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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.269
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 7 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1464-6668 - ISSN (Online) 2515-7841
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Let's run green! Impact of runners' environmental consciousness on their
           green perceived quality and supportive intention at participatory sport
           events

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      Authors: Yu Huang, Weisheng Chiu
      Abstract: Sustainability is a major global concern, and research has suggested a bidirectional relationship between participatory sport events and the natural environment. Against this background, we examined the influence of runners’ environmental consciousness on their perceptions of the quality of green initiatives and their supportive intention at a running event. We collected questionnaire responses from 496 runners at an event held in Taiwan, and we used partial least squares structural equation modeling for our measurement and structural models. Our findings revealed that environmental consciousness had a positive relationship with green perceived quality, and that green perceived quality, in turn, positively affected supportive intention. Green perceived quality also mediated the relationship between environmental consciousness and supportive intention, and running frequency moderated the relationship between environmental consciousness and supportive intention. Stakeholders should promote the environmental consciousness of event participants and implement sustainable initiatives to enhance participants’ supportive intention towards participatory sport events. This study contributes to the literature by examining the role of environmental consciousness, green perceived quality and supportive intention in the context of a running event. The findings highlight the importance of environmental sustainability in participatory sport events and provide valuable insights for event organizers and stakeholders in designing and implementing sustainable initiatives.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2023-0250
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Online purchase behavior of sports consumers: the effect of eWOM and
           celebrity endorsements

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      Authors: Halil Erdem Akoglu, Oğuz Özbek
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to measure the impact of eWOM (electronic word of mouth) and brand celebrity use on the purchasing behavior of sports consumers. To test the model hypotheses, sports consumers who use social media and have purchased at least one online sports product were selected as the research group. Online survey method was used, and 836 participants were reached. The model was tested with structural equation modeling (SEM) through smart PLS software. As a result, the quality, credibility and usefulness of the information consumers encounter on online platforms cause them to adopt information about products or services, and then exhibit online purchase behavior. While the attractiveness and trustworthiness of celebrities are seen as important factors affecting consumers' online purchase of sports products, the effect of celebrity expertise was found to be ineffective in this study. Marketers can develop more effective eWOM strategies by considering consumers' expectations. Businesses that want to implement an effective marketing strategy may prefer celebrities in product promotions or advertisements of their brands. This research revealed the effect of eWOM and celebrity endorsement on the online purchase behavior of sports consumers in terms of the sports industry. Unlike previous studies, this study examined these variables together on sports consumers and contributed to the development of models.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2023-0193
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Contesting fan tokens under crypto-capitalism: how sport NFT furthers the
           hypercommodification of fandom

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      Authors: Chen Chen
      Abstract: Given the rise of sport non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and sponsorships from cryptocurrency companies in the sport industry during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, this paper aims to critically frame the partnerships between cryptocurrency and sport by exploring the reception of fan tokens amongst supporters of three English Premier League clubs: Manchester City, Everton and Crystal Palace. Drawing upon the emerging critical scholarship on cryptocurrency and the political economy of professional football, this study uses digital ethnography in an attempt to understand the major themes emanating from the online forum discussions amongst fans in response to the issuance of fan tokens by the aforementioned three clubs, among other types of partnerships with crypto companies. The supporters’ critical deliberations revolved around the contradictions of fan tokens (as a means for supposed “fan engagement” or for financial speculation) and the utility of cryptocurrency for the public. These reactions in turn showcase a larger tension underlying the financially unstable professional football industry: the contest between the owners and the fan bases over the exchange value (for profit) and use value (for community) of the clubs. This paper is one of the first studies to adopt a critical framework to examine the emerging partnerships between sports and cryptocurrency companies during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also provides one of the first in-depth analyses of the critical receptions of sport NFTs amongst sport fans. While contributing to the literature on fan activism/protest in the context of the commercialization and commodification of sport, the paper also raises new questions on the responsible use of cryptocurrency/NFT in sport.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2023-0057
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Validating two shortened versions of the fitness switching cost scale

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      Authors: Kyungyeol Kim, Senyung Lee
      Abstract: Although the fitness switching costs scale (FSCS) was shown to have sound psychometric properties, the length of the 54-item may impose burdens on survey participants and present methodological and analytic challenges for researchers and practitioners. Therefore, the present study shortened and validated two versions of the FSCS, namely the 33-item FSCS (FSCS-33) and the 11-item FSCS (FSCS-11). In Study 1 (n = 411), the most useful items from the FSCS for the FSCS-33 and FSCS-11 were identified using item response theory (IRT). Study 2 (n = 391) and Study 3 (n = 400) assessed the psychometric properties of the FSCS-33 and FSCS-11, respectively, using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The FSCS-33 and FSCS-11 demonstrated strong reliability and validity in assessing switching costs in fitness centers. The psychometrically sound short-form scales provide researchers and practitioners with convenient and accurate means of measuring switching costs in fitness centers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-06-2023-0114
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Fan conflict or complement' Exploring the intersection of sports
           betting and team loyalty

