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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access  
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conexões     Open Access  
Corpoconsciência     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access  
Forum Kinder- und Jugendsport : Zeitschrift für Forschung, Transfer und Praxisdialog     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access  
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Turfgrass Society Research Journal     Free   (Followers: 1)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Physical Education of Students     Open Access  
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reabilitacijos Mokslai : Slauga, Kineziterapija, Ergoterapija     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access  
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports Law and Governance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Strategies : A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Recreation Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Türkiye Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Science     Open Access  
Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of National Sport Sciences     Open Access  
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.269
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1464-6668 - ISSN (Online) 2515-7841
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • From horizontal to vertical relationships: how online community
           identification fosters sport fans’ team identification and behavioural
           intentions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sungkyung Kim , Argyro Elisavet Manoli
      Abstract: With the remarkable advancements in information and communication technologies, comprehending online sport fan communities is being pushed further up in the agenda of sport teams worldwide. Based on social identity theory, the main purpose of this research paper is to test the mechanism of how horizontal relationships developed through online communities lead to vertical relationships such as team identification and behavioural intentions. Using a sample of online baseball fan community members in South Korea (N = 400) and employing structural equations modelling, the current research examined the structural relations among online community identification, team identification, behavioural intention and WOM intention while testing moderating effect of perceived authenticity. This study finds that online community identification has a significant positive impact on team-level consumer outcomes: team identification, behavioural intention and WOM intention. Team identification is verified as a significant determinant of both behavioural intention and WOM intention. Moreover, the partial mediating role of team identification in the relationships between online community identification and behavioural intentions are corroborated. The present study furnishes essential information for identifying the underlying mechanism of how fan-to-fan horizontal relationships cultivate team-to-fan vertical relationships in the context of the virtual fan community.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2021-0188
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Effects of Super Bowl advertising on online brand search: ten years
           of insights from 2011 to 2020

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dan Li , Nicholas Masafumi Watanabe
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the cross-media effect of Super Bowl ads on online search behavior. Furthermore, the authors explored the role of ad likability in the effect. This study used a quasi-experiment method to test the hypotheses. The subjects of investigation are the brands advertised during the past ten years of Super Bowl from 2011 to 2020 (n = 389). Search volume index data were collected through Google Trends. The authors used Ad Meter ratings to measure ad likability. The findings indicate that Super Bowl advertisements stimulate consumers' likelihood to seek information about the advertised brands via search engines. The search volumes for brands hit a peak right after the Super Bowl advertising exposure. Additionally, ad likability influenced the increase in search volume. Consumers tend to search a brand online if they liked its Super Bowl ad. The study contributes to the literature on Super Bowl advertising effectiveness by examining the impact of Super Bowl advertising on online search behavior and the role of ad likability in the relationship. Marketers will be able to utilize the increase in search volumes after the Super Bowl advertising exposure to further enhance brand engagement.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-07-2021-0151
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Factors affecting users’ stickiness of fitness apps: an empirical study
           based on the S-O-R perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xianzhong Teng , Zheshi Bao
      Abstract: Despite fitness applications (apps) are increasingly downloaded by smartphone users in recent years, the usage behavior after initial adoption often lasts for a short period of time for most users. The purpose of this paper is to explore factors affecting stickiness of fitness app and then indicate how to retain existing users. A research model was developed based on stimulus–organism–response (S-O-R) model. Using the data collected from 231 fitness app users through an online survey, the established model was empirically assessed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that human-to-information interaction and human-to-human interaction as environmental stimuli affect individuals' internal state, including social comparison and perception of fitness self-management, which consequently influence the stickiness of fitness apps. The study provides new insights into the mechanism regarding why users are willing to continuously use fitness apps. Moreover, the understanding of social comparison among users in such process was also deepened.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-06-2021-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Competence inference from muscle: how and when trainers' muscle mass
           impacts service purchase of personal fitness training

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      Authors: Sangchul Park , Shinhyoung Lee , Hyun-Woo Lee
      Abstract: This study aims to examine how and when trainers' muscle mass impacts service purchase of personal fitness training, drawing upon signaling theory. Specifically, the authors investigated (1) the mediating role of perceived competence in the relationship between trainers' muscle mass (highly vs moderately muscular) and customers' service registration intention and (2) the moderating role of customer expertise in this mediating mechanism. The authors conceptualized trainers' muscle mass, developed its experimental stimuli and validated them through the two pretests (total n = 387). Using the validated stimuli, the authors conducted the two experiments (total n = 802). In both experiments, the authors recruited participants via MTurk using the convenience sampling method and employed a single-factor between-subject design based on random assignment. Findings supported the authors’ proporsed model. Consumers perceived highly (vs moderately) muscular trainers as more competent, which in turn engendered greater service registration intention. This effect emerged for expert consumers but not for novice consumers. This study is one of the first attempts to empirically test the influence of trainers' muscle mass on consumer acquisition in the context of personal fitness training. It also expands the sport marketing literature to the consumer psychology and behavior fields addressing the characteristics of sport-service providers. The findings also provide fitness organizations with managerial insights into how to effectively leverage trainers' physical appearance as a marketing tool.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-08-2021-0162
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An acceptance model for sports technologies: the effects of sports
           motivation, sports type and context-aware characteristics

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yusuf Oc , Aysegul Toker
      Abstract: This study explores the drivers behind sports technology use and identifies the need for a new conceptualization of sports technology adoption. To address this issue, the authors create a new construct, “context-awareness,” with four dimensions: tracking, coaching, sharing and gamification. The paper uses a mixed-method approach, including in-depth interviews and partial least squares structural equation modeling. The proposed model combines technology acceptance frameworks with the Sports Motivation Scale and a novel context-awareness scale. It is empirically tested with a diverse sample of 600 respondents to identify use-intention differences according to sports motivation and sport types. The paper reveals group differences in sports type (dynamic vs nondynamic) and sports motivation (intrinsic vs extrinsic) regarding sports technology use. It also suggests that perceived technology characteristics mediate the relationship between context-aware features and intention to use. This research introduces a new construct of “context-awareness” into the literature on new technology acceptance. The proposed model combines insights from information systems, sports science, sports marketing and sports medicine to explain the adoption of complex technology.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0060
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Reversing equity transfer in sponsorship for competitive advantage of
           emerging local events: quantitative evidence from an experimental study

