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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2548-0723
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [185 journals]
  • Physical Activity in Turkish Esports Players: Age Differences Approach

    • Authors: Egemen MANCI; Erkan GÜNAY
      Abstract: Esports, which is a sport with high cognitive load, is thought to have certain dark side points from a sustainable health perspective due to the prolonged seated position. In this study, the focus has been on addressing the dark points through the physical activity levels and daily gaming durations of Turkish esports players. The research included 373 esports players between the ages of 14-25 residing in different cities of Turkey. The participants were divided into 3 categories: Adolescents (14-16), Late Adolescents (17-19), and Adults (20-24). The participants' demographic information, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) data, and daily gaming durations were collected through a web-based survey program. IPAQ and gaming times were separately analyzed using one-way independent measures ANOVA to compare three different age groups (Adolescent, Late Adolescent, and Young Adult). Results showed that there was a significant effect of age on gaming years, F(2, 370) = 19.84, p < .001, ω2 = .09 (medium effect), high-level physical activity F(2, 370) = 3.33, p < .05, ω2 = .01 (small effect) and sitting time scores F(2, 370) = 6.15, p < .01, ω2 = .02. The study results indicate that as years of e-gaming experience increase, it reveals the risk of 'professionalization '-based sedentary behavior.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Investigation of Aggression Levels of The Combat Sport Athletes

    • Authors: Ümid KARLI; Nuh Osman YILDIZ, Ünal KARLI, Hanifi ÜZÜM
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aggressiveness level of male and female combat sport athletes and the sedentary individuals. This study was designed on cross-sectional research method, which is one of the general survey models. Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Convenient sampling method was conducted, and the sample group of the study was composed of 104 combat sport athletes and 97 sedentary participants. Independent samples t-test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient test was conducted for statistical analysis. According to the independent samples t-test the physical aggression level of combat sport athletes was significantly higher than the sedentary individuals (p<0.05). Additionally, physical aggression level of female athletes was significantly higher than their sedentary counterparts (p<0.05). In the comparison of the gender difference, the results revealed that sedentary males’ physical aggression level was significantly higher than sedentary females (p<0.05). No significant relationship was found between subjects’ aggression level and their age and sports age. The female combat athletes’ higher physical aggression level, when compared to their sedentary counterparts, was the most interesting finding of this study. On the other hand, no significant difference was found between male athletes and their sedentary counterparts, and between male and female combat sport athletes according to their aggression levels. To sum up briefly, it is possible to say that females, who participate in combat sports and consequently who believe that they have gained enough physical power, may show higher physical aggression tendency.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Effect of Dark Chocolate on Oxidative Stress Parameters After
           High-Intensity Kickboxing Training

    • Authors: Neşe AKPINAR KOCAKULAK; Mustafa KARAKUŞ, Soner AKKURT, Nurgül ÖZDEMİR, Feyzullah KOCA
      Abstract: In our study, the impact of dark chocolate on oxidant and antioxidant parameters was examined. Dark chocolate intake has increased as a result of its beneficial benefits on human health. Twenty male kickboxers in the study. On the first day blood samples were collected. Then, two groups of 10 people were randomly divided into two groups. Only one of the groups received chocolate. At 18:00 at night, blood samples were collected and stored at -80 °C. To determine oxidant stress; malondialdehyde (MDA), to determine antioxidant capacity; Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) values were measured. After it was determined that the data showed normal distribution, the paired t test was performed. According to the Groups (Control Grup or Chocolate Receiving Group) the changes before and after the training were examined. When examined, it is seen that there is no significant difference in the GPx, MDA and TAC values of the oxidant and antioxidant parameters of the athletes in both groups before and after training. However, a statistically significant change was found in the SOD value of the athletes in the chocolate receiving group before training (p<0.05). In control Group, a statistically significant change was observed between "before and after training" in terms of "GPx and TAC" parameters (p<0.05). Our results showed that dark chocolate consumed acutely before intense exercise is important in terms of showing that it can prevent the increase of oxidative stress markers.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Evaluation of Research Quality in Systematic Reviews Specific to Exercise
           and Sport Sciences: Adapting TESTEX Criteria to Turkish

    • Authors: Hüseyin Şahin UYSAL; Ahmet Yavuz KARAFİL, Dr. Oğuzhan DALKIRAN, Seda Nur UYSAL, Sezgin KORKMAZ
      Abstract: This study aims to adapt the TESTEX scale, which is preferred by researchers who make systematic reviews in the field of exercise and sports, into Turkish in a valid and reliable way. The study was carried out according to the observational research design, which is one of the quantitative research methods, and the study group consisted of five independent language experts and five researchers. The following procedures were carried out for the adaptation of the TESTEX scale to Turkish: (i) Consistency among independent language experts, (ii) Content validity of the TESTEX scale, (iii) Language validity of the TESTEX scale, (iv) Inter-rater reliability, (v) Inter-rater consistency. For statistical analysis of these procedures, Kendall-W agreement coefficient, content validity ratio, content validity index (CVI), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), Fisher'z effect size index (z), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland Altman analyses were carried out. Study results showed that the TESTEX scale was adapted to Turkish as valid and reliable. In conclusion, the Turkish version of the TESTEX scale may be preferred to evaluate the methodological quality of research articles in systematic reviews. In addition, researchers can benefit from the quality criteria in the scale to improve the methodological quality of their studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Role of Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPT) in Recreational
           Tourism: An Interview with ChatGPT