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      Authors: Brendan Dwyer, Stephen L. Shapiro, Joris Drayer
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper was (1) to examine the underexplored intersection of sports betting and favorite team loyalty, and (2) to assess differences in gambling behavior among sport bettors by varying levels of team loyalty. A total of 1,555 National Football League (NFL) bettors and non-betting NFL fans were surveyed to assess media consumption across a mix of team loyalty attitudes and betting behaviors. Statistically significant differences were found between four types of NFL fans (casual, team loyalty-dominant, betting-dominant and hybrid) as it relates to media consumption in various forms. Most notably, the results suggested symbiosis between the activities. The symbiosis finding, though preliminary, suggests the activity provides an additional platform for consumers to connect with spectator sport. Furthermore, the act of betting, like participation in fantasy sports, appears to spur consumption of the NFL product generally. The study, however, was limited to NFL fans, did not specify the method for sports betting, nor the intensity of gambling. Teams should not worry that betting detracts from fan engagement with the team product. Also, leagues and media providers should continue to highlight betting content as participants consume at higher rates than non-participating sports fans. Team fandom may potentially moderate problem behavior among bettors. The betting results indicate being a loyal team fan lowers one’s gambling spend per month and largest bet compared to non-loyal bettors. However, the hybrid fan showed significantly higher media consumption levels. Sports fans have more opportunities to interact and engage with their favorite games than ever before. However, consumers have limited amounts of time and money, and this study is one of the first to examine differences in fan interests and behaviors related to sport betting and team loyalty and the resulting viewership and consumption behavior.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-07-2023-0138
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Machine learning prediction of factors affecting Major League Baseball
           (MLB) game attendance: algorithm comparisons and macroeconomic factor of
           unemployment

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      Authors: Juho Park, Junghwan Cho, Alex C. Gang, Hyun-Woo Lee, Paul M. Pedersen
      Abstract: This study aims to identify an automated machine learning algorithm with high accuracy that sport practitioners can use to identify the specific factors for predicting Major League Baseball (MLB) attendance. Furthermore, by predicting spectators for each league (American League and National League) and division in MLB, the authors will identify the specific factors that increase accuracy, discuss them and provide implications for marketing strategies for academics and practitioners in sport. This study used six years of daily MLB game data (2014–2019). All data were collected as predictors, such as game performance, weather and unemployment rate. Also, the attendance rate was obtained as an observation variable. The Random Forest, Lasso regression models and XGBoost were used to build the prediction model, and the analysis was conducted using Python 3.7. The RMSE value was 0.14, and the R2 was 0.62 as a consequence of fine-tuning the tuning parameters of the XGBoost model, which had the best performance in forecasting the attendance rate. The most influential variables in the model are “Rank” of 0.247 and “Day of the week”, “Home team” and “Day/Night game” were shown as influential variables in order. The result was shown that the “Unemployment rate”, as a macroeconomic factor, has a value of 0.06 and weather factors were a total value of 0.147. This research highlights unemployment rate as a determinant affecting MLB game attendance rates. Beyond contextual elements such as climate, the findings of this study underscore the significance of economic factors, particularly unemployment rates, necessitating further investigation into these factors to gain a more comprehensive understanding of game attendance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-06-2023-0129
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Elite versus grassroots sports events sponsorship in China:
           an exploration of sponsors’ motives and objectives