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      Authors: Jerred Junqi Wang , Tyreal Yizhou Qian , Bo Li , Brandon Mastromartino
      Abstract: Built upon the balance theory and schema theory, this study examined the impact of sponsors' intangible attributes, including consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) and brand-event image fit (BEIF), on consumer responses to emerging local events (ELEs), as well as major boundary conditions of this mechanism. Theoretical hypotheses were tested using multivariate analysis of covariance and structural equation modeling with the data from two experiments: the experiment in the pilot study was used to calibrate sponsor stimuli, and the experiment in the main study was designed to assess consumer responses to different sponsor-event combinations. Results of this experimental study illustrated the dominant role of CBBE in influencing individuals' perceived event value and intention to participate in the context of ELEs and revealed the noticeable but limited moderating effects of BEIF and sport identification. This study highlighted the importance of sponsorship in the marketing communications of ELEs and suggested prioritizing the overall attributes of sponsors in the sponsor-selection. This study also called for more research attention directed toward the intangible benefits that sporting events could receive from sponsorship deals.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-08-2021-0172
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A re-examination of conspicuous sport consumption theory on golf and
           skiing from leisure involvement perspective

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      Authors: Huimin Song , Ting-ting Zeng , Brian H. Yim
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between leisure involvement (LI), conspicuous sport consumption and subjective well-being (SW) for two luxury leisure activities: golf and skiing. The authors collected data from Guangdong Province (golf, n = 342) and Jilin Province (skiing, n = 310) and examined the proposed model using structural equation modeling (SEM) and tested the mediating effect of conspicuous sport consumption using bootstrapping method. The findings show that the proposed model explained the relationships among LI, conspicuous sport consumption and SW. Furthermore, the findings suggest that LI and conspicuous consumption (CC) can elevate sport participants' perception of SW, enriching leisure-class theory. The authors’ findings contribute to the domain of CC in sport participant and leisure research and provide significant implications for the sport tourism marketers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0078
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • When sports sponsorship incurs brand risk: the roles of team performance,
           brand familiarity and team identification

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      Authors: Shaofeng Yuan , Ying Gao
      Abstract: This study investigated the potential negative effects of a sponsored team's losing performance on audiences' trust and purchase intention toward the sponsoring brand. Shedding light on the moderating role of sponsoring brand familiarity among audiences and audience team identification regarding such negative effects, the study establishes when sports sponsorship may incur risk to a sponsoring brand. Three experimental designs (audience as stimulus of a team's losing vs control condition) were used to indicate whether and when losing performance influences participants' trust and purchase intention toward the sponsoring brand. The participants in the losing condition report lower brand trust and purchase intention. Brand trust mediates the relationship between losing results and decreased purchase intention. The negative effects of losing on brand trust and purchase intention only appear when the sponsoring brand has low familiarity among audiences and only for audiences with low identification. The strategy of a brand with low familiarity sponsoring a team that frequently loses has risks and is not worth advocating. However, if an unknown brand has already sponsored a team that often loses, the efforts to cultivate audiences' identification with the team can reduce the potential risks. The affirmed negative effects of losing performance on brand trust and purchase intention have value for firm sponsorship decisions. This study contributes to the sponsorship literature by revealing two boundary conditions (sponsoring brand familiarity and audiences' team identification) for those negative effects.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-10-2021-0198
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Guest editorial: Sports management research using partial least squares
           structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)

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      Authors: Gabriel Cepeda-Carrión , Joseph F. Hair , Christian M. Ringle , José Luis Roldán , Jerónimo García-Fernández
      Abstract: Guest editorial: Sports management research using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2022-242
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Doping as a barrier in universal acceptance of esports

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      Authors: Dishant Gupta , Harsh Sharma , Manali Gupta
      Abstract: Esports has been emerging as a multi-billion dollar industry by attracting players, viewers, advertisers and investors across the globe. Even though there are plenty of professional titles present, only a few have been considered mainstream due to lack of formal governance mechanisms, presence of corruption and cheating mechanisms. “Doping” is one such practice where the players try to gain unfair advantage over their competitors, causing major hindrance in esports development. This qualitative study would draw insights from their perceptions about different doping mechanisms and possible recommendations to curb them. This study has analyzed the semi-structured interviews of selected esports professionals to draw insights from their perceptions about different doping mechanisms and possible recommendations to curb them. This qualitative study would explore the content of their interviews for extracting relevant themes and subthemes. The findings of this study have made significant contributions to deeply lacking literature about the esports industry and barriers it faces in order to be considered as a legitimate sport. The study has extracted contemporary and new emerging themes about the rising trends in the industry and their impact on society and the way we see sports as a whole. Moreover, this study dwells upon the rampant drug abuse persisting in this industry and how it offers itself as a barrier to the legitimization of esports as a viable global industry. This study provides an on-ground reality reports on esports and various malpractices rampant in the industry by conducting interviews with various industry professionals and analyzing them through a thematic analysis method using an inductive approach.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2021-0105
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Netizens' behavior towards a blockchain-based esports framework: a TPB and
           machine learning integrated approach

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      Authors: Jitendra Yadav , Madhvendra Misra , Nripendra P. Rana , Kuldeep Singh , Sam Goundar
      Abstract: Based on the concepts confined in Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigates users' attitudes towards adoption of a blockchain-based framework in the esports industry that proposes a scheme of rewarding stakeholders for their invested attention along with blockchain technology's inherent protocols. The present study uses RStudio (Version 1.3.1093) package RedditExtractoR for scraping and analysis of the discussion referring to the keyword “Verasity” on the Reddit website. The final corpus of 1,913 user comments was considered for the study. Sentiment analysis was initially conducted to explore the semantic orientation of the users concerning Verasity. This was followed by generalized equation modeling to analyze the impact of social media attributed to the users' commenting behavior. The study found that Redditors, in general, have a positive attitude towards the adoption of a blockchain-based esports platform. This was validated through the empirical findings. The regression model states that there is a significant positive impact of the positivity in the comments over the Redditors' attitude and in their commenting behavior. This study offers a new understanding of key contributing attributes of sentiment formation over social media concerning a blockchain-based esports framework. The study also establishes an empirical relationship between the social media attributes and the commenting behavior of Redditors. Finally, the current study offers valuable insights into social media engagements and the selection of highly influential Redditors for practicing marketing managers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-06-2021-0130
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Gym users: an enabler in creating an acceptance of sports and fitness
           wearable devices in India

