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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
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ISSN (Online) 2624-9367
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Terrain park injuries and risk factors in western Canadian resorts,
           2008–2009 to 2017–2018: insights for risk management

    • Authors: Tracey J. Dickson
      Abstract: Terrain parks (TP) are popular attractors to snowsport resorts for both skiers and snowboarders, however there is some concern about the risk of severe injury. TP risk management needs to balance the business case against the human cost of injury. To inform effective TP risk management strategies, it essential to understand risk factors, and injury frequency and severity. To this end, a retrospective inductive analysis of Canada West Ski Areas Association's Accident Analyzer database (2008–2009 to 2017–2018). Inclusion criteria., (i) at least 8 seasons of matching injury and participation data, (ii) minimum of 10 TP injuries p.a., (iii) activity either skiing or snowboarding, and (iv) injury location was coded as terrain park/rail. Data was excluded for ticket type N/A. Anonymised and deidentified secondary data was entered into SPSS for analysis. Between group differences were explored via χ2 analysis with Yates' Continuity Correction for 2 × 2 tables and an inductive data driven approach to explore other factors. From this data, 12,602 injuries were in TPs across 28 resorts. 11,940 (94.7%) met the inclusion criteria (14.2% female; 86.5%
      PubDate: 2024-02-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Chronic exercise interventions for executive function in overweight
           children: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis|Objectives|Methods|Results|Conclusions|Systematic Review
           Registration

    • Authors: Chenxin Lin, Danyi Li, Xiaying Wang, Shuo Yang
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo systematically evaluate the effectiveness of chronic exercise in physical activity (PA) as an intervention for executive functions (EFs) in children.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search in the following online databases: Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and EBSCOhost. The timing is from database inception to July 2023, following PRISMA guidelines. Our inclusion criteria required studies reporting executive function (EF) levels in overweight children (age 0–18 years) before and after interventions. The Cochrane risk of bias tool assessed study bias, and Egger's test examined publication bias. Subgroup analyses considered three moderators: intervention duration, weekly frequency, and session length.ResultsThe meta-analysis included a total of 10 studies with 843 participants. It revealed a statistically significant yet relatively small overall positive effect (g = 0.3, 95% CI 0.16–0.44, P 
      PubDate: 2024-02-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Athlete vulnerabilities and doping

    • Authors: Kim Nolte, Angela Jo-Anne Schneider
      PubDate: 2024-02-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Rethinking the MBA through Hip Hop innovation and Hip Hop innovators: Fat
           Joe and DJ Khaled pair with two sport × entertainment faculty

    • Authors: C. Keith Harrison, Reggie Saunders, Whitney Griffin, Scott Bukstein, Jeffrey Porter, Brandon Martin
      Abstract: Theory without relevance for practice in a professional graduate degree has been critiqued by some scholars as a deficit approach when preparing MBA students for the workforce. Scholars and practitioners alike call for more pedagogy in the curriculum with a focus on innovation, creativity, and the involvement of industry practitioners. This paper serves as a case study of a moment in time on Monday, 14 June 2021, when the concept of “pracademics” was realized between two artists and two faculty. Following the transcription of the dialogue between two guest speakers from the Hip Hop world (i.e., Fat Joe and DJ Khaled) and two faculty from the sport management MBA program, the paper analyzes the deeper meaning of their intellectual presence with their expertise in the business of culture (i.e., Hip Hop). Findings reveal how the pairing of Hip Hop artists and faculty in an MBA program can address the innovation gap within global business curricula and models. The broader umbrella of pedagogy and application has implications for other academic disciplines to embrace this concept of pairing academics and industry practitioners.
      PubDate: 2024-02-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Assessing the validity of two-dimensional video analysis for measuring
           lower limb joint angles during fencing
           lunge|Introduction|Methods|Results|Conclusions

