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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.269
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 3 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1464-6668 - ISSN (Online) 2515-7841
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Effectiveness of sponsoring the video assistant referee system:
           a comparative exploratory study

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Manuel Alonso Dos Santos , Manuel J. Sánchez-Franco , Eduardo Torres-Moraga , Ferran Calabuig Moreno
      Abstract: This study explores the effect of video assistant referee (VAR) sponsorship on spectator response and compares it with advertising and conventional sponsorship. An experiment with 809 subjects is conducted by analyzing 20 one-minute video clip stimuli from a Premier League soccer game divided into four formats: two formats of VAR sponsorship, advertising, and conventional sponsorship. The results show that the indicators of recall, credibility, and perceived congruence improve when the VAR sponsorship format is used. This is the first manuscript to examine the effectiveness of a new type of sponsorship: VAR sponsorship. This manuscript provides metrics that will guide practitioners on whether to use this type of sponsorship.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2022-0107
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Are single-item needs' and values' measures a good alternative
           to multi-item measures for sport marketers'

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      Authors: Galen Trail , Don Lee , Stavros Triantafyllidis , Jessica Minkove , Ari Kim , Kristi Sweeney , Wanyong Choi , Priscila Alfaro-Barrantes
      Abstract: This paper aims to determine if single-item (SI) needs' and values' measures have similar reliability and validity values to multi-item (MI) measures of the same constructs and thus could be substituted by sport marketers to predict internal motivating aspects of sport consumer attitudes and behavior. In addition, the authors wish to determine whether a small subset of needs and values listed in current measures are sufficient to predict sport consumer attitudes and behavior. In this two-study design, the first study was a national sample (N = 439) comparing reliability and validity of single-item scales to multi-item scales. In the second study the authors collected data from fans and spectators of four different teams (N1 = 583; N2 = 1164; N3 = 213; N4 = 404) to determine the impact of needs and values on sport consumer attitudes and behavior. The authors determined that in 89% of the scales, single-item measures of needs and values were just as reliable and valid as their associated multi-item measures. The authors also found that a small subset of the needs and values explain a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors. The authors determined that in 89% of the scales, single-item measures of needs and values were just as reliable and valid as their associated multi-item measures. The authors also found that a small subset of the needs and values explain a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors. The authors show that as motives for sport consumption, single-item measures of personal needs and values are equivalent to multi-item measures and not all needs and values used in previous sport research are necessary because they do not predict a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors. The authors identified a small number of single-item measures that practitioners can easily use in short surveys that will predict a statistically meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-11-2021-0225
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Assessing spectator motivation for the Paralympics: the mediating role of
           attitude

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      Authors: Minhong Kim , Jinwoo Park , Youngmin Yoon
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of para-sport spectator motivation on spectator revisit intentions and the mediating effect of attitude on motivation and revisit intentions. This study was conducted in the context of the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Paralympic Games. A total of 350 respondents completed a survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Inspiration, supercrip image, physical skill/aesthetics, and social interaction had strong influences on attitudes toward Winter Paralympics, and attitude was also shown to have a strong impact on revisit intentions. The results also revealed the mediating effect of attitude on para-sports motivation factors (inspiration, supercrip image, physical skill/aesthetics, and social interaction) and revisit intentions. This study extends the literature on para-sport spectator motivation. Although there are a few studies examining spectators' motivation to attend para-sport events, there is limited research on the relationships among motivation, attitude, and revisit intention based on consumer attitude theories. The results are valuable to sport managers in increasing the propensity of para-sports events by understanding the factors that lead to changes in attitudes and increases in future attendance.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-08-2021-0158
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Team loyalty and intergenerational influence: the role of nurturant
           fathering in the transference process

