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Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9367
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Effect of two-weeks of school-based sprint training on physical fitness,
           risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive function in
           adolescent girls: A randomized controlled pilot

    • Authors: Ryan A. Williams, Karah J. Dring, John G. Morris, Caroline Sunderland, Mary E. Nevill, Simon B. Cooper
      Abstract: BackgroundSchool-based physical activity interventions are accessible to most adolescents and could enhance adolescent cardiometabolic health and cognition; yet the feasibility and success of school-based physical activity interventions is understudied.MethodsSixteen adolescent girls (age: 11.7 ± 0.3 y; height: 1.58 ± 0.07 m; body mass: 45.5 ± 9.2 kg) were randomized to either an intervention (2-weeks sprint training; n = 8) or control group (continuation of regular physical activity levels; n = 8). Following familiarization, all participants completed baseline measurements including fasted and postprandial capillary blood samples, a battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop Test, Sternberg Paradigm and Flanker Task), and an assessment of physical fitness (20 m sprint and multi-stage fitness test). The intervention group completed 2-weeks progressive sprint training (3 sessions per week: week one 6 × 10 s sprints, week two 8 × 10 s sprints). Follow-up measurements were completed 48 h after the final sprint training session. Data were analyzed via ANCOVA to examine between group differences at follow-up whilst controlling for baseline score.ResultsAccuracy in the intervention group during the three-item Sternberg paradigm was greater when compared with the control group (Intervention: 99.6 ± 1.1%; Control: 97.7 ± 2.2%, p = 0.046). BDNF concentration was also higher in the intervention group at follow-up than control group (Intervention: 39.12 ± 9.88 ng.ml−1; Control: 22.95 ± 9.13 ng.ml−1, p < 0.001). There were no differences at follow-up between the intervention and control group for measures of cardiometabolic health (fasted cytokine concentrations or postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses) or on the Stroop Test or Flanker Task (all p> 0.05). However, the intervention group reported enjoying the sprint training and that they found the sessions valuable.ConclusionTwo-weeks sprint interval training in a school-setting enhanced working memory and increased concentrations of BDNF in adolescent girls. The intervention was deemed enjoyable and worthwhile by the adolescent girls and thus the longer-term implementation of such an intervention should be examined.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • Changes in the Fitness Fatness Index following reduced exertion
           high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous
           training in physically inactive

    • Authors: Daniel J. Leahy, Lance C. Dalleck, Joyce S. Ramos
      Abstract: BackgroundMany adults do not reach the recommended exercise participation guidelines, often citing lack of time as a barrier. Reduced exertion high-intensity training (REHIT) is a mode of exercise that takes as few as 10 min and has been shown to be as effective as other modalities. The Fitness Fatness Index (FFI) is a recently developed index that is used to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a REHIT vs. a traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on FFI in physically inactive adults.MethodsThirty-two participants were randomized into one of two 8-week exercise intervention groups: (i) REHIT (n = 16); (ii) MICT (n = 16). The REHIT group performed 10 min of individualized cycling intervals on 2–4 days of the week. The MICT group were prescribed aerobic exercise at 50–65% of their heart rate reserve (HRR) on 3–5 days of the week. FFI was recorded at baseline and post 8-weeks, with FFI being calculated as cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (expressed as metabolic equivalents) divided by waist to height ratio (WtHR). A 1-unit increase in FFI was recognized as a clinically significant change in FFI.ResultsThe REHIT group showed significantly greater (+1.95, ±0.63) improvements in FFI compared to those in the MICT (+0.99, ±0.47) group (between group difference, p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a greater proportion of participants who achieved a clinically significant change in FFI in the REHIT group (12/12, 100%) than in the MICT group (8/15, 53%) (between group difference, p = 0.01).ConclusionThis study suggests that REHIT may be a more efficacious exercise modality to increase FFI than MICT. This outcome is beneficial as the clinician can prescribe REHIT to physically inactive adults who cite lack of time as a barrier to physical activity participation and achieve significant reductions in CVD risk.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
  • The balancing act: Identifying multivariate sports performance using
           Pareto frontiers

