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Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9367
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Hybrid effectiveness-implementation study designs in sports injury
           prevention research

    • Authors: Hayley J. Root, Monica R. Lininger, Lindsay J. DiStefano
      Abstract: Despite vast evidence supporting the effectiveness of lower extremity injury prevention programs in a variety of sport settings, age groups, and levels of competition, there is limited evidence on implementation strategies that positively impact the feasibility, scale-up and sustainability of such programs. Sport-related injury prevention is affected by the research-to-practice gap, a pervasive issue in healthcare, where high-quality experimental research is not used in routine clinical practice. An intervention shown to be efficacious in a controlled environment, such as a lab or in a field-study conducted by scientists, will demonstrate a decline in benefit when implemented in the intended clinical setting. Real-world considerations, such as foundational knowledge and training, time constraints, or end user motivation, influence the quality and consistency of implementation. Acknowledging and addressing implementation barriers in a systematic way is essential to promote effective program dissemination. Study design methods that measure both clinical effectiveness and implementation strategies need to be identified. Hybrid effectiveness-implementation designs simultaneously measure both an intervention's effect on clinical outcomes as well as critical information related to implementation strategy; however these study designs are not frequently utilized. The purpose of this mini-review is to describe: the basics of hybrid designs, rationale for using hybrid designs, and examples of how these designs could be used in athletic healthcare injury prevention research.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T00:00:00Z
  • COVID-19-related impact on mental health and career uncertainty in
           student-athletes—Data from a cohort of 7,025 athletes in an elite sport
           high school system in Sweden|Objectives|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Anders Håkansson, Karin Moesch, Göran Kenttä
      Abstract: ObjectivesMental health consequences and behavior change has been described in elite athletes following the vast impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the world of sports. However, most study samples have been of limited size, and few studies have assessed student-athletes. This study aimed to analyze perceived mental health impact, measured as clinical degree of depression and anxiety, worry about one's sport and about one's career, and behavioral change with respect to video gaming behavior, in high-school athletes in Sweden.MethodsData on anxiety and depression as well as on perceived behavioral changes during COVID-19 were collected from students at sports high schools in Sweden (N = 7,025) in February 2021, during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.ResultsSixteen and 14% met criteria of moderate/severe depression and anxiety, respectively. Many respondents reported feeling mentally worse during the pandemic (66%), and were worried about the future of their sport (45%) or about their own future in sports (45%). Increased gaming behavior during COVID-19 was reported by 29%. All mental health variables were significantly more common in women, except increased gaming (more common in men). Being worried about one's career was less common in winter sports, more common in team sports and more common in older student-athletes, and associated with both depression and anxiety in regression analyses.DiscussionSelf-reported mental health impact of COVID-19 is substantial in student-athletes, and even more so in women and in team sports. The lower impact in winter athletes suggests a moderating effect of the seasons in which the COVID-19 outbreak occurred.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T00:00:00Z
  • Contextual variables affect peak running performance in elite soccer
           players: A brief report

    • Authors: Diêgo Augusto, João Brito, Rodrigo Aquino, Dailson Paulucio, Pedro Figueiredo, Bruno Luiz Souza Bedo, Deborah Touguinhó, Fabrício Vasconcellos
      Abstract: The current brief research report aimed to investigate the influence of contextual variables on peak running performance in male elite soccer players. We analyzed 29 matches of an elite soccer team during the Brazilian Serie A 2019. Twenty players were tracked using GPS units. Peak physical performance was determined using moving average running values with different time windows (1, 3, and 5-min periods). The variables analyzed were total distance covered, total distance covered in high-intensity running (≥19.8 km·h−1), and the distance in accelerations (≥2 m·s−2) and decelerations ( ≤-2 m·s−2). Four contextual variables were considered: 1) positional status; 2) match location; 3) match outcome; and 4) match status. Central defenders showed a lower 1-min peak total distance in relation to all other positions (p = 0.001–0.03). Peak physical performance was higher in away matches for high-intensity running, acceleration, and deceleration (p = 0.01–0.03). In matches that ended in losses, peak values for high-intensity running and acceleration were higher compared to draws and wins (p = 0.01–0.04). Regarding the match status, higher values were observed in draws than wins and losses (p = 0.01). Peak running performance vary according to contextual variables of the match in male elite soccer players. Positional differences were found for peak periods, and physical performance was higher in away matches.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
  • Building bridges: Connecting sport marketing and critical social science