    • Authors: Okan ÇOLAK
      Abstract: This study explores the potential benefits of employing generative pre-trained transformers (GPTs) in recreational tourism, the difficulties that arise when implementing such technology, the impact it has on tourist behaviour, and the ways it can be utilised in recreational tourism management. The original aspect of the study is that it is the first to give detailed information about the use of GPT in recreational tourism. ChatGPT was used as an interviewer in the study. ChatGPT is a software application that utilizes the high-powered machine learning software called Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT-3), developed by the OpenAI organization. Six questions were posed on the ChatGPT query screen (https://chat.openai.com/chat). The interview queries were prepared with reference to the study by Fusté-Forné and Orea-Giner (2023). The question statements in this study on the use of GPT in gastronomy tourism were changed to recreational tourism. ChatGPT's replies were tabulated and presented descriptively. Inferences and suggestions were made in line with the answers given by ChatGPT. The study showed that using GPT technology in recreational-based tourism can offer better customer interaction, decision-making, and a personalized travel experience. ChatGPT underlined that new technologies continue to evolve, and recreational-based tourism will become more personalized, informative, and immersive, ultimately enhancing the overall travel experience, and contributing to the growth and sustainability of the tourism industry. ChatGPT also noted GPT models have the potential to shape and enhance the entire travel experience for tourists, from the initial planning stages to the actual trip itself. Although GPT makes significant contributions to recreational tourism management and recreational tourists, there are deficiencies in ethical, privacy, and authenticity concerns.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • An Investigation of Relationship Between Digital Game Addiction, Peer
           Bullying and Sportsmanship Attitudes of Secondary School Pupils

    • Authors: Büşra ÇAKIR; Zekihan HAZAR
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the concepts of peer bullying and sportsmanship, which are considered as factors related to digital game addiction, which is an important problem for secondary school students. When the relevant literature is reviewed, it is observed that the literature has studies on "addiction to digital games" and "bullying", but studies that deal with the concepts of "digital game addiction, peer bullying, and sportsmanship" are few. This study was designed according to the quantitative research model and a relational screening pattern was applied accordingly. The subjects of this research consist of 1088 students studying in the 2021 to 2022 academic year. The method of "stratified sampling and maximum variation sampling" was applied for selecting suitable subjects. Necessary data were collected through Demographic Information Form, Digital Game Addiction for Children, Peer Bullying Detection, and Sportsmanship Behavior Scales in Physical Training Class. In this study, the SPSS 20.0 Statistical Package Program was used to assess the obtained data. T-test and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Tukey Test Statistics and Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression methods of analysis were used along with descriptive statistical methods for analysing applicable data. As a result of the analyzes made, it was seen that the relationship between the scale scores of the participants was statistically significant. However, it can be said that digital game addiction is an important predictor of peer bullying and so it negatively affects interpersonal social relations in terms of sportsmanship.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Technical Analysis of Goals Scored in 3 Different European Leagues in The
           2020-2021 Football Season

    • Authors: Erhan IŞIKDEMİR; Süleyman ÖZKÜRKÇÜ, Sevket Cihat ÖZER
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to classify the goals scored in the 2020-2021 football season in Turkish Super League (TSL), English Premier League (EPL), and French League 1 (FL1) according to technical and tactical criteria, and to reveal the differences and similarities between the leagues. The scope of the research consists of a total of 3209 goals scored in 1180 football matches played in 3 different European Leagues in the 2020-2021 season. Each goal was classified according to the minute interval, the area where the attacking move started, the number of touches by the player before scoring, and the goals scored from set pieces. The frequency and percentage distributions of all data were calculated separately for each league. According to the results obtained, the most goals were scored in TSL (f: 1136 goals), while the least goals were scored in EPL (f: 1024 goals). Looking at the distribution of total goals by minute intervals, the most goals were scored in the last quarter of the game in TSL (f:199; 17.5%), EPL (f:166; 16.2%), and FL1 (f:186; 17.7%), while the least goals were scored in the added time of the first half. When looking at the number of touches by the player who scored the goal, it was found that the most goals were scored with one touch. Regarding the direction of the attacking move, it was observed that the rate of goals scored after wing attacks was lower in FL1 than in TSL and EPL, but the number of goals scored from central attacks was higher. According to the results, it is understood that the teams in the leagues have different game structures, which are decisive in determining the goal criteria.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Women's Empowerment within the Framework of the Sustainable Development
           Goals: The Case of “Girls on the Field”

