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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access  
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conexões     Open Access  
Corpoconsciência     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access  
Forum Kinder- und Jugendsport : Zeitschrift für Forschung, Transfer und Praxisdialog     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access  
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Turfgrass Society Research Journal     Free   (Followers: 1)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Physical Education of Students     Open Access  
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reabilitacijos Mokslai : Slauga, Kineziterapija, Ergoterapija     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access  
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports Law and Governance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Strategies : A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Recreation Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Türkiye Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Science     Open Access  
Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of National Sport Sciences     Open Access  
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  

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Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9367
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Monitoring Acclimatization and Training Responses Over 17–21 Days at
           1,800 m in Elite Cross-Country Skiers and

    • Authors: Øyvind Karlsson, Marko S. Laaksonen, Kerry McGawley
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo monitor the daily variations and time course of changes in selected variables during a 17–21-day altitude training camp at 1,800 m in a group of elite cross-country skiers (9 women, 12 men) and biathletes (7 women, 4 men).MethodsAmong other variables, resting peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2rest), resting heart rate (HRrest) and urine specific gravity (USG) were monitored daily at altitude, while illness symptoms were monitored weekly. Before and after the camp, body composition (i.e., lean and fat mass) and body mass were assessed in all athletes, while roller-skiing speed at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L−1 (Speed@4mmol) was assessed in the biathletes only.ResultsNeither SpO2rest, HRrest nor USG changed systematically during the camp (p> 0.05), although some daily time points differed from day one for the latter two variables (p < 0.05). In addition, body composition and body mass were unchanged from before to after the camp (p> 0.05). Eleven out of 15 illness episodes were reported within 4 days of the outbound or homebound flight. The five biathletes who remained free of illness increased their Speed@4mmol by ~ 4% from before to after the camp (p = 0.031).ConclusionsThe present results show that measures typically recommended to monitor acclimatization and responses to altitude in athletes (e.g., SpO2rest and HRrest) did not change systematically over time. Further research is needed to explore the utility of these and other measures in elite endurance athletes at altitudes typical of competition environments.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • Relationships Between Resilience, Mental Well-Being, and COVID-19 Worries
           in Collegiate Student-Athletes

    • Authors: Cade J. Watts, Robert C. Hilliard, Scott Graupensperger
      Abstract: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with robust declines in well-being for collegiate student-athletes. Worries about COVID-19 have frequently been associated with worsening well-being; therefore, it is important to examine protective factors against well-being decrements. Resilience, one's ability to respond to stress and adversity, may be one such factor. Despite this possible influence, resilience has not yet been studied in student-athletes in this context as the pandemic has progressed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of resilience on the relationship between COVID-19 worries and well-being. In this cross-sectional design, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III athletes (N = 91) at one university completed surveys on COVID-19 worries, resilience, and well-being between February and March 2021. All competitions had been postponed until the Spring 2021 semester. The findings revealed a negative correlation between COVID-19 worries and well-being (r = −0.21, p = 0.05) and a positive correlation between resilience and well-being (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). Additionally, multiple regression and simple slopes analyses showed that individuals with higher resilience endorsed greater scores of well-being, even when COVID-19 worries increased (β = 0.38, p = 0.02). In conclusion, our results suggest that resilience had a moderating effect on the relationship between COVID-19 worries and well-being.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • A Scoping Review Exploring Whether a Free “Offer” Devalues or Widens
           Sport and Physical Activity Participation Amongst Children and Young
           Adults Aged 0–25'|Background|Methods|Results and

