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Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.437
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1331-1441 - ISSN (Online) 1848-638X
Published by U of Zagreb  [6 journals]
  • EFFECTS OF ACUTE Β-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP
           PERFORMANCE AFTER A 4X400 M RUNNING FATIGUE PROTOCOL: A RANDOMIZED,
           DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    • Authors: Nikola Todorovic, Asier Santibañez-Gutierrez, Djordje Milovanov, Valdemar Stajer, Sergej M. Ostojic, Julen Fernandez-Landa
      Pages: 201 - 207
      Abstract: This study aimed to examine the effect of acute beta-alanine (β-alanine) supplementation on jump performance after a strenuous fatigue protocol. Twelve healthy young men (age 21.4±0.5 years, body height 180.2±5.8 cm, body mass 76.6±9.2 kg) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The experimental group ingested 3.2 g of β-alanine (separated into two 1.6 g dosages) mixed with 23 g of glucose, whereas the placebo group ingested two dosages containing 23 g of glucose. Following the supplementation intake, participants completed a jump protocol involving countermovement jump (CMJ) and four consecutive countermovement jumps (CMJ-4). Subsequently, a 4x400 m running fatigue protocol was carried out to produce fatigue. After the fatigue protocol, the same jumping tests were repeated, CMJ and CMJ-4, to evaluate the loss in jump height. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze differences between the groups, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to analyze differences within the groups with statistical significance set at p<.05. After β-alanine supplementation, no significant decrease in jump height was found in the experimental group in none of the tests after the fatigue protocol. Conversely, a significant decrease was noticed in the placebo group in CMJ but not in the CMJ-4 test. In conclusion, an acute β-alanine supplementation could attenuate jump height loss after the fatigue protocol. Therefore, athletes and coaches should consider acute β-alanine supplementation to attenuate sports performance decrease after high-intensity exercises in which muscle acidosis is highly increased. Key words: beta-alanine, countermovement jump, acute supplementation, sports performance
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • CAN SELF-ESTEEM MEDIATE THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SOCIAL SUPPORT AND
           DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENTS'

    • Authors: Vítor P. Lopes, Diogo Monteiro
      Pages: 208 - 220
      Abstract: The aim was to analyze the mediation role of self-esteem in the interaction between social support from the best friend, friends, and parents, and physical activity (PA). Participants were N=444 adolescents of both genders (male= 205), aged between 12-18 years (M= 16.02; SD= 1.57). Structural equation modeling, serial mediation and multigroup analysis were used to test the proposed hypothesis. Self-reported instruments were used to collect both PA social support and self-esteem. Self-esteem mediates partially the interaction between different social supports and vigorous PA, independently of adolescent sex. Interestingly, self-esteem was fully mediating the interaction between parents’ social support and vigorous PA in female adolescents. In contrast, self-esteem revealed no mediation in the interaction between social support and light and moderate PA. In conclusion, self-esteem mediates the relationship between social support and vigorous PA, the strength of mediation is higher in girls than in boys, in both genders the mediation is higher when the social support has come from parents. Key words: friends, parents, vigorous physical activity, best friends, self-worth, youth
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • EFFECTS OF TABATA TRAINING ON HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS COMPONENTS AMONG
           SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    • Authors: Marek Popowczak, Andrzej Rokita, Jarosław Domaradzki
      Pages: 221 - 229
      Abstract: Physical education curricula in Polish schools should include more tasks to increase physical activity. The Tabata Training Program can help regulate body weight and induce changes in body fat and physical fitness. This study aimed to determine the effects of a 10-week PE curriculum supplemented by a Tabata Training Program on health-related fitness in 16-year-old secondary school students. The study examined 187 students (66 boys and 121 girls) assigned to either a Tabata Training Program intervention or control group. The intervention lasted 14 minutes during one physical education lesson per week. Pre- and post-intervention, anthropometric measurements were taken, and each participant performed physical fitness tests to evaluate muscular strength, flexibility, speed/agility, and cardiovascular efficiency. Boys of the intervention group significantly reduced body fat (by 1.77%, p<.05) and increased cardiovascular efficiency (the physical efficiency index was higher by 3.61 points, p<.05). Girls increased cardiovascular efficiency only (the physical efficiency index increased by 5 points, p<.001). However, slight changes in motor parameters were observed in all the participants. The Tabata Training Program demonstrated partial effectiveness but should be individualized and sex differences should be considered. Key words: physical education, intervention study, exercise training, youth