    • Authors: Zachary Charles Taylor Evans, Sarah Gee, Terry Eddy
      Abstract: Recently, sport management scholars have called for researchers to critically evaluate the ways in which research questions and resulting contributions truly disrupt what is known, how it is known, why it is important to know, and for whom. Historically, sport marketing research has adapted traditional research approaches from the parent marketing discipline to sport. Yet, sport is a constantly evolving social and cultural phenomenon and a reliance on conventional theories, concepts, and methods can serve to crystalize the discourse in sport marketing in ways that may limit knowledge production. Responding to this call, we believe that sport marketing research has much to gain from engaging with critical social science assumptions, worldviews, and perspectives to examine complex issues in sport. We position this paper as a starting point for advancing the field of sport marketing in meaningful and impactful ways by offering two research propositions, each accompanied by four actional recommendations. We employ a particular focus on the marketing campaigns that activate and promote corporate partnerships in sport to frame our two propositions, which discuss (1) consumer culture theory and (2) the circuit of culture as two important frameworks that begin to build bridges between sport marketing and critical social science.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic games: Specificities,
           novelties and lessons learned

    • Authors: Grégoire P. Millet, Yuri Hosokawa, Øyvind Sandbakk, Olivier Girard
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
  • Where are the African voices and perspectives of women in sport

    • Authors: Nana Akua Achiaa Adom-Aboagye
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
  • Daily and weekly external loads in the microcycle: Characterization and
           comparison between playing positions on amateur soccer

    • Authors: Mauro Miguel, Alberto Cortez, Felix Romero, Nuno Loureiro, Javier García-Rubio, Sergio José Ibáñez
      Abstract: Ensuring adequate levels of training and recovery to maximize player performance is critical; however, there are methodological challenges in designing a periodized training program for soccer teams. This study aims to describe and characterize the daily and weekly external load in an amateur soccer team and based on the weighting factors determined by the match reference, compare the external loads between playing positions. Twenty-four amateur soccer players (22.3 ± 1.7 years) were monitored using a global positioning system. Data collected comprises 19 competitive microcycles with a standard structure composed of 3 training sessions (matchday-5, matchday-3, and matchday-2) and one match. Match-reference values were calculated as the mean of the five best values recorded during official matches. The results show, on matchday-5 session, the existence of significant differences between playing positions to relative total distance covered (p = 0.050), relative sprint distance (p = 0.001), relative moderate-intensity accelerations (p < 0.001), relative high-intensity accelerations (p = 0.003), relative moderate-intensity decelerations (p < 0.001), and relative high-intensity decelerations (p = 0.017). On matchday-3 session, there are significant differences to relative very high-speed running distance (p = 0.017) and relative moderate-intensity decelerations (p = 0.014). On matchday-2 session, there are significant differences to relative high-speed running distance (p = 0.025), relative very high-speed running distance (p = 0.008), and relative moderate-intensity decelerations (p < 0.001). Weekly significant differences are observed between the playing positions to relative moderate-intensity accelerations (p = 0.002), relative high-intensity accelerations (p < 0.001), and relative moderate-intensity decelerations (p < 0.001). The weekly load is characterized by a greater weighting on accelerations and decelerations, compared to distances at very-high speed and sprint. The training loads must respect a standard training model that contemplates the individualization of the physical demands of the match, for each playing position, as for each individual.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
  • “Nothing Is Gonna Change If We Don't Care for Everyone”: A Narrative
           Inquiry Alongside Urban Indigenous Youth in an Afterschool Physical
           Activity Wellness Program