    • Authors: E. J. Durden-Myers, L. Swaithes
      Abstract: BackgroundSocio-economic status continues to mediate physical activity engagement, despite a range of interventions aimed at reducing inequalities and widening sport and physical activity participation. As a result there has been increasing interest amongst policy makers, national governing bodies (NGB), county sports partnerships (CPS) and the sport and physical activity sector more broadly, in understanding how best to reduce inequalities and widen participation. The “price point” of offers and whether a “free offer” enables or devalues participation, has been a key area of interest. This scoping review aimed to explore this topic further by investigating whether “a free “offer” devalues or widens sport and physical activity participation amongst children and young adults aged 0-25'”.MethodsThis scoping review searched three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus) using a structured search strategy to identify articles published between 2017 and January 2022. Studies were included using the PICO criteria of; Population: children and young adults aged 0-25; Intervention: free “offer” relating to physical activity; Context: areas of deprivation in the UK; Outcome: engagement, involvement, participation in sport and physical activity.Results and DiscussionFive studies were eligible after screening 1301 titles and reviewing 14 full-text studies. Features reported included intervention design, outcomes, potential challenges and wider implications / future recommendations. Specifically, a narrative synthesis of the key themes of participation deprivation and cost effectiveness were outlined in more detail. A subsidized cost or free offer can improve participation generally and in attracting those from lower socio-economic backgrounds. However, the impact of such initiatives decrease with increasing deprivation highlighting that groups with the highest levels of deprivation have wider complexities affecting their participation. Competing priorities and potentially unrealistic expectations at stakeholders level was also identified.ConclusionDespite the paucity of current research exploring the impact of a “free offer” in children and young adults, recommendations for future research, practice and policy included the need for longitudinal, more holistic and participant centric approaches. Further research is required to explore the impact of a “free offer” from an individual, societal and policy-level perspective, in widening and increasing participation in sport and physical activity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • Both Physical and Virtual: On Immediacy in Esports

    • Authors: David Ekdahl
      Abstract: This article strives to make novel headway in the debate concerning esports' relationship to sports by focusing on the relationship between esports and physicality. More precisely, the aim of this article is to critically assess the claim that esports fails to be sports because it is never properly “direct” or “immediate” compared to physical sports. To do so, I focus on the account of physicality presented by Jason Holt, who provides a theoretical framework meant to justify the claim that esports is never properly immediate and therefore never sports. I begin by motivating Holt's account of physicality by contrasting it with a more classical way of discussing physicality and sports, namely in terms of physical motor skills. Afterwards, I introduce Holt's account of physicality as immediacy and engage with its assumptions more thoroughly to problematize the claim that esports is fundamentally indirect. Lastly, I argue that the assumption that esports necessarily lacks immediacy is based on a narrow understanding of body and, consequently, of space. In response, I offer a different way of thinking about body and space, focusing on the subjective, bodily engagement of the esports practitioners with their practice, whereby physical space and virtual space can be appreciated as immediately interconnected during performance in a hybrid manner. In providing such an account, the article contributes directly to the broader, growing discussion on the relationship between physicality and virtuality in an increasingly digital world.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
  • Brief Research Report: “Nothing About Us, Without Us”: A Case Study of
           the Outer Sanctum Podcast and Trends in Australian Independent Media to
           Drive Intersectional Representation

    • Authors: Kasey Symons, Sam Duncan, Emma Sherry
      Abstract: Alternative and independent sports media platforms create custom content that reflects a diversity of voices and representation of athletes, sports and issues that are not covered in meaningful ways in traditional sports media. While these new media outlets often set out to redress the lack of diversity and intersectional approaches to traditional sports media, they are also seeking ways to drive even more change. This in an interesting and important movement to interrogate as these platforms are not only predominantly unfunded, passion projects created by those marginalized groups. This brief research report provides a case study into this emerging alternative media space and its impact in driving change in an ever-evolving sports media landscape. We also discuss the problematic nature of intersectional-redressing work falling on those who still occupy the margins. This report uses a case study of an independent Australian rules football platform, The Outer Sanctum podcast, to focus on these key areas. The case study investigates how this outlet has worked to increase the visibility and profile of marginalized and underrepresented voices discussing football in new ways. It follows their journey as they have taken steps to improve their own diversity, enacting their mantra “nothing about us, without us,” and proactively becoming more intersectional in their content producing journey. This research report will present key findings from the work of this media outlet to drive change and point to the learnings mainstream media can adopt to meaningfully embed intersectional approaches to sports media as core business.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
  • Psychological Safety in High-Performance Sport: Contextually

