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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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New Approaches in Sport Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2588-6614
Published by Allameh Tabataba'i University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Effects of Exercise and Training on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants

    • Abstract: The first report showing that long-term endurance exercise increases oxidative stress in humans was published more than 4 decades ago. Since this discovery, many subsequent studies have confirmed the fact that muscle activity increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to oxidative stress in multiple tissues, including blood and skeletal muscle. Although several tissues may contribute to exercise-induced ROS production, muscle contractions are predicted to stimulate ROS production in active muscle fibers, and skeletal muscle is the major source of ROS production during exercise. This contraction-induced ROS production is associated with 1. oxidant damage in several tissues (eg, increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation), 2. accelerated muscle fatigue, and 3. activation of biochemical signaling pathways leading to adaptation. Exercise helps in tight muscle fibers, it is related. While our understanding of exercise and oxidative stress has advanced rapidly over the past decades, questions remain as to whether exercise-induced increased ROS production is beneficial or detrimental to health. This review addresses this issue by discussing the site(s) of oxidant production during exercise and detailing the health consequences of exercise-induced ROS production.
       
  • Seasonal Variations of Haematological, Biochemical and Physical
           Performance Indices in Elite Beach Soccer Players

    • Abstract: Background and purposes: Haematological, hormonal, biochemical and physical performance parameters were altered after long-term soccer training in professional soccer players. These alterations can be influenced by different contextual factors such as playing surface, training load, duration of training and competition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the haematological, inflammatory, antioxidant and physical performance of beach soccer players during the competitive season of the beach soccer. Methods: The study examined 15 elite beach soccer players in Iranian beach soccer primer league (age 24.64 ± 4.01 y, weight 75.08 ± 8.15 kg, height 181.00 ± 5.17 cm, body mass index 22.76 ± 2.36) from the pre-season, mid-season and end-season. Measurements of haematological, inflammatory, antioxidants indices and aerobic / anaerobic power were repeated in the pre-season, mid-season and end-season. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine indicators change during league season.Results: Significant decrease in SOD (p = 0.001), TAC (p = 0.043) and anaerobic power (p ≤ 0.048) and significant increase in GPx (p = 0.001), ALT (p = 0.022) was observed from pre-season to the end of the season. LDH levels showed a significant increase in the mid-season compared to the pre-season (p = 0.042) and a significant decrease at the end of the season compared to the mid-season(p = 0.014). However, no significant changes were observed in other indices during the competition season(p ≥ 0.05).Conclusion: It is suggested that some physical and physiological fatigue markers ar increase during mid-season. Therefore, beach soccer players may be monitored continuously during the competition season in order to be able to provide the best training, nutrition and recovery systems for performance optimization. Coaches may use the interplay between biomarker alterations and physical performance changes to better manage workload and monitor fatigue during beach soccer training and competition.
       
  • Relationship between the Level of Physical Activity and Nutritional Status
           with Fatigue in Elderly Residents of Rest Homes in Tehran

    • Abstract: Purpose: On the other hand, fatigue is one of the most important indicators of aging syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of physical activity and fatigue in elderly residents of rest homes in Tehran. Method: This was a descriptive correlational study in which 20 rest homes located in Tehran province constituted the study population. By visiting rest homes, the eligible subjects were chosen. Physical activity was measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). The FACIT Fatigue Scale is a short, 13-item, easy to administer tool that measures an individual’s level of fatigue during their usual daily activities over the past week. Nutritional status was evaluated by mini nutritional assessment (MNA). Results: The results of statistical analysis indicated a significant and positive correlation between PASE and FACIT scores (r=0.48, p<0.01) while, there was a significant negative correlation between FACIT score and age (r=-0.23, p<0.01). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between MNA and FACIT (r=0.40, p<0.01). In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between MNA and PASE score (r=0.31, p<0.01). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that holding sports classes under the supervision of exercise physiologists is an essential matter to increase health and prevent age-related complications in elderly residents of Tehran rest homes.
       
  • The Relationship between Body Composition with Blood Pressure and Sleep
           Quality in Male Dormitory Student at Allameh Tabataba'i University

    • Abstract: Background and Pupose: Hypertension and poor sleep quality can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, stroke, etc. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between body compositions with hypertension and sleep quality in male students living in Allameh Tabataba'i University dormitory. Material and Method: The present study was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population consisted of 170 male dormitory students of Allameh Tabataba'i University who were randomly selected. First, body composition indices and blood pressure of subjects were measured and recorded. Then, the Pittsburgh Questionnaire were completed by students (PSQI) to assess their sleep quality. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software at a significant level (P
       
  • The Effects of Moderate Intensity Aerobic Training on Serum Levels of
           Thyroid Hormones in Inactive Girls

    • Abstract: Propose: The thyroid hormones (T3, TSH, T4, and FT4) play a role in energy balance and regulation of energy expenditure. The aim present study to investigate the effect of moderate intensity aerobic training on thyroid hormone levels in inactive girls. Method: A total 30 inactive girls students were randomly selected and divided to training group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The training group doing research protocol for four week (three session per week of 70% maximal heart rate), also the control group was not intervened during the study. However, elevation anthropometric index before protocol training study. Blood samples were collected 24 hours before the first and after the last training session. For analysis data used T-test at significant level p<0.05. Results: Results showed a significant reduction of T3 (P<0.05), but no significant change were observed at T4, TSH, FT4 levels after training (P˃0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed that moderate aerobic training of 70% maximal heart rate have minimum effect on thyroid hormones in inactive adolescent girls.
       