    • Authors: Brian Lewis, Lee Schaefer, Sean Lessard, Jordan Koch
      Abstract: In the fall of 2013, the authors received funding to help develop and implement an afterschool wellness program alongside Indigenous youth aged 6–10 years old in the North Central neighborhood of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The Growing Young Movers (GYM) afterschool program was funded, in part, as a corrective response to a broader social trend in which Indigenous youth in this neighborhood reported declining health and wellness outcomes, as well as multiple other barriers to social inclusion. This article discusses the reflections of three senior high school Indigenous youth (16–18 years old) who participated in the afterschool program as peer-mentors over a 2-year period from 2015 to 2017. Our inquiry reveals how these youth viewed the program—and their role(s) within it—in far more complex, active, and even political terms, than the program's initial framing as a physical activity-based “intervention” had anticipated. Our analysis (re)positions youth according to their own personalized voice and narratives as: cultural leaders, knowledge holders, and as agents of change in their community.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T00:00:00Z
  • Augmented Cooper test: Biomechanical contributions to endurance

    • Authors: Salil Apte, Simone Troxler, Cyril Besson, Vincent Gremeaux, Kamiar Aminian
      Abstract: Running mechanics are modifiable with training and adopting an economical running technique can improve running economy and hence performance. While field measurement of running economy is cumbersome, running mechanics can be assessed accurately and conveniently using wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs). In this work, we extended this wearables-based approach to the Cooper test, by assessing the relative contribution of running biomechanics to the endurance performance. Furthermore, we explored different methods of estimating the distance covered in the Cooper test using a wearable global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver. Thirty-three runners (18 highly trained and 15 recreational) performed an incremental laboratory treadmill test to measure their maximum aerobic speed (MAS) and speed at the second ventilatory threshold (sVT2). They completed a 12-minute Cooper running test with foot-worm IMUs and a chest-worn GNSS-IMU on a running track 1–2 weeks later. Using the GNSS receiver, an accurate estimation of the 12-minute distance was obtained (accuracy of 16.5 m and precision of 1.1%). Using this distance, we showed a reliable estimation [R2> 0.9, RMSE ϵ (0.07, 0.25) km/h] of the MAS and sVT2. Biomechanical metrics were extracted using validated algorithm and their association with endurance performance was estimated. Additionally, the high-/low-performance runners were compared using pairwise statistical testing. All performance variables, MAS, sVT2, and average speed during Cooper test, were predicted with an acceptable error (R2 ≥ 0.65, RMSE ≤ 1.80 kmh−1) using only the biomechanical metrics. The most relevant metrics were used to develop a biomechanical profile representing the running technique and its temporal evolution with acute fatigue, identifying different profiles for runners with highest and lowest endurance performance. This profile could potentially be used in standardized functional capacity measurements to improve personalization of training and rehabilitation programs.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T00:00:00Z
  • Deaf and non-deaf basketball and volleyball players' multi-faceted
           difference on repeated counter movement jump performances: Height, force
           and acceleration

    • Authors: Recep Soslu, Ömer Özer, Abdullah Uysal, Ömer Pamuk
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the performances of Repetitive Counter Movement Jumping (basketball/volleyball) of deaf/non-deaf athletes. Athletes playing in the Turkish Deaf Basketball and Volleyball national teams and in Basketball and Volleyball First Leagues participated in the study. The study group consisted of 51 male athletes, including deaf basketball (n = 11; age: 26.18 ± 4.79 years), deaf volleyball (n = 12, age: 26.33 ± 4.27 years), non-deaf basketball (n = 14, age: 26.93 ± 4.87 years), and non-deaf volleyball (n = 14, age: 24.93 ± 5.10 years) players. As a result of the test, Jump Height from Take Off Velocity, Jump Height from Take Off Velocity, Jump Height from Flight Time, Counter Movement Acceleration, Push Off Acceleration, Average Velocity, Average Power, and Average Force were analyzed. Differences in the jump performances among the groups (deaf basketball and volleyball, non-deaf basketball, and volleyball) were tested by one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post-hoc follow-up testing when necessary for jump test. As a result, this is the first study to investigate the number of jumps and jump height, the force produced, acceleration at the time of jump, and jump velocity during 30 s in deaf and non-deaf basketball and volleyball players within the scope of individual Repeated Counter Movement Jump test. Based on the biomechanical changes according to our results, our findings show a greater decrease in the number of jumps and jump heights, the force produced, the acceleration at the moment of the jump and the jump velocity in all athletes, especially those that affect the deaf.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T00:00:00Z
  • Paradoxes in practices of inclusion in physical education

