A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access  
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conexões     Open Access  
Corpoconsciência     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access  
Forum Kinder- und Jugendsport : Zeitschrift für Forschung, Transfer und Praxisdialog     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access  
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Turfgrass Society Research Journal     Free   (Followers: 1)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Physical Education of Students     Open Access  
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reabilitacijos Mokslai : Slauga, Kineziterapija, Ergoterapija     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access  
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports Law and Governance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Strategies : A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Recreation Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Türkiye Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Science     Open Access  
Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of National Sport Sciences     Open Access  
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sport and Art
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2331-6195 - ISSN (Online) 2331-6233
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [50 journals]
  • Accuracy Training Program: Can Improve Shooting Results of Petanque
           Athletes Aged 15-20 Years'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Diajeng Tyas Pinru Phytanza   Erick Burhaein   Subur Indriawan   Carla Cristina Vieira Lourenço   Nevzat Demirci   Puput Widodo   Ibnu Prasetyo Widiyono   Yogi Ferdy Irawan   Wisnu Guntur Sutopo   Mokhamad Parmadi   Alfiah Rizqi Azizah   Muhammad Saleh   Agus Hadiatmo   and Ari Susanto   The background in this study is the shooting ability of petanque athletes whose achievements are inconsistent during the match/competition. This study aims to find out the effect of accuracy training on the results of shooting games of petanque athletes. Participants in the study were 20 athletes (ages 15-20 years; M = 17.7; SD: 2.4). This research design is one group pretest-posttest experimental design. The instruments used for the test of ability (shooting) are game numbers (shooting station) 1-5 with a distance of 6-9 meters. Data analysis uses a t-test with the help of IBM SPSS 24. Based on the calculation of pretest and posttest data on the shooting results of petanque athletes who have obtained an accuracy training program, it shows a value of p = 0.000 which means that p
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Android-Based Material for Sports Massage Learning

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Boby Ardianzah Efendy   Achmad Sofyan Hanif   Iman Sulaiman   and Muhsana El Cintami Lanos   The Android application is a Linux-based operating system for cellular phones such as smartphones and tablet computers that can be designed as digital media to facilitate the need for teaching materials. The purpose of this study was to develop Android-based massage sports teaching materials for students in the Physical Education, Health, and Recreation Study Program. The research method was research and development with the Borg and Gall models. Data collection techniques included observation, interviews, questionnaires, tests, and documents. The participants involved were students, colleagues, and experts. The results of the study indicate that teaching materials for learning sports massage based on Android provide convenience in understanding the content of the material. Students can access materials easily at any time, both on-campus and off-campus. This application is called "MassageSmartClick," which can be accessed on mobile phones, and students can also study it in the print book that has been presented in the application. It has some menus, namely the splash menu, main menu, competency menu, material menu, illustration menu, evaluation menu, and information menu.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • A Study on the Physiological Profiles and Performance Characteristics of
           Modern Pentathletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Jae-Ryang Yoon   Modern pentathlon is characterized by the possible direct effects on performance of physical characteristics, fitness level, and record management and therefore, obtaining information about the fitness level and records can be an important factor in improving performance among athletes. To examine the specificity of anthropometrics, physiology, and performance among modern pentathlon athletes, it is necessary to examine and analyze many factors for performance and few researchers have measured or analyzed modern pentathletes. This study aimed to analyze anthropometric data of elite modern pentathalon athletes through a literature review and determine the physical characteristics for better performance, examine cardiorespiratory functions directly connected with the performance in sport shooting-running. The literature review found that maximal heart rate (HRmax) ranged from 184.10 bpm to 197.89 bpm, maximal voluntary ventilation (VEmax) from 151.7 L/min to 163.05 L/min, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from 54.4 ml/kg/min to 75.97 ml/kg/min. For the anaerobic threshold (AT) level, oxygen uptake (VO2) ranged from 53.72 ml/kg/min (82.6% VO2max) to 63.65 ml/kg/min (84.4% VO2max), heart rate from 169 bpm to 182 bpm, and blood lactate concentration from 10.64 mM to 17.20 mM. Therefore, it is also necessary to develop an effective interval training method for improving anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory endurance, and lactate tolerance. Further research is needed to identify effective training for improving cardiorespiratory endurance, the AT level, and lactate tolerance rather than the physical characteristics.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Relationship between Rapid Strength, Reactive and Strength and Agility in
           University Sports Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Felice Di Domenico   Gaetano Altavilla   and Gaetano Raiola   Sports training is a complex phenomenon which, to be effective for the planned purposes, must consider all the aspects that make it up. Agility, rapid strength, and reactive strength are factors that contribute, at various levels and in an integrated mood, to the achievement of sporting performance. Often, these aspects are considered separately and not always satisfactory results in the competitive phase, as there is not sufficient knowledge of the relationship between agility and levels of explosive and reactive strength. The aim was to show how these factors (agility, explosive and reactive strength) had interactions with each other that could be exploited in the development and refinement phase. The study was conducted on a sample of 30 students from the University of Salerno who were administered a battery of instrumental tests through the Optojump platform to recruit quantitative data regarding explosive strength, reactive strength, and agility. One way, Anova and post hoc Bonferroni were performed as statistical tools to analyze data. The results showed a significant difference between the groups (p
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Sports App: Digitalization of Sports Basic Movement

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Galih Priyambada   Aba Sandi Prayoga   Andy Widhiya Bayu Utomo   Deny Pradana Saputro   and Rudi Hartono   Sport is an activity that requires various aspects of support, with the habit that is often done. This study aims to produce a processing system for basic sports results or basic motor skills using a digital-based application for basic movement skills in sports. The research method used in this case is a research and development approach or method. The data collection method used in this study is a questionnaire given to respondents to obtain accurate data. While the data analysis used qualitative and quantitative data analysis to obtain valid and effective value data. The results in this study indicate that the data processing application system to determine the basic skills or basic abilities that were developed received a positive assessment from the trainer with very good and sufficient criteria. The average rating of very good is 37.5%, good is 50% and sufficient is as much as 12.5%. Furthermore, description by respondents shows that the data processing application system for the results of basic abilities or basic abilities is declared valid and can be used without revision and with revision. Based on the results of this study, it can be said that the developed system is valid and can be used to process basic motor skills possessed by athletes or students.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Comparison of Hollow Sprint and Interval Training in Increasing Speed of
           100 M Sprint Test