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • INFLUENCE OF CUPPING TREATMENT ON HIGH-INTENSITY ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    • Authors: Ramzi A. Al-Horani, Khaled M. Alsays, Mohammed Ihsan
      Pages: 230 - 237
      Abstract: The use of cupping therapy prior to sports events has increased in popularity, with limited evidence to support its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dry and wet cupping therapy on subsequent Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) performance. Twelve trained men participated in this repeated measures randomized crossover study (age 24.9 ± 4.8 years; body mass index 27.6 ± 14.3 kg.m-2). Participants were familiarized with the ergometer and the Wingate anaerobic test on three separate occasions. They then randomly performed three experimental Wingate tests separated by 48-72 h after either dry cupping (DRY), wet cupping (WET), or no treatment (CON). Repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze data and determine the relationships between WAnT and peak lactate and heart rate (HR). Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) were similar in all treatments (p=.47-.72). Heart rate (HR) and lactate increased similarly at all time points in all treatments (p<.001 for all comparisons). Post-WAnT peak HR was moderately negatively correlated with PP in all treatments and MP in CON only (p<.05 for all correlations). No other significant correlations were detected. The present findings demonstrate no beneficial effects of wet and dry cupping therapy, and hence do not support its use prior to high-intensity anaerobic sports events. Key words: Wingate test, anaerobic power, fatigue, sprint cycling, all-out exercise performance, bloodletting cupping
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • VARIABILITY IN PERFORMANCE INDICATORS OF THE NETHERLANDS WOMEN’S
           NATIONAL HANDBALL TEAM AT THE 2019 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP

    • Authors: José Flores-Rodríguez, José Ramón Alvite-de-Pablo
      Pages: 238 - 248
      Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to discover the positional attack performance indicators of the winning Netherlands women’s national handball team during the 2019 World Championship in Japan. An ideographic, follow-up and multidimensional observational design was used to record and analyse positional attacks disputed in equal numbers of players (6v6) excluding attacks with an empty goal. Polar coordinates allowed us to determine behaviour patterns as well as performance indicators related to attack continuity, situations used to destabilise the opponents’ defence, and actions involved in completing the attack. Two levels of analysis were used: each match individually and all the team’s matches as a whole. Results show that each match had its own specific game dynamics as different behaviour patterns were activated and different performance indicators were observed depending on the match. These findings highlight the variability and dynamic nature of the offensive behaviours and performance indicators of the world champion team, emphasising the need to study performance indicators with research projects that respect that they are specific and changing. Key words: match analysis, behaviour patterns, polar coordinates analysis
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN NON-ERGONOMIC POSITION
           OF UPPER BODY SEGMENTS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL HEALTH IN BUS DRIVERS

    • Authors: Martina Mavrin Jeličić, Milan Milošević, Nikola Prlenda
      Pages: 249 - 255