    • Authors: Feyza Meryem KARA; Aylin UGURLU, Gizem KARACA
      Abstract: In Türkiye, efforts to eliminate gender inequality, barriers to access to sport and cultural norms in sport are increasing by the day. The aim of this research is to the empowerment of girls and women through football within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (Goal 5) using the “Girls on the Field” platform as a case. According to the findings, the 'Girls on the Field' platform as been seen as an exemplary platform that "prioritizes sustainability in terms of its founding purposes" and adopts empowerment activities in sport through football. As a result, the “Girls on the Field” platform is seen as an exemplary organization in establishing similar platforms in Turkey and the world to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Self-Handicapping and Self-Esteem Levels of Judokas

    • Authors: Zafer DOĞRU; Sedanur İÇAĞASI
      Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate self-handicapping and self-esteem levels of judokas. The categorical and demographic information of the subjects (N=149) who voluntarily participated were collected. Self-handicapping scale (SHS) adapted into Turkish by Akin (2012) and self esteem scale (SES) adapted into Turkish by Tukus (2010) were used as online data collection tools. 149 judokas (62 male and 87 female) participated voluntarily. For statistical analysis, independent samples t-test, one way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H and Spearman’s rho were conducted where appropriate. The level of significance was set as p<.05. As a result, statistically significant differences in the self-handicapping scores of judokas found in the gender, marital status, educational status, income, national athlete status and national athlete variables (p<.05). There are statistically significant differences in self-esteem scores in the gender, age, educational status, marital status, national athlete status, international success status, international ranking and training duration variables (p<.05). A moderate and negative correlation (p<.05) was found between self-handicapping and self-esteem. In conclusion, coaches, club managers and other interested parties should consider their athletes in this context, considering that self-handicapping and self-esteem scores are important indicators in sportive performance as it is very important for long-term performance and healthy sports life. It is recommended to record and periodically follow the self-handicapping and self-esteem levels of the athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Effect of Team Support and Attitude Towards the Sponsor on Purchase
           Intention in Sports Club Sponsorship

    • Authors: Bora GÜNDÜZYELİ
      Abstract: Considering that the sponsorship relations between brands and sports clubs are based on a win-win model, it is inevitable for the parties to consider some variables based on their target groups in their sponsorship agreements. The most important motivation of brands in sponsorship agreements is to increase brand awareness, strengthen brand image, and increase sales of products and services. This study investigates how fans' team support affects their purchase intention for sponsor brand products directly and indirectly through attitude towards the brand. Accordingly, in this study, the effect of sports team sponsorship on consumer behavior is explored in terms of the impact of fans' team support and attitudes towards the sponsor brand on purchase intention. Data collected from surveys conducted with 448 Fenerbahçe Football A Team supporters were analyzed using SPSS-AMOS and SPSS PROCESS Macro. The validity and reliability of the research model were evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicate that the support of the fans' team support has a statistically significant and positive effect on the purchasing intention of the sponsor brand. In addition, according to the result of the analysis made with SPSS PROCESS Macro Model-4, the positive attitude towards the sponsor brand mediated the effect of team support on the purchase intention of the fans. Therefore, it could be said that the supporters who identify themselves with their team and support their team in all circumstances, regardless of whether they win or lose, are more likely to purchase the products and services of the brand with which the sports club has a sponsorship agreement. It is also observed that a positive fan attitude toward the sponsor strengthens the statistical relationship between team support and purchase intention.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Determination of Eating Disorders Level and Risk Factors of University
           Students Studying Sports Education

    • Authors: Günay ESKİCİ; Mergül ÇOLAK, Yusuf Kemal ARSLAN, Hakan YARAR
      Abstract: Eating disorder has become an increasingly common problem among athletes. This study aims to determine eating disorder levels and risk factors of students studying sports education. This study was carried out on 1773 university students, 1084 (61.1%) of whom are female and 689 (38.9%) male, in the field of sports education in different provinces in Turkey. The information of the participants was collected with an individual information form and an Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). All EDEQ sub-dimension scores and the total score were found to be statistically significantly higher in males than in females (p <0.05) except for the restraint score. It was found that, as BMI (Body Mass Index) value increased, there was a statistically significant increase in all sub-dimensions of EDEQ and EDEQ total score (p<0.05). Eating concern and shape concern scores were found to be statistically higher in those who did not perform physical activities than those who performed physical activities (respectively; p=0.030, p=0.004). An increase in the EDE-Q score indicates an increased risk of eating disorders. It can be said that being a male, having a high BMI, and engaging in strength/power sports increase the risk of eating disorders in individuals who receive sports education.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Investigation of the Relationship Between Upper Extremity Neuromuscular
           Control and Grip Strength with Shooting Accuracy in Elite Handball Players
           