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Widiastuti   Hasyim   Muhamad Syamsul Taufik   Budi Ariyanto Muslim   Suharti   Soleh Solahuddin   Silvy Juditya   and Karisdha   Hollow Sprint Training (accelerated sprint) starts with a slow running motion. Interval training consists of repetitions of a maximum intensity exercise. Detailed data on these two exercises for which one is more effective in increasing the 100 m run is very limited. This study aims to determine the difference in the effect of hollow sprints and interval training in increasing the running speed of 100 meters. Method: A total of 20 samples of 100-meter sprint event athletes participated in this study. The method used was an experiment with a Comparative Design model. The data collection technique used in this study was a test instrument. They were divided into two groups which designed as hollow sprint group (A) and interval training group (B). This study used comparative experimental method where athletes in each group were given two different treatments and a 100meter speed test before and after the treatment. Results: 1) The p-value of the hollow sprint group or group A (0.004) is smaller than 0.05, which can be concluded that group A had a significant increase. 2) The p-value of the interval group or group B (0.006) is smaller than 0.05, which can be concluded that group B had a significant increase. 3) There is a significant difference between hollow sprint and interval training on increasing 100-meter running speed, the p-value (0.035) is smaller than 0.05. Conclusions: Interval training is more effective than hollow sprint training in increasing athletes' 100 meters running speed.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Research Productivity in the Human Movement Sciences in the Philippines: A
           Descriptive Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Paula Mae Q. Fernandez   Julius Ceazar G. Tolentino   John Paul P. Miranda   John Gerald B. Guanlao   and Joseph G. Sac   The interdisciplinary field of human movement sciences (HMS) has gained massive interest among educational institutions around the world, not only in terms of academic programs but also in research. With this emergence, the researchers aimed to describe the productivity of HMS research in the Philippines. The descriptive bibliometric analysis phase of this paper considered papers published and indexed in Google Scholar from January 2010 to June 2021 and was analyzed after data cleaning and preprocessing. Results revealed that a total of 274 research publications were recorded between the years 2010 and 2021 with an average annual publication rate of 28.6% as far as the dataset was concerned. Also, public higher education institutions (HEIs) emerged to be the most productive generators of research outputs, specifically topped by the University of the Philippines (UP). Moreover, UP-based authors dominated the rankings of the most productive HMS researchers, with Jeffrey Pagaduan in the top rank. Results further indicated that 75% of the authors collaborated with fellow researchers within or outside their institution. Meanwhile, the term "physical education" was recorded to be the most frequently appearing word in most of the publications. Through the aid of the data mining approach- social network analysis (SNA), five (5) researchers from public HEIs and two from private HEIs were identified to have the largest networks as discussed in the paper. The exploration of research in terms of productivity and the embedded social network of researchers may serve as a springboard in defining the future development of the field in the Philippines.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Effect of a Training Program Accompanied by a Suggested Diet on Some
           Physiological Variables and Regulating Blood Sugar Level in Type II
           Diabetics

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Mohammed Nader Shalaby   Marwa Ahmed Fadl   Hoda Abdel Hameed Abdel Wahab   Reda Mohamed Hassan Hashem   Rasha Abd Alfattah Mohammed Faid   Noha Awad Mousa   and Mona Fathi Khalil   Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in our modern era. As a result of the technological evolution recently and the abundance of public and private transportation, in addition to the lack of movement in our societies, many diseases have spread. One of them is diabetes, which is known now as the lack of movement disease. It is one of the most common diseases worldwide. Diabetes comes with a group of diseases called the "lifestyle diseases" like high blood pressure, obesity and heart disease, and other chronic diseases engaged with the technological evolution and lack of movement diseases. The study aimed to identify the effect of the training program accompanied by the proposed diet on some physiological variables and regulating blood sugar levels (diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood sugar, non-fasting sugar, cumulative sugar), in type II diabetics. To achieve this, the researchers used the experimental method, as it suited the nature of the study (designed by one experimental group) in a sample of 10 males who were chosen deliberately aged between 45 and 55 years old. The sample members were committed to an eight-week training program accompanied by a diet with three training modules per week. The conclusion of the study showed statistically significant differences between the pre-and post-measurements, in favor of the post-measurement in all variables under study, except for the triglyceride variable. The researchers recommended that sports activity should be practiced regularly in addition to the diet, as it affects regulating blood sugar and controlling its high levels.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • A Survey on Types of Injuries in Indonesian Recreational Badminton Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Tri Hadi Karyono   Oce Wiriawan   Hari Setijono   Ibrahim   Ramdan Pelana   Sofyan Hanif   and Bagus Winata   The purpose of this study was to find out and describe the types of injuries sustained by recreational badminton players in Indonesia. In this descriptive study, conducted by interview, we evaluated recreational male badminton players (n=80) at Rawamangun Jakarta Sports Center. The focus of the interview questions was divided into 2 sessions, namely the general session and the main interview session. The general session asks about anthropometry data, years and frequency of playing badminton, medical history, and sports activities, while the main interview session contains the causes of injury, anatomical injury, and frequency of injury in one year. This study showed that the older the participants are, the less frequently they play badminton (41-50 years = 2.2 ± 1.1 vs 31-40 years = 2.9 ± 1.1 vs 21-30 years = 3.1 ± 0.8). Acute injuries predominated in the age range of 21-30 years (83%) and 31-40 years (53%). Meanwhile, at the age of 41-50 years, overuse injury is the dominant injury compared to acute injury (83% vs 17%). In terms of anatomical injuries, 74% of 80 participants had lower limb injuries. Regarding the cause of injury, 52.5% of all 80 participants chose inadequate warm-up as the cause of injury. This study shows that as people get older, the risk of injury in recreational badminton players in Indonesia increases. Inadequate warm-up is a common cause of injury risk for all ages, and the lower limb is the part of the body that is most often injured.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Effects of Theobromine and Caffeine on Muscle Fatigue Levels after Maximum
           Physical Activity (Experiment on Male Wistar Rats)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Taufiq Hidayah   Andry Akhiruyanto   Sugiarto   Dewangga Yudhistira   Sulistiyono   and Aan Wahyu Setiawan   Muscle fatigue often occurs when a person performs a maximal activity. However, some substances are believed to be able to improve exercise performance and control energy due to muscle fatigue called ergogenic substances. Ergogenic substances that are not included in the doping category are theobromine and caffeine. Unfortunately, there are very few exercise studies examining theobromine and caffeine, so further testing to prove their benefits is still needed. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of the administration of ergogenic theobromine and caffeine after the maximum activity so that a decrease in lactic acid levels can be found. This research is an experimental study with laboratory testing and is carried out based on a random control posttest approach. Sampling was done by using the total sampling technique. The research sample was 18 male Wistar rats aged 2-3 months with a weight of 150-250 grams. Samples were divided into 3 groups consisting of the control group, theobromine group, and the caffeine group. The instrument for taking blood samples is accutrend plus. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The hypothesis was tested using One Way Anova with the help of SPSS 16. The tests carried out found that the average values of the control group, theobromine, and caffeine were 5.2, 4.9, and 4.2, respectively. The results of the hypothesis test showed that the significance value obtained was 0.35> 0.05 which indicated that the hypothesis was rejected. In conclusion, the administration of ergogenic theobromine and caffeine did not give a significant difference in reducing lactic acid levels. This invention can thus be used as a reference for athletes not to use these substances to reduce fatigue and increase energy.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Exploring Study of Yogyakarta Physical Fitness Athletes in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Risti Nurfadhila   Tomoliyus   Abdul Alim   Japhet Ndayisenga   and Endang Rini Sukamti   Background: Physical fitness training is very important for sports performance. The objective is to assess the different capacities of athletes like speed, strength, flexibility, leg muscle power, and VO2max. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine the current status of physical fitness of Yogyakarta athletes, (2) to compare the physical fitness performance on the standard's physical fitness value, (3) to show the effects of physical fitness on the athlete's performance. Research methodology: this is exploring research with a mixed-method qualitative and quantitative study. The sample of this study was 39 subjects from Yogyakarta. The subjects were taken randomly. The subjects were aged between 13-18 years, and they were from many various parties of Yogyakarta. The content of the training was squat jumps: 10 to 15 repetitions, standard push-ups: 10 to 15 repetitions, calf raises 15 to 20 repetitions, bench dips: 10 to 15 repetitions, abdominal crunches: 15 to 20 repetitions, jump rope: 60 seconds, plyometric exercise, sit-ups, press-ups, squats, lunges, and step-ups within three times per week for six weeks. The facts series technique was a physical battery test on the playground. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The result showed that Yogyakarta athletes still have low physical fitness with a P-value of 0.000. Conclusion: Yogyakarta athletes still hold low physical fitness like speed, VO2Max, flexibility, explosive strength, power, and coordination.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • The Effectiveness of Sports Programs in Improving the Social Interaction
           of Children with Down Syndrome