    • Authors: Jamie Taylor, Dave Collins, Michael Ashford
      Abstract: In recent years, high-performance sport has seen a rising interest in Psychological Safety, a construct with a strong empirical basis in certain business contexts. As research and practice interest grows in PS, there are early indications of practitioners and, to a lesser extent research, treating the construct as being universally transferable. We offer three central concerns with this situation. Firstly, it seems that a variety of different interpretations in use may limit the practical application of the construct. Secondly, a concern that not all dimensions of PS are transferable or applicable in the HPSs context, especially for athletes. Finally, emerging evidence from outside of sport suggests potential downsides to the perceptions of PS in a performance/selection sets. We suggest that, as with all theories and constructs, there is a pressing need for nuance and context-specific evidence in how researchers and practitioners approach transferability plus, perhaps, a little more understanding of the real-world high-performance context.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
  • Relationships Between Performance and Injury Occurrence in Athletics
           (Track and Field): A Pilot Study on 8 National-Level Athletes From
           Sprints, Jumps and Combined Events Followed During at Least Five
           Consecutive Seasons|Background|Objective|Methods|Results|Conclusions

    • Authors: Joris Chapon, Laurent Navarro, Pascal Edouard
      Abstract: BackgroundPerformance success or failure in athletics (Track and Field) and the capacity to succeed are driven at the adult level, like in other sports, by many factors, injury being one of them. More information regarding the potential relationships between performance and injuries in athletics is needed.ObjectiveTo analyse the potential association between performance and occurrence of injuries in national-level athletics athletes from sprints, jumps and combined events through several seasons.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of performance and injury data collected prospectively in 8 national-level athletics athletes followed during at least five consecutive seasons from 2009 to 2019. For each athlete, injuries data [total injuries (injuries) and time-loss injuries (TLI)] were collected by the same sports medicine physician throughout the study period using a medical attention injury definition. Performances during official competitions were collected on the French Federation of Athletics website, and included (i) any participation in national championships, (ii) any participation in an international competition (i.e., being national team member for an international competition), (iii) any podium at the national championships, (iv) any podium at an international competition, and (v) performance metrics normalised to the world record (WR) of the respective athletics speciality (%WR). For each athlete, we performed a descriptive analysis of the performances and injuries. We also performed four binomial logistic regressions with (1) national championships participation (yes/no) or (2) international competition participation (yes/no) as dependent variables, and injuries (yes/no) or TLI (yes/no) as independent variables, adjusted for individual athlete and number of seasons, and in models on participation in international competitions, was also adjusted for national championship participation (yes/no), with Odd Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).ResultsAmong the 8 national-level athletics athletes included in the present study, cumulated 155 injuries, including 52 TLI (33.5%). There was an average of 2.7 ± 1.7 injuries and 0.9 ± 0.6 TLI per athlete per season over the study period. The occurrence of injuries was significantly associated with higher odds of national championships participation (OR = 4.85 [95% CI 3.10 to 3050.5], p = 0.021). The occurrence of TLI was significantly associated with higher odds of national championships participation (OR = 133.6 [95% CI 4.92 to 14251.5], p = 0.013). The occurrence of injuries or TLI were associated with insignificantly lower odds of international championships participation.ConclusionsOur present pilot study confirms that injuries are part of an athletes' life. The occurrence of at least one injury was associated with higher odds of participation in a national championship, whereas the absence of at least one injury was associated with higher odds of participation in an international championship. We hypothesised that the length of the season can play a role in the risk of injury occurrence, but if the athlete wants to reach his/her highest level, decreasing the risk of injuries seems to be of importance. Despite the caution that should be taken in the interpretation of our results, our present study confirms the interest and relevance of injury risk reduction approach in athletics.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • Risk of Low Energy Availability, Disordered Eating, Exercise Addiction,
           and Food Intolerances in Female Endurance Athletes

