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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1993-9345 - ISSN (Online) 2664-2514
Published by U of Mosul Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Designing the physical attributes card for primary school students as an
           indicator of sports selection in the city of Dohuk

    • Abstract: The research aims to determine the level of the variables that represents the physical characteristics determinants of the initial sports selection. The study also aims to set tables and standard levels for the physical characteristics, in addition to set physical characteristics card for the initial selection of the primary school pupils.The researcher used the descriptive approach by applying the survey method for its suitability to the problem of the study. The sample of the study consisted of (750) pupils which represents (5.24%) of the whole study community. The researcher used questionnaire, measurement and test as means for data collection. The researcher also used arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percentage, simple correlation coefficient, T-test for independent samples, and SPSS program as statistical means to analyze the data of the study.The study reached to build physical characteristics card for the primary school pupils as the card showed an evolution in all the physical variables that the study dealt with. The study also reached to build standard levels for the physical characteristics for the six primary school classes, as all the studied physical variables were within the natural ranges with regard to the arithmetic mean of the sample. The researcher recommended the following:- Adopting physical card in evaluating the level of the biological development for the primary school pupils. - Adopting physical card in directing pupils towards practicing specific sports activities without other activities in accordance to the requirements of that activity.
       
  • Levels of obstacles to sports professionalism in some Iraqi Premier League
           clubs From Coaches' point of view

    • Abstract:                                                                                                                                                                                                                The study aimed to, design a questionnaire about the obstacles to professionalism in some Iraqi Premier League football clubs from the coaches’ point of view, Identify the obstacles to sports professionalism in some Iraqi Premier League clubs from the coaches' point of view,  Identify the levels of obstacles to professionalism in some Iraqi Premier League clubs from the coaches' point of view، The descriptive approach was used in the survey method, and the research community included (39) training from some clubs in the Iraqi Premier League for football. It is divided into five axes, with (10) paragraphs for the financial axis, (8) paragraphs for the administrative and organizational axis, (10) paragraphs for the legal axis, (4) paragraphs for the human axis, and (9) paragraphs for the marketing and media axis. Its apparent validity, as well as the stability of the tool, and the researcher, used in the statistical treatments of the percentage, the arithmetic mean, the Pearson correlation coefficient, the Spearman-Brown equation, the Guttman equation, and the Cronbach's alpha through the (spss) program. The researchers reached the following conclusions, There are obstacles on the professional side, according to the sequence of the axes that are addressed in the research, The top of the centenary circles for the obstacles axes came close to each other and came at a good level, which confirms the existence of obstacles in sports professionalism in Iraqi clubs, The researchers recommended a set of recommendations, the most important of which are, The need for the federation and clubs to work towards setting professional regulations through which obstacles in this aspect are reduced, Work on research and development in the axes that have been addressed (financial, administrative, organizational, legal, human, marketing, and media) on an equal basis.   
       
  • The effect of smart training on a number skill complex variables the Ball
           for football players

    • Abstract:                                                                                                                                                              The aim of the research is:-  The effect of smart training on a number of skill complex variables of the football players of the experimental group.- The effect of traditional training on a number of skill-complex variables of the football players of the control group.- The significance of the statistical differences in a number of skill complex variables and ball for football players between the two-dimensional tests of the two groups (experimental - and control) for football players in the research sample.The researcher assumed the following:- There are statistically significant differences in a number of skill complex variables for football players between the pre and post-tests of the experimental group. -There are statistically significant differences in a number of skill complex variables for football players between the pre and post-tests of the control group. -There are statistically significant differences in some of a number of skill complex variables for football players between the two post-tests for the two groups (experimental and contro)l.The researchers used the experimental method for its relevance and the nature of the research, as the main research sample was determined in a deliberate way from the youth players of the Mosul Sports Club in football for the sports season (2020-2021) and it consisted of (40) players and (24) players were selected from them representing the research sample and it was divided into two groups (experimental and control) by following the random selection method using lottery, with (12) players for each group.    The researcher used the following statistical methods: (percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, (T) test for linked and independent samples, simple correlation coefficient (Pearson), mode, skew coefficient) and the statistical bag (spss) was used to process the data.The researcher reached the following conclusions: -The smart training curriculum implemented by the experimental group made a significant development in the complex skill variables -The training curriculum of the trainer, which was implemented by the control group, made significant development in the first composite skill test only and did not occur in the second and third composite skill tests.- The experimental group that used smart training in the post-test outperformed the control group that adopted the trainer’s training in all variables of complex skill performance.After identifying the scientific conclusions related to the topic of the research, the researcher recommends the following: -The necessity of paying attention to smart training when developing training curricula for youth teams results of the research showed the development of a number skill complex variables- The necessity of applying smart training to other age groups, such as the cubs and juniors category, to show its impact on the development events of these groups..                                                
       
  • The proactive behavior of the pioneer Iraqi athletes working in sports
           institutions