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      Authors: Prashant Raman , Kumar Aashish
      Abstract: There are two-fold objectives to this research. First is to analyse the importance of technology readiness (TR) for the users in using sports and fitness wearable devices in India. And second is to explore if gymnasium (gym) users are much more technologically ready as compared to non-gym users to use sports and fitness wearable devices. The study uses technology readiness and acceptance model (TRAM) to examine the users' intention to use sports and fitness wearable devices. Data from a survey of 907 respondents from India were collected and partial least squares (PLS)-structural equation modelling (SEM) technique was used to empirically examine it. The outcomes reveal that innovativeness and optimism have a positive influence on perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU), and insecurity and discomfort have a negative influence on PEOU and PU. Both PEOU and PU act as important determinants in the user's intention to use sports and fitness wearable devices. The multi-group analysis (MGA) suggests that gym users tend to exhibit more positive intention towards using sports and fitness wearable devices and show higher probability of using the wearable devices relative to non-gym users. There are hardly any studies on intention to use sports and fitness wearable devices in India. The current research tries to understand the intention behind the gym users and non-gym users to use sports and fitness wearable devices. The outcomes of the research will help the marketers to align their promotional campaign based on the new segmentation variable “gym-user/non-gym user”. The research also highlights the importance of TR in the use of sports and fitness wearable devices in India.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-08-2021-0168
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Rethinking dual careers: success factors for career transition of
           professional football players and the role of sport entrepreneurship

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      Authors: Ana Sofia Ramos , Jonas Hammerschmidt , Antonio Sérgio Ribeiro , Francisco Lima , Sascha Kraus
      Abstract: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the dual career and entrepreneurial experiences of professional football players and their influence on the career transition process to entrepreneurship or employment. The study examined a Portuguese employer–employee data set from 1991 to 2017 using the logit model, a binary choice regression model that allows predicting the probabilities of two possible qualitative and binary outcomes. Entrepreneurial experience is the key driver for retired football players to pursue entrepreneurship. Having a dual career and working during the athletic career leads to higher chances of continuing in the labor market as an employee. Higher education levels did not significantly influence the decision to pursue a second career but having secondary education increases the chances of continuing as an entrepreneur. First, the study aims to shed light on success factors in career transition of professional football players who engage in a dual career. Second, the authors introduce sport entrepreneurship as a possible activity alongside an athletic career. Athletes can benefit from the experience they gain during a dual career in the process of career transition. Working in the final year of an athletic career represents a promising strategy to gain work experience alongside sport without jeopardizing sporting success. This study adds evidence to the contemporary discourse on dual career theory and career transitions and reconciles the theory of sport entrepreneurship and dual careers.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-12-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-02-2021-0029
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A comparative analysis of sports gambling in the United States

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      Authors: Brendan Dwyer , Ted Hayduk , Joris Drayer
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore differences in demographic, self-concept and fan behavior factors that predict sports fans who bet and those who do not in legal and illegal gambling jurisdictions in the United States (US). Seven hundred and eighty-nine sports fans and bettors from 47 states were surveyed through a partnership with a major media provider in the US. A number of demographic items, theoretically defined factors and fan behaviors were measured, and several two-way MANOVAs with interaction effects were conducted to determine differences between those who gamble and those who do not in legal and illegal jurisdictions. Statistically significant differences between those who bet and those who do not were found. Bettors look different and come from different backgrounds and locations. Psychographically, they were clearly more narcissistic. They also indicated a higher social identity and self-worth, yet perceived themselves as less worthy members of important social institutions. In general, sports bettors out consumed non-bettors as it relates sports spectatorship. In terms of differences between the groups across legal and illegal states, only a few factors were impacted. Self-worth and personal identity were factors that were found to be different between groups and jurisdictions as well as DFS participation. The US sports gambling market is expected to grow US$6.5 billion in the next five years, yet very little is known, psychographically, about the US sports bettor. Sports gambling research, especially from a marketing perspective, has primarily been limited to Australia and the United Kingdom. This paper contributes to what we know about sports gambling and the emerging US market. In particular, the results uncovered fundamental trait, demographic and behavioral differences between US sports fans and sports bettors. The findings also provide similar foundational differences and similarities between those who bet in states with legal and illegal gambling.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-12-06
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Sponsor and ambush marketing during the 2018 Commonwealth Games on Twitter
           and Instagram

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      Authors: Olan K.M. Scott , Nicholas Burton , Bo Li
      Abstract: This research explores ambush marketing on social media during the 2018 Commonwealth Games held in Australia. Two social media platforms – Twitter and Instagram – served as the dataset to uncover how official sponsors of the Canadian and Australian Commonwealth Games teams were ambushed. Employing a content analysis of all official team sponsors and their competitors, the study’s findings offer an original and multi-national look into social media ambushing. Results indicated that promoting Games’ links was the most common social media post type used by official event sponsors, followed by sharing results of their endorsed athletes and behind-the-scenes information. In an effort to provide connection to the event, posts by ambushers focused on promoting athletes endorsed by their brand. All ambushers were more likely to use Twitter to promote their endorsed athletes. Instagram, however, was not fully embraced in their ambush marketing. Discussion and implications of the results provide sport marketers with information on how to leverage one’s link with a major sporting event.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-04-2021-0086
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Career patterns of marketing managers in top European football clubs