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Ahmed K. Hassan   and Ahmed R. Elsayed   Paying attention to learners with special needs is essential to achieving the principle of equal educational opportunities for all. This study is aimed at determining the effectiveness of sports programs in improving the social interaction of children with Down syndrome. The sample consisted of 12 children with Down syndrome. Their ages ranged from 8 to 14 years, and their IQ ranged from 50 to 70. They were from Al Najashi School in Al Hofuf, Al Hasa. The children were asked questions to gain preliminary data about children with Down syndrome. A scale was used to measure and assess their social interaction, and the efficacy of the sports programs in their social interaction was obtained. The results show that there are differences in the social interaction of group members in the test conducted before participation in the program (pre-test) as compared to the test conducted after participation in the program (post-test). There are also statistically significant differences among the experimental and control groups in their social interaction, in favor of the experimental group. There were no differences in the social interaction in the experimental group between the post- and follow-up tests. This shows the effectiveness of sports programs in improving social interaction in children with Down syndrome, as well as the continuing effectiveness in improving social interaction for these children during the follow-up period. The study recommends that sports programs be used to improve social interaction skills in children with Down syndrome.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Differential Effects of Sport Type and Sport Category on Time Demands and
           Well-Being of College Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Jay C. Santos   and Michael Sagas   Time commitment of college athletes raises some alarm, leaving them vulnerable to career transitions and well-being consequences. How college athletes spend their academic and athletic time is not much explored. In the United States, college athletes are often classified based on their respective sport revenue production and sport type. The comparison of athletes based on sport category and sport type is sparse in the academic literature. By and large, well-being and time commitment of athletes among some others are believed to be significant factors in college sports success. This study examined the differential effects of sport category (revenue vs non-revenue) and sport type (individual vs team) on academic time use, athletic time use, subjective well-being, emotional well-being, and physical well-being of college athletes. It utilized secondary data provided by the U.S. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) granted upon agreement on data fair use. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was performed to examine the research questions. Significant differences relative to sport type and sport category were found in academic time use and athletic time use. Team sport and revenue-generating sport athletes were more athletically inclined, while individual sport and non-revenue generating sport athletes were more academically engaged.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • The Recent Application of the OSTRC Boxing Injury Prevention Program among
           Boxers in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Wesam Saleh A. Al Attar   Walaa Abutaleb   Nada Alhazmi   and Hussain S. Ghulam   Due to the high probability of injuries seen from boxing, together with the lack of assessment data examining the degree of risk to athletes, this study searched for solutions that may provide updated information to reduce or prevent the risk of injuries in this sport. This study aims to collect updated information about major injury risks among boxers and devise appropriate means to modify or prevent these risks by investigating the implementation of Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) evidence-based injury prevention exercises among boxers. A survey was published containing a maximum of 23 multiple-choice questions from boxing associations in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries to 300 boxers in six GCC countries. A total of 261 boxers participated in the study, with core stability exercises being the most frequently implemented at a rate of 52.5%. There were no statistically significant differences between the GCC countries in terms of the average number of injury prevention exercises performed. Finally, all exercise programs were studied in terms of injury prevention, and shoulder stabilization exercises were the only ones where the implementation rates varied widely between the GCC countries. Effective injury prevention strategies must be implemented, an athlete injury form report must be submitted to facilitate this, and information must be collected about the mechanism of the injury.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Development of Physical Activity Models Based on Motor Perception for
           Kindergarten Children

