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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Quality in Sport
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2450-3118
Published by Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Marfan’s syndrome – inheritance, diagnostic methods,
           management in disease

    • Authors: Kinga Grużewska-Piotrowska, Monika Pająk, Joanna Hubka, Wojciech Wcisło
      Pages: 11 - 22
      Abstract: Introduction: Marfan’s syndrome (MFS) is a systemic, autosomal dominant connective tissue disease. It is caused mainly by the mutations in the FBN1 gene and is connected with extracellular matrix protein fibrillin-1. The incidence is about 2-3 per 10 000. About 70-75% of cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and the remaining are de-novo mutations. The aim of the study: This study aims to gather current knowledge about inheritance, diagnostic methods and management in Marfan syndrome. Materials and methods: This review was based on available data collected in the PubMed database and Google Scholar web search engine, using the key words: Marfan’s syndrome. MFS, FBN1, aortic aneurysm, Marfan Foundation Conclusion: The diagnosis of Marfan’s syndrome requires detailed assessment of the body build, concomitant diseases and, above all, genetic history of the patient. Connective tissue mutations can develop at any time, and already existing defects can exacerbate. Physicians should pay particular attention while examining patients with suspected MFS. Already diagnosed patients should be checked regularly to quickly find possible complications. There is no casual treatment, multidirectional preventive therapeutic treatment is used.
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The Role of Mancala Games in Human Evolution, Cultural Development, and
           Education: An Anthropological Inquiry

    • Authors: Safdar Abbas, Jian Zhang, Yingdan Liu, Zijun Yin, Shengdong Qin
      Pages: 23 - 36
      Abstract: Mancala games, a diverse category of traditional board games played across cultures worldwide, bear resemblances to chess in their significance to human evolution and cultural progress. Drawing from anthropological investigations, this research uncovers the adaptability of mancala games to farming, marine, and nomadic cultures, tracing their origins to ancient Egypt and their subsequent spread among diverse civilizations in Africa, Malaysia, and China. This study highlights the extensive contributions of mancala games across various educational domains, encompassing moral, intellectual, physical, and aesthetic education, all of which foster comprehensive human development. By examining the cultural, historical, and educational dimensions of mancala games, this research unveils their profound impact on human societies throughout history, shedding light on their enduring significance. Mancala games emerge as powerful tools for promoting moral reasoning, critical thinking abilities, strategic planning skills, physical coordination, and cultural understanding. They embody cultural traditions, transmit ancestral knowledge, and foster social cohesion. Through their entertainment value and ability to shape and enrich human experiences, mancala games weave a cultural tapestry that intertwines with human societies, both past and present.  
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of physical activity on body weight of elementary school children

    • Authors: Patrycja Aleksy, Martina Grot, Maciej Nigowski, Ewelina Sobecko, Mateusz Grajek, Karolina Krupa-Kotara
      Pages: 37 - 56
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Physical activity is an extremely important part of diet and carries a number of health-promoting benefits towards health. A distinction is made between exercise-related physical activity and spontaneous physical activity. The diet of school-aged children is of particular importance, due to the development of the body. The consequence of low physical activity with an inadequate diet generates the development of various diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of physical activity on the body weight of students of elementary schools 1 and 2 in Radzionków. Material
      and methods: The study included 260 students of grades I-VIII of Elementary Schools Nos. 1 and 2
      in Radzionków. A proprietary questionnaire addressed to the parents of the students containing questions about the students' anthropometric measurements, physical activity and eating habits was used to conduct the study. Results: Physical activity is at a high level. Most children had a normal body weight. Among the students surveyed, 71% indicated that they mainly spend their free time in active form. Students participate in swimming classes in the greatest number. Several times a week (55%) children attend extra-curricular activities. Consumption of sweets and fast food is at a low level. Eating the recommended daily serving of fruits and vegetables affects only 43% of children. Among the most commonly consumed beverages, 84% of children choose water at 1-1.5 liters per day. Conclusions: A significant part of the study group has a normal body weight, so it can be assumed that physical activity combined with appropriate eating habits has a health-promoting effect on body weight.
      PubDate: 2023-06-03
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Multiple sclerosis - A review of recent advances in diagnostics and
           treatments

