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Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9367
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • “Dear IOC”: Considerations for the Governance, Valuation, and
           Evaluation of Trends and Developments in eSports

    • Authors: Dees B. W. Postma, Robby W. van Delden, Ivo M. van Hilvoorde
      Abstract: In 2021, the International Olympic Committee ventured virtual space by launching their first ever Olympic Virtual Series – featuring virtual baseball, cycling, rowing, sailing and motor racing. Interestingly, all these virtual events take strongly after their physical counterparts. Which begs the question: Where are the massively popular esports games like Fortnite, League of Legends, and Dota'–What do the Olympic Virtual Series have that these popular video games do not' Here, we argue for the inclusion of esports within the Olympic program. In many respects, esports “act” and “behave” just like traditional sports. We argue that esports and traditional sports share many of the same values, like the values of meritocracy, competition, fair play, and the value of having a “level playing field”. Yet, in esports, many of these values remain underappreciated, losing out to negative values such as physical inactivity and game-addiction. To preserve what is worth preserving, we borrow from Value Sensitive Design to ameliorate the design-tensions that are foregrounded in esports. Thereby, paving possible ways toward the inclusion of esports in the Olympic program. Ultimately, the question for the IOC should not be “does it look like ‘real sport’, as we know it'”, but rather: are they sporting, rule-led, and fair activities worth preserving and setting an example for a new digitally savvy generation'
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • Sleep Quality and Sleep Behaviors in Varsity Athletes: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Lyndon J. Rebello, Andrew W. Roberts, Alyssa M. Fenuta, Anita T. Cote, Michael E. Bodner
      Abstract: Sleep hygiene practices may hinder university athletes from obtaining quality sleep to support health and performance. We sought to provide a comprehensive evaluation of sleep quality and behaviors in varsity athletes using validated sleep questionnaires: the Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and the Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (ASBQ). Sixty-four (n = 64) athletes participated (54% female; 71% Caucasian). The mean age was 20.3 ± 1.7 years and the mean BMI was 23.3 ± 3.3. Fifty-one percent met the threshold for adequate sleep (7+ h) and 54% reported being somewhat/very satisfied with sleep quality. Global scores for ASSQ Sleep Difficulty and ASBQ sleep behaviors were significantly correlated (r = 0.31; p = 0.014) and not significantly different across age, academic year, or residence. According to the ASSQ, 11% and 24% were classified as having severe or moderate sleep problems, respectively. The ASBQ categorized 62% as having “poor” sleep behaviors. Notable sleep-influencing factors included a high frequency of emotional/cognitive processing of sport-performance issues (46.9%), frequent use of light-emitting devices before bed (90%), training after 7 pm (65%), and the use of sleep medication (19%). Half of the university athletes did not meet the thresholds for adequate sleep, and some may require a referral for clinical sleep issues. The majority of these athletes' sleep behaviors do not promote adequate sleep. The ASSQ shows utility to assess gradations in clinical sleep difficulty; the ASBQ could be used in concert with the ASSQ to discern “cognitive and physiological arousal” targets for use in educational workshops designed to promote optimal sleep hygiene in university athletes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • The Effects of a Real-Time Visual Kinetic Feedback Intervention on Shock
           Attenuation of the Equestrian Rider's Trunk: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Marc Elmeua González, Nejc Šarabon
      Abstract: Augmented feedback (provided by an external source) has been commonly used by practitioners who are introducing or re-educating movement patterns as a valuable tool of instruction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of real-time visual kinetic feedback on a horse-riding coaching session. Sixteen riders volunteered to take part in this study. They performed a pre-intervention trial, a 20-min coaching intervention, and a post-intervention trial. The participants randomly received a coaching + feedback intervention or a coaching-only intervention. Forces at the bit and stirrups were recorded at trot and canter. Thirteen inertial measuring units were fitted to the horse's forelimbs and poll, to the stirrups, cantle of the saddle, distal part of the bridles, 1st sacrum vertebrae of the rider (S1), 7th cervical vertebrae of the rider (C7), wrists of the rider, and helmet. The shock attenuation (SA) between helmet:saddle and between C7:S1 and absolute force output were calculated. Changes in SA and force output were compared between groups by two-way repeated measures ANOVA (group*time) both at trot and canter. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. SA was significantly lower in both groups and conditions after the intervention. C7:S1 SA was significantly lower in the feedback + coaching group at canter and trot, and helmet:saddle SA was significantly lower in the feedback + coaching group at trot than in the coaching group. A significant increase in force was observed in all the groups on the stirrups at trot and canter, but no significant changes were observed on rein forces. Implementing sports wearables that provide such type of information might be of remarkable benefit for the rider's development and performance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • A Heart Rate Based Algorithm to Estimate Core Temperature Responses in
           Elite Athletes Exercising in the Heat|Purpose|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Johannus Q. de Korte, Bertil J. Veenstra, Mark van Rijswick, Eline J. K. Derksen, Maria T. E. Hopman, Coen C. W. G. Bongers, Thijs M. H. Eijsvogels
      Abstract: PurposeNon-invasive non-obtrusive continuous and real-time monitoring of core temperature (Tc) may enhance pacing strategies, the efficacy of heat mitigation measures, and early identification of athletes at risk for heat-related disorders. The Estimated Core Temperature (ECTemp™) algorithm uses sequential heart rate (HR) values to predict Tc. We examined the validity of ECTemp™ among elite athletes exercising in the heat.Methods101 elite athletes performed an exercise test in simulated hot and humid environmental conditions (ambient temperature: 31.6 ± 1.0°C, relative humidity: 74 ± 5%). Tc was continuously measured using a validated ingestible telemetric temperature capsule system. In addition, HR was continuously measured and used to compute the estimated core temperature (Tc−est) using the ECTemp™ algorithm.ResultsAthletes exercised for 44 ± 10 min and n = 5,025 readouts of Tc (range: 35.8–40.4°C), HR (range: 45–207 bpm), and Tc−est (range: 36.7–39.9°C) were collected. Tc−est demonstrated a small yet significant bias of 0.15 ± 0.29°C (p < 0.001) compared to Tc, with a limit of agreement of ±0.45°C and a root mean square error of 0.35 ± 0.18°C. Utilizing the ECTemp™ algorithm as a diagnostic test resulted in a fair to excellent sensitivity (73–96%) and specificity (72–93%) for Tc−est thresholds between 37.75 and 38.75°C, but a low to very-low sensitivity (50–0%) for Tc−est thresholds>39.0°C, due to a high prevalence of false-negative observations.ConclusionECTemp™ provides a valuable and representative indication of thermal strain in the low- to mid-range of Tc values observed during exercise in the heat. It may, therefore, be a useful non-invasive and non-obtrusive tool to inform athletes and coaches about the estimated core temperature during controlled hyperthermia heat acclimation protocols. However, the ECTemp™ algorithm, in its current form, should not solely be used to identify athletes at risk for heat-related disorders due to low sensitivity and high false-negative rate in the upper end of the Tc spectrum.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Insights in Elite Sports and Performance Enhancement: 2021