    • Authors: Kenta Chida, Takayuki Inami, Shota Yamaguchi, Takuya Nishioka, Yasumasa Yoshida, Naohiko Kohtake
      Abstract: IntroductionThe fencing lunge (lunge), characterized by minimal body rotation, offers a movement well-suited for 2D video analysis. However, to the best of our knowledge, the validity of 2D video analysis for fencing has not been verified. This study aimed to validate 2D video analysis by comparing lower limb joints (hip, knee, and ankle joints) angles during lunge using both 2D video analysis and 3D motion analysis methods.MethodsTwenty-two male fencers performed lunge trials that were simultaneously recorded using eight motion capture cameras (Qualisys Miqus M1) and two digital video cameras (Sony AX-450 and AX450a).ResultsThe 2D video analysis results exhibited an extremely large correlation in knee joint angles of the front and rear legs in the sagittal with those from 3D motion analysis (r = 0.93–0.99). However, while a robust correlation was found between the ankle joint angles of the front and rear legs (r = 0.82–0.84), a large bias was also observed (−5.23° to −21.31°). Conversely, for the hip joints of the rear leg, a moderate correlation (r = 0.31) and a large bias (−10.89°) were identified.ConclusionsThe results of this study will contribute to the development of coaching using 2D video analysis in competition settings because such analysis can be a useful alternative to 3D motion analysis when measuring the knee joint angle of the front leg and rear leg in the sagittal plane. However, for the ankle joint angle, further research on the optimal shooting position and height of the digital video camera is needed, whereas for the hip joint angle, 3D motion analysis is recommended at this time.
      PubDate: 2024-02-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Association between physical activity and sleep quality among healthcare
           students|Objective|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: MinatAllah Alhusami, Noora Jatan, Skylar Dsouza, Meshal A. Sultan
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo assess the relationship between physical activity (PA) and sleep quality (SQ) in Mohammed Bin Rashid University (MBRU) students in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Taking into account this being one of the first studies exploring this aspect among healthcare students in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.MethodsThis is an analytical cross-sectional study that involved disseminating online surveys via email to students of all 5 colleges in MBRU between March-June 2023. The survey encompassed queries on demographics, the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).ResultsThe survey was completed by 105 students. Most students were from the medical college (98/105; 93.3%) and were females (84/105; 80.0%). Females engaged the most in low PA (44.0%) while males engaged the most in high PA (42.9%) according to the IPAQ-SF. There was a significant association between SGPALS and gender (p = 0.007, X2 = 12.0). The global PSQI score showed that 70.5% of the students had bad-quality sleep. Sleep efficiency and leisurely PA are significantly negatively correlated (p = 0.026, ρ = −0.217) while sitting minutes and sleep duration are significantly positively correlated (p = 0.030, r = 0.212).ConclusionSignificant negative correlations between sleep efficiency and leisurely PA demonstrate that while exercise has been implicated in the improvement of SQ, excessive exercise can behave as an additional stressor and induce negative changes in the SQ of healthcare students. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations between sleep duration and sitting indicate that adequate rest should not be undervalued in its effects on sleep. Furthermore, the findings of this study highlight public health implications that warrant attention by educators and policymakers in academic health systems.
      PubDate: 2024-02-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Motor learning in golf—a systematic review

    • Authors: Philipp Barzyk, Markus Gruber
      Abstract: Golf is a sport that consists of complex movement skills that need to be executed with utmost precision. Consequently, motor skill learning plays a crucial role in golf, and large numbers of studies address various methods of motor learning. In the present review, we give a systematic overview of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on motor learning of golf-specific motor skills. Three electronic databases were searched for RCTs looking at the effect of at least one learning method on performance in a golf-specific motor task. We grouped the studies depending on the learning strategies “cognitive training”, “practice scheduling”, “augmented feedback”, “implicit and explicit learning” and “focus of attention”. Fifty-two RCTs met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Superior methods within their respective strategies were an external focus of attention and increasing contextual interference, as well as errorless learning. For “cognitive training” and “augmented feedback”, no single method can be considered the most favorable. The overall biggest limitations were the lack of statistical power for more than half of the RCTs, and the fact that most studies of the present review investigated simple putting tasks in novices only. Although we have shown superiority of specific learning methods, transferability of the recommendations that can be derived from simple golf tasks in novices to sport-specific tasks in advanced players still has to be demonstrated and require study designs with the intention to provide practical recommendations for coaches and athletes in the sport of golf.
      PubDate: 2024-02-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Bat-and-ball sports: culture and society

    • Authors: Rogelio Puente-Díaz, Borja García-García
      PubDate: 2024-02-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • An examination of studies related to the sport of curling: a scoping
           review|Introduction|Methods|Results|Conclusions

