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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.269
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1464-6668 - ISSN (Online) 2515-7841
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Temporal team switching after the elimination of the supported team at a
           knockout tournament

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      Authors: Endzhe Latypova , Hirotaka Matsuoka
      Abstract: While the tournament format is common within organized sports, little is known about the supporting behavior of tournament event fans. The defeat of the supported team and its' subsequent elimination could influence how fans associate themselves with the event. Hence, the present study aims to investigate the fans' responses to the favorite team's elimination at a knockout tournament focusing on whether they are willing to continue following the event and choose another team to support. In this paper fans' temporal switching behavior was explored in relationships with fans' identification with geographic area, sport itself and teams. The audience watching the Japanese National High School Baseball Championship was targeted for the online survey in March 2020, resulting in the final sample of 502 (287 observations used for reliability and validity tests). Independent sample t-tests and logistic regression were employed in the study. 80% of respondents intended to continue following the tournament, which was associated with a higher attachment to sports. Place attachment by itself was not associated with the intention to continue. Most of the respondents who chose a certain team to support after the favorite team's elimination have retained their pattern of choosing the team (63.9%). Interestingly, fans with higher place attachment not only choose to continue following the tournament after their prefectural team's elimination but were willing to support another team from the same region. This is one of the first papers providing evidence of tournament fan behavior and temporal switching.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-01-2022-0001
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Distinctions in environmental attitudes between soccer and American
           football fans

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      Authors: Timothy Kellison , Beth A. Cianfrone
      Abstract: In this study, the authors examine consumer attitudes toward a professional soccer club’s proenvironmental initiatives and evaluate whether key themes are consistent with those found in previous research of fans in different sporting contexts. The authors analyzed empirical material provided by 147 highly identified supporters of a Major League Soccer team. Using template analysis, the authors compared codes, categories and themes with those previously identified in a reference group of National Football League (NFL) fans. Twenty-three preliminary codes, nine categories and four themes were established by the researchers. Three themes – Considering Environmental Action, Business Insights and Impacting the Fan Experience – were all consistent with the NFL reference group. A fourth theme, Public Visibility, focused on the possibility that the club’s proenvironmental initiatives could provide a competitive advantage over rival cities and positively influence local programming and behaviors. The results of this study support the notion that fan characteristics may differ across various demographic and structural contexts and fans’ recognition that a club could leverage its community standing to promote proenvironmental action.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-01-2022-0023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effects of in-game brand congruity on esports consumers' implicit and
           explicit memory

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      Authors: Yongjin Hwang , Nicholas Masafumi Watanabe , Mark Nagel
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the impacts of brand congruity of in-game brand placement on esports consumers' implicit and explicit memory. A 2 × 2 × 2 experimental design (N = 224) was used with an automobile racing game, NASCAR Heat 5. A series of statistical analyses, including MANOVA and logistic regressions, was conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. The results revealed that ads on virtual billboards in the video game primed participants to create an implicit memory. Also, incongruent brands that were not very familiar to gamers provided greater impact than congruent brands. This research is the first to test both implicit and explicit memory and provide practical evidence for the possibility of implicit memory building in the esports context. In addition, the current study also examined the impact of congruity to answer the previously inconsistent results.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2022-0085
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The role of trust in sports organization crisis communication: the case of
           the Houston Astros' sign-stealing scandal

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      Authors: Seomgyun Lee , Taeyeon Oh
      Abstract: The current study examines (1) the relationships among the crisis response, trust and negative behavioral intentions (i.e. avoidance and revenge), (2) the mediation role of trust in the crisis communication of sports organization and (3) the moderation effect of team identification between the crisis response and trust. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 324 Major League Baseball (MLB) fans who met specific criteria (i.e. background information; knowing about the Houston Astros sign-stealing scandal and how the team responded to it). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were employed to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings showed that perceived adequacy of the crisis response positively influenced sports fans' perceived trust. This trust was negatively associated with revenge and avoidance intentions. The mediation effect of trust was also found in the relationship between the crisis response and both avoidance and revenge intentions. Regarding the interaction effect of team identification, however, the relationship between the crisis response and trust was not moderated by team identification levels. The present study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of crisis communication in sports fans' perceptions and behavioral intentions. It illuminates a psychological process through which perceived adequacy of crisis response reduces negative behavioral intentions through trust.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2021-0231
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Revisiting organizational identity and social responsibility in
           professional football clubs: the case of Bayern Munich and the Qatar
           sponsorship