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      Authors: Qian Wang, Stéphan Fuchs, Guillaume Bodet
      Abstract: This study explores the motives and objectives of sports sponsorship in China, taking into account the sports, social and cultural contexts. It also adopts a comparative approach to examine the sponsorship of elite and grassroots sports events in China. This study adopts a qualitative approach, employing semi-structured interviews with representatives of nine companies sponsoring elite and/or grassroots sports events in Western China. The data were analyzed through reflexive thematic analysis. In China, sponsors are frequently driven to sponsor elite sport events by a sense of obligation and responsibility to the country, whereas their motives to sponsor grassroots sport events is primarily influenced by sincerity and goodwill. Chinese companies consider brand awareness, exposure and the relationship with the government and authorities as key factors for sponsorship, and use sponsorship to achieve market-related objectives. Companies’ sponsorship motives and objectives have received significant attention in the literature, but mainly in Western countries. In the context of China, this study identifies how sponsors utilize social networks to shape their motives and objectives. It also reveals certain patterns common with the current literature, as well as specificities such as how the roles of the government and authorities are linked to the contingent economic and social context of the country. Furthermore, the differences between elite and grassroots sports events sponsorship are explained.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-04-2023-0065
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Categorizing behavioral and formed concepts in sports marketing research
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Tobias Müller, Florian Schuberth, Jörg Henseler
      Abstract: Sports marketing and sponsorship research is located at the intersection of behavioral and design research, which means that it analyzes the current world and shapes a future world. This dual focus poses challenges for formulating and testing theories of sports marketing. This article develops criteria for categorizing theoretical concepts as either behavioral or formed as different ways of expressing ideas of sports marketing research. It emphasizes the need for clear concept categorization for proper operationalization and applies these criteria to selected theoretical concepts of sports marketing and sponsorship research. The study defines three criteria to categorize theoretical concepts, namely (1) the guiding idea of research, (2) the role of observed variables, and (3) the relationship among observed variables. Applying these criteria to concepts of sports marketing research manifests the relevance of categorizing theoretical concepts as either behavioral or formed to operationalize concepts correctly. This study is the first in sports marketing to clearly categorize theoretical concepts as either behavioral or formed, and to formulate guidelines on how to differentiate behavioral concepts from formed concepts.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-10-2022-0188
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Dimensions and outcomes of experiential quality in the fitness
           industry: the case of Turkey

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Ali Sevilmiş, Mehmet Doğan, Pablo Gálvez-Ruiz, Jerónimo García-Fernández
      Abstract: The user experience during the use of activities and services is a fundamental aspect for sports managers and can provide a competitive advantage. The purpose of this study was to identify the dimensions of experiential quality and the relationship of this construct with customer trust and customer satisfaction in achieving behavioral intention. Using a convenience sampling technique, a total of 322 gym users in Turkey participated. A two-step approach was used to test both the model and the research hypotheses [confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM)]. The interaction quality, physical environmental quality, outcome quality and enjoyment quality were positively related to experiential quality. Similarly, the experimental quality was positively related to customer satisfaction and customer trust. Finally, customer satisfaction was related to behavioral intentions. This study provides empirical evidence about the importance of experiential quality to gain a competitive advantage in the context of fitness centers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-06-2023-0130
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Transforming sport consumption: exploring motivated sport fans
           innovativeness in the context of AR live sport streaming

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Sungkyung Kim, Argyro Elisavet Manoli
      Abstract: This study delves into the psychological processes underlying sport fans' post-purchase innovativeness behaviour. This exploratory research aims to establish a theoretical framework that elucidates the formation of sport fans' word-of-mouth (WOM) behaviours, particularly emphasising the structural relationship between motivated consumer innovativeness and satisfaction in using AR live-streaming services. Utilising an online survey and convenience sampling, the study garnered a total of 243 usable responses from three online baseball fan communities in South Korea. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to assess the psychometric properties of the constructs. Subsequently, a structural equation model was used to probe the influence of motivated consumer innovativeness on WOM, with a particular focus on the mediating role of satisfaction. Three dimensions of motivated sport fans innovativeness – functional, hedonic and cognitive – showed a positive association with WOM, partly mediated by satisfaction. In contrast, socially motivated sport fans innovativeness did not directly lead to WOM but influenced it solely through satisfaction. The full mediating role of satisfaction in the relationship between socially motivated fans innovativeness and WOM was found. This research stands out as one of the scant studies exploring motivated sport fans innovativeness in the context of AR live sport streaming. The findings not only corroborate but also augment the extant literature by empirically confirming that three dimensions of motivated fans innovativeness, coupled with satisfaction, are pivotal antecedents to WOM intention.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-01-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2023-0180
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • What makes esports consumers watch streamers' esports live-streaming
           contents' Extending the theory of planned behavior

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      Authors: Wooyoung (William) Jang, Wonjun Choi, Min Jung Kim, Hyunseok Song, Kevin K. Byon
      Abstract: This study aimed to understand better what makes esports fans engage with streamers' live-streaming of esports gameplay. This study used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and additionally adopted streamer identification and esports game identification as moderating variables. Data were collected from streamers' esports content streaming viewers over 18 years of age using an online survey in Amazon M-Turk (N = 307). Based on past esports live-streaming weekly watching hours, which range from 1 to 45 h, the participants were divided into lower (n = 152) and higher (n = 155) frequency groups. PLS-SEM and bootstrapping techniques were used to test the moderated mediation relationships among the constructs. This study found a negative moderating effect of past watching experience on the relationship between attitudes and behavioral intention, and it positively moderated the path between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention. Also, it was found statistically significant direct impacts of streamer identification (STI) and esports game identification (EGI) on attitude and subjective norms. While the indirect impact of STI on behavioral intention through attitude was statistically significant, there were no significant indirect impacts of EGI on attitude and behavioral intention through subjective norms. Theoretically, this study extends the TPB model by exploring the two identifications (i.e. streamers and esports games) as antecedents of the focal TPB factors (i.e. attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) and the moderating effect of prior experience based on high/low weekly watching frequencies. Practically, content creators of esports live-streaming and live-streaming platform managers can use the study’s findings to develop strategies to nurture their current and future viewership.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-07-2023-0132
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Providing a framework and guidelines for sport organizations to understand
           and predict sport consumer behavior