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      Authors: Karolina Nessel
      Abstract: The goal of this research was to explore career patterns of senior marketing managers in the best European football clubs (SMMEFCs). The data came from the LinkedIn profiles of current and past SMMEFCs. Firstly, the optimal matching algorithm was used to determine clusters of pathways leading to a first SMMEFC position based on the main activity of the employing organisation. Secondly, these patterns were compared in terms of variables depicting the career paths, clubs and managers. Finally, the evolution of the post-SMMEFC careers was analysed. People in their first SMMEFC positions are mainly male with a university degree in business and marketing, and with a predominantly functional experience in marketing. There are five ways to become an SMMEFC: through business (40% of the sample), football (32%), other sports (11%), marketing and communication (11%), and media (6%). As the majority of SMMEFCs come to their positions from outside the sporting world, the specificity of the football industry is not a serious obstacle. Instead, the careers are bounded by functional marketing experience. Among the individual sequences leading to a first SMMEFC position, only around half of the football cluster may be considered traditional careers. Football, and sports in general, seem attractive for post-SMMEFC career development for the majority of managers coming from all pathways. The study is the first one to quantify career patterns in professional sports management. It provides new insights about marketing careers and practice in European club football.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2021-0104
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The transformative impact of big data applications in sport marketing:
           current and future directions

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      Authors: Yoseph Mamo , Yiran Su , Damon P.S. Andrew
      Abstract: As big data (BD) has increasingly become an important tool for managers and researchers to transform sport management practices, the purpose of this research is to highlight diverse data sources and modern analytical techniques that will leverage BD as a means to advance scholarship in sport management. A comprehensive review of existing BD literature in sport management outlines new perspectives on BD research method and the application of BD in sport management. First, through a thorough review of the literature, a domain-specific conceptualization that incorporates the field's mission and priorities was developed. Second, potential data sources and different types of analytical opportunities was identified, highlighting strategies for developing methodological approaches that leads to novel research questions. BD analytics can allow for more flexibility in improving methodological capability to analyze data and, thus, provide more granular and predictive insights. Finally, this paper concludes with a discussion of BD's impact on three domains of sport management, whereby the organizations yield data-driven decisions. BD has the potential to transform the sport management operations and bridges the research-practice gap. BD research in sport management is instrumental for accumulating new knowledge and/or testing existing theories, either in a deductive fashion or by taking an inductive approach, as the field embarks to advance scholarship.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0073
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The positive and negative impacts of social and personal
           self-categorizations on sport fans' experience

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      Authors: Anat Toder Alon , Avichai Shuv-Ami , Liad Bareket-Bojmel
      Abstract: The current study postulated that fans' social identities (derived from the team sport clubs of which they perceive themselves to be members) coexist with their personal identities (derived from views of themselves as unique, individual sport fans). The study examined the relationship between identity salience and both positive and negative aspects of fans' attitudes, emotions and behaviours. Seven hundred and twelve (712) Israeli professional football fans participated in this study. The study employed a survey drawn from an Internet panel with more than fifty thousand members. Utilizing structural equation modelling (SEM), the authors demonstrated that while social identity salience is related to positive aspects of being a sport fan (love of a favourite team and loyalty), it is also related to negative aspects of being a sport fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression). Personal identity salience was found to be related to the decrease in negative outcomes of being a fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression). Marketers and sport organizations will benefit from stimulating sport fans' personal identity salience to mitigate possible negative consequences of team affiliation. The current study expands upon past sport management studies by demonstrating the existence of relationships between sport fans' identity salience and their emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The identity salience of fans is relevant from both academic and applicative perspectives.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-10-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-07-2021-0139
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Game play and the effectiveness of sponsor signage: visual attention to
           brand messages in live sport broadcasts

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      Authors: Felix Boronczyk , Christopher Rumpf , Christoph Breuer
      Abstract: Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention. While such an approach requires knowledge on the interplay between in-game events and viewers' attention to sponsor signage previous studies have disregarded factors pertaining to the competition itself. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of game-related variables on the allocation of viewer attention in live broadcasts. Eye tracking is used to examine the impact of variations in score, ball position and ball possession on soccer fans' attention to sponsor messages during broadcasts. In total, the data comprise n = 36,604 second-by-second observations from 11 participants and games. Logistic regression analysis reveals game time effects and significant interaction effects between possession and the score as well as the ball position variable. Sponsors receive less attention if the attacking team controls the ball near the opponents' goal, particularly if the viewers' preferred team is in possession. Property owners and sponsors can exploit these findings to determine the value of sponsor brand exposure more precisely. New systems could further increase message effectiveness through adjustments of sponsor exposure based on real time match event data. This study is the first to explore the influence of game-related variables on attention to sponsors. By employing live broadcasts in a near-realistic setting, it further addresses a gap in the literature and adds to the knowledge on sponsor message processing.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0063
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sport tourism

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      Authors: Mona Mirehie , Inje Cho
      Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and consequent economic shutdown have had severe impacts on the tourism industry. Acquiring an understanding of the impacts and ongoing response procedures is crucial to recovery planning. The purpose of this study is to explore the management procedures undertaken by sport tourism stakeholders during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indiana, USA, a state that relies heavily on sport tourism for its economic vibrancy. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 high-rank managers in sport tourism organizations. Continued uncertainty, psychological and financial distress were found to be the main challenges. Contingency planning, adaptability and focus on doable tasks were the core elements of the strategic response plan. Resilience management, particularly social and financial, appeared to be key in the recovery process. A stronger return was predicted with technological advancements and new collaborations. Intra-destination collaboration and creative programs were found to be key in the long-term resilience of the destination. Findings shed light on the challenges faced, response actions undertaken, and the projected future which helps to understand the stories behind decisions and proposals, identify the gaps, and plan the best possible practices. Recommendations for leveraging sports to revitalize the destinations and help businesses survive the crisis are provided that can guide sport tourism communities on their path to recovery from COVID-19.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-04-2021-0081
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Retail quality, market environment and business survival in the retail
           Apocalypse: an investigation of the sporting goods retail industry

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      Authors: Luke L. Mao
      Abstract: In the era of the retail Apocalypse, the surge of e-commerce has transmuted the competitive landscape for many traditional retailers that heavily rely on brick-and-mortar stores. This study examines the relationship among retail quality, market environment and businesses' survival in the context of the sporting goods retail industry. Based on a data set from yelp.com, the authors examine the survival of 1,360 stores within 306 zip codes in the United States using mixed effects logistic modeling. (1) Retail quality is positively related to survival, but the relationship is nonlinear; (2) the author find a null relationship between market competition and survival, which is subject to several competing interpretations; (3) 10% of the individual variation in survival is due to systematic differences between zip codes and (4) chain stores and stores with more heterogenous reviews have a higher closure rate. This study contributes to the literature by offering an empirical testing of the relationship between retail quality and business survival and examining the impact of trading area in the modern marketing milieu. The findings have practical implications for site selection and designing a service quality program.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-06-2021-0115
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Sport federations' organizational innovativeness: an empirical comparison
           of characteristics and attitudes