    • Authors: Klaudia Wiśniewska, Agnieszka Ostańska, Adrianna Szafran, Wiktor Terelak, Marcin Ciechański, Edyta Witkowska, Laura Piasek, Grzegorz Godek, Kacper Więcław, Katarzyna Stańko
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Introduction: Multiple sclerosis is a common chronic neuroinflammatory disease of the CNS with an autoimmune basis. It is the most common non-traumatic disorder that leads to disability in young adults.
      It occurs 3x more often in women. The quality of life of people suffering from multiple sclerosis is often significantly reduced. Objective: The purpose of this review is to analyze the latest information on the characteristics, diagnosis
      and treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods and matherials: A review of the literature available in the PubMed database published between
      2016 and 2022, using the following keywords: "multiple sclerosis"; "pathogenesis"; "immunology"; "genetics"; “diagnostics” and "treatment." State of knowledge: Currently, there is no effective cure for multiple sclerosis but therapeutic options have increased over the past few years. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of disease-modifying therapies is too low and they cannot stop the progressive neurodegenerative process in the CNS. A recent development is the option of MS therapy using stem cells. This is to overcome the loss of nerve cells and increase the repair capacity of endogenous myelin. Conclusions: Although knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease has advanced tremendously in recent years and many new therapeutic options have emerged, our knowledge is still incomplete. This poses a challenge for creating more drugs and halting the progression of the disease.
      PubDate: 2023-06-03
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Bilateral preventive mastectomy as a preventive method of breast cancer in
           the opinion of women

    • Authors: Małgorzata Olejniczak-Nowakowska, Weronika Trocha, Karolina Krupa-Kotara, Mateusz Grajek
      Pages: 65 - 79
      Abstract: Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Despite of the progress of medicine and develop of treatment, it is still the second couse of death among women. To reduce the risk of getting breast cancer, the more ofen teratement is "preventive mastectomies" which completely remove the breast gland by healty women that are in the "high risk" group. Material and Methods To conduct the research I develop a survey, written by my own. The study included 252 women from Poland over the age of 18. Results The opinion about the performance of preventive mastectomies in case of women in "high risk" was very diverse. Only 13% of interviewees were convinced that they would have the surgery and up to 29% could not give an answer. Most woman (86%) are convinced that breast cancer is genetically determined. That mastectomy can be a way to prevent breast cancer agrees 69% of respondents. More than half of respondents (52%) don't know if such surgery is in Poland available. Only half of the respondents could indicate the place where an examination of an increased risk of breast cancer can be made (49%). 81% of respondents examine there breasts at least with one method, and 19% did not check it at all. Conclusions The knowledge about the heredity of cancer and the availability of treatments is insufficient. Women are not convinced that they would have gone to radical preventive treatment, and they are afraid of many consequences connected with it. It is essential to educate the public including the medical stuff in this scope. It is also important that the patient together with his doctor examined all the possible options for limiting the risk of cancer.
      PubDate: 2023-06-15
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Does blue light affect sleep quality or performance' – empirical
           

    • Authors: Kinga Grużewska-Piotrowska, Agnieszka Grużewska, Monika Pająk
      Pages: 80 - 91
      Abstract: Introduction: Nowadays, more and more people use electronic devices. As the amount of time spent using them has increased, so has the quality of sleep. People go to bed later, and the process of falling asleep is delayed. In addition, sleep time is reduced, which translates into sleep deprivation. Many people think that blue light is only emitted from digital screens, but it is nothing new - it is part of the light emitted. Light is the most important factor regulating the circadian rhythms of the human body. All types of visible light can affect circadian rhythms, but blue light has the greatest impact. The aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess if blue light affects sleep quality and performance by empirical research based on anonymous surveys among medical students and physicians. Materials and methods: The research material was collected using an anonymous online survey in May 2023. The obtained results were analyzed and verified on the basis of scientific literature and statistically processed using Microsoft Office Excel. Results: 92.3% of the respondents use electronic devices before going to bed, mostly the phone, and the time of using usually ranges from 30 minutes to 1 hour. Most of the people filling the questionnaire sleep on average 5-6 hours at night, of which as many as 81.7% declare that their sleep is not of good quality. 91.3% of respondents know what blue light is, but only 22.1% use protection against it before sleep. Conclusion: Exposure to blue light can affect sleep, performance and well-being. An important negative effect of exposure to blue light is a reduction in the quality and length of sleep, which can negatively affect performance. It is believed that in order to maintain a healthy circadian rhythm, it is necessary not only to increase the proportion of blue light in artificial light during the day, but also to reduce the amount of that light in the evening and night hours.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Awareness and knowledge of the use of folic acid during the procreative
           period and during pregnancy among women from the Podkarpackie Province