    • Authors: Tim Newans, Phillip Bellinger, Clare Minahan
      Abstract: Athletes often require a mix of physical, physiological, psychological, and skill-based attributes that can be conflicting when competing at the highest level within their sport. When considering multiple variables in tandem, Pareto frontiers is a technique that can identify the observations that possess an optimal balance of the desired attributes, especially when these attributes are negatively correlated. This study presents Pareto frontiers as a tool to identify athletes who possess an optimal ranking when considering multiple metrics simultaneously. This study explores the trade-off relationship between batting average and strike rate as well as bowling strike rate, economy, and average in Twenty 20 cricket. Eight hundred ninety-one matches of Twenty 20 cricket from the men's (MBBL) and women's (WBBL) Australian Big Bash Leagues were compiled to determine the best batting and bowling performances, both within a single innings and across each player's Big Bash career. Pareto frontiers identified 12 and seven optimal batting innings performances in the MBBL and WBBL respectively, with nine and six optimal batting careers respectively. Pareto frontiers also identified three optimal bowling innings in both the MBBL and WBBL and five and six optimal bowling careers in MBBL and WBBL, respectively. Each frontier identified players that were not the highest ranked athlete in any metric when analyzed univariately. Pareto frontiers can be used when assessing talent across multiple metrics, especially when these metrics may be conflicting or uncorrelated. Using Pareto frontiers can identify athletes that may not have the highest ranking on a given metric but have an optimal balance across multiple metrics that are associated with success in a given sport.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Differences in health-related quality of life among patients after ankle

    • Authors: Phillip A. Gribble, Rachel E. Kleis, Janet E. Simon, Luzita I. Vela, Abbey C. Thomas
      Abstract: Ankle sprains are the most common injuries sustained in the physically active, often associated with pain and functional limitations long after initial recovery. In recent years, the impact of ankle sprains on general health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been noted in athletes, but is not well-documented in the general population. We examined differences in HRQoL and general health between individuals with ankle sprain history and healthy controls. Those with ankle sprain reported significantly higher body mass index and general body pain, and lower SF-8 physical component scores than healthy controls. Additionally, there is some indication that physical activity is lower in those with ankle sprain history. This is an important step in illustrating the adverse sequelae of ankle sprains on population health and HRQoL.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T00:00:00Z
  • Lockdown and No Lockdown: How Norwegian and Swedish Elite Athletes Managed
           Preparations for Tokyo 2020 and Mental Health Challenges in the Shadow of

    • Authors: Carolina Lundqvist, Elsa Kristiansen
      Abstract: The present study explored Norwegian and Swedish Olympic aspirants' perceived challenges for the preparations of Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games (OG) and risk and protective factors for mental health. The focus for this study was the timespan between the declaration of the postponement of Tokyo 2020 and the final months before the Games. A secondary purpose was to explore experiences of both elite athletes affected by lockdown (i.e., Norwegian athletes) and elite athletes not affected by lockdown in their home country (i.e., Swedish athletes). Twelve elite athletes (Norwegian: n = 6; Swedish: n = 6; Women: n = 6; Men: n = 6) with a mean age of 28.25 (SD = 3.60) participated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between April and June 2021. Seven athletes had qualified and five were still trying to qualify. Eight of the interviewed athletes had previous experiences with OG participation. Template analysis revealed two main themes: (a) challenges and risk-factors for mental health and (b) protective factors. The pandemic exposed athletes to several psychological strains like uncertainty and difficulties with planning and preparations for the OG and personal and social challenges (i.e., worry about physical health and risk of overtraining, social contacts, identity, and life issues). Protective factors included perceived benefits of increased recovery and time for quality training. The athletes used several coping strategies and self-care behaviors (e.g., focus on the controllable, playfulness, putting sports in perspective, daily routines, short-term goals, working or studying for personal development) and they tapped into various internal and external psychosocial resources perceived as protective for mental health, personal growth, resiliency, and adjustment to the pandemic. The holistic perspectives used contribute to an increased understanding of elite sport athletes' mental health needs in stressful and unforeseen situations such as a pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
  • Understanding exercise addiction, psychiatric characteristics and use of
           anabolic androgenic steroids among recreational athletes – An online
           survey study|Background|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Björn Gunnarsson, Artin Entezarjou, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Göran Kenttä, Anders Håkansson
      Abstract: BackgroundThe purpose of this paper was to explore maladaptive behaviors among physically active individuals, including exercise dependence and use of anabolic steroids. Both exercise addiction (EA) and use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) correlate to high amounts of exercise and EA have been linked to eating disorders and other mental health problems.MethodsAn internet survey was spread through fitness-related social media. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 15 years and exercise frequency ≥ thrice weekly. Exercise addiction inventory identified those at-risk of EA (rEA). Characteristics of rEA were compared to those not at risk. In a separate analysis, AAS users were compared to AAS-naïve individuals.ResultsIn total, 3,029 participants completed the questionnaire. Of these, 11% screened positive for being rEA, and 23% for ED. Factors associated with EA included daily exercise, social phobia, eating disorders and OCD. Risk consumption of alcohol was a negative predictor. Thirty seven participants had taken AAS the last year. These were mainly men, bodybuilders/powerlifters and more often used amphetamines and opioids.DiscussionThis exploratory study supports EA being strongly associated with eating disorders. Identified associations between EA and compulsive or anxiety disorders warrant further research to clarify if these associations arise prior to, together with, or secondary to EA.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
  • Repeated practice runs during on-snow training do not generate any
           measurable neuromuscular alterations in elite alpine