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      Authors: Daniel White , Dylan Williams , Sean Dwyer , Darin White
      Abstract: This study assessed the intergenerational influence of family socialization, specifically, nurturant fathering – the affective quality fathers provide children through warmth and acceptance – to explore how individuals initially connect with a sports team to become team-loyal. Data were collected via an online survey from respondents self-described as college football fans who selected their “Favorite NCAA Division I football team.” The 623 respondents subsequently selected their biological father's favorite team. An intergenerational “match” between father and child served as the dependent variable. Step-wise logistic regression assessed the relationship that team loyalty, nurturant fathering, and their interaction had on the intergenerational matching of a father's favorite team. Team loyalty had a significant, positive relationship with an intergenerational match. A positive but weak direct relationship was found between nurturant fathering and a favorite-team match. However, nurturant fathering significantly moderated the relationship between team loyalty and intergenerational match. This suggests that the quality of a father-child relationship during the child's formative years can facilitate team loyalty to a team favored by the father. The strength and quality of the relationship between a father and his children through nurturant fathering during their formative years can facilitate mutual team loyalty toward a college football team if not directly, then indirectly, through an interaction effect with a parent-socialized, team-loyal child. College athletic teams, and sports properties in general, should address the bond between fathers and their children to take advantage of the intergenerational transference process identified in this study through targeted, family-focused sports marketing. More specifically, university athletic departments should engage in marketing efforts that encourage and solidify the mutual loyalty fathers and children may have to their father's favorite football team. The outcome would be a competitive advantage that leads to the cultivation of long-lasting fans from generation to generation. College football teams and sports properties in general should engage in father-child marketing promotions to encourage and enhance the intergenerational influence of fathers on their children with respect to the father's favorite team. However, while building future team loyalty among the children, these marketing promotions and the resultant father-child game attendance concurrently reinforce the father-child relationship. This ideally leads to a virtuous cycle of parental bonding and team loyalty. This study extends research in intergenerational influence in a sports setting by introducing the construct of Nurturant Fathering and its scale to the sports marketing literature. The results found that a nurturing father can facilitate the formation of a mutual team loyalty between a father and his child with regard to the father's favorite football team. Extant research has focused on the behavioral elements of loyalty (e.g. attendance and revenues). This study's focus was on the attitudinal aspects of team loyalty. It empirically identified, at least in part, how individuals initially connect with a sports team to become team-loyal.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-04-2022-0089
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Service encounter and repurchase intention in fitness centers: perceived
           value as a mediator and service innovativeness as a moderator

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      Authors: Fong Jia Wang , Weisheng Chiu
      Abstract: This study examined the relationships between service encounter, perceived value, and repurchase intention in the fitness service sector through the theoretical lens of service-dominant logic. In addition, the mediating role of perceived value and the moderating role of service innovativeness were examined. Participants (n = 806) were drawn from fitness center customers in Taiwan using a convenience sampling technique. Partial least square structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses in the research model. The results showed that service encounter had a positive impact on perceived value, which in turn affected repurchase intention. Moreover, the full mediating effect of perceived value was identified in the relationship between service encounter and repurchase intention. In addition, service innovativeness positively moderated the effect of service encounter on repurchase intention. This study provides empirical evidence on the impact of staff-customer interactions (i.e. service encounter) on customers' perceptions and behaviors and identifies the critical role of perceived value as a mediating mechanism as well as a facilitating role of service innovativeness in enhancing repurchase intention.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2022-0055
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Temporal team switching after the elimination of the supported team at a
           knockout tournament

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      Authors: Endzhe Latypova , Hirotaka Matsuoka
      Abstract: While the tournament format is common within organized sports, little is known about the supporting behavior of tournament event fans. The defeat of the supported team and its' subsequent elimination could influence how fans associate themselves with the event. Hence, the present study aims to investigate the fans' responses to the favorite team's elimination at a knockout tournament focusing on whether they are willing to continue following the event and choose another team to support. In this paper fans' temporal switching behavior was explored in relationships with fans' identification with geographic area, sport itself and teams. The audience watching the Japanese National High School Baseball Championship was targeted for the online survey in March 2020, resulting in the final sample of 502 (287 observations used for reliability and validity tests). Independent sample t-tests and logistic regression were employed in the study. 80% of respondents intended to continue following the tournament, which was associated with a higher attachment to sports. Place attachment by itself was not associated with the intention to continue. Most of the respondents who chose a certain team to support after the favorite team's elimination have retained their pattern of choosing the team (63.9%). Interestingly, fans with higher place attachment not only choose to continue following the tournament after their prefectural team's elimination but were willing to support another team from the same region. This is one of the first papers providing evidence of tournament fan behavior and temporal switching.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-01-2022-0001
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Distinctions in environmental attitudes between soccer and American
           football fans