    • Authors: Selim ASAN
      Abstract: In sports such as handball, where the overhead throw is commonly used, athletes must be physically fit to fulfill the requirements of the throw. This fitness includes neuromuscular control, muscle strength, power, flexibility, balance, and agility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between upper extremity neuromuscular control and grip strength with shooting accuracy in elite handball players. The study was conducted with the participation of 26 male handball players with an average age of 20.23 ± 2.47 years, average body weight of 72.34 ± 8.01 kg, average height of 180.5 ± 5.90 cm, average playing experience of 8.65 ± 2.92 years, and average BMI of 22.1 ± 2.13 kg/m-2. Data collection tools contained a “Personal Information Form,” a “Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST),” a “Shooting Accuracy Test,” and a “Grip Strength Test.” Pearson Correlation Test analyzed the study data from descriptive statistics in the SPSS package program. In all analyses, p<.05 was considered statistically significant. According to the study’s results, no significant correlation was found between hand grip strength, upper extremity neuromuscular control, and strength with shooting accuracy in handball. A high positive correlation was found between dominant hand strength and non-dominant hand strength. As a result, it was determined that shooting performance is not only related to strength but also closely related to the player's technical skills.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Habits and Perceptions as Key Factors: How Online Gaming Predicts
           Aggression, Alienation and Emotional Intelligence

    • Authors: Nihan Selin SOYLU; Mustafa ENGÜR, Erdinç DEMİRAY
      Abstract: E-sport gradually reached large masses and is consuming a great deal of time and circulation of money. Literature shows us that there are relationships between online gaming and various psychological factors. Especially the relationship between online gaming and aggression was widely studied. Alienation and emotional intelligence were also treated as potential mediators on the relevant relationship. The literature has not properly come to an agreement on the direction of the relevant relationship, moderators and mediators, so far. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible predictions based on online gaming habits and perceptions of online gaming for aggression, alienation and emotional intelligence. A sample of 316 online game players completed the online gaming habits and perceptions questionnaires, Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, Dean’s Alienation Scale and Emotional Intelligence Scale. Results have shown that none of the aggression types were predicted by neither years nor daily hours of playing online games. Additionally, perceptions and habits predicted different dimensions of aggression, alienation and emotional intelligence diversely. Our results indicated that, the observed relationships are rooted from how players perceive the game and the degree of their socialization within the game, rather than mere exposure to online games. This study provides a new insight by putting forward the individual perspective in scope of effects of online games.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Prediction of Conscious Awareness in Women’s Physical Activity Level
           and Healthy Living Habits

    • Authors: Öznur AKPINAR; Melek GÜLER
      Abstract: Health is not only a state of physical well-being, but also a state of well-being in all aspects, both psychologically and sociologically. It is known that women all over the world lag behind in physical activity level. However, it is not known how much female are aware of this situation. In this respect, it is aimed to reveal the conscious awareness levels of how much women are aware of this situation. A total of 474 female participants from 7 geographical regions throughout Türkiye were included in the research. Personal information form, International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), and Mindful Awareness Scale (MAS) were used in the research. The data obtained in the research were analyzed in the Jamovi (2.3.21.0) statistical program at a 95% confidence interval and 0.05 significance level. In the analysis of the data, t-test, ANOVA, and Linear Regression analysis were used in independent groups. According to the results of the research, it was determined that the majority of women were married, worked as civil servants, did not consume cigarettes and alcohol, paid attention to healthy nutrition, and used pedometer. It was determined that the majority of woman had a normal body mass index (BMI), their total Metabolic Equivalent (MET) levels were at a good level and their conscious awareness levels were at a moderate level. Total MET scores of females in the Black Sea region were significantly higher than women in the Central Anatolia region (p<0.05). It was concluded that the conscious awareness scores of females did not predict BMI and total MET scores (p>0.05). As a result, it can be said that the healthy living habits of female in Türkiye are at a good level, but this cannot be predicted with the level of conscious awareness.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Investigation of the Relationship Between the Levels of Leisure Time
           Satisfaction and Passion in Sports Who Exercise Individuals Fitness

    • Authors: Gökhan DOKUZOĞLU; İsa SAĞIROĞLU, Ali ÇEVİK
      Abstract: This study aimed to reveal the relationship between the leisure satisfaction levels of individuals who do fitness exercises and their passion levels in sports. The study group of the research consisted of individuals who did fitness exercises in Aydın in 2023. 259 individuals voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, demographic information was used as a data collection tool in the first part, and in the second part, the "Passion in Sport Scale" developed by Sigmundsson et al., (2020) and adapted into Turkish by Özdayı et al., (2021), and the "Leisure Time Satisfaction Scale" developed by Beard and Ragheb (1980) and adapted into Turkish by Gökçe and Orhan (2011) were used. In statistical terms, frequency analysis, reliability coefficient calculations, pearson correlation analysis, simple regression analysis, t test and anova analysis were performed. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the variables of leisure satisfaction and weekly exercise duration and sports experience of the participants, and a statistically significant difference was detected between passion in sports and age, weekly exercise time and sports experience variables (p<0.05). It has been concluded that individuals who do fitness exercises have a significant and positive effect on their leisure satisfaction.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Effect of Gymnastics and Taekwondo Trainings on Balance, Flexibility
           and Jumping Parameters in Primary School Students

