assumed to be linear.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
       
  • Publisher Correction to: The Effects of Offset Loading Versus Traditional
           Loading in the Bench Press Exercise on Muscle Thickness and Strength in
           Trained Males

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      PubDate: 2022-12-14
       
  • Correction to: Coactivation Does Not Contribute to Fatigue-Induced
           Decreases in Isokinetic Forearm Flexion and Extension Torque

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      PubDate: 2022-12-09
       
  • Correction to: Body Composition, Aerobic Fitness, Isokinetic Profile, and
           Vertical Jump Ability in Elite Male and Female Volleyball and Beach
           Volleyball Players

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      PubDate: 2022-12-09
       
  • The Association Between Subjective Wellness Symptoms and Blood Biomarker
           Data in English Premier League Footballers

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study investigates the association between subjective wellness symptoms, and categorical point-of-care (POC) blood biomarkers of the free oxygen radical test (FORT), and systemic inflammation through high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), in English Premier League footballers. Data from 38 male professional elite athletes (Mean Age = 25.8, SD = 4.4) from the English Premier League were included in the study, with a total of 674 individual testing records collected over an entire Premier League season. A player wellness questionnaire, along with fasted and rested point-of-care blood biomarker testing were collected weekly across the season. The wellness questionnaire collected subjective symptoms of illness and fatigue, while FORT and Hs-CRP were assessed through point-of-care analysis to highlight periods of excessive hydroperoxide production and systemic inflammation. Using a chi square goodness of fit model, results showed that there was a significant association between the frequency of symptoms logged and categorical POC blood biomarker data of FORT and HsCRP (P < 0.01). Of the records demonstrating normal levels of Hs-CRP and FORT concentrations, 27% logged symptoms with an average of 1.5 symptoms reported per answered record. Comparatively, excessive biomarker values demonstrated 55% of records having symptoms logged, averaging 2.4 symptoms reported per record.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • The Effect of a 12 Week Mixed-Modality Training Intervention on the
           Cardio-Metabolic Health of Rotational Shift Workers

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      Abstract: Purpose To assess the effect of a 12 week resistance or aerobic training intervention on markers of cardio-metabolic function and sleep among male rotational shift workers. Method Thirty-eight sedentary, apparently healthy, male rotational shift workers were recruited and randomly allocated to a non-exercise control (CON) group, 3 sessions/week of moderate intensity continuous (MICT), or resistance training (RT) for 12 weeks in a semi-supervised setting. Pre- and post-testing assessed markers of cardio-metabolic function including peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, body composition, inflammatory markers, and 14 day actigraphy sleep assessment. Results Mean session attendance across the intervention was 25 (± 7) of a possible 36 sessions. A significant group by time interaction was observed for MICT, with lower c-reactive protein (CRP) values observed post-training (P = 0.049). A significant effect for time was observed for both MICT (n = 9; P = 0.04) and RT (n = 10; P = 0.021), increasing total sleep time (TST) following a night shift post-intervention. Data redistribution regarding exercise adherence: < 24 (N-ADHERE) or ≥ 24 (ADHERE) resulted in significant pre-to-post reduction in body fat (P = 0.024) and fat mass percentage (P = 0.014) among ADHERE. No differences were observed for any intervention group on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism or oxygen uptake. Conclusion The results of the current study support exercise as a valid intervention to improve the cardio-metabolic health of rotational shift workers. Average sessional attendance suggests shift workers face barriers to exercise that may need to be addressed to improve health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
       
  • Monitoring Training Load, Muscle Damage, and Body Composition Changes of
           Elite Indian Rowers During a Periodized Training Program

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      Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study was to monitor the Indian national rowing team’s training regime and the changes that occur in the rowers’ body composition, muscle cell damage, and training load markers during the phases of preparation for an international competition. Methods Ten male and 9 female elite rowers from the national team underwent anthropometric assessment and blood tests during 17 weeks of training, at the end of general preparation (W4), preparation (W10), and pre-competition (W17) phase. Body fat% and somatotype were determined by Siri’s equation and Heath-Carter manual, respectively. Assessments of blood biomarkers included measures of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, uric acid, testosterone, and cortisol concentration. Results Changes in variables were estimated by repeated-measures ANOVA. Body fat% (P < 0.001; male: d = − 2.03; female: d = − 2.89) and endomorph (P < 0.05; male: d = − 2.05; female: d = − 0.68) decreased significantly at pre-competition, whereas weight, mesomorph, and ectomorph remained unchanged throughout training. Urea (male: d = − 1.47; female: d = − 1.46) and uric acid (male: d = − 0.74; female: d = − 1.71) showed a significant decrease at pre-competition phase in both groups. CPK concentration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at preparation (d = − 1.05) and increased during pre-competition (d = − 1.28) in male rowers. LDH showed significant increase (P < 0.01) at preparation (male: d = 1.17; female: d = 2.02) and pre-competition (male: d = 1.28; female: d = 2.09) than base preparation. Whereas, no significant changes were observed in cortisol, testosterone, or T/C ratio in subsequent measurements. Significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between LDH and T/C ratio with rowing timing in male rowers. The 2000 m rowing timing also showed a significant improvement at W17 compared to W4 (male: d = − 1.25; female: d = − 0.94). Conclusion In conclusion, our results showed that rowers encounter more muscle damage and less protein catabolism during training season. Additionally, it is evidenced that rowing performance improved and biochemical markers—particularly enzymes—altered largely with altered training load rather than anabolic or catabolic hormone concentration in rowers.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
       