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      Authors: Galen Trail
      Abstract: The purpose of this commentary is to discuss a framework (the Revised Model of Sport Consumer Behavior – R-MSCB; Trail, 2019) to accomplish the following objectives. (1) Provide a framework for sport marketers and sport organizations to use in their own market research. (2) Designate the processes needed to generate results and knowledge that sport organizations, sport marketers and associated corporate partners can use to improve marketing campaigns. (3) Provide suggestions for analytic techniques and measurement constructs/instruments that will facilitate market research within the sport industry. The author created a 140-item questionnaire for the pre-survey and a 50-item questionnaire for the post-survey. The pre-survey was given at the beginning of the season, and the post-survey was given at the end of the season. The research group has generated a sequence of 13 studies and has collected pre-survey responses from over 7,800 people across 4 continents, 8 sports and 13 teams (data collections), with more teams still planned and over 2,000 post-season survey responses with data collection continuing. This project, with its 13 studies, will provide sport organizations with the theories/frameworks, knowledge and processes to do their own market research in a more effective and efficient manner and will show sport organizations how to understand the complexities of sport consumer behavior, the motivations behind it and how it varies extensively across individuals. The author will show sports organizations how to collect data from their consumers using valid and reliable measures and constructs that will allow them to segment their consumers, how to effectively market to those segments and how to establish long-lasting relationships that make a satisfied and loyal customer. This paper provides the framework and guidelines so that sport marketers and researchers can identify specific variables, constructs and relationships that will further their own objectives when attempting to explain sport consumer behavior. Using their own market research, they can implement the results/output in association with the Communications Strategy Model to create more effective and efficient marketing and communications campaigns and consequently drive key performance indicators (KPIs) and improve revenue streams.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2023-0087
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • How customer knowledge management helps retain fitness club members: a
           mediating effect of relationship quality

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      Authors: Kenneth Shiu Pong Ng, Yan Feng, Ivan Ka Wai Lai, Lois Zi-Yu Yang
      Abstract: This study aims to develop a conceptual model to understand how customer knowledge management (CKM) affects fitness club membership renewal through the mediation of relationship quality. Data were collected outside of fitness clubs using a systematic sampling method. A total of 224 valid responses were collected. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the relationship between the constructs of the research model. The results indicate that both knowledge from customers and knowledge for customers have a positive influence on customer satisfaction and customer trust. Among them, knowledge for customers has a stronger influence on customer satisfaction while knowledge from customers has a greater influence on customer trust. Additionally, three dimensions of relationship quality (customer satisfaction, customer trust and customer commitment) positively influence membership renewal intention with customer commitment exhibiting the greatest influence on it. This study combines the theories of CKM and relationship quality management to explain why members will renew their service contracts. By using fitness clubs as an example, this research extends the authors' understanding of how knowledge from and for customers can influence customers' attitudes and behavioural intentions towards service companies.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-01-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-07-2023-0136
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Implementing trades of the National Football League Draft on blockchain
           smart contracts

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      Authors: Mathew B. Fukuzawa, Brandon M. McConnell, Michael G. Kay, Kristin A. Thoney-Barletta, Donald P. Warsing
      Abstract: Demonstrate proof-of-concept for conducting NFL Draft trades on a blockchain network using smart contracts. Using Ethereum smart contracts, the authors model several types of draft trades between teams. An example scenario is used to demonstrate contract interaction and draft results. The authors show the feasibility of conducting draft-day trades using smart contracts. The entire negotiation process, including side deals, can be conducted digitally. Further work is required to incorporate the full-scale depth required to integrate the draft trading process into a decentralized user platform and experience. Cutting time for the trade negotiation process buys decision time for team decision-makers. Gains are also made with accuracy and cost. Full-scale adoption may find resistance due to the level of fan involvement; the draft has evolved into an interactive experience for both fans and teams. This research demonstrates the new application of smart contracts in the inter-section of sports management and blockchain technology.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2023-0185
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Sports team success and managerial decisions: the role of
           playing-time concentration