    • Authors: Marine Alhammoud, Olivier Girard, Clint Hansen, Sébastien Racinais, Frédéric Meyer, Christophe André Hautier, Baptiste Morel
      Abstract: BackgroundAlpine skiers typically train using repeated practice runs requiring high bursts of muscle activity but there is little field-based evidence characterizing neuromuscular function across successive runs.PurposeTo examine the impact of repeated ski runs on electromyographic activity (EMG) of the knee extensors and flexors in elite alpine skiers.MethodsNineteen national team alpine skiers were tested during regular ski training [Slalom (SL), Giant Slalom (GS), Super Giant Slalom and Downhill (Speed)] for a total of 39 training sessions. The surface EMG of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus/semitendinosus (SMST) muscles was continuously recorded along with right knee and hip angles. The EMG root mean square signal was normalized to a maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). The first and fourth runs of the training session were compared.ResultsThere was no meaningful main effect of run on EMG relative activation time or mean power frequency beyond the skier's intrinsic variability. However, EMG activity of the vastii increased from the first to the fourth run in SL [VM, ~+3%MVC for IL and outside leg (OL), p = 0.035)], speed (VL, IL:+6%/OL:+11%, p = 0.015), and GS (VM, IL:0/OL:+7%, p < 0.001); the later with an interaction with leg (p < 0.001) due to a localized increase on the OL. The run time and turn time did not change from the first to the fourth run. There were no meaningful changes in angular velocities, amplitude of movement, or maximal and minimal angles.ConclusionNeuromuscular activity remains highly stable in elite skiers with low variability across four runs.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T00:00:00Z
  • What works to reduce sedentary behavior in the office, and could these
           intervention components transfer to the home working environment': A
           rapid review and transferability

    • Authors: Sarah Morton, Claire Fitzsimons, Ruth Jepson, David H. Saunders, Divya Sivaramakrishnan, Ailsa Niven
      Abstract: BackgroundWorking patterns have changed dramatically due to COVID-19, with many workers now spending at least a portion of their working week at home. The office environment was already associated with high levels of sedentary behavior, and there is emerging evidence that working at home further elevates these levels. The aim of this rapid review (PROSPERO CRD42021278539) was to build on existing evidence to identify what works to reduce sedentary behavior in an office environment, and consider whether these could be transferable to support those working at home.MethodsThe results of a systematic search of databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, CINHAL, and SportDiscus from 10 August 2017 to 6 September 2021 were added to the references included in a 2018 Cochrane review of office based sedentary interventions. These references were screened and controlled peer-reviewed English language studies demonstrating a beneficial direction of effect for office-based interventions on sedentary behavior outcomes in healthy adults were included. For each study, two of five authors screened the title and abstract, the full-texts, undertook data extraction, and assessed risk of bias on the included studies. Informed by the Behavior Change Wheel, the most commonly used intervention functions and behavior change techniques were identified from the extracted data. Finally, a sample of common intervention strategies were evaluated by the researchers and stakeholders for potential transferability to the working at home environment.ResultsTwenty-two studies including 29 interventions showing a beneficial direction of effect on sedentary outcomes were included. The most commonly used intervention functions were training (n = 21), environmental restructuring (n = 21), education (n = 15), and enablement (n = 15). Within these the commonly used behavior change techniques were instructions on how to perform the behavior (n = 21), adding objects to the environment (n = 20), and restructuring the physical environment (n = 19). Those strategies with the most promise for transferring to the home environment included education materials, use of role models, incentives, and prompts.ConclusionsThis review has characterized interventions that show a beneficial direction of effect to reduce office sedentary behavior, and identified promising strategies to support workers in the home environment as the world adapts to a new working landscape.Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php'ID=CRD42021278539, identifier CRD42021278539.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T00:00:00Z
  • A contemporary understanding of iron metabolism in active premenopausal