    • Authors: Emily Zacharias, Nicole Robak, Steven Passmore
      Abstract: IntroductionThere has been growth in research in the sport of curling over the past few decades. The need for a scoping review is warranted. This study's purpose was to identify and synthesize research evidence regarding quantitative variables for a series of components within the sport of curling.MethodsA scoping review of studies published and established within four databases was performed. One independent reviewer selected studies based on a systematic procedure. Inclusion criteria for studies were: (1) interventions that focused on the sport of curling; (2) quantitative in nature; (3) written in English; and (4) published within a peer-reviewed journal, a conference presentation, or a published thesis.ResultsSearching identified 8,467 articles and 94 met the inclusion criteria. Data were organized and synthesized based on the devised research variables from the sport of curling: The curl mechanism of the curling stone; the impact of sweeping on stone trajectory; curling delivery mechanics; wheelchair curling; technology analysis; strategy and tactics; psychological factors; injury occurrences; facility and arena infrastructure; and assessment of curling training and ability. The findings confirm the strong knowledge base that exists across game variables and unveil controversy between the underlying physics that produces curl, as well as the mechanisms of sweeping responsible for manipulating the stone trajectory.ConclusionsKnowledge derived from this review can assist researchers, coaches, and curlers in addressing the specific variables of the sport that influence stone trajectory and game results. Such awareness will expose gaps in the current understanding and foster new research endeavors to further the knowledge of the sport.
      PubDate: 2024-02-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Characteristics of non-exercise activity thermogenesis in male collegiate
           athletes under real-life conditions

    • Authors: Mika Goshozono, Nozomi Miura, Suguru Torii, Motoko Taguchi
      Abstract: Athletes experience high total energy expenditure; therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of the components contributing to this expenditure. To date, few studies have examined particularly the volume and activity intensity of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) in athletes compared to non-athletes under real-life conditions. This study aimed to determine the volume and intensity of NEAT in collegiate athletes. Highly trained Japanese male collegiate athletes (n = 21) and healthy sedentary male students (n = 12) participated in this study. All measurements were obtained during the athletes' regular training season under real-life conditions. NEAT was calculated using metabolic equivalent (MET) data using an accelerometer. The participants were asked to wear a validated triaxial accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Physical activity intensity in NEAT was classified into sedentary (1.0–1.5 METs), light (1.6–2.9 METs), moderate (3.0–5.9 METs), and vigorous (≥6 METs) intensity. NEAT was significantly higher in athletes than in non-athletes (821 ± 185 kcal/day vs. 643 ± 164 kcal/day, p = 0.009). Although there was no significant difference in NEAT values relative to body weight (BW) between the groups (athletes: 10.5 ± 1.7 kcal/kg BW/day, non-athletes: 10.4 ± 2.2 kcal/kg BW/day, p = 0.939), NEAT to BW per hour was significantly higher in athletes than in non-athletes (0.81 ± 0.16 kcal/kg BW/h vs. 0.66 ± 0.12 kcal/kg BW/h, p = 0.013). Athletes spent less time in sedentary and light-intensity activities and more time in vigorous-intensity activities than non-athletes (p 
      PubDate: 2024-02-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Soccer above all' Analysis of academic and vocational education among
           female soccer players in the German women's Bundesliga and 2nd women's
           Bundesliga|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Peter Ehnold, Andreas Gohritz, Lena Lotzen, Torsten Schlesinger
      Abstract: IntroductionCareer-related (financial) reasons as well as advantages in terms of expanding social support systems, promoting a balanced lifestyle and personal development suggest that female soccer players should pursue academic or vocational education in parallel to elite sport. However, dual careers are fraught with challenges, mainly due to simultaneity in time and the associated conflicting goals. The aim of this article is to analyze the vocational or academic educational careers of professional female soccer players.MethodsTo generate the data, an online survey was conducted among soccer players in the German Women's Bundesliga and 2nd Women's Bundesliga. A total of n = 200 questionnaires (German: n = 191; English: n = 9) were included in the analysis, which corresponds to approx. 29.6% of the population addressed.Results90.6% of the players are pursuing or have already completed academic or vocational education. The majority (71.2%) of female soccer players choose to study. 81.8% of players report no impact or even a positive impact of soccer on their performance in academic or vocational education. Willingness to pursue and complete academic or vocational education is influenced by membership of the A-National Team, time spent playing soccer, form of school-leaving qualification, nationality and age.DiscussionThis study increases the visibility of professional women's soccer as an object of analysis in sports science research, follows up on demands for a more athlete-centered approach and generates further insights for research and practice with regard to the success of dual careers in elite sport.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • An interdisciplinary framework to optimize the anticipation skills of
           high-level athletes using virtual reality