      Abstract: The number of injuries and accidents at the workplace are constantly rising, and the most pronounced injuries are related to the musculoskeletal health. Numerous studies have revealed that city bus drivers have a high incidence of musculoskeletal pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activity levels might be a mediator between the non-ergonomic position of the body’s upper segments and musculoskeletal health in professional bus drivers. The study protocol included the assessment of participants’ musculoskeletal health using the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire, assessment of the non-ergonomic position of the upper body segments when seated by means of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment, and measuring of the level of physical activity using the Yamax 200 pedometer. The sample consisted of 115 bus drivers, from 40 to 55 years of age, with a minimum work service of 15 years. The relationships among variables were tested using the Spearman correlation coefficient and the Wilcoxon rank sum test to include the selected variables in the multivariate linear regression model. The Box-Cox test indicated the need for logarithmic transformation of the ÖMPQ results used to measure musculoskeletal health, so a log-linear model was used in the regression analysis. The normality of the distribution of the residual regression models was tested by the Shapiro-Wilk test. The main findings of this study indicate that 95.6% of participants reported the presence of musculoskeletal pain and in 24.4% of them a very high risk of the musculoskeletal disorder was observed, which indicated the need for urgent changes. The average number of steps per day was 5,090.8. The physical activity proved (obtained by the regression analysis) as a mediator between the non-ergonomic position of the upper body segments and musculoskeletal health (p=.027). The obtained data may serve as an important argument for designing future public health and kinesiology interventions for the improvement of the health of professional bus drivers. Key words: ergonomics, driver’s workplace, health, walking
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • IDENTIFICATION OF THE OPTIMAL HIIT PROTOCOL FOR FATIGUE RESISTANCE IN
           ADOLESCENT ATHLETES: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    • Authors: Myong-Won Seo, Jung-Min Lee, Hyun Chul Jung, Joon Young Kim, Jong Kook Song
      Pages: 256 - 267
      Abstract: The combat sports athletes developed great gains in both muscular function and fatigue resistance by utilizing high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, it has not been investigated fully whether different work-to-rest ratios of HIIT show the effectiveness on muscle function in adolescent athletes. The purpose of the study was to compare different work-to-rest ratios by applying different rest times in response to the identical work time during HIIT on muscle function in adolescent taekwondo athletes. Forty-seven adolescent male taekwondo athletes (mean age: 16.7±0.8 years) were randomly assigned to the control group (n=11) vs. three HIIT groups by work-to-rest ratios; (1) 1:2 [30s:60s] (n=12), (2) 1:4 [30s:120s] (n=12), and (3) 1:8 [30s:240s] (n=12). All groups completed 10 experimental sessions over four weeks, while the control group maintained their regular taekwondo training. Muscular functions were measured by assessing isokinetic muscle strength and endurance of the knee extensor and flexor. The participants performed three sets of twenty maximal extension and flexion contractions at 120°s-1 with a 1-min interval between the sets for fatigue resistance. Blood samples were collected to measure free-testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, and urea as stress-to-recovery indicators. A positive effect on improving muscle fatigue resistance was observed at the first set of assessments in the HIIT with 1:4 (Δ10.2%, p<.05) and 1:8 groups (Δ8.6%, p<.05). Additionally, the 1:4 group exhibited fatigue resistance improvement in the second set (Δ7.7%, p<.01) without any changes of stress-to-recovery indicators, while the other groups did not show any improvement. The 30s all-out work with 120s rest time, lasting over a brief 4-week period, improved participants’ fatigue resistance. A certain amount of rest time between high-intense movements is required to optimize muscle development in adolescent athletes compared with insufficient rest time. Key words: HIIT, muscle function, stress-to-recovery indicator, optimal protocol, adolescent athlete
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • LOW ENERGY AVAILABILITY AND CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE IN COMPETITIVE ADOLESCENT
           SPORT CLIMBERS

    • Authors: Vesna Simič, Špela Jevšnik, Nina Mohorko
      Pages: 268 - 277