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      Authors: Timothy Kellison , Beth A. Cianfrone
      Abstract: In this study, the authors examine consumer attitudes toward a professional soccer club’s proenvironmental initiatives and evaluate whether key themes are consistent with those found in previous research of fans in different sporting contexts. The authors analyzed empirical material provided by 147 highly identified supporters of a Major League Soccer team. Using template analysis, the authors compared codes, categories and themes with those previously identified in a reference group of National Football League (NFL) fans. Twenty-three preliminary codes, nine categories and four themes were established by the researchers. Three themes – Considering Environmental Action, Business Insights and Impacting the Fan Experience – were all consistent with the NFL reference group. A fourth theme, Public Visibility, focused on the possibility that the club’s proenvironmental initiatives could provide a competitive advantage over rival cities and positively influence local programming and behaviors. The results of this study support the notion that fan characteristics may differ across various demographic and structural contexts and fans’ recognition that a club could leverage its community standing to promote proenvironmental action.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-01-2022-0023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effects of in-game brand congruity on esports consumers' implicit and
           explicit memory

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      Authors: Yongjin Hwang , Nicholas Masafumi Watanabe , Mark Nagel
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the impacts of brand congruity of in-game brand placement on esports consumers' implicit and explicit memory. A 2 × 2 × 2 experimental design (N = 224) was used with an automobile racing game, NASCAR Heat 5. A series of statistical analyses, including MANOVA and logistic regressions, was conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. The results revealed that ads on virtual billboards in the video game primed participants to create an implicit memory. Also, incongruent brands that were not very familiar to gamers provided greater impact than congruent brands. This research is the first to test both implicit and explicit memory and provide practical evidence for the possibility of implicit memory building in the esports context. In addition, the current study also examined the impact of congruity to answer the previously inconsistent results.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2022-0085
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The role of trust in sports organization crisis communication: the case of
           the Houston Astros' sign-stealing scandal

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      Authors: Seomgyun Lee , Taeyeon Oh
      Abstract: The current study examines (1) the relationships among the crisis response, trust and negative behavioral intentions (i.e. avoidance and revenge), (2) the mediation role of trust in the crisis communication of sports organization and (3) the moderation effect of team identification between the crisis response and trust. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 324 Major League Baseball (MLB) fans who met specific criteria (i.e. background information; knowing about the Houston Astros sign-stealing scandal and how the team responded to it). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were employed to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings showed that perceived adequacy of the crisis response positively influenced sports fans' perceived trust. This trust was negatively associated with revenge and avoidance intentions. The mediation effect of trust was also found in the relationship between the crisis response and both avoidance and revenge intentions. Regarding the interaction effect of team identification, however, the relationship between the crisis response and trust was not moderated by team identification levels. The present study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of crisis communication in sports fans' perceptions and behavioral intentions. It illuminates a psychological process through which perceived adequacy of crisis response reduces negative behavioral intentions through trust.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2021-0231
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Revisiting organizational identity and social responsibility in
           professional football clubs: the case of Bayern Munich and the Qatar
           sponsorship

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: David M. Herold , C. Keith Harrison , Scott J. Bukstein
      Abstract: A perceived misalignment between socially responsible fans and football club management has recently led to a major crisis during the annual meeting in 2021 of Bayern Munich, one of the largest professional football teams in Europe. In an unprecedented scenario, Bayern Munich fans demanded that management drop one of its largest sponsors due to alleged violation of human rights. The goal of this paper is to examine this particular phenomenon, as it not only demonstrates a discrepancy between the social organizational identity and its image, but more importantly, how it impacts legitimation strategies and the fans' loyalty attitudes towards the club. Using the underlying concepts of legitimacy and loyalty, this conceptual model paper proposes two frameworks for social responsibility in professional football clubs: (1) analyzing how the (mis-)alignment between organizational identity and image impacts fan loyalty and (2) depicting four different types of social responsibility strategies to align organizational identity and image. The authors identify various theoretical concepts that influence organizational identity and image in and for social responsibility and combine the two critical concepts of legitimacy and loyalty to categorize the social responsibility strategies for professional football clubs. Both frameworks advance the understanding of the decision-making behind social responsibility strategies and also synthesize the current literature to offer conceptual clarity regarding the varied implications and outcomes linked to the misalignment between organizational identity and image.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2022-0058
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A systematic review on spectator behavior in esports: why do people
           watch'