  • The Effects of Offset Loading Versus Traditional Loading in the Bench
           Press Exercise on Muscle Thickness and Strength in Trained Males

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      Abstract: Purpose This study compared the effects of offset loading (OSL) versus traditional loading (TDL) in the bench press exercise on pectoral muscle thickness and bench press strength over a 4-week mesocycle. Methods: Twenty male participants aged 18–45 years with at least 5 years of bench press experience and a bench press one-repetition maximum equal to or greater than their body mass were randomly assigned to OSL and TDL groups. Before and after the 4-week mesocycle, pectoral muscle thickness was assessed via ultrasonography and muscle strength was assessed by bench press one-repetition maximum. Effects were explored with two-way mixed ANOVA and non-clinical magnitude-based inferences. Results: No group-by-time interaction was detected for any variable (P > 0.05). When compared to small magnitudes, the pectoralis major muscle thickness changes were likely greater in OSL compared to TDL for the dominant (ES = 0.70; 87% likely greater) and nondominant pectoralis (ES = 0.77; 91% likely greater) as well as the sum of both pectorals (ES = 0.80; 92% likely greater). Similarly, a likely greater effect for absolute (ES = 0.57; 82% likely) and relative (ES = 0.67; 85% likely) bench press strength was seen with OSL. Conclusion: Magnitude-based inferences interpreted here support the notion that OSL may be an advantageous training modality to enhance pectoral muscle thickness and bench press strength.
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
       
  • Optimal Total Sleep Duration per Day to Maintain Health-Related Quality of
           Life in Male Collegiate Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

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      Abstract: Purpose This study investigated the optimal total sleep duration per day required by collegiate athletes to maintain the physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL), compared with non-athlete students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire survey was conducted to assess demographic variables, lifestyle and sleep habits, and HRQOL in 392 collegiate students (non-athletes, n = 174; athletes, n = 218). Physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) were assessed using the short-form-8 health survey. Participants with both good PCS and MCS were defined as having a good HRQOL. To confirm an association between the total sleep duration per day and good HRQOL, logistic regression analyses were conducted in non-athlete students and collegiate athletes separately. Subsequently, receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were performed for the detection of the cut-off point of total sleep duration per day sufficient to maintain a good HRQOL. Results The average total sleep duration per day was 7 h 19 min for collegiate athletes, and 78.9% of them had a worse PCS. The cut-off point of total sleep duration per day to maintain good HRQOL for collegiate athletes was 7.92 h (area under ROC, 0.64; P = 0.038; sensitivity, 75.4%; specificity, 57.9%), which was longer than 6.79 h for non-athlete students. Conclusion Collegiate athletes required longer nocturnal sleep than non-athlete students. Nevertheless, their habitual nocturnal sleep duration was shorter compared to their optimal duration; around 70% of them faced chronic insufficient sleep. Improving sleep habits and sleep education is important in maintaining their good health-related quality of life.
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Myoelectric Activity of Selected Trunk Muscles Following the Use of
           Various Insole Wedges During Running

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      Abstract: Purpose Insoles with various wedges have effects on the biomechanical aspects of human movement. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immediate effects of 9 insoles while running on the myoelectric activity of selected trunk muscles. The conditions were no wedge, posterior, anterior, medial, lateral, posterior-medial, posterior-lateral, anterior-medial, and anterior-lateral. Muscles included were rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, multifidus, and quadratus lumborum during running. Methods Twenty-five (n = 25) able-bodied males participated in this quasi-experimental study. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was used to compare dependent variables among various insole wedges. Results Significant differences (P = 0.001) in normalized mean amplitude index between the following wedge conditions were measured while running: posterior-lateral/medial (5.67 ± 1.01 vs. 4.73 ± 1.09) and posterior-lateral/anterior-medial (5.67 ± 1.01 vs. 4.52 ± 1.20) for the internal oblique muscle along with posterior-lateral/anterior (11.44 ± 2.42 vs. 9.26 ± 2.35) for the lumbar erector spinae muscle. Similarly, normalized peak amplitude index differences in the medial/anterior-lateral (9.79 ± 3.33 21 vs.12.03 ± 3.16) and lateral/anterior-medial (11.6 ± 2.56 vs. 9.25 ± 2.38) for the internal oblique muscle and posterior-lateral/anterior-medial (9.58 ± 2.26 vs. 8.78 ± 2.15) for the quadratus lumborum muscle were measured. In contrast, no significant difference was observed for the median frequency index among various insole wedges during running (P > 0.0014). Conclusion Decreased activity in the medial wedged conditions may have important negative consequences for the spine, pelvis, and dynamic core. These results provide insights into the effect of various orthotic designs on the EMG activity of central core muscles. Higher activation in an anterior-lateral wedge and lower activation in a medial wedge for core muscles can have clinical relevance, where there is a need to increase, or avoid decrease, core muscle activity.
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Differences in Neuromuscular Responses During Isometric Muscle Actions
           Before and After Pubescence