    • Authors: Kinga Musz, Katarzyna Dobko, Gabriela Frącz, Agata Glac, Klaudia Kuliga, Natalia Sejnowska, Agnieszka Socha, Agata Surowiec, Kinga Śnieżek, Anna Zając
      Pages: 92 - 101
      Abstract: Introduction: Folic acid is of great importance for the proper functioning of the human body. It has a major impact on the metabolism of amino acids, nucleic acids and plays a special role in tissues where intensive cell division takes place. Its deficiency in pregnant women may contribute to neural tube defects in the foetus. Elimination of the causes of deficiency and adequate folate supplementation are recommended. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and awareness among adult women from the Podkarpackie Province regarding the use of folic acid during the procreative period and pregnancy. Materials and methods: A total of 436 women of different ages participated in the study conducted in June 2023. The study group consisted of women from the Podkarpackie Voivodeship over 18 years of age. Material for the study was collected using an anonymous author's online questionnaire. The results obtained were analysed and compared with the literature available in the PubMed database. Results: The questions with the highest number of correct answers concerned the possible consequences of lack of supplementation and the period of pregnancy during which the fetus is at risk of developing neural tube defects. Questions concerning the ability of the intestinal microflora to synthesise folic acid and the recommended period to start supplementation before the planned pregnancy proved problematic. Education was shown to significantly affect the level of knowledge about folic acid. Summary: The level of knowledge about folic acid among women in the Podkarpackie voivodship is satisfactory. However, it is still necessary to educate women of reproductive age and inform them about the potential consequences of not supplementing this compound during pregnancy. Education should rest not only with the gynaecologist, but also with the primary care physician.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse – empirical research
           based on anonymous surveys among people who regularly attend the gym

    • Authors: Monika Pająk, Kinga Grużewska-Piotrowska, Joanna Hubka, Agnieszka Grużewska
      Pages: 102 - 112
      Abstract: Introduction: The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is particularly common in regular gyms and fitness centres participants. AAS are usually synthetic derivatives of testosterone with anabolic and androgenic effect. However, many people, including AAS users, do not realize how many side effects they can cause.
      The aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess if people who regularly attend to the gym are aware of the side effects of using anabolic steroids by empirical research based on anonymous surveys.
      Materials and methods: The research material was collected using an anonymous online survey in April 2023. The obtained results were analyzed and verified on the basis of scientific literature and statistically processed using Microsoft Office Excel.
      Results: Of the 112 gym participants, 20,5% reported using anabolic-androgenic steroids in the past. Most of the people filling the questionnaire are aware of the negative health effects of AAS use. However, most of them can't name more than 4 side effects, which shows that knowledge about AAS is still unexplored by this social group.
      Conclusion: The use of anabolic androgenic steroids to increase muscle size and strength is widespread. Various side effects are very common when using AAS, some of them can seriously affect the health of the users. By raising awareness of side-effects that AAS can cause, it is possible to discourage many people from using these performance-enhancing substances.
      Keywords: Anabolic-androgenic steroids, testosterone, gym, doping, bodybuilding
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Vitamin D – knowledge among people about its properties and effects
           based on anonymous surveys

    • Authors: Agnieszka Grużewska, Kinga Grużewska-Piotrowska
      Pages: 113 - 125
      Abstract: Introduction: Vitamin D is produced under the influence of solar radiation. It can also be supplied in food or dietary supplements. The assessment of total serum 25(OH)D is widely accepted as an indicator of vitamin D concentration and observation of the population regarding hypovitaminosis or recommendations regarding supplementation. In fact, the definition of vitamin D deficiency is still a contentious issue, however, epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D deficiency is widespread worldwide, including Poland. The aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of people about supplementation and the effects of vitamin D, its deficiency and consumed nutrients, in which it is found, based on anonymous surveys. Materials and methods: The research material was collected using an anonymous online survey in April and May 2023. The obtained results were analyzed and verified on the basis of scientific literature and statistically processed using Microsoft Office Excel. Results: 47.3% of the respondents take dietary supplements with vitamin D, but 76% of these people do not know the dose they are taking. More than half of them declare knowledge of the function of vitamin D3, of which 70.3% of respondents correlate the effect of cholecalciferol with the skeletal system. 50.2% of people eat fish rarely or not at all. 68.5% of respondents claim that vitamin D should be supplemented with vitamin K to be effective. Discussion and conclusions: Less than half of the respondents take preparations containing vitamin D. Few people know the full use of vitamin D in the body and its multidirectionality. More than half of the respondents do not know the effects of hypovitaminosis D. Prevention of vitamin D deficiency should be reintroduced due to lifestyle changes, e.g. after the COVID-19 pandemy. Keywords: vitamin D, hypovitaminosis, cholecalciferol, calcium
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Hyaluronic acid and its use in non-hormonal therapy for the treatment of
           vaginal atrophy and the level of awareness about the disease itself among
           the women from the Podkarpackie Voivodeship