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      Authors: Julia Rietz , Kirstin Hallmann
      Abstract: Esports is rapidly growing in popularity and viewership. The study's purpose was threefold: (1) to provide a systematic review and synthesis of esports spectatorship research. (2) to provide a reference for the psychology of consumer behavior in esports live streaming and esports event attendance. (3) to deliver a clear picture of the factors that impact consumer behavior in esports online and on-site consumption. The study systematically reviews motivational aspects of online and on-site spectatorship using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA). SCOPUS and Google Scholar were selected as social science databases. Twenty-five papers met the inclusion criteria: (1) published between 2000 and 2022, (2) empirical investigation, (3) focus on online and/or on-site esports spectatorship/events. Five papers implemented randomization to assess common method bias. Twenty-five papers qualified for subsequent analysis. The papers were mostly quantitative. They included a theoretical framework and investigated online esports spectatorship. Significant antecedents for motivation to watch esports online and/or on-site were fanship, tension release, entertainment, escaping everyday life and unique features like chat and direct communication. No consensus was found concerning similarities or differences between online and on-site esports spectatorship and traditional sports spectatorship. This research contributed to a new theoretical, methodological and practical agenda. A more comparative approach analyzing contextual, structural and demographic cues could lead to a holistic picture of esports spectator motivation.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2021-0241
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Risk and psychological return: a moderating role of COVID-19 risk
           perception in the impact of team identification on vitality after sport
           spectatorship in Tokyo

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Keita Kinoshita , Hirotaka Matsuoka
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of sport fans' team identification on their emotional experiences (i.e. vitality and game satisfaction) using two-wave data in a specific sport event during the declaration of the emergency statement in Japan. The study also aims to test the moderating effects of risk perceptions about COVID-19 and the game outcome on the relationship between team identification and vitality/game satisfaction. The present research was conducted in the context of a sport event in Tokyo (the Japanese Rugby Top League 2020–2021 Season Playoff Tournament Final) during the declaration of the emergency statement period in Japan. The data were collected through a two-wave design (before and after the game) from the spectators of the event. Team identification significantly predicted higher vitality after the game but not game satisfaction. Additionally, the moderation test found that sport fans with high social risk perception about the COVID-19 showed a positive relationship between team identification and vitality but not for the fans with low social risk perception. The present results suggest that sport events can be advertised for sport fans as a tool to increase physical and psychological energy in their daily lives during the pandemic. The present study demonstrated that team identification predicted greater vitality after the spectatorship during the COVID-19 outbreak. In particular, higher social risk perception was a significant catalyst to improve vitality after the game.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-01-2022-0007
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • From horizontal to vertical relationships: how online community
           identification fosters sport fans’ team identification and behavioural
           intentions

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      Authors: Sungkyung Kim , Argyro Elisavet Manoli
      Abstract: With the remarkable advancements in information and communication technologies, comprehending online sport fan communities is being pushed further up in the agenda of sport teams worldwide. Based on social identity theory, the main purpose of this research paper is to test the mechanism of how horizontal relationships developed through online communities lead to vertical relationships such as team identification and behavioural intentions. Using a sample of online baseball fan community members in South Korea (N = 400) and employing structural equations modelling, the current research examined the structural relations among online community identification, team identification, behavioural intention and WOM intention while testing moderating effect of perceived authenticity. This study finds that online community identification has a significant positive impact on team-level consumer outcomes: team identification, behavioural intention and WOM intention. Team identification is verified as a significant determinant of both behavioural intention and WOM intention. Moreover, the partial mediating role of team identification in the relationships between online community identification and behavioural intentions are corroborated. The present study furnishes essential information for identifying the underlying mechanism of how fan-to-fan horizontal relationships cultivate team-to-fan vertical relationships in the context of the virtual fan community.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2021-0188
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Guest editorial: Sport management, marketing and innovation

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      Authors: Manuel Alonso Dos Santos , Ferran Calabuig Moreno , María Huertas González-Serrano
      Abstract: Guest editorial: Sport management, marketing and innovation
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-11-2022-243
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 5 (2022)
       
  • International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship

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