    • Abstract:                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The aim of the research is to identify the level of proactive behavior of the pioneer athletes working in sports institutions, and the researchers used the descriptive approach in their survey study, and the research community included (400) leading athletes working in Iraqi sports institutions. (10, 180, 30, 80) respectively, and in order to collect information, the proactive behavior scale was codified, which includes four dimensions (voice behavior, problem prevention, responsibility, and individual innovation). Statistically through the arithmetic mean, percentage, simple correlation, and Spearman-Brown equation, the researchers concluded the following: -Pioneering athletes working in sports institutions have a high level of proactive behavior consistent with their practices in aspects (vocal behavior, taking responsibility, and preventing problems) with a medium level of innovative initiative as individuals. The researchers also recommended the following:- The need for the administrations of sports institutions to provide more support for the proactive behaviors proposed or carried out by the pioneer athletes working in them and to support them with their innovative ideas in accordance with the principles of democracy, transparency, objectivity, shared responsibility, and ethical and organizational commitment to achieve the desired goals- Conduct a study on the obstacles to applying proactive behavior in sports institutions from the point of view of the staff working in them.
       
  • Factor Analysis of strength tests (characterized by speed and
           explosiveness) of handball players

    • Abstract:                                                                                                                                                                                                              The research aims to identify the possibility of distinguishing between strength tests (characterized by speed and explosiveness) for handball players. The sample consisted of (100) players distributed on clubs (Al-Fatwa, Al-Jaish, Al-sHURTA, Karbala, Al-Qasim, Al-Sulaymaniyah). The research tools included field tests for the characteristics of the force characterized by speed and explosive power, and it included (21) field tests, of which (11) tests were designed.- The factorial analysis of strength tests characterized by speed and explosive power for handball players concluded six factors.- The factor analysis did not separate the tests of strength characterized by speed and explosive power on the basis of (repetition of performance), in absolute terms, but rather it appeared in relative terms. This prompted the researcher to adopt the term muscular ability in naming factors.- The upper and lower limbs and the trunk are the general feature that had a clear impact on the emergence of factors at the expense of repetition of performance in the tests, which prompted the researcher to suggest the part of the body that leads to the naming.The six factors of the factorial matrix of handball players are named as follows:The first factor (muscular ability of the vertical jump.The second factor (muscular ability of the horizontal jump.The third factor (muscular ability of the armsThe fourth factor (the force characteristic of the speed of the trunkThe fifth factor (muscular ability of the arms and trunkThe sixth factor (the repetitive muscular ability of the arms.- The direction of vertical or horizontal muscular ability is the characteristic that had a clear impact on the emergence of factors at the expense of repetition through the factors extracted for the lower limbs of handball players    
       
  • Constructing and applying a scale of behavioral values among scout leaders
           from the wooden badge campaign in the General Directorates of Education in
           Iraq

    • Abstract:                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The current research aims to construct a measure of the behavioral values of the wooden badge scout leaders in the general directorates of education in Iraq, and to identify the level of behavioral values among the scout leaders of the wooden badge campaign in the general directorates of education in Iraq, and to identify the differences in the behavioral values of the scout leaders from The wooden badge campaign in the general directorates of education in Iraq according to gender, scouting experience and educational qualification.The researchers used the descriptive approach as a methodology for the study, for its relevance and the nature of this study and its objectives, and the research community includes (352) scout leaders, and the construction sample consists of (212) scout leaders who were chosen in a deliberate manner, and they represent (60.22%) of the basic research sample.The application sample consists of (140) Scout leaders, representing 39.78% of the research community distributed among the general directorates in Iraq. Standard deviation, simple correlation coefficient (Pearson), (t-test) for two independent samples, hypothetical mean)The most important conclusions reached by the researchers:-           The effectiveness of the behavioral values scale among scout leaders from the wooden badge campaign in the General Directorates of Education in Iraq and its ability to diagnose behavioral values when used as a means of measurement.-           There is a discrepancy in the order of the dimensions of behavioral values among the scout leaders of the wooden badge holders according to the behavioral values scale.-           There are statistically significant differences between the average responses of the scout leaders of the wooden badge holders in the General Directorates of Education in Iraq according to the variable (sex).-           There are statistically significant differences between the average responses of the scout leaders of the wooden badge holders in the General Directorates of Education in Iraq according to the variable (Scouting experience) and in favor of those with (more than five years).-           There are statistically significant differences between the average responses of the scout leaders of the wooden badge holders in the General Directorates of Education in Iraq according to the variable (educational qualification) and in favor of those with (bachelor’s degree and above
       
  • The effect of S.A.Q training on the development of some abilities,
           forehand, and backhand, for tennis

    • Abstract:                                                                                                                                                                                                          The research aims to identify the effect of S.A.Q exercises on the level of some physical abilities and the forehand and backhand strokes of tennis players. The researchers used the experimental method for its relevance to the nature of this research, using the experimental design of two groups, one experimental and the other control, by applying the two measurements before and after for each group of the research community and the research sample. It represented a community that the researchers conducted the study on tennis players in clubs (Soran - Rawanduz - Senor) under 18 years old and registered in the records of the Sub-Tennis Federation in Erbil Governorate in the Kurdistan Region – Iraq and their number (26) players were chosen deliberately, and (4) players from the Sub-Union of Tennis and from outside the research sample as an exploratory sample. The number of (2) players were excluded from them for lack of regularity in training, and thus the research sample became of (10) players, and they were divided into two equal groups, each of (10) players, and the researchers’ used tests of physical abilities and forehand and backhand stroke of tennis players in addition to the sources Arabic and foreign. The most important results of the Sakyo training program indicated an improvement in the variables: Physical abilities The percentage of improvement between the tribal and remote measurements in the enemy variable was 22 meters 24.48%, the improvement rate between the tribal and remote measurements of the enemy from the baseline to the near transmission line reached 48.30%, the percentage of which was 48.30%. The improvement between the tribal and remote measurements in the arachnoid variable was 20.80%, and the Sakyo training program led to an improvement in the forehand and backhand stroke of the tennis players, where the rate of improvement in the forehand stroke was 27.96%, and the rate of improvement in the front and back stroke was 20%.                 
       