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: David M. Herold , C. Keith Harrison , Scott J. Bukstein
      Abstract: A perceived misalignment between socially responsible fans and football club management has recently led to a major crisis during the annual meeting in 2021 of Bayern Munich, one of the largest professional football teams in Europe. In an unprecedented scenario, Bayern Munich fans demanded that management drop one of its largest sponsors due to alleged violation of human rights. The goal of this paper is to examine this particular phenomenon, as it not only demonstrates a discrepancy between the social organizational identity and its image, but more importantly, how it impacts legitimation strategies and the fans' loyalty attitudes towards the club. Using the underlying concepts of legitimacy and loyalty, this conceptual model paper proposes two frameworks for social responsibility in professional football clubs: (1) analyzing how the (mis-)alignment between organizational identity and image impacts fan loyalty and (2) depicting four different types of social responsibility strategies to align organizational identity and image. The authors identify various theoretical concepts that influence organizational identity and image in and for social responsibility and combine the two critical concepts of legitimacy and loyalty to categorize the social responsibility strategies for professional football clubs. Both frameworks advance the understanding of the decision-making behind social responsibility strategies and also synthesize the current literature to offer conceptual clarity regarding the varied implications and outcomes linked to the misalignment between organizational identity and image.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2022-0058
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A systematic review on spectator behavior in esports: why do people
           watch'

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      Authors: Julia Rietz , Kirstin Hallmann
      Abstract: Esports is rapidly growing in popularity and viewership. The study's purpose was threefold: (1) to provide a systematic review and synthesis of esports spectatorship research. (2) to provide a reference for the psychology of consumer behavior in esports live streaming and esports event attendance. (3) to deliver a clear picture of the factors that impact consumer behavior in esports online and on-site consumption. The study systematically reviews motivational aspects of online and on-site spectatorship using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA). SCOPUS and Google Scholar were selected as social science databases. Twenty-five papers met the inclusion criteria: (1) published between 2000 and 2022, (2) empirical investigation, (3) focus on online and/or on-site esports spectatorship/events. Five papers implemented randomization to assess common method bias. Twenty-five papers qualified for subsequent analysis. The papers were mostly quantitative. They included a theoretical framework and investigated online esports spectatorship. Significant antecedents for motivation to watch esports online and/or on-site were fanship, tension release, entertainment, escaping everyday life and unique features like chat and direct communication. No consensus was found concerning similarities or differences between online and on-site esports spectatorship and traditional sports spectatorship. This research contributed to a new theoretical, methodological and practical agenda. A more comparative approach analyzing contextual, structural and demographic cues could lead to a holistic picture of esports spectator motivation.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2021-0241
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Risk and psychological return: a moderating role of COVID-19 risk
           perception in the impact of team identification on vitality after sport
           spectatorship in Tokyo

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      Authors: Keita Kinoshita , Hirotaka Matsuoka
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of sport fans' team identification on their emotional experiences (i.e. vitality and game satisfaction) using two-wave data in a specific sport event during the declaration of the emergency statement in Japan. The study also aims to test the moderating effects of risk perceptions about COVID-19 and the game outcome on the relationship between team identification and vitality/game satisfaction. The present research was conducted in the context of a sport event in Tokyo (the Japanese Rugby Top League 2020–2021 Season Playoff Tournament Final) during the declaration of the emergency statement period in Japan. The data were collected through a two-wave design (before and after the game) from the spectators of the event. Team identification significantly predicted higher vitality after the game but not game satisfaction. Additionally, the moderation test found that sport fans with high social risk perception about the COVID-19 showed a positive relationship between team identification and vitality but not for the fans with low social risk perception. The present results suggest that sport events can be advertised for sport fans as a tool to increase physical and psychological energy in their daily lives during the pandemic. The present study demonstrated that team identification predicted greater vitality after the spectatorship during the COVID-19 outbreak. In particular, higher social risk perception was a significant catalyst to improve vitality after the game.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-01-2022-0007
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • From horizontal to vertical relationships: how online community
           identification fosters sport fans’ team identification and behavioural
           intentions