    • Authors: Corina van Doodewaard, Annelies Knoppers
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to explore how high school PE teachers create norms for inclusion based on gender as it intersected with ethnicity, ability, and effort.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T00:00:00Z
  • Athlete experiences of communication strategies in applied sports
           nutrition and future considerations for mobile app supportive

    • Authors: David Mark Dunne, Carmen Lefevre-Lewis, Brian Cunniffe, Samuel George Impey, David Tod, Graeme Leonard Close, James P. Morton, Rebecca Murphy
      Abstract: AimThis study aimed to explore athletes' experiences and opinions of communication strategies in applied sports nutrition, as well as capture suggestions for future mobile app supportive solutions.MethodsA qualitative approach was used for this research. Data was generated from semi-structured focus groups (n = 9) with a purposive sample of 41 (male = 24, female = 17) full time professional athletes (mean age 24 ± 4.59) from five sports (football, rugby union, athletics, cycling, and boxing). Data was analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis.ResultsThe analysis identified four higher order themes and five sub themes. Athletes appear dissatisfied with the levels of personalization in the nutrition support they receive. Limited practitioner contact time was suggested as a contributing factor to this problem. Athletes acknowledged the usefulness of online remote nutrition support and reported a desire for more personalized technology that can tailor support to their individual needs.ConclusionAthletes experienced a hybrid human-computer approach that combines in-person and remote digital methods to communicate with and receive information from practitioners. Mobile technology may now afford sports nutritionists with new opportunities to develop scalable solutions to support practice.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Portugal nautical stations: Strategic alliances for sport tourism and
           environmental sustainability

    • Authors: Elsa Pereira, Rute Martins, João Filipe Marques, Adão Flores, Vahid Aghdash, Margarida Mascarenhas
      Abstract: Nautical tourism is a tourist product with great development in the European space and a lot of potential to promote and develop tourist destinations. Considering the dynamics of nautical tourism management and the importance of meeting the specificities of this market niche, the objective of this study was to analyse the strategic alliances for the development of the offer of nautical tourism products, namely the strategic goals and sustainable environmental practices adopted by their actors which integrated the strategic alliances in order to certificate a plethora of nautical stations in Portugal. Between September and December 2021, 17 Portuguese nautical stations' application forms were collected. Content analysis using Nvivo software was the technique used for data analysis. The results showed a multiplicity of strategic objectives associated with the strategic alliance established between the nautical stations. The strategic vision of nautical stations for the development of strategic alliances is built, firstly, on the objective of structuring the tourism offer, followed by increasing governance and promoting and marketing nautical tourism using the image of the destination. Based on these results, it is possible to infer the importance of nautical stations in destination competitiveness and the role of strategic alliances in facilitating penetration in the nautical tourism market. The managers of nautical stations should consider the use of strategic alliances to make a cooperative marketing in order to improve the experience of the clients. Regarding environmental sustainability practices, the results exposed the prominence of environmental education actions in contrast to the reduced number of nautical stations developing actions for the adoption of sustainable transport. This study contributes to a better understanding of nautical tourism and Portuguese nautical stations, a project of strategic investment in sport and tourism, inferring on the objectives underlying the formation of strategic alliances and on the adopted environmental sustainability practices. The conclusions of this study point to the need for future scientific research on the actual operationalization of the objectives underlying the formation of strategic alliances, as well as the environmental practices developed by nautical stations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Vector-based analysis of cortical activity associated with dumbbell
           exercise using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    • Authors: Toshinori Kato
      Abstract: The mechanisms via which the brain and muscles work together remain poorly understood. The use of vector-based fNIRS, to propose a new metric and imaging method to understand neural activation during dumbbell-lifting exercises. This method can simultaneously measure oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) and deoxyHb levels so that the angle k: Arctan (deoxyHb/oxyHb) represents the degree of oxygen exchange in the brain and can be used to quantify the distribution of oxygen consumption. The amplitude L of the vector reflects the intensity of the response caused by the amount of change in Hb. This study used vector-based fNIRS to simultaneously measure the left primary motor cortex (left M1), multiple peripheral regions, and the right biceps brachii muscle. The subjects were seven healthy adults. The task was a dumbbell-lifting exercise involving flexion and extension of the elbow joints of both arms. Dumbbell weights of 0 (no dumbbell), 4.5, and 9.5 kg were used. During dumbbell exercise, oxygen exchange increased in the left M1, indicating increased local oxygen consumption. Around the left M1, the cerebral oxygen exchange decreased, and oxygen supply increased without cerebral oxygen consumption. The spatial agreement between the maximum value of oxygen exchange k and L during the task was
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Promoting a culture change in junior and youth sport in New Zealand