    • Authors: Claire E. Badenhorst, Adrienne K. Forsyth, Andrew D. Govus
      Abstract: Iron metabolism research in the past decade has identified menstrual blood loss as a key contributor to the prevalence of iron deficiency in premenopausal females. The reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone influence iron regulation and contribute to variations in iron parameters throughout the menstrual cycle. Despite the high prevalence of iron deficiency in premenopausal females, scant research has investigated female-specific causes and treatments for iron deficiency. In this review, we provide a comprehensive discussion of factors that influence iron status in active premenopausal females, with a focus on the menstrual cycle. We also outline several practical guidelines for monitoring, diagnosing, and treating iron deficiency in premenopausal females. Finally, we highlight several areas for further research to enhance the understanding of iron metabolism in this at-risk population.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T00:00:00Z
  • Social impact projections for Qatar youth residents from 2022: The case of
           the IAAF 2019

    • Authors: Wadih Ishac, Kamilla Swart
      Abstract: While sport is playing an increasingly important role in society in the Middle East, there has been limited research on the perceived social impact of the hosting of major international events in this region. This study evaluates the main factors affecting youth residents' perceptions of hosting major international sport events, by measuring the psychic income in particular, generated within subgroups shaping their support toward hosting these events. Psychic income refers to the emotional and psychological benefit residents perceive they receive from hosting an international sport event. The study is of significance within the context of residents' perceptions studies given that the large majority of residents in Qatar are non-Qataris. Furthermore, the youth were the target population for this study given that they have been identified as the custodians of the next generation and as an essential force in molding national development; and extends the few residents' perception studies in Qatar which comprised the general population. Using the 2019 IAAF Athletics World championships as an example, a framework by Kim and Walker was adopted. Data were collected from 316 university students' from different nationalities residing in Qatar; a month after the event took place. After conducting confirmatory factor analysis, this study was subject to structural equation modeling. Overall, the results show that the perceived impact on Qatari youth nationals was higher compared to Arab youth, and non-Arab youth, respectively. Likewise, the perceived impact was higher for females compared to males. By evaluating the psychic income received by youth from different nationalities residing in Qatar, this study provides decision-makers and organizers with a better understanding of the outcome generated from hosting major international sport events, and how they can leverage these going forward. Of importance is that even if youth residents do not attend the event in person, these events may still generate positive psychic income which is particular relevant to the 2022 FIFA World Cup given the limitations related to purchasing tickets. With Qatar establishing itself as a regional sport hub by attracting a diverse range of international sport events, a cumulative approach to understanding psychic income is recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T00:00:00Z
  • Assessing the prevalence, sources and selective antecedents of
           organizational stressors among elite football players and coaches in the
           Ghana premier league: Empirical evidence for applied practice

    • Authors: Medina Srem-Sai, John Elvis Hagan, Prosper Narteh Ogum, Thomas Schack
      Abstract: Globally, job-related stress has been classified as a health epidemic which is common among many individuals across diverse populations. Despite this established knowledge, research has primarily focused on the general population and among health workers. Therefore, understanding stress related experiences in the context of professional sport would help design appropriate stress management interventions for effective coping. The overarching aim of this research was to assess occupational stress related experiences among players and coaches in the Ghana premier league. The study sought to assess: (1) the prevalence and sources of stressors among players and coaches, and (2) how age and years of experience influenced the stressors they experienced. Using a census survey, 44 premier league coaches and 424 players who were officially registered by 17 premier league clubs completed the intensity dimension of the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers which has 5 subscales namely: Goals and Development, Logistics and Operations, Team and Culture, Coaching and Selection. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviation) and multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that stressors were prevalent among football players and coaches, with these being significantly more dominant among coaches, p < 0.001. Selection was identified as the most predominant stressor for coaches (i.e., selecting players to play) and players (i.e., being selected). Age and experience were found not to be significant predictors of stressors for players and coaches in Ghana. Findings suggest that generally, stressors are common among football players and coaches, especially on issues related to selection. Sport psychologists and team managers in the various premier league clubs should incorporate appropriate interventions (e.g., stress inoculation training) aimed at providing adequate psychological support to promote players' and coaches' wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T00:00:00Z
  • Salivary hormone concentrations and technical-tactical performance
           indicators in beach volleyball: Preliminary evidence