    • Authors: Ida Lysdahl Fahrenholtz, Anna Katarina Melin, Paulina Wasserfurth, Andreas Stenling, Danielle Logue, Ina Garthe, Karsten Koehler, Maria Gräfnings, Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Sharon Madigan, Monica Klungland Torstveit
      Abstract: Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a complex syndrome describing health and performance consequences of low energy availability (LEA) and is common among female endurance athletes. Various underlying causes of LEA have been reported, including disordered eating behavior (DE), but studies investigating the association with exercise addiction and food intolerances are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between DE, exercise addiction and food intolerances in athletes at risk of LEA compared to those with low risk. Female endurance athletes, 18–35 years, training ≥5 times/week were recruited in Norway, Sweden, Ireland, and Germany. Participants completed an online-survey comprising the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and questions regarding food intolerances. Of the 202 participants who met the inclusion criteria and completed the online survey, 65% were at risk of LEA, 23% were at risk of exercise addiction, and 21% had DE. Athletes at risk of LEA had higher EDE-Q and EAI scores compared to athletes with low risk. EAI score remained higher in athletes with risk of LEA after excluding athletes with DE. Athletes at risk of LEA did not report more food intolerances (17 vs. 10%, P = 0.198), but were more frequently reported by athletes with DE (28 vs. 11%, P = 0.004). In conclusion, these athletes had a high risk of LEA, exercise addiction, and DE. Exercise addiction should be considered as an additional risk factor in the prevention, early detection, and targeted treatment of RED-S among female endurance athletes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • Training Patterns and Mental Health of Bodybuilders and Fitness Athletes
           During the First Lockdown of the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Cross-Sectional

    • Authors: Samuel Iff, Stefan Fröhlich, Robin Halioua, Christian Imboden, Jörg Spörri, Johannes Scherr, Ingo Butzke, Erich Seifritz, Malte Christian Claussen
      Abstract: Background:Government restrictions during the first COVID-19 lockdown, such as the closure of gyms and fitness centers, drastically limited the training opportunities of bodybuilders and fitness athletes (BoFA) who rely on indoor training facilities. This provided a unique situation to investigate the effect of training limitations on the training patterns, training adaptive strategies and mental health of BoFAs.ObjectivesThe primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in the training patterns and the mental health of BoFA before and during the first COVID-19 lockdown. The secondary aim was to assess whether BoFA who exhibited features of muscle dysmorphia were affected differently from the group that did not.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted with 85 BoFAs by means of an online questionnaire asking about sports activity, intensity, subjective physical performance, and economic status, including primary or secondary occupations before (from memory) and during lockdown, current physical health problems and financial fears, symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, anxiety (trait and state), muscle dysmorphia, coping mechanisms and actions during the first lockdown in Switzerland.ResultsTraining patterns and mental health of BoFA were influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic and first lockdown. During lockdown, the physical activity on the BoFA dropped significantly from 2.3 ± 0.8 h per day to 1.6 ± 0.9 h per day (p < 0.001), the subjective training intensity decreased significantly from 85.7 ± 13.2% to 58.3 ± 28.3% (p < 0.001) and the subjective performance declined significantly from 83.4 ± 14.3% to 58.2 ± 27.8% (p < 0.001) of maximal performance. In comparison to those without risk for body dysmorphia, participants at risk rated their maximal performance significantly lower and scored significantly higher for depression, sleep disorders and anxiety.ConclusionThis study showed the significant changes on the training patterns of BoFA before and during the first COVID-19 lockdown and poor mental health scores of BoFA during the lockdown itself, with those at risk of muscle dysmorphia scoring statistically worse regarding mental health than those with no risk of muscle dysmorphia. To better understand the particularities of BoFA, further investigation is needed to understand their psychology and in particular the effect of training restrictions on it.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • Exploring the Notion of Literacy Within Physical Literacy: A Discussion