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      Authors: Alexander Cardazzi, Brad R. Humphreys, Kole Reddig
      Abstract: Professional sports teams employ highly paid managers and coaches to train players and make tactical and strategic team decisions. A large literature analyzes the impact of manager decisions on team outcomes. Empirical analysis of manager decisions requires a quantifiable proxy variable for manager decisions. Previous research focused on manager dismissals, tenure on teams, the number of substitutions made in games or the number of healthy players on rosters held out of games for rest, generally finding small positive impacts of manager decisions on team success. The authors quantify manager decisions by developing a novel measure of game-specific coaching decisions: the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI) of playing-time across players on a team roster over the course of a season. Evidence from two-way fixed effects regression models explaining observed variation in National Basketball Association team winning percentage over the 1999–2000 to 2018–2019 seasons show a significant association between managers’ allocation of playing time and team success. A one standard deviation change in playing-time HHI that reflects a flattened distribution of player talent is associated with between one and two additional wins per season, holding the talent of players on the team roster constant. Heterogeneity exists in the impact across teams with different player talent. This is one of the first papers to examine playing-time concentration in the NBA. The results are important for understanding how managerial decisions about resource allocation lead to sustained competitive advantage. Linking coaching decisions to wins can help teams to better promote this core product.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2024-01-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2023-0198
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2024)
       
  • Effectiveness of sponsorship type, sport team identification, team support
           and congruence

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      Authors: Sardar Mohammadi, Mojtaba Ghasemi Siani, Manuel Alonso Dos Santos
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the interaction effect that sponsor-team congruence and team fan (home/rival team) have on the influence of different types of sports sponsorship (joint, corporate social responsibility [CSR]-linked and conventional sponsorship) on fans' attitudes and purchase intentions toward the sponsor. Two experimental studies were conducted on 391 and 297 participants. The data gathered underwent analysis through five multivariate general linear model analyses. The study found that CSR-linked sponsorship had the strongest positive impact and the weakest negative impact on the attitude and purchase intention of home team supporters and the attitude of rival team supporters. Nonetheless, the sponsor-team congruence did not significantly moderate the relationship. Additionally, the research demonstrated that the fan identity of both home and rival teams moderates the impact of sports sponsorships on attitude and purchase intention. Previous research has studied the effectiveness of sponsorship format types independently. This is the first research comparing sponsorship formats regarding fan type and congruence.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-12-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2023-0110
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Genuine or impression management' Uncovering biases in how people respond
           to the Black Lives Matter movement in sport

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      Authors: Youngho Park, Dae Hee Kwak
      Abstract: National surveys reveal that sports fans exhibit greater support for athletes, sports teams and leagues endorsing social justice initiatives compared to the general population, highlighting the potential of sports for positive social impact. This study investigates whether such responses are influenced by systematic biases. Replicating a Nielsen national survey, two experiments explore whether biases affect support for athletes' participation in the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. The study also examines partisan motivated reasoning as a factor driving sports fans' support for BLM. While avid fans display stronger endorsement of BLM compared to causal/non-sports fans, evidence suggests that systematic biases distort these responses. When sport identity becomes salient, reported support for the BLM movement becomes inflated. Researchers often employ self-report surveys to gauge audience perceptions of athlete activism or cause-related initiatives, particularly when assessing their impact. This study's findings indicate that this context is susceptible to SDB. The study underscores the role of systematic biases in self-report surveys, particularly in socially desirable contexts. People tend to over-report “positive behavior,” leading survey participants to respond more favorably to questions that are socially desirable. Therefore, interpreting survey results with caution becomes essential when the research context is deemed socially (un)desirable. It is crucial for researchers to apply appropriate measures to identify and mitigate systematic response biases. The authors recommend that researchers adopt both procedural and statistical remedies to detect and reduce social desirability biases.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-12-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2023-0184
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Real-time psychophysiological approaches to explore emotional and
           cognitive processing of VR-mediated sports

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      Authors: Minkyo Lee, Xiaochen Zhou
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate how VR-mediated sports, as opposed to 2-D screens, affect the emotional and cognitive experiences of fans with the game and its sponsors. The current study employed a single-factorial experimental design, in which participants were randomly assigned to either watch a soccer game through a VR headset or a 2-D screen. Physiological and self-reported measures were used to measure levels of presence, arousal, attention and memory. Participants who watched sports through VR experienced a higher level of presence, greater psychophysiological arousal, and exhibited higher levels of attention toward the game. However, they showed lower recognition for in-stadium signage compared to those who watched the game on a 2-D screen. The results suggest that sports teams can use VR to create a more immersive and engaging experience for fans. Additionally, in-stadium signage advertising may not be as effective in VR sport broadcasting contexts, and sports practitioners may want to explore alternative forms of advertising that are better suited for VR environments. Methodologically, this study used a combination of self-reported and real-time physiological measures to capture dynamic and spontaneous changes in fans while watching games. Theoretically, this study utilized the Dynamic Human-Centered Communication System Theory to adopt a human-centered approach to understand how VR impacts the experience of sport game viewers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-12-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2023-0042
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • How best to measure connection to a team: team identification, brand
           attitude/loyalty, consumer lifestyle or interest level'