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  B. Suhartini   and BM Wara Kushartanti   The phenomenon that occurs in today's children is the decreasing number of play activities that involve children's physical activity. This study aims to produce five models of motor perception activity to improve executive function in kindergarten students. This research was pursued by using the research & development method. The research procedure consisted of four stages; Stage 1. Preliminary study (N=50); Stage 2. Development of 5 models of motor perception activity; Stage 3. Expert validation consists of lecturers (N=7) and teachers (N=3); and Stage 4. Trial of motor perception activity model (N=50). The data collection technique used was in the form of filling out observation sheets for 50 parents. Data analysis was summarized in the form of quantitative descriptive analysis and qualitative analysis. The results showed that children's motoric elements were low, including 15% student activity, 40% balance, 23% motor skills, 27% interest, and 57% attention. The availability of learning equipment to support motor perception activities is indicated by the percentage of 49% or very low. This motor perception activity model is created in 5 activities, namely: (1) walking on a balance beam, (2) jumping in a half circle of hola hops, (3) running, jumping, jumping & tiptoeing, (4) crawling while dribbling, and (5) throwing balloons while sitting. Based on the results of the calculation of quantitative data from the teacher's assessment as the model user, it is known that the level of implementation of the motor perception activity model for kindergarten students is very high at 96.15% and the quality of the model is very high at 94.85%. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis, it is known that the motor perception activity learning model is suitable for use in learning physical activity for kindergarten students while at the same time giving an impact on children's physical activity participation.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Aggression Behaviour and Physical Fitness of National Handball Girls
           Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  1  Gangu Naidu Mandala   Kavitha Desai   Jerlin Jose   Nilofer Hussaini   and Martha Sucharitha M   Aggression is one of the significant types of feeling and emotion, which is exceptionally fundamental for sports execution. It is ordinarily propelled conduct at any rate for that specific purpose of time in the genuine play, which drives a player brimming with his energies towards his point. 150 School National Handball female players aged 14-17 years who were concentrated in higher optional schools of Andhra Pradesh Rural and Urban were haphazardly chosen as subjects. An aggression scale is used to contemplate the degree of aggression in any age gathering (over 14 years). The scale comprises 55 articulations. It is a Likert type 5-guide scale toward locating the aggressive conduct among Handball players. The premise of the discoveries is that the shooters have phenomenal aggression conduct than the all-rounders and defenders and shooters have more physical fitness than the all-rounders and defenders. In the examination, the Shooter would have a more aggressive inclination and physical fitness when contrasted with all-rounders and defenders. It is very different on the grounds that the Shooter alone for example independently will confront the adversary gathering of players because of body contact and the battle for greatness will lead the shooter to more aggressive than others.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
       
  • Sports Participation and Well-being of Adolescents: Are They Related'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Alisha Khan   Meenu Dhingra   and N. K. Mungreiphy   Background: Participation in sports helps an individual to achieve recommended levels of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). MVPA plays a vital role in bringing about positive psychological and physiological changes contributing to both physical and emotional well-being. Aims: There is a scarcity of data to understand the role of regular participation in sports in promoting the overall physical activity in Indian adolescents. Our objective was to evaluate the sports participation as a means of enhancing physical and psychological health of children and youth by helping them to achieve daily physical activity requirements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 509 [n=259, athletic adolescents (AA) and n=250, non-athletic adolescents (NAA)]. Ryff's Psychological well-being questionnaire was used to assess their mental well-being state. Physical well-being VO2max and anthropometric parameters were assessed. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results: In the findings of the study, majority of NAA were found to be practicing low physical activity levels while in contrast, majority of AA were able to achieve moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity. AA were found with significantly better scores for personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, self-acceptance and total psychological well-being. Prevalence of overweight adolescents was higher in NAA than AA, while VO2max of AA was higher than NAA. Conclusion: MVPA is favourably associated with overall well-being of adolescents. Sports participation has a positive impact on both physical and mental health and should be encouraged since childhood years.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Development of a Sports Performance Metric for the State Universities and
           Colleges in the Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Marivic D. Paghubasan   Aiming to keep up with the global trends in sports performance brought some challenges among State University and Colleges (SUCs) in Bicol Region. The study is qualitative and quantitative research to develop sports performance metrics for the state universities and colleges in the Philippines. Practices of SUCs in sports development served as a basis to create metrics in measuring SUCs' sports performance in the Bicol Region. The developed metrics were content and face validated by five SUC sports directors, and five professors in sports science. Suggestions from these experts were sought to improve the content and construct of the developed metrics. Fifty respondents pilot-tested the developed metrics of the study and selected sports stakeholders participated in the focus group discussion to discuss their comments and suggestions for the metrics. The development of the metrics was conducted in four phases: selecting possible indicators of the standards; content and construct validation of indicators; try out of the evaluation tool and test of reliability. Results showed that all of the items in the subscales included in the developed standard metrics can be considered good to excellent and can be used to assess the state universities and college's sports performances. The development of the metrics on sports performance may contribute to the total quality management of the educational institution and may provide in promoting healthy and alert citizenry.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Validity and Reliability of Reactive Agility Measurements of Tennis
           Performance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Wisnu Nugroho   Tomoliyus   Abdul Alim   Fauzi   and Hari Yuliarto   Reactive agility measurement tool recently has become one of the important issues in the physical training for tennis performance. Therefore, finding a valid and reliable reactive agility measuring instrument for tennis performance is needed. This study aimed to do a validity and reliability test of the reactive agility measuring instrument for tennis performance. This study used a mixed-methods approach. The seven experts participants were determined by the criteria of an evaluation expert and a tennis expert, or both. This study had three stages. The first was document analysis (international journal). It is used to develop a construction design for the reactive tennis agility measuring instrument. The second stage was content validation. The participants were seven experts. Then, the data collection technique used the Delphi technique. The research instrument uses a scale of one to four, namely very relevant, relevant, less relevant, and irrelevant. The data analysis used the Aiken formula for content validity and Reliability Analysis between raters using ICC. The first stage of research results has found the operational definition of reactive agility tennis: the ability to move in seconds after receiving a stimulus. In addition, the "Y" shape construction design of the reactive tennis agility measuring instrument has been arranged. The second stage resulted in the contents validation of a large tennis reactive agility measuring instrument. The third stage found the reliability between raters of a large tennis reactive agility measuring instrument.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Efficacy of Dual Task Training versus Conventional Therapy on Hand
           Function and Visual Perception Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Nekar Daekook M   Jae Ho Yu   Hye Yun Kang   Dong Yeop Lee   Ji Heon Hong   and Seong Gil Kim   This pilot study aimed to assess the effect of dual-task training, compared to conventional therapy on the hand functional ability and visual perception in children with cerebral palsy. It was a pretest-posttest control group design, conducted for 4 weeks with ten children ranged between 5-13 years old. Participants were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (dual-task training) or the control group (conventional treatment). The experimental group received the usual physical therapy session and dual-task training sessions 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The control group received only the conventional physical therapy 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. Fine and gross motor hand function were assessed by the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test and the Motor-free Visual Perception Test 3rd edition was used to assess visual perceptual ability before intervention and at 4 weeks after intervention. Only the experimental group showed an improvement in hand function (p0.05). Statistically significant changes were noticed in three of the five subscales of the visual perception in the experimental group (p
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • The Effectiveness of Learning Passing Volleyball for Student on
           Website-Based