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      Authors: Joris Corthouts , Géraldine Zeimers , Kobe Helsen , Camille Demeulemeester , Thomas Könecke , Thierry Zintz , Jeroen Scheerder
      Abstract: Being innovative is important for non-profit sport organizations in order to meet the ever-changing and increasing societal needs. Understanding why and to what extent organizational innovativeness differs between non-profit sport organizations is, therefore, important to assess and increase their chances of survival. The purpose of this study is to compare the structural characteristics and attitudes of innovation attributes between three groups of sport federations (SFs). An online self-assessment survey was sent to all recognized regional Belgian SFs (N = 156). Simultaneously, an observational desk research (i.e. media analysis) was carried out. Results from both data collection methods were combined to develop a composite organizational innovativeness-index, based on which the federations were then clustered in three distinct adopter groups. Comparative statistics show that structural background characteristics generally are poor indicators for adopter categorization. In contrast, the attitudes about compatibility (i.e. the consistency of innovations with existing values) and complexity (i.e. the extent to which innovations are difficult to apprehend) seem the most important distinctive determinants for the different groups of SFs. The study's contribution is twofold. First, it offers a methodological contribution with the development of an index, which enables the categorization of non-profit sport organizations according to their organizational innovativeness; thus, it provides a critical counter-argument to the importance of organizational structural background characteristics from previous studies. Second, the study's results may support non-profit sport organizations in improving their innovativeness, for instance by improving the perception of compatibility with innovation or by guiding policymakers in creating a more supportive environment for these organizations to do so.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-02-2021-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Pro softball fan segments: a two-step cluster analysis

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      Authors: Ceyda Mumcu , Nancy Lough
      Abstract: Niche sports such as women's professional sport leagues face many challenges to developing and expanding their fan base. Understanding sport fans, segmenting consumer bases and targeting them effectively can assist in both developing the fan base and competing for investments like sponsorships and media rights. The purpose of this study was to explore consumer segments of the National Pro Fastpitch (NPF), a niche softball league, by identifying demographic and psychographic characteristics of the segments and developing a persona for each segment. Data were collected from 3,463 NPF consumers with the assistance of NPF league officials using their social media outlets. A two-step cluster analysis was performed employing both categorical and continuous variables to inform the segmentation, which was followed with chi-squared statistics and two MANOVAs to compare the segments' demographic characteristics, points of attachment (POAs) levels and attendance and viewership of NPF games. Three distinct consumer segments with unique demographic, POA and softball participation characteristics were identified. Differences among these segments' consumption of NPF games validated the existence of three distinct consumer segments. This research is the first to examine consumer behavior in women's softball, and it expands the sport marketing literature through the identification of consumer segments of a niche sport league with a novel cluster analysis. Blending theory and practice by incorporating both demographic and psychographic variables into market segmentation, the research uniquely serves this niche sport and thereby informs improved marketing practice.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-09-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0058
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • An interpretive structural model for factors affecting the tax compliance
           of professional athletes: a case study of football players

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      Authors: Zhaleh Memari , Abbas Rezaei Pandari , Fahimeh Bemanzadeh
      Abstract: Tax revenues are becoming one of the crucial tax policy segments in developing countries. Governments intend to collect more funds in the budget. The study aimed to identify the dimensions and factors influencing tax compliance in Iranian professional football players. Based on interpretive structural modelling (ISM), the required information was collected using a literature review and a pairwise comparison questionnaire from eleven sport academic and executive participants. Content validity index of the questionnaire was>0.7 and its inconsistency index was
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-08-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-03-2021-0077
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Does causal reasoning lead to moral reasoning' Consumers' responses to
           scandalized athletes and endorsements

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      Authors: Daehwan Kim , Joon Sung Lee , Wonseok (Eric) Jang , Yong Jae Ko
      Abstract: Marketers and brand managers are subject to reputational crises when their endorsers are involved in scandals. To effectively manage such crises, it is imperative to understand (1) the underlying mechanisms through which consumers process negative information surrounding morally tainted endorsers, and (2) how these mechanisms affect consumer behavior in the context of athlete scandals. Drawing on attribution theory and the moral reasoning strategy framework, we investigate the impact of attribution on moral reasoning strategies, and the impact of such strategies on consumers' responses to scandalized athletes and endorsements. Overall, our results demonstrate that the same scandal can be evaluated differently, depending on its information, including the consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency of the scandal. The results of Study 1 show that in the context of an on-field scandal, individuals engage in a sequential cognitive process in which they go through attribution, the choice of a moral reasoning strategy, and ultimately a response. The results of Study 2 reveal that in the context of an off-field scandal, attribution directly influences consumers' responses. We extend the existing literature on the moral reasoning of athlete scandals by suggesting that attribution is a determinant of moral reasoning choice in the context of on-field scandals. We also extend the sports marketing and consumer behavior literature by suggesting that consumers' diverse reactions to athlete scandals depend on their attribution patterns and moral reasoning choices.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-09-2020-0161
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • (Dis)Innovative digital strategy in professional sport: examining sponsor
           leveraging through social media

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      Authors: Brandon Mastromartino , Michael L. Naraine
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of social media strategies of sport organizations when an unexpected absence of relevant content occurs. The study explored the typologies of Instagram posts of NHL teams and measured engagement of social media content that was not planned in advance. A mixed methods approach was utilized through a content analysis of 12 NHL team social media feeds. 502 (n = 502) posts were examined from the period of March 12 – May 26 during which the NHL season was suddenly paused due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Typologies of posts were identified through a qualitative coding process and ANOVA tests were conducted to examine the effectiveness of each typology in engaging consumers. This study found that social media strategies of the sampled NHL teams is evidence of disinnovation with digital, as opposed to the previously conceptualized innovative properties that these activities bear. Therefore, in order to achieve the consumer engagement outcomes sought to build stronger relationships with fans and deliver on the expected leveraging capabilities for sponsors, sport marketers must reconsider their current, imbalanced approach and whether the more inherently interactive content should be balanced with entertaining content that requires organic consumer engagement. This study offers a unique application of UGT, highlighting that social media in a sport context is not just about gratifying consumers, but preventing diminishing engagement and exploitation of users through overuse of sponsorship-laced content.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-02-2021-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The use of fitness centre apps and its relation to customer satisfaction:
           a UTAUT2 perspective