    • Authors: Agata Glac, Kinga Musz, Katarzyna Dobko, Gabriela Frącz, Klaudia Kuliga, Natalia Sejnowska, Agnieszka Socha, Agata Surowiec, Kinga Śnieżek, Anna Zając
      Pages: 126 - 134
      Abstract: Introduction: Hyaluronic acid is the ingredient contained in the composition that has the ability to bind water, found in the cornea, synovial fluid and cartilage stroma. Its properties are suitable for use in an increasing range of fields, both aesthetic and in treatments focusing on the treatment of vaginal atrophy. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to collect and analyze publications on the use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of vaginal atrophy and assessment of the level of knowledge among women about this disease. Materials and methods: The research material was collected using an anonymous online survey. The obtained results were analyzed and verified on the basis of scientific literaturę and statistically processed using Microsoft Office Excel. Results: 59,7% of the respondents knew the term "vaginal atrophy" and 64,2% were able to correctly determine which of the hormones (estrogen) is the main cause of this condition. 59,7% of women indicated that they regularly undergo examinations and perform cytology every year, 29,9% indicated that they have examinations and visits "once in 2 years", 6% - "once in 3 years", the answers "less than once in 3 years” was given by 4,5% of the respondents. 85,7% of the surveyed women have never noticed any symptoms of vaginal atrophy and 85,9% believe that there are effective forms of treating this disorder. Conclusions: Awareness among women about vaginal atrophy, both those with medical education and women in other professions, is at a moderate level. Many women do not talk to their doctor about this not because of the feeling of shame, but also because of the lack of information and preventive measures. The progressive nature of vaginal atrophy should encourage clinicians to routinely engage in an open dialogue with patients about genitourinary health.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • The Rio 20+ process, the idea of sustainable development - current and
           historical legal perspectives for sport and tourism

    • Authors: Małgorzata Bugajska, Szymon Raniszewski, Mateusz Tomanek, Dominik Borek
      Pages: 135 - 139
      Abstract: The article presents the characteristics and main assumptions of the RIO 20+ Process, and also focuses on the European Union's support for the idea of ​​sustainable development in the world. The starting point for further considerations in the article is to explain what the Rio 20+ Process is, what are its goals, main assumptions and how this process functioned in 2012. The work will discuss the document entitled "The future we want" in the context of sport and tourism. Conclusions will also be formulated regarding the idea to address this issue during the Polish Presidency of the EU Council in the second half of 2025. The article uses the dogmatic and exegetical method, documents that were produced under the so-called Rio 20+ concept. The article presents the personal views of the authors and cannot be interpreted as the position of any authority, entity or institution. The article presents the legal status as of January 1, 2023.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Scientific network agreement "Polish Scientific Network - research and
           development works for the promotion of sports law" - selected
           organizational and legal issues

    • Authors: Dominik Borek, Szymon Raniszewski, Małgorzata Bugajska
      Pages: 140 - 143
      Abstract: The article concerns the cooperation agreement between scientific units in the field of sports law. The Network, not having legal personality, uses the legal personality of its members. The network is not a civil law partnership agreement. The coordinator of the network agreement is the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin in Lublin. The members of the network remained fully independent in their non-target activities. The study used the dogmatic-exegetical research method, which required an analysis of detailed legal regulations in this area. The article presents the personal views of the authors and cannot be interpreted as the position of any authority, entity or institution.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Activities of the Sports Law Research Network Association in the area of
           law and management

    • Authors: Małgorzata Bugajska, Szymon Raniszewski, Dominik Borek
      Pages: 144 - 147
      Abstract: The article concerns the cooperation agreement between scientific units in the field of sports law. The Network, not having legal personality, uses the legal personality of its members. The network is not a civil law partnership agreement. The coordinator of the network agreement is the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin in Lublin. The members of the network remained fully independent in their non-target activities. The study used the dogmatic-exegetical research method, which required an analysis of detailed legal regulations in this area. The article presents the personal views of the authors and cannot be interpreted as the position of any authority, entity or institution.
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Organization of Mega Events based on the FIFA World Cup in Qatar

    • Authors: Kacper Myler
      Pages: 148 - 163
      Abstract: This article is the result of research conducted as part of the diploma thesis entitled "Organization of Mega Events based on the FIFA World Cup in Qatar", defended at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń in 2023. The article focuses on the issue of organizing mega events, using as a case study FIFA World Cup in Qatar. The analysis covers various aspects of managing such large sports events and identifies the benefits and threats arising from the role of the organizer of a championship tournament. Additionally, as a result original research using a survey questionnaire, participants' opinions were collected regarding the assessment of the organization of the entire event from the viewer's perspective. The main aim of the article is to present various strategies for managing championship events and to identify key aspects influencing the effective management of mega events. The first chapter is an introduction to the basic issues related to the organization of events, including the types, features and goals of these events, as well as the characteristics of mega-events. The following chapters focus on the analysis of organizational aspects and controversies related to the FIFA World Cup and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the role of the organizer of a championship tournament, including the management of communication and technical infrastructure and fan groups. In the last chapter, research was conducted using a survey questionnaire to understand fans' impressions of FIFA World Cup Qatar 2022. The research results were described and summarized, shedding light on the overall impressions and opinions of event participants.
      PubDate: 2023-12-01
      DOI: 10.12775/QS.2023.14.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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