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Sumbara Hambali   Achmad Sofyan Hanif   Widiastuti   Firmansyah Dlis   Samsudin   and Akhmad Sobarna   Volleyball is a sport that is quite popular in Indonesia, and this is why this sport is always given at various levels of schools in Indonesia. However, it is still not possible for learning to be carried out directly because the spread of the corona virus in Indonesia is still increasing, requiring learning to be carried out online. The website is one of the media that can be used in volleyball game courses. The question is whether this website is effectively used in volleyball lectures. The purpose of this study was to find out the extent to which the effectiveness of volleyball passing learning using the website was. This study used experimental method, where this experimental method is a research by giving some special treatment to the research subjects used. The one case study has been used in the research. The subjects used in this study were students of physical education, health and recreation STKIP Pasundan with a total of about 120 people. Subjects were given treatment for 8 meetings in accordance with the semester learning plan for the passing technique. The instrument in this study was a test of passing down and up to the wall for 60 seconds. The data analysis technique uses a percentage. The findings showed a rise in students passing learning goals. The results of STKIP Pasundan students' physical education, health, and recreation have improved significantly of the website's material.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Association between Outcomes of Physical activities and Sports on
           Work-Life Balance of Employees

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Bhanupriya Khatri   Shaina Arora   and Anjali Goyal   The desire to succeed in a rapidly changing work environment is overwhelming. This study aims to emphasize the importance of work-life balance and to examine the relationship between work-life balance and happiness. Focusing on physical activities and workplace health among the various ways for employee health is one way to ensure employee health and productivity. Managing long working hours in personal life increases employee stress. It consists of various fields related to the IT industry, computer, and digital information. IT professionals are the most in-demand members of today's labor market, as the industry's largest companies fight to expand the adoption of digital technologies. Employers are continually striving to ensure that their employees do their jobs in the best possible way without getting tired. Employee Work-Life Balance is measured by the employee's mental and physical investment in the workplace. You are dedicated to your work in terms of time, energy, and level of motivation to work towards achieving organizational success. This paper purposes to measure happiness and employee work-life balance as a measure of physical activity. Smart-PLS 3.2.8 creates a conceptual reflex model using measures of physical activity and happiness and work-life balance as survey components.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • ACSI-28 Indonesian Version Validity and Reliability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Dzihan Khilmi Ayu Firdausi   Muhammad Eka Mardyansyah Simbolon   Oktarina   Muhammad Rizkan Khadavi   Erick Prayogo Walton   and Widati Amalin Ulfah   The purpose of this study is to see if the ACSI-28 is valid and reliable after being translated and synthesized to fit Indonesian culture and linguistics, so that ACSI-28 can be utilized on athletes in Indonesia. ACSI-28 Indonesian version is adapted from the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory by Smith and colleagues (1995). A Likert scale of 1 to 4 was used to assign the score. The validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of ACSI-28 were tested using 45 participants in this study. Validity data were examined with Peorsen Product Moment, and reliability was assessed with Cronbach Alpha. The validity of each item based on its respective subscales was found to range from 0.46 to 0.83 in the current study. The coping with adversity subscale item's validity value was found to range from 0.59 to 0.75. The coachability subscale item's validity value was found to range from 0.46 to 0.73. The concentration subscale item's validity value was found to range from 0.67 to 0.72. The confidence and achievement motivation subscale item's validity value was found to range from 0.63 to 0.73. The goal setting and mental preparation subscale item's validity value was found to range from 0.62 to 0.77. The peaking under pressure subscale item's validity value was found to range from 0.71 to 0.83. The freedom from worry subscale item's validity value was found to range from 0.67 to 0.77. The Indonesian version of the ACSI-28 reliability test had a reliability rating of 0.845, according to the current study. The findings of this study show that the Indonesian version of ACSI-28 is valid and reliable for usage in measuring an athlete's sports psychological skills in Indonesia.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Evaluation on the Physical Condition of Football Extracurricular
           Participants before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Andry Akhiruyanto   Taufiq Hidayah   Zainudin Amali   Dewangga Yudhistira   and Aruna Brama Siwi   Background: One of the most popular extracurricular activities at school is football. However, extracurricular activities have been temporarily suspended due to the COVID-19 outbreak, which on the other hand will affect students' physical abilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical condition of students which included speed, endurance, agility, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were 15 male students aged 14-15 years with a weight of 51-71± kg and a height of 157-173± cm. Material and method: This study used a quantitative descriptive method with a survey approach. The instruments used include a multistage fitness test, a 30-meter sprint, and a shuttle run. Data were analyzed based on percentage data analysis and the Wilcoxon test. Result: The Wilcoxon test results on the speed test showed sig (2 tailed) 0.826> 0.05, endurance test 0.001 < 0.05, and agility test 0.033> 0.05. If categorized, the overall percentage results on the physical condition of students have not been included in the "good" category. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that physical condition tests before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, both fall into the "poor" and "very poor" categories. Furthermore, tests carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced a higher percentage decline compared to tests before the COVID-19 pandemic. The research results obtained can thus be used as material for evaluation and improvement for teachers, coaches, and extracurricular football students, especially training related to improving physical condition so that better results can be obtained in the future.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Musculoskeletal Asymmetry in Young Soccer Players: Differences between the
           Dominant and Nondominant Leg