    • Authors: Gilles Montagne, Nicolas Mascret, Martin Bossard, Loïc Chomienne, Simon Ledouit, Guillaume Rao, Nicolas Tordi, Eulalie Verhulst, Richard Kulpa
      Abstract: The ambition of our contribution is to show how an interdisciplinary framework can pave the way for the deployment of innovative virtual reality training sessions to improve anticipation skills in top-level athletes. This improvement is so challenging that some authors say it is like “training for the impossible”. This framework, currently being implemented as part of a project to prepare athletes for the 2024 Olympic Games in Paris, based on the ecological-dynamics approach to expertise, is innovative in its interdisciplinary nature, but also and above all because it overcomes the limitations of more traditional training methods in the field designed to optimize anticipation skills in top-level athletes. The ambition is to tackle successive challenges ranging from the design of virtual partners and opponents to the deployment of training programs in virtual reality, while ensuring the acceptability and acceptance of such innovative virtual reality training protocols and measuring associated workloads.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Recovery markers in elite climbers after the national boulder climbing
           championship

    • Authors: Arthur Fernandes Gáspari, Mayni Gabriele Zaminiani, Manoela de Carvalho Vilarinho, Danilo Caruso, Patricia dos Santos Guimarães, Rafael Perlotti Piunti, Alex Itaborahy, Antonio Carlos de Moraes
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate recovery markers among elite climbers following the National Boulder Championship. We assessed maximum isometric hand grip strength (HS), forearm swelling (circumference), delayed soreness in forearm muscles, tiredness, and exercise readiness at several time points: pre-competition, immediately post-competition (within 4 min after their last effort), and 12, 24, 48, and 60 h post-competition. Maximum isometric hand grip strength decreased by 6.38 ± 1.32% (p = 0.006) post-12 h, returning to pre-competition values post-24 h (all p > 0.05). Forearm circumference (FC) increased 1.78 ± 1.77% (p  0.05). Forearm pain (FP) increased post-competition (p = 0.002) and post-12 h (p  0.05). Tiredness increased post-competition (p 
      PubDate: 2024-02-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Table tennis players use superior saccadic eye movements to track moving
           visual targets|Introduction|Methods|Results and discussion|Conclusion