    • Authors: İsmail ÇİÇEK; Cenab TÜRKERİ
      Abstract: This study was conducted to examine the effects of 8-week gymnastics and taekwondo training applied to 8-10 year old primary school students on balance, flexibility and jump parameters. A total of 30 students participated in the study, and the students were randomly assigned to the gymnastics group (GG=10, X̄age=8.70±0.48), the taekwondo group (TG=10, X̄age=8.20±0.42) and the control group (CG=10, X̄age=9.50±0.52). GG and TG performed their branch-specific training at 48-hour intervals, 2 days a week, for a total of 8 weeks. CG did not participate in any sports activities for 8 weeks. In order to evaluate their performance, Y dynamic balance test, flexibility test and vertical jump test were applied to the participants before and after 8 weeks. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine the normality distribution of the data. Due to the normal distribution of the data, Paired Sample T Test was used to determine the difference within the group, and the Independent Sample T Test was used to determine the difference between the groups. As a result of the study, significant differences were found in the flexibility and jump pre-test results of GG and TG within the group (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found in CG. Although there were significant differences in favor of CG in the lower and upper extremity dynamic balance in-group comparison results of the groups, only the right leg anterior value of TG was significantly different (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in CG. As a result of the comparison between the groups, a significant difference was found in favor of GG in the lower extremity left leg composite variable (p<0.05), while there was no statistical difference in all other variables. It was concluded that gymnastics training had a higher positive effect on balance, flexibility and vertical jump parameters compared to taekwondo training.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Evaluation of The Effect of The VAR System on The Matches Played in the
           2022 FIFA World Cup and UEFA Women's EURO 2022

    • Authors: Gizem BAŞKAYA; Serkan Necati METİN
      Abstract: Football is one of the most important sports branches in the world that people adopt and show interest in. It has also become an indispensable tool for countries to emphasise their unique cultures and to promote themselves. Based on these points, in football, which has become an industry and a source of commercial income with the passing of time, it has been important to follow the competitions meticulously, to examine every detail, and to minimise the errors to the minimum level. Especially in big organisations, this situation is more prominent. In this regard, the video assistant referee system, which is a product of teamwork, has been developed through digital platforms to assist and support the referee during the match. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of the VAR system on the matches played in the 2022 FIFA World Cup and UEFA Women's EURO 2022. In the study, 64 matches played in the 2022 FIFA World Cup, 31 matches played in the UEFA Women's EURO 2022 and 95 matches in total were analysed. VAR decisions in the tournaments were evaluated separately on 11 parameters (accuracy of the goal awarded, accuracy of the goal not awarded, goal cancellation, goal awarded, accuracy of the penalty awarded, accuracy of the penalty not awarded, penalty cancellation, penalty awarded, red card awarded, red card cancelled and other). The data were analysed in SPSS 25.0 package program and descriptive statistics, percentage and frequency values were used in the analysis. According to the results obtained, it was determined that VAR had a direct effect on the 2022 World Cup only in some of the group matches; in the UEFA Women's EURO 2022, in some group matches and in the France Netherlands quarter-final match. As a result, it can be said that although the VAR system faced some reactions when it was first used, it contributed to the accuracy and reliability of the decisions made in the match and the tournament or league was shaped in line with the results that the teams deserved.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Scale Development Study on Match Analysis

    • Authors: Oğuz GÜRKAN; Çağdaş CAZ, Oktay ÇOBAN
      Abstract: Match analysis is a method used to evaluate and improve teams' game understanding, tactical structure, and individual-based player performances. Today, with match analysis methods, coaches can make detailed analyzes of both their own teams, rival teams and individual athletes. This present study aims to develop a scale for match analysis. Within the scope of this objective, an item pool consisting of 51 items was created by the researchers, and a 47-item scale was drafted by excluding 4 items in line with expert opinions. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses, internal consistency analysis and test-retest reliability methods were used for statistical purposes. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, a measurement structure was obtained consisting of 4 sub-scales and a total of 22 items. The fit indices of the scale were evaluated within the relevant reference range. The reliability of the scale was examined by test-retest method and internal consistency analysis. As a result, the stability coefficient of the scale was calculated as 0.792 and the Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient as 0.911. Internal consistency analysis results showed that the items had high reliability. The current scale has a 7-point Likert-type rating. There are negative items in the scale. In this context, these items should be reversed when scoring. It was concluded that the scale developed is a reliable and valid measurement tool.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Gateway to Nature from the Virtual: A Netnographic Study on Camping
           Virtual Communities