    • Authors: Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Gillian Bartle, Margaret E. Whitehead, Karamjeet K. Dhillon
      Abstract: The concept of physical literacy is continuing to gain traction internationally. This increasing interest has also given rise to concerns about the use, interpretation and meaning of the term “literacy” within the context of physical literacy. This paper explores the development of the terms literate, illiterate, literacy, and illiteracy identifying their historical origin and contemporary meaning. This provides the backdrop to explore the use of the term literacy within the context of physical literacy. In the final part of this introductory section the recent popularity of the literacies movement is explored. Our discussion identifies key intersections and areas of tension associated with the use, interpretation and meaning of literacy in the context of physical literacy. We adopt Whitehead's philosophy of physical literacy and discussion is informed further by Derrida's notion of differance, and Barad's challenge to singular representations of concepts. Once harnessing these concepts, we reach a juncture of an in-between space; entry points of nonidentity (sameness) and points where multiple effects of difference are created. Key discussion topics include: discourse, language and interpretations of literacy; in/tangibility of literacy; capturing literacy; literacy as a process or a product; connotations of the terms literate and illiterate; neoliberalism and literacy and finally literacy as learning. We believe that when understood as the productive and meaningful interaction with/in/through the world, literacy is still the appropriate term within the context of physical literacy. Our discussion leads us to conclude that as embodied individuals, physical literacy is often the literacy through which other literacies have to pass. Through physical activity individuals can not only nurture their own physical literacy but also contribute toward a global or holistic literacy that helps us navigate, connect and make sense of ourselves, others and the world around us. However, the paper acknowledges that this meaning is not always grasped with the historical understanding of literacy as well as it's translations into other languages presenting challenges in articulating the intended use, meaning and connotations of the contemporary understanding of physical literacy.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • “I Want to Create So Much Stimulus That Adaptation Goes Through the
           Roof”: High-Performance Strength Coaches' Perceptions of Planned

    • Authors: Lee Bell, Alan Ruddock, Tom Maden-Wilkinson, David Rogerson
      Abstract: Functional overreaching (FOR) occurs when athletes experience improved athletic capabilities in the days and weeks following short-term periods of increased training demand. However, prolonged high training demand with insufficient recovery may also lead to non-functional overreaching (NFOR) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The aim of this research was to explore strength coaches' perceptions and experiences of planned overreaching (POR); short-term periods of increased training demand designed to improve athletic performance. Fourteen high-performance strength coaches (weightlifting; n = 5, powerlifting; n = 4, sprinting; n = 2, throws; n = 2, jumps; n = 1) participated in semistructured interviews. Reflexive thematic analysis identified 3 themes: creating enough challenge, training prescription, and questioning the risk to reward. POR was implemented for a 7 to 14 day training cycle and facilitated through increased daily/weekly training volume and/or training intensity. Participants implemented POR in the weeks (~5–8 weeks) preceding competition to allow sufficient time for performance restoration and improvement to occur. Short-term decreased performance capacity, both during and in the days to weeks following training, was an anticipated by-product of POR, and at times used as a benchmark to confirm that training demand was sufficiently challenging. Some participants chose not to implement POR due to a lack of knowledge, confidence, and/or perceived increased risk of athlete training maladaptation. Additionally, this research highlights the potential dichotomy between POR protocols used by strength coaches to enhance athletic performance and those used for the purpose of inducing training maladaptation for diagnostic identification.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T00:00:00Z
  • How Leisure Involvement Affects Repurchase Intention in Fitness Clubs'
           The Mediating Role of Commercial Friendship

    • Authors: Yanting Wang, Yi Gao, Fong-Jia Wang
      Abstract: This study explores the relationships among leisure involvement, business or commercial friendship, satisfaction, and willingness to repurchase in customers' use of customized fitness services. This study randomly sampled and analyzed the customers of fitness clubs (N = 234) in China. The results showed that leisure involvement had a positive impact on repurchase intention and satisfaction. Moreover, the mediating effect of commercial friendship was found in the relationship between leisure involvement, repurchase intention, and satisfaction. Overall, the study contributes to the literature by exploring the interaction effects of different types of consumer leisure involvement and commercial friendships in customized fitness services models on satisfaction and repurchase intentions'.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
  • Kinematic and Temporal Differences Between World-Class Men's and Women's
           Hurdling Techniques