  • Job Embeddedness in sports directorates in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq
           from the point of view of their staff

    • Abstract:                                                                                                                                                                                         The research aims to: - Constructing a Scale for job Embeddedness in the sports directorates in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. - Identify the level of job Embeddedness in the sports directorates in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq from the point of view of their cadres.      The researchers used the descriptive approach in their survey method and correlational relationships, the research community included (204) employees from the cadres of the departments affiliated with the sports directorates, which numbered (4) directorates distributed over (3) governorates and affiliated to the (General Directorate of Sports in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq), the survey, construction, and application samples were chosen randomly, with (4, 120, and 80) employees, respectively. To collect the information, the researchers built a questionnaire to measure the level of job Embeddedness in the sports directorates in Iraqi Kurdistan, the researchers applied it after the availability of the scientific conditions in it, and the data were processed statistically. The researchers drew several conclusions, including: - The effectiveness of the job Embeddedness questionnaire in the sports directorates in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq was verified from the point of view of their cadres after reaching its preparation according to scientific procedures. -  The sports directorates in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq have a medium level of job Embeddedness from the point of view of their cadres.                       
       
  • Evaluation of Basketball Coaches according to Time-outs and Results of
           Iraqi Women’s Premier League Matches

    • Abstract:     This research aims to identify: the number of time-outs used in the match, evaluate the coaches through analyzing the time-outs of Iraqi women’s premier league matches, and identify the result of the match through time-outs. The researcher has adopted the descriptive approach in the survey method, and the research community consisted of (5) coaches participating in the Iraqi Women’s Basketball Super Championship, which was held in Dohuk Governorate (2022). The coaches were from the teams of the Sennacherib Club, Basra Club, North Gas Club, Darbandikhan Club, and Akkad Club. A special form for data collection and analysis has been designed from the official game form with correct scientific parameters. For the achievement of research objectives, percentage has been used where the researcher arrived at several conclusions, the most important of which is the noninvestment of time-outs due by the coaches of the participating teams in the Iraqi Premier League for Women. There was no effect of the time-outs in changing the result of the matches. During the tournament, the club that was of the most use of time-outs was Akkad, while those of the least use of time-outs were the Sennacherib and North Gas.
       
  • Comparing the level of awareness and nutritional fitness among Nineveh
           Education team players for individual and team games

    • Abstract:     The current study aimed to identify the level of health awareness and food awareness among the players of the Nineveh Directorate of Education teams for individual and group games. The research problem is determined by the correlation of the level of mathematical qualification among students in the schools of the Directorate of Education of Nineveh in Iraq with the levels of health awareness and nutritional awareness among students. The objectives of the research are to identify the causes of discrepancies in the levels of health awareness and food awareness among students of the Nineveh Directorate of Education schools, and the association of levels of awareness with athletic achievement in individual and group games. The appropriate approach for research purposes is the comparative descriptive approach. The research population consisted of school students affiliated with the Directorate of Education in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq (1200) student. The research sample consisted of the sobbing players of Nineveh Education who represent the sports teams for individual and group games in the schools of the Directorate of Education in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq (500) player. The questionnaire method was used to identify the levels of health awareness and food awareness among the students of the Nineveh Directorate of Education schools, the questionnaire consisted of (32) items distributed on two axes: health awareness (13) items and food awareness (19) items Statistical methods: SPSS statistical packages were used to perform statistical analysis and appropriate statistical treatments for the data. Conclusions: It was represented in the high level of response, average health, and nutritional awareness in the study sample, and the high level of food culture associated with the type of sporting activity..
       
  • Constructing a measure of brain control for the referees of the Iraqi
           Premier League in football

    • Abstract: The current research aims: - Constructing a scale of cerebral control of football referees in Iraq-  Developing standard levels of cerebral control measures for football referees in IraqThe researchers used the descriptive approach due to its suitability to the nature of the current research. The research community included football referees throughout Iraq. The research sample consisted of (160) first-class referees in the Iraqi Premier League. A set of conclusions: - A measure of cerebral control was built for the referees of the Iraqi Premier League in football.-  Standard levels of brain dominance scale were established for the referees of the Iraqi Premier League in football - The pattern of cerebral control (B) the lower left part of the brain "the executive and organizational mental region is the dominant pattern of rulers with a rate of (29.032%), then it is followed by the pattern of cerebral control (A) the upper left part of the brain" with a rate of (27.655%).The researchers recommended the following: -Using the measure of brain dominance of the referees of the Iraqi Premier League in football to identify the dominant brain pattern. - Building a measure of brain control over the rulers of other activities.-  Using the measure of brain control patterns to strengthen and develop the functions of the dominant side of the brain on the one hand and activating the functions of the non-dominant side on the other hand to achieve balanced development of the functions of both sides of the brain of football referees.
       