    • Authors: Yago Costa, Jarbas Domingos-Gomes, Franziska Lautenbach, Lawrence Hayes, Fabio Nakamura, Jefferson Lima, Lúcio Castellano, Gilmário Batista
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate (i) differences in salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations before, during, and after simulated beach volleyball match, depending on match outcome (winning vs. losing); (ii) the relationship between technical-tactical performance indicators in beach volleyball and salivary hormonal concentrations (i.e., testosterone, cortisol). We hypothesized (i) salivary testosterone concentrations would be greater in winners and salivary cortisol would be lower; (ii) testosterone would associate with positive technical-tactical performance and cortisol would associate with negative technical-tactical performance. Sixteen athletes participated in the study and were grouped according to the result of a simulated game (winners: n = 8; losers: n = 8). Salivary hormone concentration of testosterone and cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pre-match, post first set, and post-match), and the coefficient of performance and efficiency were used as technical-tactical performance indicators. Regarding testosterone, there was a large effect size for match outcome after the first set (i.e., Winner vs. Losers) and a moderate effect size for the time in winners (pre-match vs. post-match). Regarding cortisol, there was a moderate effect size of time in losers only (pre-match vs. post-match). Moreover, cortisol pre-match was negatively correlated with the offensive performance (attack performance coefficient: r = −0.541; p = 0.030; attack efficiency: r = −0.568; p = 0.022). In conclusion, the effect of match outcome on testosterone and cortisol levels was moderate in winners and losers, respectively. Moreover, resting cortisol concentration appears to be related to a diminished attack technical-tactical performance. However, larger confirmatory studies are required to confirm these data to corroborate winning increases testosterone levels and/or reduces cortisol in a sporting setting.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T00:00:00Z
  • The holistic development of talented sportspersons through dual-career

    • Authors: Ricardo T. Quinaud, Laura Capranica, Mojca Doupona, Flavia Guidotti
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T00:00:00Z
  • Movement characteristics during customized exergames after total knee
           replacement in older adults|Introduction|Materials and

    • Authors: Maarit Janhunen, Antti Löppönen, Simon Walker, Taavi Punsár, Niina Katajapuu, Sulin Cheng, Juha Paloneva, Konsta Pamilo, Mika Luimula, Raija Korpelainen, Timo Jämsä, Ari Heinonen, Eeva Aartolahti
      Abstract: IntroductionThere is limited understanding of how older adults can reach kinematic goals in rehabilitation while performing exergames and conventional exercises, and how similar or different the kinematics during exergaming are when compared with conventional therapeutic exercise with similar movement. The aim of this study was to describe the movement characteristics performed during exercise in custom-designed exergames and conventional therapeutic exercises among patients who have undergone unilateral total knee replacement (TKR). In addition, the secondary aim was to assess the relation of these exercise methods, and to assess participants' perceived exertion and knee pain during exergaming and exercising.Materials and methodsPatients up to 4 months after the TKR surgery were invited in a single-visit exercise laboratory session. A 2D motion analysis and force plates were employed to evaluate movement characteristics as the volume, range, and intensity of movement performed during custom-designed knee extension-flexion and weight shifting exergames and conventional therapeutic exercises post TKR. The perceived exertion and knee pain were assessed using the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion and Visual Analog Scale, respectively.ResultsEvaluation of seven patients with TKR [age median (IQR), 65 (10) years] revealed that the volume and intensity of movement were mostly higher during exergames. Individual goniometer-measured knee range of motion were achieved either with exergames and conventional therapeutic exercises, especially in knee extension exercises. The perceived exertion and knee pain were similar after exergames and conventional therapeutic exercises.ConclusionsDuring custom-designed exergaming the patients with TKR achieve the movement characteristics appropriate for post-TKR rehabilitation without increasing the stress and pain experienced even though the movement characteristics might be partly different from conventional therapeutic exercises by the volume and intensity of movement. Physical therapists could consider implementing such exergames in rehabilitation practice for patients with TKR once effectiveness have been approved and they are widely available.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T00:00:00Z
  • Transition between individually different and common features in skilled
           drumming movements