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      Authors: Helena Ferreira Barbosa , Jerónimo García-Fernández , Vera Pedragosa , Gabriel Cepeda-Carrion
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the intention of using fitness app made available by the fitness centre to its members and their relationship with overall customer satisfaction. The present study uses the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) as the base model. All the hypothesised relationships were tested through partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM), in a quantitative study with data from 1,676 fitness consumers from Portugal. The results support the ability of UTAUT2 in predicting the customer´s intention to use the fitness app. Performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation and habit have a positive impact on behavioural intentions to use the fitness app. Performance expectancy and habit have the strongest relationships. Behavioural intentions are positively related both to the usage behaviour of the fitness app and to overall customer satisfaction. The results of this study present a strong contribution for fitness centre managers, since it highlights the importance of using these apps as a way to increase customer satisfaction, increasing retention levels. This study is paramount as regards to examine the behavioural intention to use the fitness apps that the fitness centres make available to their members using UTAUT2 model.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-05-20
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-01-2021-0010
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Innovation from sport's entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship:
           opportunities from a systematic review

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      Authors: Alejandro Lara-Bocanegra , M. Rocío Bohórquez , Jerónimo García-Fernández
      Abstract: The main aim of this study was to analyze and establish the state of the question about entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship in sport, identify the role of innovation in both of them, as well as to determine the latest study trends and detect possible research niches. A systematic review of the Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus and Dialnet databases was performed. The analysis of the selected texts allowed categorizing the entrepreneurship articles into subthemes: precursors of entrepreneurship, intention/orientation of entrepreneurship, different perspectives of entrepreneurship in sport and social entrepreneurship in sport. Of the 49 texts included in the review, only seven articles dealt with intrapreneurship, and they could not be classified into subtopics because the studies are scarce, diverse and with disparate themes. The main findings show deficiencies in research on precursors/antecedents of entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial behavior, especially in relation to innovation, the importance of the political perspective on entrepreneurship in sport and formulation of behavior training programs for intrapreneurs. This paper provides valuable and global information about entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship in sport, of which there were scattered or grouped data in some reviews.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-05-20
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0212
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Sports event portfolios: an innovative tool and a new management paradigm

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      Authors: Jesyca Salgado-Barandela , Angel Barajas , Patricio Sanchez-Fernandez
      Abstract: The organization of several small-scale events throughout the year is called event portfolio and may contribute to the development of the city strategy in the touristic, social and economic fields. The organization of a set of sporting events represents an important innovation in the development of city marketing. This paper analyzing the scarce literature on event portfolio provides the main elements to benefit from this innovative strategy to achieve sustainable sports tourism for host cities. Among the innovative strategies, the inclusion of leverage and cross-leverage approaches in the management of event portfolios is studied in depth. The study is divided into two phases. First, the Web of Science (WOS) and SCOPUS databases are searched using keywords. Once the selection of scientific studies that analyze the phenomenon of event portfolios has been obtained, an exhaustive review is carried out, allowing us to obtain novel findings on the field of study. The work provides a classification of the portfolios of sports events analyzed in science considering the configuration (formal vs informal) and whether there is an integrated strategy. Second, the delimitation of the deficiencies and the most important aspects to be developed in sports-events portfolio management. This study contributes with a summary of the main elements to consider when managing sports events portfolios. Moreover, the importance of integrated strategies is underlined, as well as the relevance of leveraging the strategies. The contributions are of interest in being a novel field with room for scientific development and with an eminently practical nature.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-02-2021-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Push–pull analysis: the mediating role of promotion types relative to
           visit intention to a sports museum

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      Authors: Brian H. Yim , Mark R. Lyberger , Doori Song
      Abstract: Although sport museums are considered an important sector in nostalgia sport tourism, annual visitations of the major sport Hall of Fames (HoF) have been decreasing, often resulting in operational and financial difficulties for the HoF. The current study examined the relationship between sport museum image, motivation, constraints, monetary and non-monetary promotions (as a mediator), and visit intention among those who have attended or never attended. Data was collected from the residents in the Northeast Ohio area via an online survey questionnaire using Qualtrics (N = 1,607). Two sets of data parameters were generated based on consumers previous visitation to Pro Football HoF (visited group n = 754; never-visited group n = 853) and each group's monetary and non-monetary promotion models (total of four models) were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and reliability tests were processed via IBM SPSS Statistics 26 and the structural relationships among the constructs were examined using SmartPLS 3. Among all the antecedents, positive perceived image of HoF has been identified as the most significant predictor for both promotions and visit (revisit) intention. Social motivation was found to be a strong driver for visiting a sports museum regardless of the types of promotions. Promotions' mediation effects were found. The monetary promotion between cost constraints and visit intention implied, cost constraints can be mitigated through monetary promotion. This is the first study examining the role of relationship between image, motivation, constraints and visit intention relative to sport museums. Results provide practical insights for the sport museum marketers and researchers relative to visit intension.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0240
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A social epidemiological perspective on local tennis league participation:
           a multigroup moderated-mediation structural analysis using PLS-SEM