  • The Role of Al-Fatat Sports Club in Developing Women’s Sports in
           Mosul (A Historical Study)

    • Abstract:     Sport in general is considered one of the cultural aspects that different states and countries depend on to reflect the extent of cultural and social development that reflects positively on those societies.  Women's sports is considered one of these facades or it is a branch of sports. Therefore, the countries of the world are naturally looking for ways, means, and methods that would work on the development of women's sports in them. As far as Iraq and the city of Mosul are concerned, the development in Women's sports during the past few years is considered an acceptable qualitative leap compared to the reality of women's sports in the past and the old times when customs and traditions were considered among the most important obstacles that impede the development or even the establishment of women's sports in the city. These customs and traditions shackled girls in the city and bound them with iron shackles.    The Al-Fatah Sports Club, which was established in 1993 in the city of Mosul, had an important and clear role in the development of the women's sports movement in Mosul, by encouraging girls to break into the world of sports and participation in their male brother in the practice of sporting events of all kinds, especially those that began to be practiced in schools.  At different levels of schooling (primary, middle, and secondary) and focusing on school sports with clear efforts from male and female teachers of physical education and the institutions that have worked on developing the rising sports spirit in the hearts of female students. Among these institutions are the Directorate of Education of Nineveh Governorate and the Department of Sports Activity and School Scouts affiliated to it.  In addition, one of the most important specialized women’s sports clubs is the Al-Fatah Sports Club in Mosul, which was an inexhaustible resource of women’s sports talents and still snatches titles and prizes.  The involvement of a large number of female champions affiliated with the club in the Iraqi national teams in several sporting events, made women’s sports in the city of Mosul referred to as Lebanon, especially since these female champions are students of the University of Mosul and its various colleges, and that the university has prepared for the club an ideal environment for them to practice their sports activities in  An atmosphere far from the general community of the city, and opened for them and their clubs sports halls, swimming pools, and private stadiums in the university and the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences. This cooperation, support, and backing by the University of Mosul greatly impacted the Al-Fata Sports Club's capabilities and enabled it to spread cultural and sports awareness in the city and among university students.  Even the housewives who started practicing sports on a large scale in the facilities of the irrigation club And their involvement in training courses, various workshops, and various cultural and sports seminarsThe research focuses on the major roles played by the Al-Fatah Sports Club in Mosul to develop women's sports in this city
       
  • The Use of Plant Extracts by Elite Athletes

    • Abstract: This study aimed to identify the motives, sources, and contraindications of using plant extracts by athletes in the sultanate of Oman, according to the variables of age and sports. the study relied on the descriptive analytical approach using a questionnaire that consisted of (18) phrases, with one open question. it was applied to a sample of (92) elite players in the Sultanate of Oman. the study found that there is a below-average level of influence in the motivations of athletes in the sultanate of Oman of plant extracts with (1.409) average, a below-average level of influence in the sources that athletes in the sultanate of Oman depend on to obtain plant extracts with (1.327) average, a below-average level of influence in the athletes' impediments to the use of plant extracts with (1.421) average, and the study indicated that there were no differences due to both (age& type of sport) variables
       
  • Supporting the local community to organize big events and its role in
           developing sports tourism in the Kurdistan Region-Iraq ((Erbil
           International Marathon 2022 as a model))

    • Abstract: Search aim to: - construction two measures, one of which measures local support for major sporting events, while the second measures the level of development of sports tourism in the Kurdistan Region from the point of view of the local population. - To identify the level of local support shown by the local population in the Kurdistan Region for the major sporting events that are held in their cities. - Identifying the level of tourism development in the Kurdistan Region from the point of view of the local population. - To identify the nature of the relationship and the percentage of contribution to the support shown by the local population for large sporting events in the development of sports tourism in the cities of the Kurdistan Region. The researchers used the descriptive approach using both survey and correlation methods. The research community included (250) residents present and honorary participants in the (Erbil International Marathon) who were chosen by the deliberate method. The sample of the survey study, the preparation sample, and the application sample were randomly selected (10, 144, 96). ) person, respectively, and to collect data, the researchers built a measure of local support for large sporting events and a measure of the level of development of sports tourism in the Kurdistan Region, then the researchers applied them after the availability of scientific conditions in them, and the researchers treated the data statistically using the arithmetic mean, percentage, and simple correlation coefficient, and the equation of simple linear regression, and the researchers concluded several conclusions, including: - The effectiveness of the measure of local support for sporting events in the Kurdistan Region has been verified after reaching its construction according to scientific procedures. - The effectiveness of the scale for the development of sports tourism in the Kurdistan Region has been verified after reaching its construction according to scientific procedures. The population of the Kurdistan Region shows a high level of support for major sporting events. - The Kurdistan Region is characterized by having an active role at high levels in order to develop sports tourism in it. 5- There is a positive moral correlation and an effective contribution rate for local support for large sporting events in the development of sports tourism
       