    • Authors: Olivier Girard, Oliver Faude
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • Arena-Anchored Urban Development Projects and the Visitor Economy

    • Authors: Taryn Barry, Daniel S. Mason, Robert Trzonkowski
      Abstract: Cities of all sizes are actively engaged in developing various urban infrastructure projects. A common strategy used in larger North American cities is employing arena-anchored urban development projects, where a professional sports team is used as an anchor tenant of a sports facility to generate development in the city. One means of relocating economic activity is to increase visitation to the desired redevelopment area. In this paper we used the visitor economy as a lens to explore how arena-anchored projects and the professional sports teams that play there fit into a local city's tourism economy. To conduct this study, a multi case study design was used to draw data from two cities: Columbus, Ohio, and Detroit, Michigan. Interviews were goal directed and conducted in person with leaders in Columbus (n = 9) and Detroit (n = 10), and inductive and deductive approaches to coding were undertaken in the form of content analysis. The results indicate that growing the visitor economy through arena anchored urban development relies on planned placemaking via the strategic approach of bundling diverse amenities together. These findings provide valuable feedback to those cities considering arena development projects, and how the arenas may be combined with other civic amenities to undergird the local visitor economy.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T00:00:00Z
  • Utterances as Signals for Sharing Tacit Images in Collective Interaction