    • Authors: Ken Takiyama, Masaya Hirashima, Shinya Fujii
      Abstract: Why do professional athletes and musicians exhibit individually different motion patterns' For example, baseball pitchers generate various pitching forms, e.g., variable wind-up, cocking, and follow-through forms. However, they commonly rotate their wrists and fingers at increasingly high speeds via shoulder and trunk motions. Despite the universality of common and individually different motion patterns in skilled movements, the abovementioned question remains unanswered. Here, we focus on a motion required to hit a snare drum, including the indirect phase of task achievement (i.e., the early movement and mid-flight phases) and the direct phase of task achievement (i.e., the hit phase). We apply tensor decomposition to collected kinematic data for the drum-hitting motion, enabling us to decompose high-dimensional and time-varying motion data into individually different and common movement patterns. As a result, individually different motion patterns emerge during the indirect phase of task achievement, and common motion patterns are evident in the direct phase of task achievement. Athletes and musicians are thus possibly allowed to perform individually different motion patterns during the indirect phase of task achievement. Additionally, they are required to exhibit common patterns during the direct phase of task achievement.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T00:00:00Z
  • Accuracy of a markerless motion capture system in estimating upper
           extremity kinematics during boxing

    • Authors: Bhrigu K. Lahkar, Antoine Muller, Raphaël Dumas, Lionel Reveret, Thomas Robert
      Abstract: Kinematic analysis of the upper extremity can be useful to assess the performance and skill levels of athletes during combat sports such as boxing. Although marker-based approach is widely used to obtain kinematic data, it is not suitable for “in the field” activities, i.e., when performed outside the laboratory environment. Markerless video-based systems along with deep learning-based pose estimation algorithms show great potential for estimating skeletal kinematics. However, applicability of these systems in assessing upper-limb kinematics remains unexplored in highly dynamic activities. This study aimed to assess kinematics of the upper limb estimated with a markerless motion capture system (2D video cameras along with commercially available pose estimation software Theia3D) compared to those measured with marker-based system during “in the field” boxing. A total of three elite boxers equipped with retroreflective markers were instructed to perform specific sequences of shadow boxing trials. Their movements were simultaneously recorded with 12 optoelectronic and 10 video cameras, providing synchronized data to be processed further for comparison. Comparative assessment showed higher differences in 3D joint center positions at the elbow (more than 3 cm) compared to the shoulder and wrist (
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T00:00:00Z
  • Heart rhythm assessment in elite endurance athletes: A better

    • Authors: Ådne Ausland, Edvard Liljedahl Sandberg, Jarle Jortveit, Stephen Seiler
      Abstract: IntroductionArrhythmias also occur among elite endurance athletes. Conventional diagnostic tools for assessment of arrhythmias suffer from limited availability and usability challenges, particularly under the demanding training conditions of an elite athlete. Among endurance athletes, there is a need for out-of-hospital monitoring to enhance detection of arrhythmias under conditions that are relevant and potentially provocative of underlying pathology. The Norwegian patch ECG247 Smart Heart Sensor has been developed to simplify the assessment of heart rhythm disorders. The current study aimed to evaluate the ECG247 Smart Heart Sensor function and usability in an elite athlete environment.MethodsA total of 13 professional cyclists from the UNO-X Pro Cycling Team were examined with the ECG247 Smart Heart Sensor during training camp in Spain, December 2021. All ECG data were analyzed by cardiologists at Sorlandet Hospital Arendal, Norway. The athletes also completed a brief questionnaire registering their training (from on-bike monitoring units) and provided self-assessment of usability parameters after the test.ResultsIn 8 of 13 athletes (69% male, age 23 ± 4 years), two test periods were performed with different ECG patches, resulting in a total of 21 tests with continuous ECG monitoring. Average total ECG test duration per athlete was 144 ± 47 h (89 ± 24 h/patch). Athletes performed an average of 15 ± 5 training h during each test. The ECG quality from all tests was considered satisfactory for rhythm analysis—also during exercise. The reported usability of the ECG247 Smart Heart Sensor was high, and no athletes reported trouble sleeping or training with the sensor. The automatic arrhythmia algorithm reported episodes of possible arrhythmias in 5 (24%) tests; 2 atrial flutter, 2 supraventricular tachycardia and 1 bradycardia (heart rate
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T00:00:00Z
  • Validity and Reliability of a Commercial Force Sensor for the Measurement
           of Upper Body Strength in Sport Climbing