    • Authors: Simon R. Walters, Vincent Minjares, Trish Bradbury, Patricia Lucas, Andrew Lenton, Kirsten Spencer, Simone Spencer
      Abstract: This paper provides insight into the evolution of a project designed to address longstanding adult attitudes and behavioural issues in junior and youth sport in New Zealand. The project was funded by Sport New Zealand (Sport NZ) and implemented by Aktive, a charitable trust that works with national and regional partners to fund and deliver community sport in Auckland. Aktive collaborated with a team of junior and youth sport researchers, adopting a pragmatic, mixed methods design-based research (DBR) approach to co-design an educational delivery framework aimed at influencing attitudes and assumptions underpinning coaches, parents, and community sport leaders' behaviours. Transformative learning principles informed the delivery framework with the project reaching 4,222 participants. Research evaluations included multiple case studies, surveys, semi-structured interviews, and focus groups, which confirmed awareness of problematic beliefs. The programme expanded to Regional Sport Organisations (RSOs) and National Sport Organisations (NSOs) culminating in a nationwide rollout. The study highlights the effectiveness of theoretically informed adult behaviour change programmes in junior and youth sport, the benefits of programmes being underpinned by a rigorous pedagogical approach, and the benefits of sport organisations and researchers collaborating to design and deliver sustainable change initiatives that address belief systems underpinning current issues.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Women in elite sports and performance enhancement: 2021

    • Authors: Louise Deldicque
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
  • Quantifying mechanical and metabolic interdependence between speed and
           propulsive force during walking

    • Authors: Richard E. Pimentel, Jordan N. Feldman, Michael D. Lewek, Jason R. Franz
      Abstract: Walking speed is a useful surrogate for health status across the population. Walking speed appears to be governed in part by interlimb coordination between propulsive (FP) and braking (FB) forces generated during step-to-step transitions and is simultaneously optimized to minimize metabolic cost. Of those forces, FP generated during push-off has received significantly more attention as a contributor to walking performance. Our goal was to first establish empirical relations between FP and walking speed and then to quantify their effects on metabolic cost in young adults. To specifically address any link between FP and walking speed, we used a self-paced treadmill controller and real-time biofeedback to independently prescribe walking speed or FP across a range of condition intensities. Walking with larger and smaller FP led to instinctively faster and slower walking speeds, respectively, with ~80% of variance in walking speed explained by FP. We also found that comparable changes in either FP or walking speed elicited predictable and relatively uniform changes in metabolic cost, together explaining ~53% of the variance in net metabolic power and ~14% of the variance in cost of transport. These results provide empirical data in support of an interdependent relation between FP and walking speed, building confidence that interventions designed to increase FP will translate to improved walking speed. Repeating this protocol in other populations may identify other relations that could inform the time course of gait decline due to age and disease.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
  • Influence of crowd size on home advantage in the Japanese football league