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      Authors: Galen Trail, Hyejin Bang, Windy Dees
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare four different consumer pathway models based on identity theory, attitude/loyalty theory, lifestyle theory and hierarchy of effects theory, each with associated instruments measuring connection to the team. The authors did a two-study analysis, first collecting data from people aware of an NFL team (N = 218) and then an MLS team (N = 209) to determine which connection item performed better. The authors found that the Consumer Pathway for Sport Fandom based on the hierarchy of effects theory and its associated interest measurement item performed better than the other three frameworks and items. The Interest item shared the most variance with games attended, games intending to attend, games watched via media and games intending to watch via media. The Consumer Pathway for Sport Fandom represents the entire consumer spectrum from non-aware consumers all the way up to die-hard sports fans. This pathway will allow sport marketers to track their consumers from initial awareness of the product or service all the way through the brand relationship to ultimate loyalty.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-12-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-06-2023-0118
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Online posting intention: do the social communication and brand equity of
           esports matter'

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      Authors: Xi Wang, Xinyi You, Yulan Xu, Jie Zheng
      Abstract: Social media's role in engaging participants in sports events, particularly during the pandemic, is acknowledged. However, previous studies often utilized sports events for diverse objectives but overlooked brand equity's influence on sports event development. And very limited research explores social media's impact on brand equity in esports events, despite its significance. Therefore, this study aims to explore how social media affects esports event brand equity and participants' satisfaction and engagement with social media through brand equity's influence. The study focused on League of Legends World Championships (LOLWC) participants, who completed a self-judged questionnaire online. The questionnaire included demographic details and latent constructs. Data analysis involved two steps: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to assess measurement scale validity and structural equation modeling (SEM) to study relationships between traits. The results reveal that, within the esports event context, controlled communication exerts a meaningful and dual impact – both directly and indirectly – on the fundamental components of brand equity. This, in turn, serves as a catalyst for increasing participant contentment and their posting intention. This study applies brand equity theories to the esports domain, exploring participant-based brand equity concepts, user behavior and the influence of social media communication on event branding and engagement. It also recommends strategies for event improvement, emphasizes controlled communication for brand equity and highlights marketing's role in brand awareness, association and participant satisfaction. Additionally, it suggests government regulation to address cyber violence during esports events.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-12-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2023-0189
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Transcendence beyond sport: examining the dynamic power of sport human
           brand on national pride

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      Authors: Susmit S. Gulavani, James Du, Jeffrey D. James
      Abstract: Drawing upon social judgment theory, the research examines whether changes in psychological involvement with a sport human brand owing to their sporting success can generate spillover effects on people's national pride, a proxy for the collective level of well-being and whether the individual's behavioral engagement in sport spectating will moderate this relationship. Leveraging a quasi-natural experiment grounded in the 2021 Indian Premier League championship, the authors solicit responses from 296 representative individuals residing in India twice using a two-wave panel design. The authors conducted confirmatory factor analysis, repeated measures T-test, latent change score analysis, and structural regression analysis to examine the relationship between psychological involvement with sport human brand and national pride. The results demonstrate a positive association between psychological involvement with sport human brand and national pride. Further, the findings indicate that an increase in psychological involvement with sport human brand was associated with an increase in national pride due to the successful athletic endeavor involving the sport human brand. However, the relationship between psychological involvement with sport human brand and national pride was invariant irrespective of patrons' spectatorship behavior. This research demonstrates that sport human brands possess transformative soft power that extends their prerogative cultural identity personified by their athletic ability and success, allowing them to shape public sentiments of national pride via their profound influence through and beyond the complex network of brand ecosystems.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2023-0098
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • A cross-country comparison of Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia golf
           tourism experience: a perceptual experience of Malaysian golfers

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      Authors: Ahmad Johanif Mohd Ali, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari, Muhammad A'rif Aizat Bashir, Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah
      Abstract: This scholarly investigation explores the Malaysian golfers' experience in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia golf courses. The study sheds light on the unique attributes of golf tourism in each country, including the courses, facilities, services and overall golfing experiences offered to golf tourists. Qualitative data were procured through in-depth semi-structured interviews with a cohort of 13 Malaysian golfers. The findings indicate that golfers' experiences are affected by the quality of service, facilities, price and course condition, ultimately contributing to their satisfaction level. The evidence suggests that Malaysian golfers are comparatively more satisfied with golf courses in Thailand and Indonesia than in Malaysia. The study underscores the importance of golf course attributes in retaining existing golfers and enticing new ones. Besides, as comparative research on golf course attributes and destination preferences is scant, this study has far-reaching implications, empowering Malaysian golf course managers to augment the appeal and quality of their golf course destination to optimise the behavioural intentions of golf tourists.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-07-2023-0146
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • The impact of brand attribution for an innovative sports product
           introduced on the fitness market in France