  • Obstacles facing small investment projects in the sports field

    • Abstract:     The research aims to find small disease obstacles and problems in the sports field, when selecting the study sample, the two researchers relied on the random method of the research sample, as the number of the study sample was (110) individuals from the total sample of the research. The researchers used the SPSS statistical program to conduct the statistical analysis, Among the most important conclusions of the research is the lack of competencies and administrative skills among graduates of physical education in how to manage small investment projects, the absence of laws, legislation, and institutions that work to support and protect small enterprises in particular, the delay in implementing government decisions supporting small projects, and the lack of experience of graduates of physical education in marketing projects. And the migration of qualified graduates from developing countries to developed countries, Among the most important recommendations are providing an appropriate investment environment to support projects in the sports field, providing a financing system for projects in the sports field, looking at the experiences of successful countries in the field of small projects in the sports field and benefiting from their experiences in developing and developing this sector, assisting small projects in marketing their products through Establishing local and international exhibitions
       
  • The effect of interfering with exercise scheduling (random and intensive)
           in learning and retaining the technical performance of the discus throw
           event

    • Abstract: The research aims to:- Detection of the effect of interfering exercise (random and intensive) on learning and retention of the technical performance of discus throwing- Detection of the effect of the exercise method accompanied by the most appropriate interference for learning the technical performance of the discus throw- Detection of the impact of the exercise method accompanied by the most appropriate interference for retention on the technical performance of the discus throwThe researcher assumes:- There are significant differences between the pre and post-tests of the experimental group in learning and retaining the technical performance of discus throwing effectiveness.- There are differences between the effect of the overlapping exercise method on the learning and retention rates of discus throwing effectiveness.The researchers used the experimental method in a group design. The research sample consisted of (11) students, as the sample was chosen by a simple random method (lottery), and then the sample was homogenized in terms of age, height, and weight. The implementation of the program took (8) weeks, at the rate of two units per week for each A group according to each learning style. The time of the educational unit was (90) minutes, and the researchers used some statistical methods that helped in achieving the objectives of the research.   The researchers reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which are:- Exercise, like the integration process that took place in the educational methods, has a significant and effective impact on learning and retention of discus throwing effectiveness.   - And the emergence of an effective positive effect for each exercise method (random and intensive) in learning the effectiveness of discus throwing. - The emergence of an effective positive effect for each of the two methods of intensive random exercise in retaining the effectiveness of discus throwing
       
  • Constructing a measure of the societal view of bodybuilders from the point
           of view of its practitioners in Nineveh

    • Abstract: The article aims to: Constructing a measure of the societal view of bodybuilders from the point of view of its practitioners in Nineveh Governorate . I dentifying the level of societal perception of bodybuilders from their point of view in Nineveh Governorate . Establishing standard levels for bodybuilders according to the societal view scale . I dentifying the differences in the societal view of bodybuilders from the point of view of its practitioners in Nineveh Governorate through : The age . Training age . Academic achievement level . Level of living attainment .     The researchers used the descriptive survey method, and the research community consisted of bodybuilders in Nineveh Governorate who are registered in the body building Sub-Union, while the research sample consisted of (250) players from the research community, the researchers used scientific sources and references and the questionnaire as means of data collection, the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percentage law, simple correlation coefficient, analysis of variance, and a (t)-tast for independent samples as statistical means. The researchers reached the following conclusions : Constructing a measure of the societal view of bodybuilders from the point of view of its practitioners in Nineveh Governorate . Bodybuilders enjoy a societal view of them through their practice of bodybuilding between average, good and acceptable. -           There are no significant differences between bodybuilders in the societal perception scale in age classifications, training age, academic achievement, and pension achievement.
       
  • The effect of simultaneous and sequential exercises of the phosphagen and
           lactate energy systems on a number of physical and functional variables
           and achievement in the 200-meter sprint for juniors