    • Authors: Ryota Nomura
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the influence of crowd size on home advantage (HA). Data of the 2019 and 2020 seasons of the J1 League (Japan Professional Football's First Division League) were analyzed. Matches during the 2019 season were played under regular conditions, while there was low stadium occupancy during the 2020 season to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Regarding average points won, HA disappeared. By using multiple group structural equation modeling, it was examined the routes of influence via which a reduction in crowd size influenced HA. The results indicated that the influence from the crowd size to the referee's decisions disappeared during the 2020 season. However, the factors including the referee's decisions have lower effects on the outcome factor. Hence, no dominant route was detected in the present study.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
  • Motivation to train during a pandemic: The role of fitness resources,
           mental health, and motivational profiles among student-athletes in team

    • Authors: Rebecca J. Purc-Stephenson, Thomas M. J. Zimmerman, Rachel Edwards
      Abstract: The sporting season across post-secondary institutions was canceled in March 2020 due to COVID-19, and student-athletes had to maintain their training at home. It is unclear what personal and contextual factors facilitated student-athletes' ability to maintain their training routines at home when social distancing and lockdown (SD/L) policies were put in place. Our cross-sectional study of 433 student-athletes examined (a) how athletes adapted their training, (b) what training barriers they experienced, (c) whether motivational profiles were associated with differences in training behaviors and mental health, and (d) what variables predicted athletes' motivation to train during this prolonged offseason. Student-athletes across Canada were recruited to complete an online survey between August and September 2020. Results showed that athletes significantly reduced their training load and intensity, with approximately 25% exercising two or fewer days a week. Barriers to training included limited access to fitness resources and equipment, having inconsistent training schedules, and experiencing emotional distractions, with some of these barriers more common among female athletes than male athletes. For motivation profiles, athletes with higher levels of intrinsic motivation tended to maintain the intensity of their workouts and experienced lower mood disturbance. A hierarchical multiple regression revealed that being male, being younger, having higher levels of intrinsic and introjected motivation, having access to fitness resources, maintaining a steady training schedule, having fewer emotional distractions, and lower mood disturbance were significant predictors to being motivated to train during the pandemic. We discuss strategies coaches and trainers can implement to best support their student-athletes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
  • Association between spinal disorders and different domains of physical
           activity among young adult men|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusions

    • Authors: Tuomas Honkanen, Jani P. Vaara, Harri Pihlajamäki, Ville Västilä, Heikki Kyröläinen
      Abstract: BackgroundThere is limited evidence of how physical activity (PA) associates with low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP). Particularly, the association between occupational or commuting PA and LBP/NP is unclear. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between spinal disorders and different physical activity domains in young and healthy adult men.MethodsSelf-reported leisure time, occupational and commuting PA, as well as LBP and NP, were studied using questionnaires among young Finnish males (n = 1,630). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations of PA domains, physical fitness, and spinal disorders. Regression models were adjusted for age, education, smoking, waist circumference, and the other PA domains.ResultsThere was a positive association between moderate leisure-time PA and both LBP (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.18–1.95) and NP (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00–1.66) compared to low PA. Furthermore, moderate (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.00–1.71) and high (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02) leisure time PA groups had a higher likelihood of lumbago. Moderate (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51–0.90) and high (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48–0.95) occupational PA groups had lower likelihood for radiating LBP, while high occupational PA (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.52–0.99) had lower likelihood for lumbago.ConclusionsThe associations between physical activity and LBP or NP seem to vary between different domains of physical activity among young healthy men. Commuting and occupation-related PA appear not to be harmfully associated with LPB or NP, whereas moderate-level leisure time PA may be associated with increased LBP and NP, and the respective high level may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of lumbago.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T00:00:00Z
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