    • Authors: Berit K. Labott, Steffen Held, Tim Wiedenmann, Ludwig Rappelt, Pamela Wicker, Lars Donath
      Abstract: Recreational and professional climbing is gaining popularity. Thus, valid and reliable infield strength monitoring and testing devices are required. This study aims at assessing the validity as well as within- and between-day reliability of two climbing-specific hanging positions for assessing the maximum force with a new force measurement device. Therefore, 25 experienced male (n = 16) and female (n = 9) climbers (age: 25.5 ± 4.2 years, height: 176.0 ± 9.9 cm, weight: 69.7 ± 14.5 kg, body composition: 11.8 ± 5.7% body fat, climbing level: 17.5 ± 3.9 International Rock Climbing Research Association scale) were randomly tested with climbing-specific hang board strength tests (one-handed rung pulling and one-handed bent arm lock-off at 90°). The Tindeq, a load cell-based sensor for assessing different force-related variables, was employed together with a force plate (Kistler Quattro Jump) during both conditions. Data analysis revealed excellent validity for assessment with Tindeq: The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.99 (both positions), while the standard error of the measurement (SEM), coefficient of variation (CV), and limits of agreement (LoA) showed low values. Within day reliability for the assessment with Tindeq was excellent: rung pulling showed an ICC of 0.90 and arm lock-off an ICC of 0.98; between-day reliability was excellent as well: rung pulling indicated an ICC of 0.95 and arm lock-off an ICC of 0.98. Other reliability indicators such as SEM, CV, and LoA were low. The Tindeq progressor can be applied for the cross-sectional and longitudinal climbing strength assessment as this device can detect training-induced changes reliably.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
  • The Practice Environment—How Coaches May Promote Athlete Learning

    • Authors: Paul Larkin, James Barkell, Donna O'Connor
      Abstract: The coaching environment is the primary teaching and learning medium for the development of athlete skills. Therefore, by understanding how practice environments are designed to facilitate learning, coaches can make decisions around the structure of specific activities and behavior to promote athlete learning and development. This short review examines the coaching environment literature, with a particular focus on the structure and content within a practice session. The review will highlight the specific activities coaches utilize to develop athletes technical and tactical skills. Further, the coaching behaviors used to promote athlete learning is discussed, and how coach athlete interactions may influence learning. Finally, we provide applied recommendations for coaches, and highlight areas for future coaching science research.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
  • A screening instrument for side dominance in competitive adolescent alpine

    • Authors: Maria Westin, Annelie Norlén, Marita L. Harringe, Suzanne Werner
      Abstract: Previous research has shown that high school ski students injure their left anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) more often than their right ACL, and that a prevention program focusing on equal load to the right and left ski turns prevents ACL injuries. Whether the injuries were in the dominant or non-dominant side of ski students was not determined but may be important knowledge to ski coaches for future design of ski-specific training programs. There is no gold standard on how to investigate the dominant side of alpine skiers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a screening instrument consisting of five questions for identifying side dominance and to evaluate side dominance in competitive adolescent alpine skiers. First, 121 competitive adolescent alpine skiers answered the questions on side dominance using a test-retest design. The questions were: which hand/arm (left/right) or foot/leg (left/right) one uses as the first choice when writing, throwing, kicking a ball, jumping over a fence and stair-climbing. A question about safer/better ski turn to the left or to the right was also added. Second, 274 skiers answered the questions at one occasion. A very good agreement was shown in writing and throwing and kicking a ball, and a fair agreement was shown in jumping over a fence and stair climbing. A total of 243 skiers reported right-sided dominance, and seven skiers reported left-sided dominance. One hundred and nineteen of the 121 skiers who took part in the test-retest design answered the question safer/better ski turn, and of those 70 (59%) reported that they had a safer/better ski turn to one side than to the other side. However, the side was not consistent between the two test occasions, and the question did not correlate with side dominance. A combination of the three questions “What hand/arm do you use as first choice when writing'” “What hand/arm do you use as first choice when throwing'” and “What foot/leg do you use as first choice when kicking a ball'”, may be used to decide side dominance in adolescent alpine skiers. Most adolescent alpine skiers reported right-sided dominance.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T00:00:00Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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