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      Authors: Sarah Mischler, Lilian Pichot
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of brand attribution on consumer behaviour. The authorsare interested in finding out if consumers are more likely to purchase a new sports product when it is attributed to a brand. The authors are interested in finding out if the brand positively influences the consumer's appreciation of the product in the case of the launch of a new product. The authors completed a quantitative survey with 320 people who are familiar with the toning concept, aged between 20 and 45 years old. The questionnaire was conducted face to face in six large cities in France. Main results show that belief in the effectiveness of the product is positively correlated with purchase intention. However, the attribution of the product to the brand does not guarantee belief in the effectiveness of the product nor does it guarantee purchase intention. Brand credibility has a positive impact on belief in the effectiveness of the product. Furthermore, exposure to advertising allows the product to be attributed to the brand. Yet, it does not have an impact on belief in the product's effectiveness or purchase intention. Whereas studying consumer behaviour is not new, analysing consumer perceptions of innovative products and how these perceptions relate to the product brand can provide interesting implications both for consumer behaviour research and from a practical perspective for brands. Indeed, this paper shows the importance of exposure to advertising for a product to be attributed to a brand but this is not enough to induce its purchase. It is the credibility of the brand in the product category as well as the belief in the effectiveness of the product that can lead consumers to buy it.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-04-2023-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Why do fans go to football games' A discrete choice analysis of ticket
           buyers' preferences

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      Authors: Mario Becerra, Matteo Balliauw, Peter Goos, Bruno De Borger, Benjamin Huyghe, Thomas Truyts
      Abstract: Ticket sales are an essential source of income for football clubs and federations. Analyzing the determinants of fans' willingness-to-pay for tickets is therefore an important exercise. By knowing the match- and fan-related characteristics that influence how much a fan wants to pay for a ticket, as well as to what extent, football clubs and federations can modify their ticket offering and targeting in order to optimize this revenue stream. Using a detailed discrete choice experiment, based on McFadden's random utility theory, this paper formulates a Bayesian hierarchical multinomial logit model. Such models are very common in the discrete choice modeling literature. The analysis identifies to what extent match and personal attributes influence fans' willingness-to-pay for games of the Belgian men's and women's football national teams. The results show that the strength of the opponent, the type of competition, the location of the seats in the stadium, the day and kick-off time of the match and the ticket price exert an influence on the choice of the respondent. Fans are attracted most by competitive games against strong opponents. They prefer to sit along the sideline, and they have clear preferences for specific kick-off days and times. The authors also find substantial variation between socio-demographic groups, defined in terms of factors such as age, gender and family composition. The authors use the results to estimate the willingness-to-pay for match tickets for different socio-demographic groups. Their findings are useful for football clubs and federations interested in optimizing the prices of their match tickets. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no stated preference methods, such as discrete choice analysis, have been used to analyze the willingness-to-pay of sports fans. The advantage of discrete choice analysis is that options and variations in tickets that are not yet available in practice can be studied, allowing football organizations to increase revenues from new ticketing instruments.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2023-0093
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Esports fan identity toward sponsor–sponsee relationship:
           an understanding of the role-based identity

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: André Calapez, Tiago Ribeiro, Victor Almeida, Vera Pedragosa
      Abstract: Despite to useful relevance to better understand how group-level identity develops, few studies have explored the identity theory in the esports field and, in particular, considering the impact of a fan's role identity. The current study aims to explore esports fan role-identity vis-à-vis the relationship with the sponsor and the sponsee so as to understand the effects on their behavioral intentions. Using a sample of 356 esports fans who attended the 2021 FPF eFootball Open Challenge, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) analyzed the psychometric properties of the constructs and a subsequent Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) examined the effects of fan identity on two types of behavioral intentions and sponsor–sponsee relationship. Results indicate that fans who highly identify with esports have the highest attachment to the event and tend toward having a positive word-of-mouth intention. Esports fans who have a higher brand identification reported a positive attitude toward the event's sponsor brand and tend to purchase its products. Moreover, the study findings also provide evidence of the bidirectional interaction between the way in which fans attach with the esports event and its sponsor brand, leading to greater reciprocity in their identity formation. This study helps to understand how the fan identity process can enhance its fate and develop mutually, building role overlapping identity in the esports sponsor–sponsee relationship. Complementarily, it supports of how the marketeers and managers must analyze the importance of being a fan to the individual in order to understand how its self-identity can shape the future behavior.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-02-2023-0030
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • The “why” behind generation Y amateur gamers' ongoing eSports
           gameplay intentions