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Shuji Taketomi   Kohei Kawaguchi   Yuri Mizutani   Ryota Yamagami   Shin Sameshima   Seira Takei   Tomofumi Kage   Kenichi Kono   Hiroshi Inui   Sayaka Fujiwara   Sakae Tanaka   and Toru Ogata   The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the differences in the musculoskeletal profiles between the dominant leg (DL) and nondominant leg (NDL) of Japanese soccer players. This study included 227 young elite soccer players (121 males and 106 females with mean ages of 19.0 and 17.5 years, respectively). Anthropometric measurements were obtained. In addition, joint range of motion measurements was performed for internal rotation of the hip, ankle dorsiflexion, and knee extension. Muscle flexibility tests were performed on the iliopsoas, quadriceps femoris, hamstring, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles. Moreover, isometric knee extension, flexion strength, and isometric hip abduction strength were measured. Single-leg balance tests were also performed. As a result, in male soccer players, DL's knee flexor strength and hip abductor strength were significantly stronger than in the NDL. In female soccer players, knee extension and knee flexion strength of the DL were significantly stronger than the NDL. In male soccer players, the hamstring-quadriceps ratio of the DL was significantly greater than NDL. DL demonstrated a significantly lesser center of pressure excursion in the single-leg balance test in male and female soccer players. In both male and female soccer players, the quadriceps muscle of DL was significantly more flexible than those of the NDL. There was no difference in the internal rotation angle of the hip joint between the DL and NDL in male soccer players. In contrast, the internal rotation angle of the DL was significantly (1.6°) greater than NDL in female soccer players. For some anthropometric measurements, muscle flexibility tests and joint range of motion measurements, the difference between the DL and NDL was significant but not large enough to be clinically relevant. In conclusion, the present study showed musculoskeletal asymmetry between the DL and NDL in young male and female soccer players.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Physical Activity and Game Play Ability in a High School Sport Education
           Basketball Season

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Peter Iserbyt   Toon Dehandschutter   Hilde Leysen   and Joren Loockx   To date, there is limited research investigating physical activity levels during a sport education season in high school physical education settings and how these are affected by ability levels. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) how students' game play in basketball would improve during a sport education season as a function of ability level, and (2) how students' MVPA levels differ as a function of game play ability. One class with 21 high school students (aged 16-18) participated in a 14-day sport education basketball season. Prior to and upon completion of the season, students' 3v3 basketball game play performance was assessed. Three mixed ability teams were composed with an equal gender distribution. The System of Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) was used to collect students' MVPA during the season. Repeated measures ANOVA detected a significant improvement in game play ability from 52% (range: 28%-68%) to 84% (range: 60%-100%) for high– as well as low-ability students, p < .001. High-ability students engaged in MVPA for 65% during team practice and 49% during game play. Low-ability students had consistently lower MVPA values than high-ability students (41% vs 55%), p
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Effects of Aging on Cardiac Autonomic Response during Resistance Exercise
           at Critical Load

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Viviane Castello-Simões   Audrey Borghi-Silva   Mariana Pires Carvalho   Clara Italiano Monteiro   Paula Angélica Ricci   Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso   Rodrigo Polaquini Simões   and Renata Gonçalves Mendes   Background: Critical load (CL) indicates the transition from moderate dynamic exercise to intense exercise and can be useful as a parameter of exercise intolerance during resistance exercise. In this sense, this study aimed to assess and contrast the cardiac autonomic response by heart rate variability during resistance exercise at CL in elderly and young individuals. Methods: Twenty apparently healthy active men, were allocated into young group (n=10) and elderly group (n=10), who underwent: 1) one repetition maximum (1RM) test on the Leg Press at 45º; 2) constant load exercise tests (70%, 80% and 90% of 1RM and intermediate load) in order to calculate the CL; and 3) CL assessment with record of heart rate (HR) and R-R intervals (R-Ri) to heart rate variability assessment. Results: During CL, the elderly presented lower value of mean HR in relation to young group (p
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • A Flipped Learning Model in a College Physical Education Dance Course: A
           Non-experimental Design

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Heildenberg C. Dimarucot   Teaching Physical Education has been plagued with issues on limited class time, gap between concept and practice, and use of traditional assessment methods. Thus, this study implemented flipped learning (FL), specifically the SPRING framework in a college dance course, to address these problems through the promotion of more student agency, in-depth learning, and enhancement of 21st century skills. Since there is a dearth of FL studies that focus on a PE context in the country, this study then sheds light on whether flipped learning model can help improve the conceptual understanding and procedural fluency of the students in a dance course. Using statistical treatment, this study examined (1) the conceptual understanding and procedural fluency of the students through the results of the practical tests done before the major exams and the actual major exams, (2) the proportion of the students with improved performance scores, (3) the significant difference of the mean performance scores before and after the intervention, as well as (4) the difference between the male and female students' scores in both assessments. The results revealed that though the pilot implementation of FL in the PE course in the university yielded generally positive outcomes, some obstacles need to be addressed like technological and logistical limitations due to the sudden shift to remote learning during the pandemic, lack of readiness of the students to regulate their own learning and exhibit other relevant 21st century skills under pressure and uncertain times, and gap between the male and female students performance due to possible latent gender issues in dance education that restrict students' creativity. Thus, the institution needs to provide even more technological, communication, and psychological support for the students to perform better and with more ease whether in a purely online or blended FL environment. More discussions and activities on gender inclusivity in dance classes are also advised to further break barriers against students' artistic freedom and imagination.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Development of Early Childhood Skills by Guiding Tests in Sports Rhythmic
           Gymnastics

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Endang Murti Sulistiyowati   Wawan Sundawan Suherman   Endang Rini Sukamti   Ilham   Fajar Sriwahyuniati   Ratna Budiarti   and Nuridin Widya Pranoto   When compared to the previous youths, especially before the pandemic, younger generations have become sedentary globally. However, the truth is physical activity positively contributes to human growth and development by causing both physiological and psychological benefits. In the wake of revitalizing such benefits, this current study aimed to develop a guidebook containing physical activity tests that should be implemented in primary schools for early childhood through rhythmic gymnastic sport. This study was the Research and Development alias R & D with 106 and 37 subjects on a large and small scale respectively. Whilst collecting data, instruments such as questionnaires for expert's judgment, anthropometric and bio-motor tests were employed, and norm tests and skills tests as well. Data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative approaches based on mean, standard deviation, percentages. After addressing all data, especially going through all R&D steps, it was revealed that the material expert assessment test results obtained a value of over 80%, likewise for the media assessment test. The results of both small- and large-scale testing showed that most experts indeed stated that the development of the current guidebook was in the category of very good to enhance skills accrual in early childhood growth. Therefore, we conclude that the guidebook, VCD, and tests developed are practical, practicable, and suitable for early childhood.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Evaluating Community-Based Physical Fitness Programs: A Decision-Focused
           Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Jennifer Taylan-De Jesus   Compelling evidence supports that Community-based Physical Fitness Programs (CPFP) can improve physical fitness and health. However, a central issue in CPFP is the lack of evaluation data from participating communities. The study aimed to evaluate the CPFP of three local communities using Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) model. Using a validated tool with a 4.81 mean (SD=0.38) and substantially agreed by three (3) experts (k=0.76), evaluation data were obtained from community members (n=117). This research primarily employed descriptive and correlation analyses to determine the relationships among CIPP elements and demographic profiles of one highly rated CPFP. 117 community members (28% male; 72% female) were evaluated the CPFP of 3 local communities. The context evaluation results showed that only SJC CPFP had a relatively high result with a mean of 4.29 (85.8%). For input evaluation, SJC still had the highest mean of 4.23 (84.6%), as compared to SCM 3.93 (78.6%) and PC 3.67 (73.4%). SJC remained at the top in the process evaluation, with the highest mean of 4.30 (86%). While on product evaluation, all communities had close mean scores of 4.4 (88%) SJC, 3.9 (78%) SCM, and 4.1 (82%) PC. Correlations among data revealed that SJC context and input evaluation results had a significant relationship with sex and age. There was meager participation of males compared to females and even young members compared to older members. While CPFP among communities received good evaluation results, there is still a need to reinforce the program due to lack of pre-implementation assessment and integration of vision-mission, goals, and objectives (context). There should also be a re-structuring of precise action plans (input), a variety of activities (process), and consistent program outcomes evaluation (product). Lastly, the correlated evaluation data suggested the need for a more personalized, gender-sensitive, and age-friendly CPFP. This study provides CPFP administrators with comprehensive data that can assist them in making sound decisions for program improvement.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • The Effect of the Music Tempo on the Recovery of Cardiopulmonary Function
           after Aerobic Exercise Based on Personal Health Record