    • Authors: Naoto Shoji, Yasuyuki Hochi, Takuya Ohshiro, Yoshihisa Ono, Motoki Inoue, Motoki Mizuno
      Abstract: In ball games, individuals collaborate to enhance their team's performance by sharing images and ideas that have not been verbalized. One of a coach's roles is to ascertain whether players share a common understanding of their team's images so as to devise tactics. Accordingly, this study aimed to verify the hypothesis that sharing images such as tacit knowledge that has not been verbalized occurs in collective interaction when utterances increase substantially during problem-solving. The participants were 13 male university handball players whose teams were championship contenders in Japan. A mixed methods research design was employed. Scenes in which two groups engaged in problem-solving were recorded and data of each participant's utterances were obtained. The utterances were analyzed quantitatively by employing Smirnoff-Grubbs and the time periods including those with a substantial number of utterances were identified. What happened during the identified time periods verified as outliers including the high frequency utterances were analyzed qualitatively by employing consensual qualitative analysis. Finally, the results of the consensual qualitative analysis were used to examine statistically to determine whether specific events occurred during times of extreme high frequency utterances. The exact binomial test was used to determine the 95% confidence interval of the population ratio and the effect size (g) of the mother ratio (0.05) to determine whether non-verbalized images such as tacit knowledge were being shared among members. Of the 26 time periods, 22 were supported the hypothesis. Of the time periods with extremely high utterances, the population ratio of the time periods supporting the hypothesis was 0.846 (CI = 0.681–1.00, g = 0.80). The results revealed that tacit image sharing occurred when there were a substantial number of utterances. This study demonstrated the possibility that sharing images that have not been verbalized occurs in collective interaction when there is a hotspot of utterances.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T00:00:00Z
  • She'll Be ‘Right… but Are They' An Australian Perspective on Women
           in High Performance Sport Coaching

    • Authors: Alexandra H. Roberts, Anthea Clarke, Caitlin Fox-Harding, Georgia Askew, Clare MacMahon, Sophia Nimphius
      Abstract: Participation and media coverage of women in high-performance sport has been steadily increasing in recent years throughout the world. While this increase in interest has led to many young women and girls becoming involved in grassroots sport, there has yet to be a significant change in the number of women in coaching roles, particularly at the high-performance level. This paper synthesizes and summarizes the current challenges facing women sport coaches in Australia, drawing from existing research, media and government reports to understand the barriers for women entering and progressing in these roles. We also present some of the more recent initiatives to increase opportunities for women in high performance coaching. Within Australia, there is a need to (1) understand the pipeline for women coaches, (2) examine the interacting contexts and constraints that women are subject to within sporting organizations, and (3) create a preliminary framework for future research, outreach, and education to address gender inequity within Australian sport coaching.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T00:00:00Z
  • Strategic Self-Talk Assists Basketball Free Throw Performance Under
           Conditions of Physical Exertion

    • Authors: Evangelos Galanis, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Fedra Charachousi, Alexander T. Latinjak, Nikos Comoutos, Yannis Theodorakis
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a strategic self-talk intervention on basketball free throw performance under conditions of physical exertion. Forty-one male basketball players (Mage = 23.19 years) participated in the study. Following a baseline assessment, a 3-week intervention was implemented. During this period participants of the two groups practiced the same number of free throws in their training sessions; participants of the experimental group practiced using self-talk and developed personal free throw self-talk plans. In the final assessment, the participants repeated the free throw test following a typical shuttle run task causing increased physical exertion. The results showed that in the final assessment the self-talk group performed significantly better than the control group. Overall, the findings indicate that self-talk can be an effective strategy for basketball players when performing free throw under conditions of physical exertion, which is a typical situation in basketball games.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T00:00:00Z
  • Talent Identification and Development in Paralympic Contexts: Current

    • Authors: Nima Dehghansai, Ross A. Pinder, Joe Baker
      Abstract: This short review explores the state of talent identification and development of athletes in Paralympic contexts. While talent identification typically occurs during adolescence, this practice is more complex and variable in Paralympic contexts compared to non-Paralympic contexts. For example, Paralympic athletes can have impairments that are congenital or acquired at any time across their lives. Therefore, they can enter performance pathways at unpredictable times. Furthermore, differences and nuances associated with athlete impairments (type and severity), compounded by other systematic complexities (e.g., systems of classification) highlight the need to consider alternative and creative approaches to talent identification and development. We provide an overview of some of these complexities, highlight areas for future research, and provide recommendations for practitioners.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T00:00:00Z
  • Toward Detecting the Zone of Elite Tennis Players Through Wearable