    • Abstract: The research aims to:     Revealing the significance of statistical differences in a number of physical variables and achievement in a (200) meters sprint for juniors between the pre \post-tests of the first experimental group that used simultaneous training for the phosphogenic and lactate energy systems, and the second group used successive training between the phosphagenic and lactate systems, as well as identifying the differences in the variables mentioned between the two research groups that used simultaneous and successive training of the phosphagenic and lactate systems in the post-test.     The researcher used the experimental approach due to its suitability and the nature of the research. The research experiment was carried out on a sample of junior short-distance runners in Nineveh Governorate for the 2022 sports season, they were (12) runners. And this sample was divided into two experimental groups in an intentional way, with (6) runners for each group, The homogeneity of the research sample in the variables of chronological age, training age, height, weight. Equivalence was also conducted between the two research groups in physical variables and achievement in the (200) meter sprint.     An experimental design used two equal groups, deliberately selected and distributed, with two pre\ post-tests. The research procedures included the design of two trainings, the first is the simultaneous training of the phosphagenic and lactate energy systems, and the second is the successive training between the phosphagenic and lactate system .The researcher conducted two exploratory experiments, the first was to conduct a training unit and the second was to perform tests.     After that, the pre-tests were conducted, then the two simultaneous and successive trainings were implemented. The implementation of the two trainings took (9) small cycles consisting of two medium cycles, and each medium cycle contained (3) small cycles with the formation of a load movement (2: 1) in each medium cycle, with a ratio of ( 4) Training units in one small cycle, after which the post-tests were conducted with the same steps and procedures that were followed in the pre-tests.     To extract the results, the statistical program (SPSS) was used, and the following statistical methods were relied upon: (the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the (T) test for related samples, and the (T) test for independent samples), in addition to the percentage, the torsion coefficient, and the effect size law (Cohen de) and (eta square) The researcher reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which are the following:  -The simultaneous training of the phosphagenic and lactate systems carried out by the first group made significant progress in all the physical variables dealt with in the research, namely (maximum transitional speed, prolonging of speed, explosive strength of the two legs, strength distinguished by the speed of the legs, and prolonging of the strength of the two legs) and significant progress in the achievement of a (200) Meters sprint, and the effect size was large (L(. - The successive training between the phosphaginic and lactate systems implemented by the second group made significant progress in all the physical variables that the research dealt with, namely (maximum transitional speed, prolonging of speed, the explosive power of the two legs, strength distinguished by the speed of the legs, and prolonging of strength for the legs) and significant progress in the achievement of a (200) meters sprint, and the effect size was large (L( . - Despite the significant progress that occurred for the two research groups after the implementation of the simultaneous and successive training in all physical variables, and the achievement in the (200) meters sprint, the statistical results did not show any significant superiority of one of the two groups over the other in all the mentioned variables, but there was a large effect size ( L) for the strength characteristic of the speed of the legs, and a medium effect size (M) for the speed and force prolonging of the legs, and a small effect size (S) for the explosive force of the legs, and all the effects were in favor of the simultaneous training group.
       
  • Health anxiety and its relationship to motivation to practice physical
           education and sports among students of some preparatory schools in Kirkuk
           Governorate

    • Abstract: The research aims to: Constructing a measure of health anxiety among middle school students in Kirkuk Governorate. Adapting a measure of motivation to practice physical education and sports among middle school students in Kirkuk Governorate. Identifying the level of health anxiety among middle school students in Kirkuk Governorate. To identify the level of motivation to practice physical education and sports among middle school students in Kirkuk Governorate. To identify the relationship between the level of health anxiety among middle school students and the level of motivation to practice physical education and sports among them. The researcher used the descriptive approach using both survey and correlation methods. The research community included (186) middle school students in Kirkuk Governorate. The sample of the exploratory study, the construction sample, and the application sample were selected in a random manner, with (4, 109, and 73) students, respectively. In order to collect information, a measure of health anxiety was built. The researcher also adapted a measure for the motivation to practice education and sports, and after the availability of the scientific conditions for the two measures, they applied. Then the data is processed statistically using the arithmetic mean and the simple correlation coefficient. The researcher concluded several conclusions, including: The effectiveness of the health anxiety scale among middle school students in Kirkuk Governorate was investigated after reaching its preparation according to scientific procedures. The effectiveness of the measure of motivation to practice physical education and sports among preparatory school students in Kirkuk Governorate was investigated after reaching its preparation according to scientific procedures. Middle school students in Kirkuk governorate have a low level of health anxiety. Middle school students in Kirkuk governorate have a high level of motivation to practice physical education and sports. There is a weak and statistically significant correlation between health anxiety and motivation to practice physical education and sports among middle school students in Kirkuk Governorate.
       
  • The Effect of Mending Exercises on Some of The Biochenmatic Variables Used
           For Initiating Runs For Swimming Sport

    • Abstract:     The mending exercises are considered one of the most important factors for mending the technical error performance to promote swimmers and its effect on the initiating runs for swimming sport.     The researcher aims to modify the initiating runs for swimming by finding the errors and mending them for swimmers. The problem studied is the unused specific mending exercises relating the technical performance. The research aims to discover the values of some biochemenematic variables affecting the technical performance for the starting runs in swimming, discovering technical errors and establishing mending exercises for these errors which should be given on the yard, and adding a group of reinforced exercises to increase swimmers level at the beginning.    The researcher used the experimental approach which is consistent with the research problem using the experimental design called the design of two test units. The research sample was composed of five swimmers from the swimming team of Ninevah. The researcher used measurements, scientific technical observation, and kinematic analysis as a tool to collect data to find the research variables. The researcher used the (SPSS) software to find the statistics (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and the T-test for the associated samples.     The researcher concluded from the total motion variables research sample that the used mending exercises positively the following getting ready variables: the in-between leg distance, the horizontal and vertical distances, and the resultant distance from the uppermost point reached by the swimmer to the in-touch water surface.  
       