    • Authors: Riku Nakazato, Chisa Aoyama, Takaaki Komiyama, Ryoto Himo, Satoshi Shimegi
      Abstract: IntroductionTable tennis players perform visually guided visuomotor responses countlessly. The exposure of the visual system to frequent and long-term motion stimulation has been known to improve perceptual motion detection and discrimination abilities as a learning effect specific to that stimulus, so may also improve visuo-oculomotor performance. We hypothesized and verified that table tennis players have good spatial accuracy of saccades to moving targets.MethodsUniversity table tennis players (TT group) and control participants with no striking-sports experience (Control group) wore a virtual reality headset and performed two ball-tracking tasks to track moving and stationary targets in virtual reality. The ball moved from a predetermined position on the opponent's court toward the participant's court. A total of 54 conditions were examined for the moving targets in combinations of three ball trajectories (familiar parabolic, unfamiliar descent, and unfamiliar horizontal), three courses (left, right, and center), and six speeds.Results and discussionAll participants primarily used catch-up saccades to track the moving ball. The TT group had lower mean and inter-trial variability in saccade endpoint error compared to the Control group, showing higher spatial accuracy and precision, respectively. It suggests their improvement of the ability to analyze the direction and speed of the ball's movement and predict its trajectory and future destination. The superiority of the spatial accuracy in the TT group was seen in both the right and the left courses for all trajectories but that of precision was for familiar parabolic only. The trajectory dependence of improved saccade precision in the TT group implies the possibility that the motion vision system is trained by the visual stimuli frequently encountered in table tennis. There was no difference between the two groups in the onset time or spatial accuracy of saccades for stationary targets appearing at various positions on the ping-pong table.ConclusionTable tennis players can obtain high performance (spatial accuracy and precision) of saccades to track moving targets as a result of motion vision ability improved through a vast amount of visual and visuo-ocular experience in their play.
      PubDate: 2024-02-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Quantitative analysis of the dominant external factors influencing elite
           speed Skaters' performance using BP neural
           network|Introduction|Objective|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Zhenlong Yang, Peng Ke, Yiming Zhang, Feng Du, Ping Hong
      Abstract: IntroductionSpeed skating, being a popular winter sport, imposes significant demands on elite skaters, necessitating their effective assessment and adaptation to diverse environmental factors to achieve optimal race performance.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to conduct a thorough analysis of the predominant external factors influencing the performance of elite speed skaters.MethodsA total of 403 races, encompassing various race distances and spanning from the 2013 to the 2022 seasons, were examined for eight high-caliber speed skaters from the Chinese national team. We developed a comprehensive analytical framework utilizing an advanced back-propagation (BP) neural neural network model to assess three key factors on race performance: ice rink altitude, ice surface temperature, and race frequency.ResultsOur research indicated that the performance of all skaters improves with higher rink altitudes, particularly in races of 1,000 m and beyond. The ice surface temperature can either enhance or impaire performance and varies in its influences based on skaters' technical characteristics, which had a perceptible or even important influence on races of 1,500 m and beyond, and a negligible influence in the 500 m and 1,000 m races. An increase in race frequency generally contributed to better performance. The influence was relatively minor in the 500 m race, important in the 3,000 m race, and varied among individuals in the 1,000 m and 1,500 m races.ConclusionThe study results offer crucial guidelines for speed skaters and coaches, aiding in the optimization of their training and competition strategies, ultimately leading to improved competitive performance levels.
      PubDate: 2024-02-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Exploring actual and perceived levels of physical activity intensity
           during virtual reality active
           games|Background|Objective|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Keith E. Naugle, Xzaliya A. Cervantes, Carolyn L. Boone, Brandon Wind, Kelly M. Naugle
      Abstract: BackgroundResearch suggests that engaging in active virtual reality (VR) video games can elicit light to moderate levels of physical activity (PA), making it a novel and fun mode of exercise. Further research is needed to understand the influence of VR on perceptions of exertion and enjoyment during PA.ObjectiveThe objectives of this study are (1) to compare actual and perceived exertion within and between active VR games with varying levels of difficulty and (2) to determine how playing active VR games influences PA enjoyment during gameplay.MethodsA total of 18 participants completed four separate study sessions, during which they engaged in either a 15-min bout of traditional exercise (stationary cycling) or played one VR game. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) using the Borg CR10 scale were assessed during VR gameplay and cycling. Enjoyment was measured after gameplay. VR games included playing Holopoint at level 2 and level 3 and Hot Squat. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine (1) changes in HR and RPE across time within games and (2) differences in actual and perceived levels of intensity and enjoyment between games. Bivariate correlations examined the relationship between the degree of change in actual intensity and the degree of change in perceived intensity during each VR game and cycling.ResultsThe analyses revealed that RPE and HR significantly increased from baseline during each condition and generally increased across the 15-min of gameplay. Hot Squat and cycling elicited a significantly higher percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) than Holopoint at levels 2 and 3. Holopoint level 3 elicited a higher %HRR than Holopoint level 2. The participants reported greater average and max RPE during Hot Squat and cycling compared with Holopoint at levels 2 and 3. The correlations revealed a significant positive correlation between the degree of change in HR and RPE for cycling, but no significant correlations were observed for any of the VR conditions. The physical activity during Holopoint at both levels was rated as more enjoyable than Hot Squat and cycling.ConclusionOur data support the notion that VR has the potential to alter individuals’ perceptions of exertion during PA and, in particular, may reduce their awareness of increases in actual exertion.
      PubDate: 2024-02-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • The acute effects of a stretching and conditioning exercise protocol for
           the lower limbs on gait performance- a proof of concept and single-blind
           study|Background|Research question|Methods|Results|Significance