    • Authors: Hayati Havlucu, Baris Akgun, Terry Eskenazi, Aykut Coskun, Oguzhan Ozcan
      Abstract: Wearable devices fall short in providing information other than physiological metrics despite athletes' demand for psychological feedback. To address this, we introduce a preliminary exploration to track psychological states of athletes based on commercial wearable devices, coach observations and machine learning. Our system collects Inertial Measuring Unit data from tennis players, while their coaches provide labels on their psychological states. A recurrent neural network is then trained to predict coach labels from sensor data. We test our approach by predicting being in the zone, a psychological state of optimal performance. We conduct two experimental games with two elite coaches and four professional players for evaluation. Our learned models achieve above 85% test accuracy, implying that our approach could be utilized to predict the zone at relatively low cost. Based on these findings, we discuss design implications and feasibility of this approach by contextualizing it in a real-life scenario.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Insights in Sport and Exercise Nutrition: 2021

    • Authors: David C. Nieman, Lynn Cialdella-Kam
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T00:00:00Z
  • Physiological and Perceptual Responses to Single-player vs. Multiplayer

    • Authors: Aarón Soria Campo, Alf Inge Wang, Trine Moholdt, Jonathan Berg
      Abstract: RationaleSince many modern exergames include a multiplayer component, this study aimed to compare the physiological and perceptual responses between playing a cycling exergame alone or with others.MethodsIn this randomized crossover study, 15 healthy individuals aged between 10 and 30 years completed a single-player and a multiplayer exergaming session. The main outcomes were exercise intensity, measured as oxygen uptake (V°O2) and heart rate (HR), and perceived enjoyment, pleasure, and exertion.ResultsPeak HR was significantly higher during multiplayer (172 ± 23 beats per minute [bpm]) vs. single-player exergaming (159 ± 27 bpm) with a mean difference of 13 bpm (95% CI: 2 to 24, p = 0.02). Peak V°O2 was 33.6 ± 9.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 and 30.4 ± 9.1 mL·kg−1·min−1 during multiplayer and single-player exergaming, respectively with no statistically significant difference between conditions (3.2, 95% CI: −0.2–6.6 mL·kg−1·min−1, p = 0.06). Average HR, average V°O2 and perceptual responses did not differ between single- and multiplayer exergaming.ConclusionOther than inducing a higher HR, multiplayer exergaming showed no significant benefits on exercise intensity or perceptual responses over single-player exergaming. However, the higher peak HR and a tendency of higher peak V°O2 intensity during multiplayer exergaming imply that multiplayer exergaming may offer some advantages over single-player exergaming that could impact the potential health benefits of exergaming.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T00:00:00Z
  • Automated Urinal-Based Specific Gravity Measurement Device for Real-Time
           Hydration Monitoring in Male Athletes

    • Authors: Brian F. Bender, Nick J. Johnson, Jasmine A. Berry, Kelvin M. Frazier, Michael B. Bender
      Abstract: Acute and chronic hydration status is important for athlete safety and performance and is frequently measured by sports scientists and performance staff in team environments via urinalysis. However, the time required for urine collection, staff testing, and reporting often delays immediate reporting and personalized nutrition insight in situations of acute hydration management before training or competition. Furthermore, the burdensome urine collection and testing process often renders chronic hydration monitoring sporadic or non-existent in real-world settings. An automated urinalysis device (InFlow) was developed to measure specific gravity, an index of hydration status, in real-time during urination. The device was strongly correlated to optical refractometry with a mean absolute error of 0.0029 (±0.0021). Our results show this device provides a novel and useful approach for real-time hydration status via urinalysis for male athletes in team environments with high testing frequency demands.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T00:00:00Z
  • Accuracy vs. Practicality of Inertial Measurement Unit Sensors to Evaluate
           Motor Competence in Children

    • Authors: Natalie Lander, Darius Nahavandi, Nicole G. Toomey, Lisa M. Barnett, Shady Mohamed
      Abstract: The TGMD (i.e., Test of Gross Motor Development) has been considered as one of the gold standards of assessment tools for analysis of motor competence in children. However, it is rarely used by teachers in schools because the time, resources, and expertise required for one teacher to assess a class of students is prohibitive in most cases. A potential solution may be to automate the testing protocol using objective measures and inertial measurement unit sensors. An accurate method using 17 sensors to capture full body motion profiles and machine learning methods to objectively assess proficiency has been developed; however, feasibility of this method was low. Subsequently, a simplified method using four sensors (i.e., attached to wrists and ankles) was found to be effective, efficient, and potentially highly feasible for use in school settings. For some skills, however, not all skill criteria could be assessed. Additionally, misclassification on occasion, marred results. In the present paper we consider a previous experiment that used wireless motion capture to assess criteria from the TGMD-3. We discuss the advantages alongside the disadvantages of testing motor competence in children using sensors and consider the question—Can a compromise be struck between accuracy and feasibility'
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T00:00:00Z
  • Relationships Between Sports Club Participation and Health Determinants in
           Adolescents and Young Adults