    • Authors: Athanassios Bissas, Giorgos P. Paradisis, Brian Hanley, Stéphane Merlino, Josh Walker
      Abstract: This study aimed to compare joint kinematics and center of mass parameters throughout hurdle clearance between world-class men and women sprint hurdlers, who were competing in a World Championships final. This was the first study to present time-series kinematic data around hurdle clearance, and given the technical ability of the athletes analyzed, it can be used as a template when analyzing the technique of other athletes in similar competitions and training. Video data were collected of the 16 finalists at the 2017 IAAF World Championships using four high-speed cameras (150 Hz). Video files were continuously digitized manually from touchdown before hurdle clearance to toe-off after landing around the sixth hurdle for men and the fifth hurdle for women, and sex-based comparisons were made at key discrete time points using independent t-tests, and throughout the entire hurdle phase using statistical parametric mapping. When calculated relative to hurdle height, the women's center of mass height was significantly greater than the men's throughout the full analyzed sequence (p < 0.001). Men also displayed more hip flexion in the lead leg at take-off before hurdle clearance (p = 0.029) as well as a more extended knee joint at intervals during flight and upon landing (p ≤ 0.037). Women completed the hurdle phase in a significantly shorter time than men (~11% difference, p < 0.001). Finally, women seemed to be more efficient by maintaining and even exceeding their entry velocity for the first 40% of the hurdle phase. These results show a lower technical demand for the women to successfully negotiate hurdle clearance, thus providing further evidence to support the argument that the women's hurdle height is too low for their performance capabilities and should be raised in senior competition.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
  • Esports Fan Engagement: A Comparison of PC and Console Esports Team Fans

    • Authors: Marcel Huettermann, Anthony D. Pizzo
      Abstract: Esports, competitive video game competitions, are a leading digital innovation at the nexus of sports, business, and technology. Given their prominent position, esports have received extensive media and academic attention. In particular, esports fans, primarily tech-savvy and affluent young adults, have been the foci of this attention. Accordingly, a large number of studies has centered on these influential consumers, examining their motives to spectate, support, and follow esports teams and players. To date, esports have been examined very broadly, neglecting differences in the multitude of games, genres, and platforms which influence their consumption. In particular, the platform (or medium), plays a substantial role in how consumers engage with esports teams and players. These platforms include personal computers (PCs) and video gaming consoles. The purpose of this study is to identify differences in how fans of PC and console based esports teams engage with their favorite esports team. We collected data from both PC and console esports team fans via an online survey (N = 514), analyzing said data using structural equation modeling and multigroup analysis. Our results highlight that fans of console-based esports teams value both emotional engagement and management cooperation, underscoring the more intimate and personal experience afforded by consoles (vis-à-vis PCs). Overall, our study elucidates differences in esports fan engagement and helps to further identify critical differences that influence esports consumer behavior.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
  • Accessibility, Agency, and Trust: A Study About Equestrians' (Online)
           Learning Repertoires

    • Authors: Lovisa Broms, Klara Boije af Gennäs, Aage Radmann, Susanna Hedenborg
      Abstract: Todays' online media landscape facilitates communication on how sports practitioners can develop in their sport. Hence, sports and educational institutions need to recognize the increased role of the individual as “a facilitator of knowledge” through information and communications technology (ICT). For sport organizations and educational institutions to effectively reach out with knowledge and research, they need to know how individuals assess, value, and trust information sources. This article aims to increase the knowledge and understanding of how the traditional culture in equestrianism meets the contemporary media user. It is based on a study that uses a mixed methods design, containing a questionnaire with 1,655 respondents and 28 focus group interviews with Swedish and Norwegian equestrians, to investigate how equestrians create their own repertoires of horse-knowledge online and what sources of knowledge they trust and prioritize. The results show that accessibility, agency, and trust are key terms when mapping equestrians' preferred knowledge platforms, and that equestrians are generally not satisfied with the availability and the quality of horse-related online content. Horse experience is the most important positional factor influencing online repertoires in the equestrian community. Riders with less experience turn to Social Network Sites (SNS) to a higher extent than riders with more experience. Further, equestrians find the ability to assess information as an important yet challenging task. This article shows that the term (online) learning repertoires is appropriate when discussing the relationship (or clash) between the traditional culture in equestrian sports and the contemporary media user. On the one hand, many equestrians clearly express that they would rather stay away from obtaining information about horses and riding on ICTs. On the other hand, the data, together with previous research, indicates that many equestrians see ICTs as important platforms for discussing and exchanging information about horses and riding.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T00:00:00Z
  • Black Women Coaches in Community: Promising Practices for Mentorship in