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      Authors: Sungkyung Kim , Argyro Elisavet Manoli
      Abstract: With the remarkable advancements in information and communication technologies, comprehending online sport fan communities is being pushed further up in the agenda of sport teams worldwide. Based on social identity theory, the main purpose of this research paper is to test the mechanism of how horizontal relationships developed through online communities lead to vertical relationships such as team identification and behavioural intentions. Using a sample of online baseball fan community members in South Korea (N = 400) and employing structural equations modelling, the current research examined the structural relations among online community identification, team identification, behavioural intention and WOM intention while testing moderating effect of perceived authenticity. This study finds that online community identification has a significant positive impact on team-level consumer outcomes: team identification, behavioural intention and WOM intention. Team identification is verified as a significant determinant of both behavioural intention and WOM intention. Moreover, the partial mediating role of team identification in the relationships between online community identification and behavioural intentions are corroborated. The present study furnishes essential information for identifying the underlying mechanism of how fan-to-fan horizontal relationships cultivate team-to-fan vertical relationships in the context of the virtual fan community.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2021-0188
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effects of Super Bowl advertising on online brand search: ten years
           of insights from 2011 to 2020

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      Authors: Dan Li , Nicholas Masafumi Watanabe
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the cross-media effect of Super Bowl ads on online search behavior. Furthermore, the authors explored the role of ad likability in the effect. This study used a quasi-experiment method to test the hypotheses. The subjects of investigation are the brands advertised during the past ten years of Super Bowl from 2011 to 2020 (n = 389). Search volume index data were collected through Google Trends. The authors used Ad Meter ratings to measure ad likability. The findings indicate that Super Bowl advertisements stimulate consumers' likelihood to seek information about the advertised brands via search engines. The search volumes for brands hit a peak right after the Super Bowl advertising exposure. Additionally, ad likability influenced the increase in search volume. Consumers tend to search a brand online if they liked its Super Bowl ad. The study contributes to the literature on Super Bowl advertising effectiveness by examining the impact of Super Bowl advertising on online search behavior and the role of ad likability in the relationship. Marketers will be able to utilize the increase in search volumes after the Super Bowl advertising exposure to further enhance brand engagement.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-07-2021-0151
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Factors affecting users’ stickiness of fitness apps: an empirical study
           based on the S-O-R perspective

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      Authors: Xianzhong Teng , Zheshi Bao
      Abstract: Despite fitness applications (apps) are increasingly downloaded by smartphone users in recent years, the usage behavior after initial adoption often lasts for a short period of time for most users. The purpose of this paper is to explore factors affecting stickiness of fitness app and then indicate how to retain existing users. A research model was developed based on stimulus–organism–response (S-O-R) model. Using the data collected from 231 fitness app users through an online survey, the established model was empirically assessed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that human-to-information interaction and human-to-human interaction as environmental stimuli affect individuals' internal state, including social comparison and perception of fitness self-management, which consequently influence the stickiness of fitness apps. The study provides new insights into the mechanism regarding why users are willing to continuously use fitness apps. Moreover, the understanding of social comparison among users in such process was also deepened.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-06-2021-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Competence inference from muscle: how and when trainers' muscle mass
           impacts service purchase of personal fitness training

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      Authors: Sangchul Park , Shinhyoung Lee , Hyun-Woo Lee
      Abstract: This study aims to examine how and when trainers' muscle mass impacts service purchase of personal fitness training, drawing upon signaling theory. Specifically, the authors investigated (1) the mediating role of perceived competence in the relationship between trainers' muscle mass (highly vs moderately muscular) and customers' service registration intention and (2) the moderating role of customer expertise in this mediating mechanism. The authors conceptualized trainers' muscle mass, developed its experimental stimuli and validated them through the two pretests (total n = 387). Using the validated stimuli, the authors conducted the two experiments (total n = 802). In both experiments, the authors recruited participants via MTurk using the convenience sampling method and employed a single-factor between-subject design based on random assignment. Findings supported the authors’ proporsed model. Consumers perceived highly (vs moderately) muscular trainers as more competent, which in turn engendered greater service registration intention. This effect emerged for expert consumers but not for novice consumers. This study is one of the first attempts to empirically test the influence of trainers' muscle mass on consumer acquisition in the context of personal fitness training. It also expands the sport marketing literature to the consumer psychology and behavior fields addressing the characteristics of sport-service providers. The findings also provide fitness organizations with managerial insights into how to effectively leverage trainers' physical appearance as a marketing tool.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-08-2021-0162
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An acceptance model for sports technologies: the effects of sports
           motivation, sports type and context-aware characteristics