    • Authors: Gözde YETİM
      Abstract: Since camping is a concept that shares common features with extraordinary emotional experiences such as social interaction, self-renewal and relaxation in relation to nature, it is a very popular recreational activity today. The aim of this study is to examine the behaviors, attitudes and camping experiences of individuals who are members of camping virtual communities in Turkey. For this purpose, netnography method was used in the study. Netnography is a special approach that allows ethnographic research on the Internet. During the data collection process, the most actively used forum and Facebook pages related to camping were examined. According to the findings of this study, five main categories as "search for knowledge", "technical information", "recommendations", "dangers" and "camp diaries" and seven subcategories as "beginners", "campsite rush", "getting into a sleeping bag", "cold related issues", "fighting insects", “experience" and "pleasure" are reported. In line with the emerging categories, it is seen that individuals who are members of camping virtual communities share information and experience with each other on many camp-related issues, as well as make recommendations.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Investigation of Personal and Social Sports Identities of Elite National
           Karate Players via Self Identity Chart

    • Authors: İsmail SANBERK; Cenab TÜRKERİ, Burhan PARSAK
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate ideal and non-ideal image of six Turkish national players and their cognitive representation of karate players. This study was carried out with six young adult elite karate athletes who were successful in national and international tournaments attending the Department of Physical Education and Sports. The data of this study were collected via repertory grid, a semi-structured interview technique. Self-identity graph of each participant was obtained and analyzed based on repertory grid data. The findings show that all the participants’ personal and social sport identities, except one participant, are positive. İn the study, it was found that the participants with high self-esteem defined themselves as karate players with positive personal constructs of ideal self and social self. As a result, this study shows that the self-identity graph will provide functional information in revealing -athletes’- sports-related self esteem, personel and social sports identities. This study has carried out about young adult elit karete players in Turkey suceessed at national and international tournament. With Studies which will do in the future, it may be revealed ameteur, young and junior karete players’ personal and social sport identity via self identity graph.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Investigation of the Effect of 8-Week Walking Football Activity on
           Life Satisfaction and Heart Rate Variability in Elderly Men

    • Authors: Ülküm ERDOĞAN YÜCE; Özcan SAYGIN
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of walking football applied to elderly male sedentary individuals on life satisfaction and heart rate variability. 22 male volunteers whose physical activity level was determined by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were included to this study. Volunteers were divided into 11 exercise groups and 11 control groups by random sampling. While the control group had no activity participation, the exercise group performed a 20-minute warm-up, they played 60 minutes of walking football, and they performed a 10-minute cool down. This was done 2 days a week across an 8-week period. In the study, the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS) was used in the exercise and control groups, Heart Rate (HR), Heart Rate Variability (HRV), heart-mind coherence, maximum heart-mind coherence measurements were applied with the Heartmath-Inner Balance device. “Paired t test” was used for analyzing pretest-posttest differences in variables while "Independent t test" was used for analyzing differences between the groups. Findings show that there was a significant difference between the exercise group’s HRV, heart-mind coherence, maximum heart-mind coherence, and pre-post test measurements of the LSS results (p<0.05), although there was no significant difference in the HR variable (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-tests mean comparison of all variables of the control group (p>0.05). According to the results, it can be concluded that walking football has a positive effect on life satisfaction, HRV, heart-mind coherence, and maximum heart-mind coherence in older adults.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Effect of Trainers’ Pedagogical Competencies on Emotion Regulation:
           A Study on Young Judo Athletes

    • Authors: Özgür AKTAŞ; Mehmet Ferhat KARAOĞLAN, Hüseyin ÜNLÜ
      Abstract: It’s known that our relationships with others affect the way we view ourselves. The effects of trainer characteristics on athletes in the sports environment is a very important and common research topic. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the pedagogical competence perceived by the athletes from their trainers and the emotion regulation strategies they use. A total of 107 young judo athletes, 64 male and 43 female with a mean age of 15.85±1.32, participated in the study. "Trainers’ Pedagogical Competencies Scale" was used to measure the pedagogical competence perceived by the athletes from their trainers, and the "Emotion Regulation Scale for Athletes" was used to determine which emotion regulation strategies they used. Pearson correlation test was used to determine the relationship between trainer pedagogical competence and emotion regulation, and multiple linear regression analysis (enter method) was used to determine whether trainer pedagogical competence was a significant predictor of emotion regulation strategies. Moderately positive and significant relationships were found between empathy-attention and target-oriented training, which are sub-dimensions of the instructor pedagogical competence scale, and cognitive reappraisal and suppression, one of the emotion regulation strategies. In addition, empathy and attention were found to significantly predict cognitive reappraisal. Again, it was determined that the variables of prevention of support and solidarity and education for the purpose significantly predicted the suppression strategy. As a result, it can be said that some parameters of the pedagogical competence of the trainer are effective on the emotion regulation strategies preferred by the athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Non-Invasive Evaluation of Heart Rate Variability During Platform Balance
           Test