      Abstract: Competitive adolescent sport climbers are reported to keep very low energy intake in order to achieve the highest possible strength-to-mass ratio required for their sport. Long term low energy availability (< 30 kcal/kg fat free mass/day) is known to have a detrimental effect on health and performance. Due to the potential severity of consequences and the lack of the data on specific population, our aim was to assess energy availability and dietary intake of 27 members of the Slovenian Youth Climbing Team (13-18 years of age). Three-day food and activity records, questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used to determine participants’ energy availability, nutritional intake, avoidance of food groups and selected health history. Average energy availability in climbers was 27.5 ± 9.8 kcal/kg fat free mass/day and 63% of participants failed to meet the recommended 30 kcal/kg fat free mass/day. Their average carbohydrate (4.3 ± 1.3 g/kg body mass/day), calcium (780 ± 300 mg/day) and vitamin D (2.6 ± 2.3 μg/day) intake were also too low. Average protein intake was in recommended range, but 56% of participants did not meet the minimum recommended limit. Iron intake was too low in females (10 ± 5 mg/day; target 15 mg/day). Only 15% of participants reported not avoiding any food groups. The menstrual dysfunction was detected in five female climbers (36%); all had energy availability < 30 kcal/kg fat free mass/day. We recommend nutritional education of climbers, their coaches, and parents as well as regular individual nutritional assessment of competitive adolescent sport climbers. Key words: energy intake, food avoidance, dietary intake, body composition, relative energy deficiency in sport
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • ACUTE EFFECTS OF A TYPICAL RHYTHMIC GYMNASTIC TRAINING DAY ON
           PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN OLYMPIC ATHLETES

    • Authors: Raquel de Jesus Silva, Lysandro Pinto Borges, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Camila Ferezin Resende, Flávio Adsuara Cadegiani, Joao Henrique Gomes, Renata Rebello Mendes
      Pages: 278 - 287
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a day with two separate training sessions (morning and afternoon) of rhythmic gymnastics on erythrocytes, leukocytes, muscle damage, oxidative stress, and hydration of Brazilian team [age 17.7 (±1.1) years; body height 165 (±0.5) cm; body mass 49.7 (±4.2) kg]. Heart rate and session-ratings of perceived exertion were used to monitor training intensity. Blood samples were collected immediately before (M1) and after (M2) the training day for analyzing erythrocytes, leukocytes, plasma creatine kinase activity, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, ferric reducing ability plasma, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free T4. Saliva was collected for cortisol analysis. After 24 hours rest (M3), blood collection was performed to analyze creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. The moderate-intensity training day induced significant elevations of total leukocytes (5,163.3 to 9,617.8), lymphocytes (1,752.7 to 2,729.7), neutrophils (2,873.9 to 6,163.6), monocytes (255.7 to 519.1), platelets (280,000.0 to 300,666.7), aspartate aminotransferase (13.1 to 25.6), lactate dehydrogenase (102.5 to 249.1), thyroid-stimulating hormone (1.0 to 3.2), and ferric reducing ability plasma (136.8 to 165.4), as well as significant reductions in red cells (4,691,111.1 to 4,497,777.8), hematocrit (42.1 to 39.3), and hemoglobin (12.9 to 12.5) at M2. There were also significant increases in creatine kinase (144.2 to 519.3) and lactate dehydrogenase (102.5 to 538.2) at M3. The average dehydration rate was 1.3%. A moderate-intensity day of training in rhythmic gymnastics of 8h21min duration caused hemolysis, leukocytosis, muscle damage, redox status perturbations, and insufficient hydration status. These findings show that athletes are exposed to physiological vulnerabilities that can possibly harm their performance and health. Key words: erythrocytes, sports, creatine kinase, metabolic response, leukocytes
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • PERFECTIONISM AND AFFECT AS DETERMINANTS OF SELF-PERCEIVED MOTOR
           COMPETENCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    • Authors: Jesús Manuel Martínez-González, Pedro Gil-Madrona, Pedro José Carrillo-López, María Martínez-López
      Pages: 288 - 298
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the primary school students’ perception of their motor competence in the area of Physical Education, with respect to the affective domain and improvement. The sample consisted of 428 primary school students aged between 8 and 12 years (M=10.43; SD=0.837) (Castilla La Mancha, Spain). Perceived motor competence (PMC) was measured by the Perception of Competence Questionnaire (POC); perfectionism was measured by the three subscales of the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire, and, finally, affectivity was assessed by the PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) questionnaire. Positive correlations were obtained between all the dimensions of the PMC and self-improvement (p<.05). Significant gender differences were found in the PMC dimension Peers and Self-Experience, with higher scores in males (p<.05). Differences were also found in the PMC dimension Peers as a function of weight status, being lower in the overweight group (p<.05). Age was related to self-experience being higher the older one was (p<.05). A model was generated that explained 23.7% of PMC with the total dimension of self-improvement and weight status. Three distinct profiles, called high, medium and low self-improvement, were detected. These groups in turn showed an analogy in perceived motor competence, high, medium and low, the result also obtained in the regression analysis (p<.05). These results extend the relationship between perceived motor competence and self-improvement in primary school children and are potentially of interest to the fields of education and psychology. Key words: perceived motor competence, perfectionism, affective domain, primary school, health