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      Authors: Yusuf Oc , Aysegul Toker
      Abstract: This study explores the drivers behind sports technology use and identifies the need for a new conceptualization of sports technology adoption. To address this issue, the authors create a new construct, “context-awareness,” with four dimensions: tracking, coaching, sharing and gamification. The paper uses a mixed-method approach, including in-depth interviews and partial least squares structural equation modeling. The proposed model combines technology acceptance frameworks with the Sports Motivation Scale and a novel context-awareness scale. It is empirically tested with a diverse sample of 600 respondents to identify use-intention differences according to sports motivation and sport types. The paper reveals group differences in sports type (dynamic vs nondynamic) and sports motivation (intrinsic vs extrinsic) regarding sports technology use. It also suggests that perceived technology characteristics mediate the relationship between context-aware features and intention to use. This research introduces a new construct of “context-awareness” into the literature on new technology acceptance. The proposed model combines insights from information systems, sports science, sports marketing and sports medicine to explain the adoption of complex technology.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0060
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Reversing equity transfer in sponsorship for competitive advantage of
           emerging local events: quantitative evidence from an experimental study

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      Authors: Jerred Junqi Wang , Tyreal Yizhou Qian , Bo Li , Brandon Mastromartino
      Abstract: Built upon the balance theory and schema theory, this study examined the impact of sponsors' intangible attributes, including consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) and brand-event image fit (BEIF), on consumer responses to emerging local events (ELEs), as well as major boundary conditions of this mechanism. Theoretical hypotheses were tested using multivariate analysis of covariance and structural equation modeling with the data from two experiments: the experiment in the pilot study was used to calibrate sponsor stimuli, and the experiment in the main study was designed to assess consumer responses to different sponsor-event combinations. Results of this experimental study illustrated the dominant role of CBBE in influencing individuals' perceived event value and intention to participate in the context of ELEs and revealed the noticeable but limited moderating effects of BEIF and sport identification. This study highlighted the importance of sponsorship in the marketing communications of ELEs and suggested prioritizing the overall attributes of sponsors in the sponsor-selection. This study also called for more research attention directed toward the intangible benefits that sporting events could receive from sponsorship deals.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-08-2021-0172
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A re-examination of conspicuous sport consumption theory on golf and
           skiing from leisure involvement perspective

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      Authors: Huimin Song , Ting-ting Zeng , Brian H. Yim
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between leisure involvement (LI), conspicuous sport consumption and subjective well-being (SW) for two luxury leisure activities: golf and skiing. The authors collected data from Guangdong Province (golf, n = 342) and Jilin Province (skiing, n = 310) and examined the proposed model using structural equation modeling (SEM) and tested the mediating effect of conspicuous sport consumption using bootstrapping method. The findings show that the proposed model explained the relationships among LI, conspicuous sport consumption and SW. Furthermore, the findings suggest that LI and conspicuous consumption (CC) can elevate sport participants' perception of SW, enriching leisure-class theory. The authors’ findings contribute to the domain of CC in sport participant and leisure research and provide significant implications for the sport tourism marketers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0078
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • When sports sponsorship incurs brand risk: the roles of team performance,
           brand familiarity and team identification

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      Authors: Shaofeng Yuan , Ying Gao
      Abstract: This study investigated the potential negative effects of a sponsored team's losing performance on audiences' trust and purchase intention toward the sponsoring brand. Shedding light on the moderating role of sponsoring brand familiarity among audiences and audience team identification regarding such negative effects, the study establishes when sports sponsorship may incur risk to a sponsoring brand. Three experimental designs (audience as stimulus of a team's losing vs control condition) were used to indicate whether and when losing performance influences participants' trust and purchase intention toward the sponsoring brand. The participants in the losing condition report lower brand trust and purchase intention. Brand trust mediates the relationship between losing results and decreased purchase intention. The negative effects of losing on brand trust and purchase intention only appear when the sponsoring brand has low familiarity among audiences and only for audiences with low identification. The strategy of a brand with low familiarity sponsoring a team that frequently loses has risks and is not worth advocating. However, if an unknown brand has already sponsored a team that often loses, the efforts to cultivate audiences' identification with the team can reduce the potential risks. The affirmed negative effects of losing performance on brand trust and purchase intention have value for firm sponsorship decisions. This study contributes to the sponsorship literature by revealing two boundary conditions (sponsoring brand familiarity and audiences' team identification) for those negative effects.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-10-2021-0198
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship

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