  • The Effectiveness of Exercise Along with Health Literacy Training on Fatty
           Liver Grade and Body Mass Index in Sedentary Middle-Aged Men

    • Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise combined with health literacy training on liver fat grade and body mass index in sedentary middle-aged men. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was a pretest-posttest with a control group.  22 sedentary middle-aged man with a liver grade higher than 1 were purposefully selected and randomly divided into intervention (n = 11) and control (n = 11) groups. The subjects in the intervention group participated in the exercise training protocol for 8 weeks along with the health literacy training program, the control group did not have any intervention. Data were collected through liver ultrasound, blood sampling and body mass index measurement before and after the intervention and analyzed using ANCOVA test and SPSS20 software. Results: The results showed that exercise along with health literacy training improves liver fat content and reduces body mass index in the experimental group compared to the control group (P <0% 5). Conclusion: This study showed that performing two interventions of exercise and health literacy simultaneously is effective in improving the fat content of the liver and body mass index of sedentary middle-aged men and prevents the development of advanced fatty liver.‎
       
  • The Effect of a Customized Supplement Drink on Blood Lactate of Han-Madang
           

    • Abstract: Purpose: The adequate use of sport-related modern knowledge such as new findings regarding nutritional and dietary supplements is an essential prerequisite of success in modern professional sport. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 11 nationally prominent Taekwondoin with 8 to 12 years of experience and profile of (Age: 20±6 years, height: 178±12 cm, weight: 67±11kg, wrist circumference: 17±1 cm) were selected as subjects. The level of blood lactate, the time and speed of execution of Poomsae forms, and the number of Momdollyos successfully performed in 20 seconds were measured separately in a pre-test phase, after the intake of a placebo, and after the consumption of supplement drink. Results: Statistical results showed that lactate levels significantly increased compare to pre-tests in both groups. Although this increasing was not significant between groups in Momdollyo (p=0.599) and Poomsae (p=0.303). Indeed, number of successfully executed and also time of performance were significantly different in both Momdollyo (P=0.000) and    Poomsae (P=0.033). Conclusion: Intake of discussed customized decaffeinated supplement drink increased speed and number of execution of Poomsae forms and Momdollyo techniques but it seems that lactate levels depends on other factors in taekwondoin.‎
       
  • Physiology of Cutaneous Wound Healing: A Narrative Review Article

    • Abstract: Purpose: Skin is the most important organ of the body and maintains its integrity is critical in good health. Severe skin damage is life-threatening and repairing restores its tissue integrity and delay in it endangers health. According to the importance of wound healing and the fact that not treated wounds may decrease quality of life, many studies have investigated the effect of some natural and chemical substance on the length and quality of wound healing to find out beneficial interventions that rapidly and economically treat it. This review aimed to describe the physiology of cutaneous wound healing and some negative and positive factor with a focus on exercise. Methods: An electronic search without any time limitation was performed on the PubMed, Google scholar and web of science databases to find published articles in English. The keywords were wound healing, exercise, and physiology. According to relation to subject, similarities, and differences 48 articles were selected and reviewed. Results: wound healing is a complicated physiology process that consists of four consecutive overlapping stages. Disruption in each stage disturbs wound healing. Many chemical and herbal compounds are used to speed up wound recovery due to their anti-inflammatory property. Exercise is one of the effective factors in wound healing and many studies evaluated effect of different protocol of exercise on it. The results of studies show that aerobic exercise due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect is a beneficial method in shortening the length of wound healing, especially in aged, fat, and diabetic individuals. Conclusion: Moderate intensity aerobic exercise as a complementary medicine is a good intervention in the treatment of impaired and chronic wounds.‎
       
  • The Impact of Different Types of Exercise Training on the Angiopoietin
           Family

    • Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this study is to analyse various articles on the effect of various types of exercise on the angiopoietins family and angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs). Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched from 2000 to September 2020. After screening the articles, 19 articles that met the inclusion criteria were studied and analysed. Results: In our body, four types of angiopoietin and eight types of angiopoietin-like proteins have been identified, the functional method of some of them which are still not entirely understood. Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 are essential regulators of vascular formation and maintenance. Angiopoietin-1 is found in perivascular and vascular cells within and around smooth muscle cells and plays an important role in growth, vascular stability, and pathological angiogenesis. On the other hand, angiopoietin-2 and angiopoietin-3 are mainly involved in inducing vascular regression, cell death, and inflammation. Angiopoietin-4, like angiopoietin-1, is responsible for the maturation, stabilization, and stasis of blood vessels. Conclusion: Studies show that exercise has a significant effect on increasing capillary density in the human body by increasing angiopoietin as one of the angiogenesis factors. In addition, there are many other benefits such as contribution to fat burning and treatment of coronary artery disease, cancer, asthma, and ischemia. More research is needed on the effects of different types of exercise training on angiopoietins.‎
       
 
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