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • IS THE RELATIVE AGE EFFECT PREVALENT IN ELITE BRAZILIAN MALE FUTSAL'
           AN INVESTIGATION BASED ON AGE CATEGORIES AND PLAYING POSITIONS

    • Authors: Henrique de Oliveira Castro, Vivian de Oliveira, Sérgio Adriano Gomes, Samuel da Silva Aguiar, Schelyne Ribas, Marcus Vinicius Mizoguchi, Layla Maria Campos Aburachid, Lucas Savassi Figueiredo
      Pages: 299 - 306
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the existence of relative age effect (RAE) in male Brazilian futsal athletes according to age categories and playing position. Data from male futsal athletes from the top five teams in Brazil were collected during May and June 2021. The distribution of birth dates of 387 male futsal athletes was analyzed, based on their age categories (U15, n = 97; U17, n = 88; U20, n = 116; senior, n = 86) and playing positions (defender, n = 76; winger; n = 162; pivot, n = 69; goalkeeper, n = 80). Chi-squared tests were used to analyze the birth dates distribution based on quarter and semesters of the year according to age categories and playing positions. The overall analysis of birth quarter indicated a higher occurrence of births in the first quarter of the year (p<.001; V = 0.188). The age categories analysis indicated a uniform distribution in U15 (p=.09; V = 0.15) and unequal distributions in U17 (p<.001; V = 0.29), U20 (p<.007; V = 0.19) and senior (p<.01; V = 0.21) categories. The playing position analysis indicated a uniform distribution for the pivots (p=.11; V = 0.17) and unequal distribution for goalkeepers (p<.04; V = 0.19), wingers (p<.002; V = 0.19) and defenders (p<.002; V = 0.27). We concluded that RAE was present in Brazilian elite men’s futsal, especially in the U17, U20, and senior categories, and goalkeepers, wingers, and defenders. Our results reinforce the need to consider the effects of relative age in the development of Brazilian elite futsal players. Key words: RAE, birth-date, birth effect, talent selection, elite athletes
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • SHOULDER ABDUCTION STRENGTH IS CORRELATED WITH ACROMIOHUMERAL DISTANCE IN
           PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME SYMPTOMS BUT NOT WITH
           SUPRASPINATUS TENDON THICKNESS REGARDLESS OF DISEASE STAGE

    • Authors: Sevgi Sevi Yesilyaprak, Damla Karabay, Halime Ezgi Turksan, Mehmet Erduran
      Pages: 307 - 315
      Abstract: We aimed to investigate the relationships of isometric and eccentric shoulder abduction strength with acromiohumeral distance and supraspinatus tendon thickness based on the disease stage in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Eighty-two patients with subacromial impingement syndrome were assessed. Acromiohumeral distance and supraspinatus tendon thickness were measured using ultrasonography. Isometric and eccentric shoulder abduction strength were measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were calculated. Isometric (rho = 0.428, p=.021) and eccentric (rho = 0.487, p=.007) shoulder abduction strength showed moderate correlations with acromiohumeral distance in patients with acute symptoms (n = 29). There was no relationship between acromiohumeral distance and abduction strength in patients with chronic symptoms (n = 53) (p>.050). Supraspinatus tendon thickness showed no significant correlation with abduction strength (p>.050). These findings suggest that the relationship between acromiohumeral distance and abduction strength differs according to disease stage. However, supraspinatus tendon thickness was not correlated with abduction strength regardless of disease stage. In patients with acute subacromial impingement syndrome symptoms increasing shoulder abduction strength may be a potential strategy to improve acromiohumeral distance. Key words: muscle strength, rotator cuff, rehabilitation, ultrasonography
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BIRTH WEIGHT, BREASTFEEDING AND DIGIT RATIO WITH
           PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS

    • Authors: Juan de Dios Benítez-Sillero, Diego Corredor-Corredor, Iago Portela-Pino, Javier Raya-González