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      Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude across the torque spectrum in pre- and post-pubescent males and females. Methods Forty pre-pubescent (mean ± 95% confidence interval, age = 9.79 ± 0.35 years, n = 10 males, n = 10 females) and post-pubescent (age = 17.23 ± 0.58 years, n = 10 males, n = 10 females) participants completed this study. Participants completed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) of the forearm flexors and extensors, as well as isometric ramp muscle actions. EMG and MMG amplitude were quantified from the biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis during all muscle actions. EMG and MMG amplitude during the isometric ramp muscle actions were normalized to EMG and MMG amplitude from the MVICs. Results The pre-pubertal group tended to have greater relative EMG amplitude across intensity (P < 0.050), while the post-pubertal group had a more pronounced increase in EMG amplitude at higher intensities. Similarly, the pre-pubertal group tended to have greater relative MMG amplitude across intensity (P ≤ 0.004) that plateaued earlier than the post-pubertal group (55% vs. 65%–75% of MVIC). Additionally, the pre-pubertal group had greater coactivation across intensity (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion The greater relative EMG and MMG amplitude in the pre-pubertal group, in conjunction with the earlier plateau in MMG amplitude for the pre-pubertal group and greater coactivation, suggests less efficient muscle activation and motor unit recruitment strategies during pre-pubescence. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that growth-mediated changes in neuromuscular function lead to improvements in the efficiency of muscular activation and augmentations in motor unit recruitment strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Body Composition and Physical Performance Measures of a Special Operations
           Police Unit: Characteristics and Associations Between Determinant Factors
           of Physical Performance

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      Abstract: Purpose Special tactical units differ from other police departments, for having more physically demanding tasks and occupations. Therefore, the aim was to analyze: (i) the differences in anthropometrics, body composition, and physical performance variables between those officers with the highest and lowest lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM); and (ii) the associations between body composition (i.e., FM and LM) and some selected performance variables. Methods Thirty-six special operations officers (n = 36, age: 35.97 ± 5.50 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were assessed for anthropometrics and body composition through skin-fold measures. Additionally, fitness was evaluated using appropriate physical tests (i.e. 30-m sprints, vertical jump, strength and endurance). Afterwards, participants were divided according to their level of LM and FM into: high (LMhigh and FMhigh) and low (LMlow and FMlow). Results Regarding strength and jump performance, LMhigh and FMlow obtained better estimated values in Squat (1 repetition maximum [SQ1RM]), and jump height (P < 0.05; ES = 0.62–1.29), although non-significant but small differences were observed for relative strength (P = 0.107; ES = 0.54). In terms of sprint and endurance, the results indicated that LMhigh and FMlow obtained significantly better performances across all measures (P < 0.05; ES > 0.89), except for endurance between FMhigh and FMlow (ES = 0.25–0.65). In addition, FM and LM were significantly associated with physical performance (P < 0.05; r > 0.383) in most of the variables of this study. Conclusion Higher LM and lower FM are determinant factors of physical performance in this population. Moreover, FM and LM seemed to be detrimental for physical performance as shown by the moderate to large correlations observed.
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s42978-022-00205-w
       
  • Phase Specific Comparisons of High and Low Vertical Jump Performance in
           Collegiate Female Athletes

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      Abstract: Introduction Countermovement vertical jump testing has become a staple in athlete assessment protocols. As the popularity of jump testing has grown, a need and interest has also grown in identifying the factors that underpin high-level outputs. As jump height alone as a variable in evaluating vertical jump performance has been questioned in athletic populations, other variables such as the reactive strength index modified (RSIm) allow for not only evaluating the outcome, but the strategy used in obtaining that outcome. Purpose Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the differences in high and low vertical jump performances, as determined by the RSIm in female collegiate athletes. Methods Thirty NCAA Division I female volleyball and basketball athletes performed countermovement vertical jump trials on a force platform. The sample was then broken into two groups as determined by median RSIm values. Independent sample t-test were then used to compare groups. Results High RSIm group displayed greater jump heights (P < 0.05). Additionally, the high performing group displayed lower eccentric duration times (P < 0.05). No differences between groups were seen in kinetic variables. Conclusion The high performing group displayed faster eccentric times which translated to lower values in time to take-off though not statistical significant. The higher RSIm values appear to be a result of both greater jump heights and reduced time to take off. Thus, focus being placed on the speed of the movement during training would be of benefit in improving RSIm values.
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s42978-022-00196-8
       
  • Editorial – Contemporary Use of Altitude Training to Reach New
           Heights

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      PubDate: 2022-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s42978-022-00202-z
       
 
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