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      Authors: Amy Chan Hyung Kim , James Du , Jeffrey James
      Abstract: The purpose of the current research was to examine the different relationships between individuals' sense of community in sport (SCS) cultivated by participating in local sport leagues, social support and health-related psychological outcomes (i.e. depressive symptoms and happiness) based on the participants' involvement level in the tennis league. Using participants (n = 150) from local tennis leagues in the Southeastern region of the USA, the authors first conducted an instrument validation procedure to assess the psychometric properties of the included measures, and second, the authors analyzed the proposed multigroup moderated-mediation structural model using component-based partial least squares structural equation modeling with SmartPLS 3 (Ringle et al., 2015). The results provide adequate evidence of reliability and validity for both the included reflective and formative constructs. Further, the findings of the proposed moderated-mediation structural model indicated that SCS was positively and significantly associated with social support and happiness while negatively related with depressive symptoms. Social support only mediated the relationship between SCS and happiness. The multigroup analysis results showed significant differences in the relationship between social support and happiness between the least involved group and more involved groups. The findings of this study indicated that SCS experienced through participation in local sport leagues can develop both the extent and quality of supportive social relationships with other engaging members. One conclusion from the findings is recognizing a need to develop interventions to enhance SCS, social support and health-related psychological outcomes through local sport league participation.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-02-2021-0046
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Antecedents of the attitude toward the athlete celebrities' human brand
           extensions

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      Authors: Jakeun Koo
      Abstract: The present study aims to examine how consumers evaluate the extended human brands of athlete celebrities beyond their unique brand personality associated with sports. Athlete celebrities' unique image in sports is used as a human brand, and attitude toward the athlete brand extensions is investigated when the athlete's name is included in a new non-sport brand. The concepts of brand extensions were employed to develop the ideas of human brand extensions. In total, 198 participants answered online survey questions before and after being informed of athlete brand extensions. Partial least squares structural equation modeling is utilized to test the hypotheses. The survey results indicated that athlete–product fit and image transfer positively influenced attitude toward the extension. In addition, attitude toward the athlete brand extensions was significantly influenced by consumers' pre-existing attitude toward the celebrity; however, not by celebrity's expertise. The research findings imply that some brand extension concepts are applicable to human brands to understand the effectiveness of athlete brand extensions for non-sport products.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0241
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Will destination image drive the intention to revisit and recommend'
           Empirical evidence from golf tourism

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      Authors: Tat-Huei Cham , Jun-Hwa Cheah , Hiram Ting , Mumtaz Ali Memon
      Abstract: Despite being a popular topic in sports tourism research, limited studies have focused on golf tourism in relation to destination image. The present study aimed to examine the impact of country-related factors on the destination image among golf tourists as well as the interrelationships between perceived service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioural intention in this context in the Malaysian context. Excitement was also examined as a moderator of the relationship between satisfaction and behavioural intention. Data was collected from 360 golf tourists using a self-administered questionnaire at the two largest airports (KLIA and KLIA2) in Malaysia. Data analysis was performed using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique. The findings present the significance of country-related factors (i.e. accessibility, safety and security and golf course setting) in determining the image of Malaysia as a golf tourism destination. Destination image, in turn, is found to influence golf tourists' perceived service quality, perceived value and satisfaction; with both perceived service quality and perceived value acting as mediators between destination image and satisfaction. Moreover, the moderation assessment confirms that the level of excitement about golfing in Malaysia strengthens the relationship between their satisfaction and behavioural intention. This study is one of the few that focuses on the consequential importance of destination image within the golf tourism setting. It highlights the mediating role of perceived service quality and perceived value as well as the moderating role of excitement in understanding the effect of destination image on satisfaction and behavioural intention of golf tourists.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-02-2021-0040
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Motivational determinants of digital ticketing: the mediating effect of
           service satisfaction and the moderating effect of psychological discomfort
           

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      Authors: Sanghoon Kim , Ho Yeol Yu , Hyun-Woo Lee
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the motivational composites determining consumers' continued intention to use digital ticketing via self-service technology (SST) by integrating service satisfaction and (2) to ascertain the differences between consumers according to their psychological discomfort toward technology. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, and a total of 323 were included in the analysis. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilized to test motivational determinants of digital ticketing. In addition, permutation-based multi-group analysis was performed to investigate the differences between consumers with high and low technology discomfort. Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are positive predictors of continued intention to use digital ticketing, but only intrinsic motivation has a positive impact on continued intention through service satisfaction. Moreover, the relationship between intrinsic motivation, service satisfaction and continued intention was stronger for consumers with high psychological discomfort than those with low psychological discomfort. Given the conspicuous characteristics of the digital ticketing process for sporting events, the insights gained from the study may be of assistance to researchers and practitioners in understanding sport consumers' ticket consumption behavior and the determinants of SST usage.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0239
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Effects of athletic performance and marketable lifestyle on consumers'
           engagement with sport celebrity's social media and their endorsements

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      Authors: Alcina Gaspar Ferreira , Cátia Fernandes Crespo , Cédric Mendes
      Abstract: In this study, we empirically analyse the effects of sports celebrities' image on consumers' engagement with them via social media and with their endorsed brand. In particular, we focus on the sport celebrity's athletic performance and marketable lifestyle image dimensions. An online consumer survey was conducted regarding sports celebrities' endorsement campaigns and consumers' ad recall. The data were analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Moderation and mediation effects were examined, and a multigroup analysis was used to test the existence of significant differences between groups. The motivation to engage with sports celebrities' social media platforms transcends athletic performance and is positively related with the marketable lifestyle. Sports celebrities who highly engage consumers through social media can promote stronger engagement with the endorsed brand, and this effect is positively moderated by the perceived level of congruence between the sport celebrity and the endorsed brand. The effect of the sport celebrity's marketable lifestyle on the endorsed brand is partially mediated by their social media engagement with consumers. Moreover, a multigroup analysis shows no statistically significant differences among gender and age groups. This study's contribution is a better understanding of the effect of sport celebrities' image dimensions on consumers' engagement with the celebrities' social media platforms. The marketable lifestyles of celebrities are an important asset that promotes engagement with their social media platforms by consumers that in turn, raises their marketing value in terms of endorsement contracts.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0211
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Predicting consumers' intentions to purchase eco-friendly athletic wear in
           a moderated model of individual green values and gender