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Su Hyeon Shin   Yu Na Ji   Jae Ho Yu   Hye Yun Kang   Dong Yeop Lee   Ji Heon Hong   Seong Gil Kim   and Jin Seop Kim   The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of music tempo (No Music, 70 BPM, 120 BPM, 180 BPM) on recovery of cardiopulmonary function after an aerobic exercise, identify the effective tempo (BPM) with the highest recovery rate, and propose an effective method for recovery after exercise. A total of ten (10) healthy recreational men participated in this crossover repeated study. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SPO2), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respiratory rate (RR), VO2, and VCO2 were measured at four (4) different time periods (immediately after exercise, 2 minutes, 4 minutes, and 6 minutes) for each of the four (4) types of music tempo on separate days. As a result, all the outcome variables showed significant differences for all types of music tempo over the time measured (p.05). The comparison between the four music tempos showed no significant difference of HR and SBP at 6 minutes after exercise, RR at 2 minutes, and 6 minutes after exercise (p.05). No Music showed the fastest recovery rate of HR, SBP, DBP, and RR and 70BPM showed the fastest recovery rate of VO2 and VCO2. Therefore, for efficient cardiopulmonary function recovery after an aerobic exercise, listening to slow music at 70 bpm or taking a break without music can be suggested as an effective method for recovery.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • The Effect of Selected Kinematic Variables on the Accuracy of Topspin
           Forehand among Table Tennis Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Ibtehal M. Alkhawaldeh   This study aimed to identify the effect of selected kinematic variables on the accuracy of the topspin forehand among table tennis players. The study sample consisted of (8) male players who play in the Jordanian First Division Table Tennis League; (age= 23.74 ± 1.72 years, mass=71.22 ± 11.21 kg, height=1.74 ± 0.10 m). The study used A (Canon EOS 80D) camera, which has a speed of (500) images per second, and Kinovea (0.8.15) program was used to analyze the movements. The shooting accuracy test was also used to reach the accuracy of Forehand Topspin shooting. The results of the statistical analysis confirmed the acceptance of the main hypothesis of the study, which states that there is a statistically significant impact of the selected kinematic variables on the accuracy of the topspin forehand at (α≤0.05). The results also showed the acceptance of three sub-hypotheses, which state that there is a statistically significant impact at (α≤0.05) of shoulder's angular velocity, wrist angle and racket's horizontal velocity on the accuracy of the topspin forehand. In light of the results, the study recommended the necessity of urging table tennis coaches in the Jordanian league to develop an appropriate mechanical kinematic model for each player when performing the skill of the forehand topspin.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • The Implementation of CIPP Model Evaluation at East Java Women Volleyball
           Team during the Preparation for Indonesia Olympic Games (PON) XX

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Taufiq Hidayat   Hari Setijono   Nining Widyah Kusnanik   Nurhasan   Muchamad Arif Al Ardha   and Chung Bing Yang   This research aimed to evaluate the training camp process of the East Java women's volleyball team in the Indonesia Olympic Games (PON) XX during Covid-19 Pandemic. This research was an evaluation study of the CIPP model with a mixed-method design. Two coaches and 15 women volleyball athletes were selected as research samples by purposive sampling method. The data were collected by questionnaire, observation, document analysis, and semi-structured interview techniques. Triangulation data and thematic coding methods were implemented to analyze the data. The results showed that the government supported the training process very well in the context dimension. The input dimensions were human resources, the availability of training programs, training facilities, and infrastructure was also in the excellent category. There was an excellent result on process dimensions. In the product dimension, most athletes have met the target of the training program. In conclusion, most of the dimensions are in a good category. In addition, the implementation of volleyball training in the covid-19 pandemic developed a good response and connection among athletes and coaches. Meanwhile, the negative values which occurred due to the limitation during the implementation of volleyball training in the covid-19 pandemic were boredom, unmotivated, and other psychological problems. Furthermore, limited training variations could be implemented, and game simulations were eliminated during the covid-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • The Effect of Training Methods and Explosion of Limb Muscles on Pencak
           Silat Kicking Skills