    • Authors: Alexis Barbry, Annie Carton, Hervé Ovigneur, Jérémy Coquart
      Abstract: Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationships between age, sex, body mass index, and sports club participation on physical fitness. The population included 49,988 participants (23,721 girls and 26,267 boys) who were divided into five age groups (11–12, 13–14, 15–16, 17–18, and 19–21 years). Body mass index was calculated. Physical fitness was assessed with the Diagnoform® Tonic battery. Sports club participation was also documented. The practiced sport was collected. The effects of age, sex, body mass index class, and sports club participation were tested. Boys' PF increased with age at a faster rate and was better than that of girls, except for flexibility (p < 0.001). For girls, a decrease was observed in endurance, speed and flexibility at 17-18 years. Sports club participation was greater for boys at every age. Obese participants had the lowest physical fitness and sports club participation. Sports club participation increased physical fitness. Team sports seemed best for improving physical fitness, except flexibility. The study shows that sports club participation may be a key element for building health in adolescents. Preventive healthcare projects that promote sports club are needed to target sports club dropouts (obese adolescents and girls). Bridges should be built between physical education classes and sports clubs in adolescence to improve the health status of young people.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T00:00:00Z
  • Effect of Athletic Training on Fatigue During Neuromuscular Electrical

    • Authors: Thomas J. Abitante, Seward B. Rutkove, Kevin R. Duda, Dava J. Newman
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect an individual's exercise training type will have on muscle fatigability during repetitive contractions induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). Thirty-four subjects comprising of competitive athletes and controls were recruited into three cohorts: Endurance (runners/cyclists) n = 13; nine male, four female; 27 ± 8 years old, Explosive (Lifters/Sprinters) n = 11; nine male, two female; 30 ± 7 years old, and controls n = 10, six male, four female, 26 ± 4 years old. Subjects were placed in a custom-made leg extension rig, and received NMES against a fixed resistance (NMES-FR), to the Vastus Medialis muscle resulting in isometric leg extensions, at a duty cycle of 1 s on/3 s rest, for 20 min. The force of the isometric contractions was recorded using a Hogan MicroFet2 dynamometer, and three separate fatigue metrics were calculated to compare the different cohorts, sports within each cohort, and gender within each cohort. For every fatigue metric, the endurance group fatigued significantly less than both the explosive and control cohorts, with no difference observed between the explosive and the controls. Within each cohort, no significant difference was observed in any fatigue metric between sport or gender, but these comparisons lacked power. The results show that only high capacity endurance activity will have any effect on reducing one's fatigability during repetitive NMES. The implications of this conclusion can aid in the development of NMES regimens for use in healthy populations, such as athletic training or astronaut musculoskeletal countermeasures, as well as clinical applications when fatigue is to be minimized.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
  • Greater Breast Support Is Associated With Reduced Oxygen Consumption and
           Greater Running Economy During a Treadmill Running