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Woulan Hattingh, Liandi Van den Berg, Ayesha Bevan-Dye
      Abstract: Technological advancements in games increased the popularity of online gaming. The rapid expansion of the eSports market may largely be attributed to the ever-increasing popularity amongst Generation Y amateur gamers. The primary objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing Generation Y amateur gamers' ongoing eSports gameplay intentions. This study used the extended unified theory of acceptance as the theoretical framework. Data analysis included exploratory principal component analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis suggest that Generation Y amateur gamers' ongoing eSports gameplay intentions is an eight-factor model that is reliable, valid and has acceptable model fit. The results of the path analysis indicate that habit, price-value, flow, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions have a statistically significant positive influence on amateur gamers' ongoing eSports gameplay intentions, whilst social influence and hedonic motivation have a negative but non-significant influence on those intentions. The sample was formed using only amateur eSports gamers. In this regard, the opportunity exists to research professional eSports gamers. This study only focussed on Generation Y members between 18 and 36 years old. As a result, there is an opportunity for researchers to research the different generations of South African eSports gamers to determine whether there are any differences or similarities between generational segments. The results of this study clearly indicate that flow, together with habit are salient contributors to ongoing gameplay intentions amongst amateur eSports gamers in South Africa. A reasonable assumption that can be made here is that flow is also instrumental in encouraging habitual gaming, which increases the importance of flow in overall ongoing gameplay intentions. This suggests that R&D expenditure should be directed at enhancing user engagement by building increased levels of flow into eSports games. eSports game developers can also achieve a desired state of flow by creating daily challenges that reward players when the players achieve specific objectives, which will encourage gamers to enter a state of flow when provided with challenges to complete. However, these in-game challenges should have a variety of levels regarding difficulty, ranging from beginner, intermediate and advanced levels so as not to exceed the effort expectancy of different groups of players. Game developers should provide regularly updated challenges to gamers to ensure that eSports games remain enjoyable and does not become predictable. Given the nascence of research on eSports behaviour, the results of this study provide a novel addition to the knowledge pool, particularly in terms of amateur eSports behavioural intentions. Interestingly, hedonic motivation and social influence were non-significant negative predictors of Generation Y amateur gamers' ongoing eSports gameplay intentions. The recommendations provide various marketing strategies and opportunities for eSports business expansion.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-07-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-04-2023-0064
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Service quality, satisfaction and behavioural intentions in sport child
           camps: participants and parents' perspectives

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Marisa Sousa, Celina Gonçalves, Rui Biscaia, Maria José Carvalho
      Abstract: This study aims to assess service quality in sport child camps among both participants and parents and its effects on satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Data were collected from participants (n = 258) and parents (n = 226) of a sport child camp. A confirmatory factor analysis analysed the psychometric properties of the constructs, and a subsequent structural equation model examined the effects of service quality on satisfaction and behavioural intentions. The results indicate a multi-dimensional construct of service quality that influences satisfaction and behavioural intentions differently among parents and participants. For participants, Service Failures and Recovery, Safety and Food influenced satisfaction, while Service Failures and Recovery and Fun influenced Behavioural Intentions. For parents, Management Commitment to Service Quality, Staff, Food and Contact with Physical Environmental influenced satisfaction, while Management Commitment to Service Quality and Staff influenced Behavioural intentions. Both parents and participants' perceptions of service quality in sport child camps were captured and its effects on satisfaction and behavioural intentions. The study provides sport child camp managers with critical information about service delivery and its outcomes among the two key consumers (participants and parents). This study offers new ideas to advance knowledge on sport child camps by capturing the perceptions of two key stakeholders and providing useful insights into how different attributes of service quality influence the levels of satisfaction and behavioural intentions among parents and participants.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-04-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-10-2022-0183
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
  • Sport team identification: a social identity perspective comparing local
           and distant fans

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Petri Lintumäki, Oliver Koll
      Abstract: Supporting distant teams is a frequent phenomenon. Through the lens of the social identity theory, this research aims to examine differences between local and distant fans regarding drivers of team identification. A multigroup structural equation model was employed. The data were collected through an online survey with 1,285 sports fans. Team distinctiveness constitutes an important aspect fueling identification for all fans, whereas congruence between own and team personality is important for local and displaced fans only. Team prestige does not impact identification for either group. To build up a base of highly identified supporters, clubs should emphasize those aspects of team brands that fans consider distinctive. When targeting local fans, clubs should also focus on communicating the brand's unique personality aspects. This is the first study that assesses the potential differences behind fans' social identification with local and distant teams.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-08-2022-0158
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2023)
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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