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      Authors: Nisar Ahmed Channa , Beenish Tariq , Altaf Hussain Samo , Niaz Hussain Ghumro , Naveed Akhtar Qureshi
      Abstract: Using three theoretical lenses − organismic integration theory (OIT), theory of values-belief-norm (VBN) and gender schema theory (GST) − this study aims to examine the effect of environmental factors (environmental attitude, environmental concerns, perceived environmental responsibility and peer influence) on consumers' intentions to purchase eco-friendly athletic wear. A sample of n = 380 Pakistani consumers was used to test hypothesized relationships. Data were analyzed through the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique using SmartPLS version 3.3.3. Findings suggest that environmental attitude, environmental concerns, perceived environmental responsibility and peer influence are positively associated with green purchase behavior. The moderating effects of individual green values were found statistically significant between peer influence and green purchase behavior. The data further revealed that the effect of environmental attitude, environmental concerns, peer influence and perceived environmental responsibility on green purchase behavior varies across the gender. This research is one of the first attempts to explore the effect of environmental motivational factors on consumers' intentions to purchase eco-friendly athletic wear using theories of OIT, VBN and GST. This study employs advanced analytical methods to perform multi-group analysis and establish the predictive relevance of the model, using PLS-SEM in sports management and marketing context.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0215
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Exploring the drivers and consequences of the “awe” emotion in outdoor
           sports – a study using the latest partial least squares structural
           equation modeling technique and necessary condition analysis

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      Authors: Yide Liu , Cheng Yu , Svenja Damberg
      Abstract: Awe is an essential post-experience assessment; nevertheless, few studies have discussed its role in the field of outdoor sports or outdoor sports tourism. In this study, the authors aim to examine the effects of awe on participants' satisfaction and behavioral intention by considering the perceived vastness of the natural environment, perceived professionalism, and self-image congruity as drivers. The authors proposed and empirically tested a research model based on a survey with 480 responses collected in China. The effect of awe is explored from the perspectives of both sufficiency logic and necessity logic by applying the combined use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA). The results show that the perceived vastness of the natural environment, perceived professionalism and self-image congruity are sufficient conditions for awe: these factors affect awe positively, which, in turn, positively affect satisfaction and behavioral intention. Furthermore, both the perceived vastness of the natural environment and perceived professionalism represent a necessary condition for awe. Awe acts as a necessary and sufficient condition for both participants' satisfaction and behavioral intention. The results of this study suggest that the generation of awe can be used as a business strategy to influence outdoor sports participants' choices in practice. In addition to the unique natural environment, professional exercising and self-realization are key success factors in enhancing the positive evaluations of outdoor sports participants. This study is a first attempt to identify the role of awe in outdoor sports activities. Methodologically, it provides a paradigm for the combined use of PLS-SEM and NCA in sports management research by identifying the necessary and sufficient effects of awe on outdoor sports participants' post-experience evaluation.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-09-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0232
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Predicting future use intention of fitness apps among fitness app users in
           the United Kingdom: the role of health consciousness

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      Authors: Svenja Damberg
      Abstract: This study replicates and extends the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) to explain the drivers of future use intention of fitness apps among users. It extends existing theory by investigating continuance usage and adding health consciousness as a driver; an extension, which has implications for future studies on emerging technologies in the health care sector and beyond. Building on the UTAUT2, the author built a path model of future app-use intention. A survey involving 591 respondents from the United Kingdom was conducted, and the data was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The results of this study confirm that five drivers explain future use intention, namely habit, perceived playfulness, health consciousness, perceived performance and price value. These findings have implications for sports marketing theory and practice, as well as for policymakers, in that health consciousness is important for fitness app adoption, which in turn has repercussions for entire health care systems. This study makes two main contributions. It extends technology acceptance theory by using a sample of users to explain future use intention of fitness apps and adds the construct health consciousness as a nontechnological element of the continuance usage of fitness apps to the model. The result is a path model that confirms the importance of personal health consciousness and potential generalizability to future health industry technologies with further implications for sports marketing management theory and practice.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-01-2021-0013
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Antecedents of satisfaction and loyalty in different spectator tribes in a
           football context

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      Authors: Giuseppe Lamberti , Josep Rialp , Alexandra Simon
      Abstract: Extending existing research in a football context, this study explores how image and service quality influence spectator tribe satisfaction and loyalty and variations in behaviors depending on age, gender and emotional involvement. Spectators aged 18 years and older who attended Barcelona Football Club home La Liga matches were sampled. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the model, and hybrid multigroup PLS-SEM was used to explore observed heterogeneity. Image and service quality both influence spectator satisfaction and loyalty. Satisfaction and loyalty are associated differently with three tribes: a nonpassionate tribe characterized by low emotional involvement and younger and older passionate tribes composed of emotionally involved spectators aged 30 years old, respectively. This study’s results contribute to strengthening the suitability of PLS-SEM and multigroup in sport management, in particular for analyzing the behavior of specific groups of football spectators. The findings of this study underline image and service quality as crucial to football spectator satisfaction and loyalty, with emotional involvement and age defining different consumer tribes as potential targets for marketing purposes.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-07-22
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0210
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Impact of market demand on recurring hallmark sporting event spectators:
           an empirical study of the Shanghai Masters

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      Authors: Lei Luo , Tyreal Yizhou Qian , Gregg Rich , James J. Zhang
      Abstract: The current study was designed to (1) identify core and peripheral market demand for a recurring hallmark sporting event, testing their impact on event identification and behavioral intentions; and to (2) explore the effect of core and peripheral market demand on event identification between first-time and repeat spectators. Research participants (N = 540) were spectators at the Shanghai Masters over a span of seven days. Data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and partial least squares multi-group analysis (PLS-MGA). Significant, positive relationships were found between core market demand and event identification, and between core market demand and behavioral intentions. In contrast, peripheral market demand only had significant, positive effect on event identification; however, findings revealed that event identification fully mediated the relationships between peripheral market demand and behavioral intentions. Additionally, the effect of peripheral market demand on event identification was greater among first-time spectators than repeat spectators. This study contributed to the application of PLS-SEM in sport management research by adopting a formative-formative hierarchical component model (HCM) to address the prevailing measurement model misspecification of market demand constructs. The findings highlighted the merits of promoting market demand associated with recurring hallmark sporting events and the importance of enhancing event identification through differential market penetration schemes across different spectator groups.
      Citation: International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship
      PubDate: 2021-06-22
      DOI: 10.1108/IJSMS-12-2020-0218
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship

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