    • Authors: Janelle Joseph, Alex I. McKenzie
      Abstract: Mentorship programs have been shown to help under-represented women navigate their environments, but little research has been done on mentorship programs in sport coaching in Canada. The first of its kind in Canada, the Black Female Coach Mentorship Program (BFCMP) created by the Black Canadian Coaches Association in partnership with the Coaching Association of Canada caters to an historically excluded population: Black, Biracial, and Indigenous women coaches. The research aimed to understand the experiences of program participants to better inform policy, decision-making, and sustainability of the BFCMP. Through mentorship session observations, one-on-one semi-structured interviews with 15 of the 27 inaugural BFCMP mentors and mentees, and thematic analysis, we determined the ability to form a trusted community was a promising practice for coach mentorship programs. Our findings suggest that participants, the majority of whom were the only Black woman coach in their program/institution, benefit from mentorship because of the opportunities to help each other develop as leaders, build relationships to resist loneliness, and nurture resilience through community.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T00:00:00Z
  • The Effects of 10 Weeks Hangboard Training on Climbing Specific Maximal
           Strength, Explosive Strength, and Finger Endurance

    • Authors: Espen Hermans, Atle H. Saeterbakken, Vegard Vereide, Ivar S. O. Nord, Nicolay Stien, Vidar Andersen
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of hangboard training (HBT) on climbing-specific maximal strength, explosive strength, and muscular endurance. In total, 35 intermediate- to advanced-level climbers (8 women and 27 men) were randomized into a hangboard training group (HBT) or a control group (CON). The HBT program consisted of two sessions of 48 min per week using the Beastmaker 1000 series hangboard, and the following application to smartphone. Both groups continued their normal climbing training routines. Pre- and post-intervention, maximal peak force, maximal average force, and rate of force development (RFD) were measured while performing an isometric pull-up on a 23 mm deep campus rung and jug holds. In addition, finger endurance was measured by performing a sustained dead-hang test on the same rung. The HBT increased peak force and average force in 23 mm rung condition, average force in jug condition, and utilization rate øl,.- in peak force to a greater extent than CON (p = 0.001–0.031, ES = 0.29–0.66), whereas no differences were detected between groups in RFD (jug or 23 mm), peak force in jug condition, utilization rate in RFD, average force or in dead-hang duration (p = 0.056–0.303). At post-test, the HBT group demonstrated 17, 18, 28, 10, 11, and 12% improvement in peak force, average force, RFD in 23 mm rung condition, average force in jug condition, utilization rate in peak force, and dead-hang duration, respectively [p = 0.001–0.006, effect size (ES) = 0.73–1.12] whereas no change was observed in CON (p = 0.213–0.396). In conclusion, 10 weeks of HBT in addition to regular climbing was highly effective for increasing maximal finger strength compared with continuing regular climbing training for intermediate and advanced climbers.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T00:00:00Z
  • Social Media and the Olympics: A Chance for Improving Gender Equality