    • Authors: Tuncay ALPARSLAN; Ramiz ARABACI, Hüseyin TOPÇU
      Abstract: Neuromuscular activity also increases as we try to maintain our balance. Neuromuscular activity also causes changes in heart-rate-variability parameters. In the measurement of heart-rate-variability, recordings are generally taken for 5-minutes or longer. However, in recent years, ultra-short-term heart-rate-variability measurements from 5-minutes to 10-seconds have been made, especially in physical capacity measurement. The aim of the present study is to compare the heart-rate-variability parameters between the groups formed according to the performance before, during and, after the dynamic balance test. The sixty-three healthy males were recruited (age=25.8±3.3 years; height=176.6±5.5; weight=77.6±8.0) participated voluntarily. Heart-rate-variability was recorded for 60-seconds prior to testing. Afterwards, the participants were taken to the platform without shoes.Heart-rate-variability was recorded for 60-seconds at this time and 60-seconds at the end of the test. At the end of the balance test, according to the test procedure of the balance device, those who could stay in the A, B, C, D regions the most, that is, in the region closest to the center point, were grouped as the 1st group (n=38) and the others as the 2nd group (n=25). As a result of the study, a statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of heart rate variability changes for normalized low-frequency and normalized high-frequency significant differences were found between which groups (p<0.05). As a result, it was concluded in our study that participants with better balance skills had higher heart-rate-variability values. Considering that heart rate variability is also an indicator of fatigue, we can say that the implementation of exercises aimed at improving balance skills will contribute to the autonomic nervous system of the athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Relationship between Sport Science Students’ Career Decisions and
           Academic Motivation

    • Authors: Sultan UYGUN; Özden TEPEKÖYLÜ ÖZTÜRK
      Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the relationship and predictive effect between the career decision of sports science students and their academic motivation. It also assessed whether career decision and academic motivation varied based on gender and department variables, jointly discussing them in the communication processes used in the instructor-student relationship. The study included 252 students, whose 85 were female and 167 were male, studying in faculty of sports sciences. It also used the 'Career Decision Scale', the 'Academic Motivation Scale', and the "Personal Information Form" to collect the study data. Statistical analysis processes consisted of correlation, multiple linear regression, 2x2 MANOVA, and 2x3 MANOVA analyses. The study findings revealed low and moderate relationships between career decisions, academic motivation, and the sub-dimensions of both main scales. In addition, academic motivation was a significant predictor of career decisions, corresponding to a 19% rate. Considering the gender variable, male students were more undecided in making career decisions than female students. Comparisons between departments also indicated that students in the sports management department displayed more indecisiveness about choosing their careers than in other departments. The ability of the students to have extracurricular communication with instructors influenced their career decisions positively, whereas it negatively influenced students' department-switching propensity. However, there were significant differences among the students' academic motivations based on gender, department, communication processes with the instructor, and department-switching propensity. In conclusion, academic motivation is important for students to choose a successful career. Nonetheless, the student-instructor communication mechanisms are equally effective in career decisions.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Intervation with Physical Activity and Dietary Adolescent Obese
           Individuals with A-typical Autism

    • Authors: Gülşen KARATAY; Hulusi ALP
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to reveal the effect and importance of physical activity and diet program in adolescence obese individuals with A-typical autism. One of the single-subject research models, the single-start multiple probe model was used. The population of the study consists of children with A-typical autism between the ages of nine (9) and fourteen (14) living in Isparta. The sample of the study consisted of one (1) child who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. The study lasted for a total of seventeen (17) weeks, including the first week of pre-measurements and the implementation of an adapted physical activity and diet program for sixteen (16) weeks. As a data collection tool, the child's weight measurement was recorded with Tanita before each study. The data obtained at the end of the application were analyzed by showing them on the graph. Since the number of participants participating in the study was one (1), the data obtained in the seventeen (17) week period were converted into points in accordance with the scale protocol and turned into a line chart to reveal the change that occurred. At the end of the research, no change was observed in body weight without applying physical activity and diet program to the participant in the first week. With the physical activity and diet program applied to the participant for sixteen (16) weeks, a decrease of five (5) kilograms in the participant's body weight was detected. Factors such as the frequency of physical activity of the participant, dietary habits, awareness of parents, socio-economic status, and psycho-social are thought to be effective in this decrease in body weight.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Mediating Role of Person-Job Fit in the Effect of Corporate Image
           Perception of the Ministry of Youth and Sports on Intention to Apply for a
           Job