      Pages: 316 - 324
      Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the isolated and combined effects of non-modifiable factors on adolescents’ physical fitness. This cross-sectional, descriptive study involved 1475 adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, of whom 721 were girls, from four public schools in southern Spain. Physical activity, birth weight and breastfeeding time, and physical fitness were assessed. To calculate the 2D:4D ratio, three separate measurements of the length of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) of both hands were taken. Results show no differences in the intake of breast milk nor its prediction power for physical fitness. Birth weight was related to horizontal jump and manual dynamometry results, while the 2D:4D ratio was not significant in the linear regression models. The non-modifiable factors studied in relation to physical activity practically ceased to be significant when variables such as sex, body mass index and physical activity practice were introduced into the models. Key words: physical fitness, adolescents, birth weight, breastfeeding
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • PROFILE OF GRASSROOTS FOOTBALL COACHES OF SPANISH PROFESSIONAL CLUBS

    • Authors: Alberto Martín Barrero, Manuel Tomás Abad Robles, Francisco Javier Giménez Fuentes-Guerra
      Pages: 325 - 334
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to identify the profile and education of grassroots football coaches (working with 8-12-year olds) of Spanish professional clubs (first and second male division, and first female division), as well as the qualities and characteristics they should have. For this purpose, an ad hoc questionnaire of 57 questions was used, grouped into seven dimensions, and administered to 153 coaches. This research focuses on the socio-demographic variables as well as on the dimensions of the coach’s qualities and coach’s education. The results showed that the profile of the coach corresponded to the following: male between 20 and 30 years of age, with experience in football initiation of 4-7 years, but with a 2-year experience in coaching boys and girls aged 8-12 years, with the specific football qualification level II or Union of European Football Associations A. The coaches considered it very important to have pedagogical skills and to use coaching methods that focus on learning rather than on results in order to be a coach in these age categories. Moreover, the participants considered that the training received in the official coaching courses did not adequately qualify them to carry out the sporting and human education of boys and girls in the benjamin (under 10) and alevin (under 12) age categories. The coaches also felt that the contents of the coaching course should be adjusted to the requirements of these age groups. These considerations can help sports federations and training centres to establish strategies to improve the official training programmes for football coaches. Key words: coach education, football academy, U-12 football
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • TRAINING PRACTICES OF FILIPINO ATHLETES DURING THE EARLY COVID-19 LOCKDOWN

    • Authors: Jeffrey Cayaban Pagaduan, Jad Adrian Washif, Isabel Krug, Achraf Ammar, Helmi Ben Saad, Carl James, Cristina Cortis, Khaled Trabelsi, Monoem Haddad, Daniel Bok, Bahar Hassanmirzaei, Leonardo Jose Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Jorge Pérez Gómez, Abdulaziz Farooq, Yung-Sheng Chen, Paul Gastin, Karim Chamari
      Pages: 335 - 346
      Abstract: The imposition of COVID-19 lockdown restricted the daily activities of many people, including athletes. This study investigated the training practices of athletes in the Philippines during the early COVID-19 lockdown. A total of 442 athletes answered an online survey (May-July 2020), with questions pertaining to training practices, such as training frequency and duration. Data were analyzed according to: athlete classification (world-class, international, national, state, or recreational), sport category (individual or team), and sex (male or female). During lockdown, significant reductions in training frequency (except recreational, i.e., lower pre-lockdown training) and duration were observed for all athletic classifications. Similarly, training frequency and duration decreased significantly irrespective of sport category and sex. World class athletes appeared to be less affected by lockdown (types of exercise and specific training) as compared to lower classification athletes. Athletes grouped in accordance with sex and sport category demonstrated little to no difference in training practices during the COVID-19 lockdown. The findings of the current study highlight the challenges experienced by athletes during lockdown, which may aid policy makers in the development of guidelines related to lockdown or lockdown-like situations to establish appropriate support for affected athletes. Key words: movement restriction, home training, remote training, sports training, SARS-CoV-2