    • Authors: Hailey B. Fong, Douglas W. Powell
      Abstract: IntroductionBreast pain is a major barrier to running for women. While breast support through the use of sports bras reduces breast-related discomfort, the effect of breast support on running performance is less understood. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of greater breast support on oxygen consumption and running economy during a treadmill running task.MethodsFifteen female recreational runners performed a 10-min treadmill running task at their preferred running speed in each of two sports bra conditions: low support and high support. Participants ran on an instrumented treadmill (1,200 Hz, Bertec) while indirect calorimetry was performed using a metabolic measurement system (100 Hz, TrueOne, ParvoMedics). Average VO2 (absolute and relative) from the third to 10th minutes was used to evaluate oxygen consumption. Running economy was calculated as the distance traveled per liter of oxygen consumed. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare mean oxygen consumption and running economy values between breast support conditions. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between breast size and change in running performance.ResultsGreater breast support was associated with reductions in absolute (p < 0.001) and relative oxygen consumption (p < 0.001; LOW: 30.9 ± 7.1 ml/kg/min; HIGH: 28.7 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min). Greater breast support was associated with increases in running economy (p < 0.001; LOW: 88.6 ± 29.1 m/L O2; HIGH: 95.2 ± 31.1 m/L O2). No changes in temporospatial characteristics of running were observed including cadence (p = 0.149), step length (p = 0.300) or ground contact time (p = 0.151). Strong positive linear correlations were observed between the change in running performance metrics and breast size (Oxygen Consumption: p < 0.001, r = 0.770; Relative Oxygen Consumption: p < 0.001, r = 0769; Running Economy: p < 0.001, r = 0.807).ConclusionsGreater breast support was associated with reduced oxygen consumption and increased running economy. These findings demonstrate that greater breast support is not only associated with improved comfort but also improved running performance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
  • Case Report: Assessing COVID-19 Transmission in Professional Volleyball in
           Germany, September to December 2020: An Epidemiological

    • Authors: Oliver Morath, Friedrich Barsch, Adhara Lazaro, Daniela Huzly, Peter Deibert
      Abstract: IntroductionThe SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses extraordinary challenges in all fields of daily life. The WHO recommended social distancing guidelines and person-to-person contact was strongly discouraged to contain transmission. Team-based sports were questioned and widely debated. However, there is a lack of available evidence on the risk of in-game SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We aim to derive new insights regarding the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection during team sports and provide current opinion on how to behave during training and competition.MethodsWe report on six competitive male volleyball players (national level) of the same team who were infected with COVID-19. The mode of transmission and potential virus spreading within the team was investigated. The entire course of infection was documented by detailed medical history of the players and RT-PCR tests confirmed suspected infections. Serological testing was performed to establish the antibody status of the team.ResultsThe investigation did not show strong evidence of viral transmission within the team during sporting activities. Only two players with PCR-proven infection hat detectable antibodies in two antibody assays.ConclusionPrivate and social gatherings can spread infection into team sports. Clearly defined test strategies and strict adherence to standard COVID-19 hygiene guidelines during sports seasons cannot be overemphasized.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
  • Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Physical Performance, Sleep Quality, and
           Health-Related Quality of Life in Professional Youth Soccer

    • Authors: Jil Keemss, Johanna Sieland, Florian Pfab, Winfried Banzer
      Abstract: BackgroundIn March 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak led to the declaration of a pandemic. The accompanying restrictions on public life caused a change in the training routines of athletes worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 13-week supervised home training program on physical performance, sleep quality, and health-related quality of life in professional youth soccer players during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany.MethodsEight professional soccer players (age range 16–19; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; body weight: 72.05 ± 6.96 kg) from a Bundesliga team in Germany participated in this study. During the lockdown, they trained 5–6 days per week with home-based training plans and were monitored via tracking apps and video training. To determine the effects of home training, measurements were taken before (March 2020) and after (June 2020) the home training period. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine body composition, and an isokinetic strength test and a treadmill step test, including lactate measurements, were used to measure physical performance. Two questionnaires were responded to in order to assess health-related quality of life [Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36)] and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index).ResultsWhen comparing measurements before and after the home training period, we observed significant increases in the following variables: body weight (72.05 ± 6.96 kg vs. 73.50 ± 6.68 kg, p = 0.034), fat mass (11.99 ± 3.13 % vs. 13.98 ± 3.92 %, p = 0.030), body mass index (22.04 ± 0.85 kg/m2 vs. 22.49 ± 0.92 kg/m2, p = 0.049), and mental health component summary score (MCS) of the questionnaire SF-36 (53.95 ± 3.47 vs. 58.33 ± 4.50, p = 0.044). Scores on the general health (77.88 ± 14.56 vs. 89.75 ± 13.76, p = 0.025) and mental health (81.50 ± 9.30 vs. 90.00 ± 11.71, p = 0.018) subscales of the SF-36 also increased significantly.ConclusionThe COVID-19 lockdown led to an increase in body composition parameters and showed an improvement in the MCS and scores on the general and mental health subscales of the SF-36. Physical performance and sleep quality could be maintained during the home training period. These observations may help trainers for future training planning during longer interruptions in soccer training.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T00:00:00Z
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