    • Authors: Mustafa Ertan TABUK
      Abstract: The research was conducted to determine the role of person-job fit in the effect of the corporate image of the Ministry of Youth and Sports on the job application intention of students who will graduate from sports sciences. The research model created for this purpose was tested with the structural equation model. The research was carried out with the convenience sampling method, with a sample (n=407) consisting of 3rd and 4th grade students of 18 universities from 7 different geographical regions. In obtaining the data, a) the person-job fit scale developed by Saks and Ashforth (2002), b) the corporate image scale used by Lemmink et al. (2003), c) the organizational attractiveness scale developed by Cable and Judge (1994) and Honeycutt and Rosen (1997) put forward by Rau and Hyland (2002), d) the job application intention scale developed by Herdman and Carlson (2009) and e) the recognition scale developed by Gomes and Neves (2011) were used. Reliability analysis, descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were used in the analysis of data obtained. According to the research results, it has been determined that corporate image contributes to the position of the organization in the sector, that is, it increases the recognition of the organization. It can be stated that organizational attractiveness has a significant effect on the relationship with the intention to apply for a job. As a result, it was determined that familiarity, person-job fit and corporate image were moderately and highly correlated with the intention to apply for a job, while organizational attractiveness played a mediating role in this relationship.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Effect of Honeybee Products on Exercise Performance and Blood Chemistry
           Characteristics in Gymnasts

    • Authors: Nazmi SARITAŞ; Meltem SOYLU, Hakan AKDOĞAN, Sibel SİLİCİ
      Abstract: Honeybee products have recently begun to attract attention with their effects on athlete performance. In the present study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of honeybee products’ mixtures on the performance and some blood biochemical parameters of young trained gymnasts. Twenty-four young gymnasts aged between 6 and 12 years were observed for 4 weeks as they continued their usual daily training schedules. The gymnasts were divided into three groups. Group 1 was administered a mixture of honey and bee pollen at a dose of 50 g/day, whereas Group 2 was provided with a mixture of honey, bee pollen, royal jelly and propolis. Group 3 served as the control group and was administered a placebo of wheat starch at a dose of 50g/day. In the beginning and at the end of the study, performance parameters and biochemical parameters of young gymnasts were determined. After treatment, grip force and muscular strength measurements increased in Group 2 (p<0.05). The muscular endurance tests in the two honeybee product mixtures treatment groups showed improvement after supplementation (p<0.05). The improvement noted in the power test in Group 1 was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between treatment and placebo groups in all investigated biochemical parameters except total protein, which was lower in placebo group. Although bee products supplements were administered only for a short period of time, the gymnasts showed higher performance in some investigated parameters. It is recommended to conduct further long-term studies using bee products.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Peer Teaching Model in Gymnastic Education

    • Authors: Sinem YÜRÜK; Mehmet ASMA
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of peer teaching model in gymnastics education, which is one of the main sports branches and in which the participants are involved in studies with their peer groups. The research was carried out in a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group. The research was carried out in Akhisargücü Sports Club in Manisa. A total of 29 children aged 7-9, (Experimental=15, Control=14), voluntarily participated in the study. Participants do not have any previous gymnastics experience. Random sampling method was used to determine the groups, and which would be the control or experimental group. To assess social skills, Social Skills Assessment Scale (SSAS) developed by Akçamete and Avcıoğlu (2005) was scored by each participant's primary school teachers. Observation forms prepared by the researchers were used to evaluate movement skills. Measurements were taken twice before and after 8 weeks of practice. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the experimental and control groups data, Wilcoxon Signed Rank was used in the pre-test-post-test difference comparisons of the groups. According to the analysis results, in terms of social skills, the difference scores of the peer education were found to be statistically significant (p<.050) while the difference scores of the control group were statistically insignificant (p>.050). According to the results of the analysis of movement development specific to gymnastic, significant difference was found in both groups (p< .050). As a result, it has been seen that both the peer teaching model and the traditional method support movement development in gymnastics education. In addition, it has been found that the peer teaching model in gymnastic education improves social skills more than traditional teaching.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Fair Play Perception of Professional Volleyball Players

    • Authors: Aylin Özge PEKEL
      Abstract: The pressure to succeed created on athletes by external factors such as fans, media, political structures, sponsorships, and coaches increases this pressure of the necessity of success. In this context, the aim of this study is to reveal the meanings attributed to the concept of fair play by professional volleyball players through metaphors. A total of 39 professional volleyball players, 27 men and 12 women who played professionally in the top leagues in Turkey in the 2022-2023 season, participated in the study. Phenomenology design, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. A form consisting of two parts, created by consulting the researcher and experts, was used to obtain the data. The first part includes participants' demographic information, while the second part aims to determine volleyball players' perceptions of fair play by completing the expression "Fair play is like/similar to... because..." The data were analyzed using content analysis technique. The analysis process was carried out by examining and coding the individual metaphors numbered from 1 to 39, looking at the relationships between the metaphors and the code list of the meanings expressed by them, and reaching the most appropriate categories to make the data meaningful. When athletes' perspectives were examined, it was concluded that the created metaphors were grouped under the themes of "being an honesty element," "being a respect element," "being a belief element," "being a character element," and "being a collaboration/teamwork element." It is believed that fair play education to be given from the early years of sports, rewarding positive behaviors, and media focusing on this issue and sharing related content will contribute to the widespread adoption of fair play behavior.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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