  • The Effect of Using Teaching Methods In Learning The Skill of Serving In
           Tennis For Students of The Faculty of Physical Education And Sports
           Sciences

    • Abstract:     In order for the teaching process not to remain dependent on traditional methods that depend on the method of presentation style based on the basis that the teacher is everything in the process of teaching and developing skills, but rather to create a clear vision in learning the skill of serving in tennis through teaching methods that depend on the ability of the teacher to control and deal With the students, so the researcher decided to introduce new teaching methods that would contribute to raising students' ability to learn the skill of serving in tennis, including the methods of peer teaching and team teaching, and comparing that to the traditional teaching method used in learning the skill of serving in tennis for students of the Faculty of Physical Education. and sports science.      Research objective: Knowing the impact of using the peer teaching method in learning the skill of serving in tennis. Knowing the impact of using the team-teaching method in learning the skill of serving in tennis. Knowing the effect of using traditional practice in learning the skill of serving in tennis. Research hypotheses: There are moral differences between the pre and post-tests of the first experimental group that used the method of peer teaching in learning the skill of serving in tennis and the benefit of the post-test. There are moral differences between the pre and post-tests of the second experimental group used for the team-teaching method in learning the skill of serving in tennis and for the benefit of the post-test. There are moral differences between the pre and post-tests of the control group that used the traditional method used in learning the skill of serving in tennis, for the benefit of the post-test. There are moral differences in the post-tests between the three groups (the first experimental, the second experimental, and the control) in learning the skill of serving in tennis. The researcher used the experimental method on (55) students, with (18) students representing the peer teaching method group, (17) students representing the team-teaching method group, and (20) students representing the control group that used the traditional method. After completing the application of the proposed approaches, the data were processed and the following conclusions were reached: The teaching methods (teaching by peers, teaching by team) and the traditional method used by the professor have an effective effect on learning the skill of serving in tennis for students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad. The group that used (the method of peer teaching) was the first to teach the skill of serving in tennis to students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad. The group that used the team-teaching method came second in teaching the skill of serving in tennis to students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad. The group that used (the traditional method used) ranked third in teaching the skill of serving in tennis for students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad. The recommendations were: Benefiting from the use of teaching methods (peer teaching and team teaching) in learning other skills that were not addressed in the current study of tennis. Using the teaching method (peer teaching method) when learning the tennis skills that that have not been addressed in the current research, as it has proven the ability and mastery of students when learning the skill of serving in tennis. The need to conduct similar studies in diversity using the proposed teaching methods in learning the skills of tennis and in all other sports..
       
  • Measuring the level of productive efficiency and its role in the career
           passion of physical education teachers in schools affiliated with the
           First Karkh Education Directorate from the point of view of their
           principals

    • Abstract: Search aim to     Constructing two scales to measure the level of productive efficiency of physical education teachers in the schools affiliated with the General Directorate of First Karkh Education, and the level of job passion they have towards their job. - Identifying the level of productive efficiency possessed by teachers of physical education in schools affiliated with the General Directorate of Education of Baghdad, Karkh Al-Awal, from the point of view of their principals. - Identifying the level of job passion of physical education teachers in the schools affiliated with the General Directorate of Education of Baghdad Al-Karkh, from the point of view of their principals. - Identifying the role played by the productive competence of physical education teachers in the schools affiliated with the General Directorate of Education of Baghdad Al-Karkh Al-Oula in their job passion. To achieve these aims, the researcher resorted to using the descriptive approach in the survey and correlation methods. The researcher chose the teachers of physical education in the schools affiliated with the First Karkh Education Directorate, who numbered (230) teachers in a community for the research. The researcher identified the research sample as all the teachers of these schools in an inventory method. Comprehensive, and the research sample was divided into three samples, which are exploratory, construction, and application, with reality (10, 132, 88), to collect data, the researcher worked on building two scales, the first measures the productive efficiency of physical education teachers with several paragraphs that reached (14) paragraphs, the second measures passion And with several paragraphs of (10) paragraphs, each of them is answered with answer alternatives (I agree to a very large extent, I agree to a large extent, I agree to a moderate degree, I agree to a small degree, I agree to a very small degree), and after collecting data and analyzing them statistically through a set of statistical methods The researcher concluded a set of conclusions, the most important of which are: - The teachers of physical education in the schools affiliated with the General Directorate of Education of Al-Karkh Al-Awwal have an average level of productive efficiency in their jobs from the point of view of their principals. - The teachers of physical education in the schools of the General Directorate of Education of Al-Karkh Al-Awwal enjoyed an average level of job passion from the point of view of their principals. - There is a significant positive correlation between the productive efficiency and job passion of the physical education teachers in the schools affiliated to the General Directorate of First Karkh Education with an impressive contribution percentage of their productive efficiency in their job passion
       
  • Who will be the FIFA World Champion in 2022 in Qatar

    • Abstract:     In this paper, discrete-state Markov chains are used to obtain the winning probability through equilibrium and to estimate the Markov win probability value to predict the winners of the 2022 FIFA World Cup by modeling the historical participation of the participating teams in the 23rd FIFA World Cup which will be held in Qatar in November 2022. We suggest a strength index based on some factors: the number of times participated in the World Cup, the number of times they reached the top four, and the number of times the team won first place, in addition to the factor of the ground and the audience (host).     Predictive values are obtained for the teams that will top the tournament, which will qualify for the sixteenth round, which will qualify for the quarter-finals, semi-finals, and then the final Matches, which were arranged on the website of each team within its participation in the 2022 Napkin and according to the groups selected for it by FIFA.     Through this indicator, researchers were able to identify a model for participation in football. The teams within the rounds and their location in the round (16), the final, the quarter-finals, and to the final matches, gave us satisfactory and realistic results about the participation of each team and its role in the previous tournaments. It also gave us future space for an application to work on the rest of the competitions for team games such as handball, basketball, and volleyball
       
  • SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACTS OF MEGA-SPORT EVENTS IN SAUDI ARABIA CASE STUDY OF
           SAUDI DAKAR RALLY

    • Abstract:     This study investigates the determinants of the perceived social impact of a sports event by analyzing data obtained from the community including sports enthusiasts in general and Dakar Rally fans of the 2020 Dakar Rally. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers used the descriptive approach due to its relevance to the nature of the research.  The research sample was chosen randomly and included (600) people. The platform was tested by creating a database of 600 tweets from Dakar_SaudiArabia2020.Through the search, tweets were sorted by algorithms designed for this method. Also, tweets were classified into three categories (positive, neutral, and negative), and both the good and the weak were considered as negative opinions despite what is carried by the positive or negative tendencies towards the 2020 Dakar Rally.The Results show that a sports event achieves a higher level of social impact for regional attendees if they feel a greater sense of social companionship at the event and/or perceive a higher level of social responsibility of the event because of the geographical diversity and the interest to encouraging, motivating, and loving this type of sports. and the Saudi Dakar Rally is popular and accepted by those interested in such competitions, such as male local attendees observing a high level of social impact are likely to back the event
       
  • A Comparative Study of the Performance Efficiency and Morphology of the
           Heart Among Long-Distance Runners

    • Abstract: .    The research aims to reveal the efficiency of the performance and morphology of the heart between long-distance 3000, 5000, and 10000 meters and comparison between the three events. The descriptive approach was used in a comparative speech style for its suitability for research, The research sample of (6) has been set up by (2) for each effectiveness representing Nineveh province of power games (Athletics) selected in the deliberately, The average lengths, weights, ages, and the training age were (172,368 - ± 2,871) cm and (64,894 - ± 3,094) kg and (21,052 - ± 1,025 ) year and (8,336 - 1,654) years, respectively, The measurements were taken for the efficient performance and heart morphology by using the echocardiography. The measurements were conducted under unified laboratory conditions for all sample members, the researcher used the measurements and information available as means and tools for data collection, and a group of medical and laboratory devices were used. The following variables were studied (EF, IVSd, LVIDd, LVIDs, LVM). According to the type of efficacy they had undertaken for each player it led to positive significance changes between an enemy (3000 m and 5000 m), resulting in positive significance changes in (IVSd, LVIDd, and LVM). While these programs did not lead to any significant change in the values of the rest of the variables. But between the two activities of the elements (3000 m and 10000 m) have resulted in positive significance changes in (IVSd, LVIDd, and LVIDs), while these programs have not made any significant change in the values of the rest of the variables. Among the effectiveness of an enemy (5000 m and 10000 m) variable (IVSd), these programs have no significant change in the remaining values of variables
       
  • The response of a number of gas exchange variables to an increasingly
           intense aerobic exerciseIn children aged (10-12) years

    • Abstract: The aim of the research is to:• Learn the significance of the differences in gas exchange variables (volume of oxygen consumed (V̇O2), volume of carbon dioxide (V̇CO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), metabolic equivalent (METs)) when moving from rest to an aerobic exercise of increasing intensity in children Age (10-12) years.The researchers assumed the following:• The presence of statistically significant differences in the gas exchange variables (volume of oxygen consumed (V̇O2), volume of carbon dioxide (V̇CO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), metabolic equivalent (METs)) when moving from rest to an increased intensity aerobic exercise Children . The two researchers used the descriptive method for its suitability and the nature of the study. As for the research sample, it consisted of (10) children of (12-10) years in (Al-Jawadin) primary school from Al-Diwaniyah governorate. The final experiment was conducted under a moderate temperature condition (22 ± 1 ° C) and humidity. Ranging (20-30%) at rest and during physical exertion. The experiment was carried out in the physiological laboratory at the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / Al-Qadisiyah University.The two researchers concluded:• The intensity gradient of aerobic physical exertion would cause a significant increase in the transition from rest to the air voltage phase, from the air voltage phase to the anaerobic threshold phase, and from the anaerobic threshold phase to the maximum oxygen consumption phase in all gaseous exchange variables (volume of oxygen consumed) V̇O2), volume of carbon dioxide (V̇CO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), metabolic equivalent (METs)).
       
  • Effect of sport therapy on positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenic
           patient at AL-Rashad mental hospital

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that can take a chronic course. Treatment options include medication and verbal psychotherapy, but these can have limited effects in the most affected patients. Sport therapy may provide a mean of improving mental health among people with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic efficacy of sport therapy on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) of the inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia.SUBJECTS AND METHODSThe study was conducted in AL RASHAD hospital in the city of BAGHADAD for 6 month. It is a single blind randomized controlled trial. 100 male patients between the age of 18-59 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to DSM-5 criteria for at least 2 years duration prior to the beginning of the study were included. RESULTSThe total PANSS scores for the study group were significantly lower than those for the controls group, comparisons also showed that sport therapy affords significant advantages on general psychosocial functioning CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION Sport participation may result in reduced psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, less relapse and less consuming of different antipsychotic medications.
       
 
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