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • THE ETIOLOGY OF NEUROMUSCULAR FATIGUE INDUCED BY THE 5-M SHUTTLE RUN TEST
           IN ADULT SOCCER PLAYERS

    • Authors: Omar Boukhris, Firas Zghal, Khaled Trabelsi, Hsen Hsouna, Raouf Abdessalem, Achraf Ammar, Mohamed Elloumi, Serge S. Colson, Hamdi Chtourou
      Pages: 347 - 356
      Abstract: This study investigated the etiology of neuromuscular fatigue induced by a 5-m shuttle run test (5MSRT) in soccer players. Nineteen adult male amateur soccer players (age: 20.0 ± 2.9 years) participated in the present study. Before and after the 5MSRT, they were instructed to complete a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors (KE) during and after which two electrical stimulations were applied at the femoral nerve. Voluntary activation level (VAL), surface electromyography recordings (sEMG), electrophysiological (Mmax) and potentiated resting twitch (Ptw) responses of the KE were compared between pre- and post-5MSRT. Rating of perception exertion (RPE) was also assessed before, during the test immediately following each sprint repetition and after the test. The distance covered during each sprint significantly decreased as the number of trials performed increased (p<.05). The RPE reported following each sprint significantly increased throughout the test. In addition, MVIC (-9%), sEMG (-23%), VAL (-15%), Ptw (-26%) and Mmax (~22%) of the KE were lowered from pre-to-post 5MSRT (.001 < p < .01). The 5MSRT induced a decrease of repeated-sprint running performance and MVIC of the KE. These decrements were accompanied by lowered VAL, sEMG, Ptw and Mmax values of the KE reflecting the involvement of both the central and peripheral origins in the 5MSRT-induced fatigue. Given the important muscle stress induced by 5MSRT, this strenuous test must be applied with caution, after an inevitable familiarization phase, and not during the competition period to avoid the risk of serious injury. Key words: knee extensors, electrical stimulation, electromyography, repeated-sprint ability, perceived exertion
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • NEUROMUSCULAR AND FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES TO CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC
           STRENGTH TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    • Authors: Eliane C. Guadagnin, Karine J.V. Stoelben, Felipe P. Carpes, Marco A. Vaz
      Pages: 357 - 367
      Abstract: The type of muscle action is important when designing exercise interventions for older individuals and may result in different effects. In this study we performed a systematic review of controlled trials comparing the effects of concentric and eccentric resistance training, performed on isokinetic dynamometers, on lower extremity muscular and functional performance in older adults (CDR42017075316). Six databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, Cochrane Central, and Embase) were searched. Outcomes of interest concerned neuromuscular and functional performance. Trials should consider 65 years or older individuals participating in concentric and/or eccentric training on isokinetic dynamometers, at least twice a week, during at least four weeks. Results should be compared to a control group or between different contraction types. A qualitative analysis of data was done. Quality assessment considered the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The initial search returned 10376 studies and four trials were considered for inclusion. Three trials compared the effects of concentric training with the ones of control groups, and one compared the effects of concentric with the ones of eccentric training. All trials focused on knee extensor and flexor muscles, and one also focused on ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors. Training programs included three sessions/week lasting 8-12 weeks. Concentric training improved strength, power, and muscle antagonist coactivation compared to the control. Concentric and eccentric training improved knee isometric, concentric and eccentric strength and scores on self-paced step test, with no effect on gait speed. They did not consider muscle structural parameters. The findings of beneficial effects of isokinetic concentric and eccentric resistance training on muscle strength and power in older adults were consistent. However, there is a lack of trials addressing the effects of isokinetic strength training on muscle structure and functionality. Key words: aged, aging, resistance training, lower extremity, physical examination
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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