    • Authors: Aneta Grabmüllerová
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether social media content by the National Olympic Committees (NOC) during the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games strengthens or weakens the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) gender equality ambitions. As the media play an important role in creating the impressions that people cherish during and after the Olympics, the IOC has since the 1990s increased its responsibility for fair media portrayal of athletes and competitions by revising its own media production. In the past decade, this most notably concerns social media. Not only has it become an inseparable part of global sports consumption, but it is also seen as a tool for changing the biased and stereotypical portrayal of female athletes in news media, even though male and female athletes have become nearly equal in numbers of participants. Studies of media production and equality-informed decisions are, however, rare in sport. Drawing upon a quantitative analysis of social media accounts of three National Olympic Committees (NOC) (Norway, Czech Republic and Switzerland) and qualitative in-depth interviews with key informants—NOCs' and European Olympic Committee's (EOC) social media personnel—this study therefore explored the decisions and processes that influenced gender portrayal during the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. Findings of the study showed that media personnel have a significant influence on gender portrayal in their respective communication channels. In contrast to news media, they were aware of the frames they apply, and they applied them in alignment with the Olympic values. Consequently, they set a fairer agenda for both male and female athletes and strengthened the gender equality mission of the IOC.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T00:00:00Z
  • A Re-examination of the Measurement of Foot Strike Mechanics During
           Running: The Immediate Effect of Footwear Midsole

    • Authors: Zhenyuan Zhang, Mark Lake
      Abstract: PurposeMidsole cushioning thickness (MT) is a key component of running footwear that may influence the stiffness setting of the joints, performance enhancement, and injury prevention. Most studies that have investigated the influence of manipulating shoe midsole characteristics on foot strike patterns and vertical force loading rates have not considered the dynamic conditions of initial landing and the associated initial lower limb joint stiffness. In this study, we examined the effect of running in shoes with large changes in MT on both the posture and dynamics associated with foot strike.Methods12 injury-free runners with habitual rearfoot strike patterns ran at 4.5 m/s along a 40-m runway in shoe conditions with MT of 30, 42, and 54 mm, respectively. Ground reaction force and the right leg kinematic data were collected. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to statistically analyze the effect of MT on key variables linked to foot strike.ResultsIncreased midsole thickness resulted in a slightly flatter foot strike posture (p < 0.05), a decreased shank retraction velocity (p < 0.05), and an increase in forward horizontal foot velocity (p < 0.05), all at initial ground contact. Vertical force loading rates were reduced with increasing MT (p < 0.05), but this was associated with large increases in the initial ankle and knee joint stiffness (p < 0.05).ConclusionAdjustments in the initial conditions of contact with the ground during running were seen in both the posture and dynamics of the lower limbs. To help to mitigate the impact severity from foot-ground collision with the thinnest shoe condition, there was an increased shank retraction velocity and decreased forward velocity of the foot at landing. These active impact-moderating adaptations likely served to reduce the changes in impact severity expected due to midsole material properties alone and should be considered in relation to altering the risk of running-related injuries.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T00:00:00Z
  • Rule Changes to Increase Shared Medal Winning at the Olympics

    • Authors: Feifei Li, Will G. Hopkins
      Abstract: One of the most inspirational moments of the Tokyo Olympics was the sharing of the gold medal in the men's high jump. Rule changes that allow more medal sharing when athletes and teams are effectively equal in ability would improve the entertainment value of the Olympics, reward more athletes for their years of dedication to sport, and augment the Olympic ideal of fair play. Medals in all events are decided by a time, distance or points score in a final. When scores differ by ~0.1 or less of the variability in the score between competitions, the athlete or team with the better score would obtain a better score on average in only 52% of subsequent competitions, representing medals determined effectively by a coin toss. We have therefore quantified the medal sharing at the Tokyo Olympics that would have occurred if medals had been shared with such score differences (converted to rounded times or distances separating athletes in a final) in events with known variability between competitions (canoeing, kayaking, rowing, swimming, track and field events). In these events, 10%, 14% and 14% respectively of gold, silver and bronze medals would have been shared. The men's high jump would have produced three golds. Most of the sharing (68%) would have occurred with male athletes, presumably because greater depth of competition with males results in smaller differences between athletes at the highest level. The variability of performance scores in other events between competitions would need researching to establish maximum score differences for medal sharing in these events. For all events, the rule changes should exclude counting back, penalty shoot-outs, tie-breakers and any other methods for avoiding ties in the final. The acceptability of these rule changes to athletes, coaches and spectators (for example, in terms of separation of the athletes at the finishing line) would also need to be investigated.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T00:00:00Z
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