    • Authors: Felipe B. Santinelli, Aline Prieto Silveira-Ciola, Vinicius C. Moreno, Marina H. Kuroda, Fabio A. Barbieri
      Abstract: BackgroundDue to improvement in movement performance, post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) may open new possibilities to improve gait performance. However, no study has attempted to translate this phenomenon into walking. Therefore, the study aimed to test whether acute stretching followed by a conditioning exercise can improve subsequent gait performance in healthy adults.Research questionCan an exercise protocol subsequently improve gait performance'MethodsSixteen individuals walked four 10-m trials (in each period) before and after 7 min of an exercise protocol composed of stretching (focusing on the lower limb) and a conditioning exercise (standing calf-raise wearing a vest of 20 kg). Gait spatialtemporal parameters and muscle activity of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis muscles were obtained by a 3D-motion system and wireless electromyography, respectively. Before and after the exercise protocol, kinematic and muscle activity parameters were compared by a one-way ANOVA and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively.ResultsAfter the exercise protocol, the participants walked with a faster step velocity (p 
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and heart rate while exercising on
           seven different indoor cardio machines at maximum and self-selected
           submaximal intensity|Objective|Method|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Pablo Prieto-González, Fatma Hilal Yagin
      Abstract: ObjectiveOne of the main objectives of practicing indoor cardiovascular exercise is to maximize caloric expenditure. This study aimed to compare energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), and heart rate (HR) recorded in middle-aged adults while exercising on seven different indoor cardiovascular machines at self-selected maximal and submaximal intensity.MethodThirty recreational-active adult males (Age: 41.69 ± 4.64) performed 12-min bouts at RPE (Rate of perceived exertion) 17 and maximum intensity (MAX INT) on the following indoor cardio machines: Recumbent bike (r_BIKE), upright bike (u-BIKE), spin bike (s-BIKE), rowing machine (ROW), elliptical trainer (ELLIP), stair climber (STAIR), and treadmill (TMILL). Heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured during exercise, whereas EE (energy expenditure) was calculated indirectly.ResultsOverall, TMILL induced the highest levels of EE, VO2, and HR, followed by STAIR, ELLIP, s_BIKE, u_BIKE, ROW, and r_BIKE. RPE was reliable across exercise modalities (r_BIKE, u-BIKE, s-BIKE, ROW, ELLIP, STAIR, and TMILL) and intensities (RPE 17 and MAX INT) for EE, HR, and VO2 measurements.ConclusionTo maximize EE while performing indoor cardiovascular exercise for recreational active middle-aged male participants, the TMILL is the best option, followed by the STAIR and the ELLIP. The least recommended options are, respectively, s_BIKE, u_BIKE, ROW, and r_BIKE. Beyond caloric expenditure considerations, promoting exercises that participants genuinely enjoy can enhance adherence, fostering sustained health benefits. Furthermore, RPE is a reliable tool for assessing EE, VO2, and HR across different exercise modalities and intensities.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Cycling is the most important predictive split discipline in professional
           Ironman® 70.3 triathletes|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Katja Weiss, David Valero, Marilia Santos Andrade, Elias Villiger, Mabliny Thuany, Beat Knechtle
      Abstract: IntroductionOur study examined 16,611 records of professional triathletes from 163 Ironman® 70.3 races across 97 countries (2004-2020). The aim was to identify the most predictive discipline—swim, bike, or run—for overall race time.MethodsWe used correlation matrices to compare the dependent variable “finish time” with independent variables “swim time,” “bike time,” and “run time.” This analysis was conducted separately for male and female athletes. Additionally, univariate and multiple linear regression models assessed the strength of these associations.ResultsThe results indicated that “bike time” had the strongest correlation with finish time (0.85), followed by “run time” (0.75 for females, 0.82 for males) and “swim time” (0.46 for females, 0.63 for males). Regression models confirmed “bike time” as the strongest predictor of overall race time (R² = 0.8), with “run time” and “swim time” being less predictive.DiscussionThe study concludes that in Ironman 70.3 races, “bike time” is the most significant predictor of overall race performance for both sexes, suggesting a focus on cycling in training and competition strategies. It also highlights a smaller performance gap between genders in swimming than in cycling or running.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Differences in run-up, take-off, and flight characteristics: successful
           vs. unsuccessful high jump attempts at the IAAF world championships

    • Authors: Gareth Nicholson, Gaspar Epro, Stéphane Merlino, Josh Walker, Athanassios Bissas
      Abstract: Studies previously conducted on high jump have yielded important information regarding successful performance. However, analyses in competitive scenarios have often disregarded athletes’ unsuccessful attempts. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical differences between successful and unsuccessful jumps during competition. High-speed video footage (200 Hz) was obtained from 11 athletes during the 2018 Men's World Athletics Indoor Championship Final. From each athlete, one successful (SU) and one unsuccessful (UN) jump at the same bar height were included in the analysis, leaving seven athletes in total. Following whole-body 3D manual digitization, several temporal and kinematic variables were calculated for the run-up, take-off, and flight phases of each jump. During SU jumps, athletes raised the center of mass to a greater extent (p 
      PubDate: 2024-02-06T00:00:00Z
       
 
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