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Ridwan Sudirman   Moch. Asmawi   Achmad Sofyan Hanif   Ucok Hasian Refiater   Taufik Hidayat Suharto   Dedi Aryadi   and Ayi Rahmat   The purpose of this study was to determine the best training method between plyometrics, circuit training methods, and continuous training methods, which had more effect on improving the results of Pencak Silat kick skills training. The method used in this study is an experimental method (comparative quantitative) with a 3 x 2 factorial design. The number of samples in this study was 56 students of the Health Sports Education Study Program of STKIP Setia Budhi Rangkasbitung in the Pencak Silat course, with a generalization level of students and athletes who have the same population characteristics and attributes. The summary of the results of the calculation analysis (ANOVA) on the variation of the average row, the significance level = 0.05 obtained Fo = 15.49 and Ft(1.54) = 4.02, thus Fo> Ft so that Ho is rejected. In the column mean variation, the significant level value = 0.05 obtained Fo = 8.97 and Ft(2.54) = 3.17, thus Fo> Ft so that Ho is rejected. In the interaction variation, the significant level value = 0.05 obtained Fo = 57.39 and Ft(2.54) = 3.17, thus Fo> Ft so that Ho is rejected. It was concluded that (1) overall there was a significant difference in the effect of training methods and high and low leg muscle explosive power on pencak silat kick skills. (2) there are differences in the average results for the three training methods. (3) there is an interaction between the explosive power of the leg muscles and the training method on the results of pencak silat kick skills.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • How Physical Education through TikTok Makes a Difference: The Use of
           TikTok to Promote Learning Activities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Eka Fitri Novita Sari   Nofi Marlina Siregar   Sukiri   Rekha Ratri Julianti   and Ayatullah Muhammad Resza   The rapid development of advanced learning technology requires teachers to make various innovations in the learning activities. The use of social media-based technology is one of the alternatives. This study aimed to investigate the Physical Education teacher's perspectives on using TikTok social media in the learning activities. The study was conducted through a survey method of 125 physical education teachers in Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, and Bekasi (Jabotabek), Indonesia. The study findings showed that 45.6% of physical education teachers used TikTok social media accounts; 44.5% stated that the TikTok application could be used in teaching and learning activities; 45.8% emphasized that the TikTok application attracts students' attention; 53.6% affirmed that the TikTok application is more user-friendly compared to other social media applications; 49.2% answered that teaching material was provided using the TikTok application; only 37.8% showed that the lack of existing features was the reason respondents did not use the TikTok application, and 50.2% had used the TikTok application for rhythmic gymnastics activities. According to the study results, it can be concluded that physical education teachers have used TikTok social media in learning activities but they are still limited to rhythmic gymnastics activities. It is recommended that physical education teachers develop other teaching materials for different sports units, not only limited to rhythmic gymnastics activities, so that students can explore their learning activities more diversely.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Measurement of Anthropometry, Biomotor and Fundamental Skills for
           Identification of Future Athletes' Talents at the Age of 11-15 Years

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Herman Chaniago   This study aims to identify the talents of prospective athletes aged 11-15 years through anthropometric, fundamental skills, and biomotor. Researchers conducted an assessment of these three factors to decide whether the candidate was a gifted athlete. The method used is survey and percentage analysis. The participants who took part in this study were 408 (242 males and 166 females) aged 11-15 years. The results of the assessment from the city of Salatiga showed that there were no very talented participants, 2% of participants were declared talented, 12% quite talented, 44% less talented, and 42% not talented. The percentage analysis showed that there were no very talented participants; less than 1% were talented; 3% were moderately talented; 22% were less talented, and 75% were not talented. There is a difference in catch indicators for male and female participants with a percentage of 30.11%. Talent identification that can be decided in this study, based on the results of anthropometry, fundamental skills, and biomotor measurements is in the javelin throw, sprint 100 meters, 200 meters and long jump. The results of this study conclude that the assessment of anthropometry, fundamental skills, and bimotor can be used to identify the talent of athletes at a young age. It could be concluded that biomotor and anthropometry aspects are more dominantly used to identify athletes but need to be added to other skills performance assessments to support this decision. Future research should focus on identifying the determinants of talent and developing assessment instruments.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Plyometric Standing Jumps and Box Drills to Improve Momtong Dollyo Chagi
           Kick in Junior Taekwondo Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Evi Susianti   Johansyah Lubis   Junaidi Hamid   Santoso   Astri Ayu Irawan   and Yafi Velyan Mahyudi   This study aims to determine the effect of plyometric and flexibility training methods to improve the momtong dollyo chagi kick technique in taekwondo athletes. The effect of training programs that combine physical conditions specifically has no results stating that they are interrelated to improve taekwondo kick techniques. The research method used is experimental treatment by level 2 x 2. The results of this study: firstly, there are differences in the leg power of momtong dollyo chagi kicks for taekwondo athletes in the plyometric standing jump and box drill training methods with the results Fo (A) = 12,111> F-table 4,11. Interaction Fo (AB) = 14,044> F-table = 4,11 with the percentage effect of plyometric and flexibility exercises of 33.83%. Plyometric standing jump exercise is better for increasing leg power of momtong dollyo chagi kick than box drill exercise for athletes who have high flexibility with t0 16,496>ttable(0,05:10) 1,688. Box drill exercises are better for increasing the leg power of momtong dollyo chagi kicks than standing jump plyometric exercises for athletes who have low flexibility with a value of t0 2,455> ttable(0,05:10) 1,688. Thus, it can be concluded that both standing jump plyometric exercises and box drill combined with flexibility can have the effect of increasing leg power, so that the trainer can choose a power and strength training program through plyometric training to prepare for the competition.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • University Students' Daily Activities and Physical Fitness during COVID-19
           Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Nur Syahadati Retno Panenggak   Nurhasan   Muchamad Arif Al Ardha   Panji Bana   Kolektus Oky Ristanto   Ainun Zulfikar Rizki   Rizki Satrio Utomo   Chung Bing Yang   and Wei Jhe Lin   This study aims to evaluate university students' daily activities and the effect of physical activity on physical fitness, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research used comparative and correlational research methods. Thirty research samples consisted of 13 junior year university students and 17 senior year university students were selected by the purposive sampling method. Every student was monitored for their daily activities for one week and categorized into sports, college, organization, and other activities. Physical fitness was measured using the MFT test to measure the VO2Max in ml/kg/min units. The data analysis results showed no significant difference between junior and senior semester students in VO2Max, physical exercise, organizational activities, lecture activities, sleeping, and other activities. There was a significant difference in VO2Max and physical exercises (sig < 0.05) between genders. Male students spent more time exercising (17.87 ± 11.1) than female students (10.80 ± 6.04). Furthermore, male students had a higher average VO2Max (42.38 ± 7.53) than female students (29.36 ± 6.07). Based on the regression analysis results, there is a significant value between physical exercises and sleeping toward VO2Max capacity (sig. < 0.05).
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Study on the Efficiency of Data Collection, Organization and Feedback
           Methods for Triathlon Races

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Yuto Inai   Satoshi Oikawa   and Takao Akama   Considering the problems of data handling methods in the sports field, the use of smartphones, free tools, going online with the COVID-19 disaster, reducing the workload of data managers, creating graphs automatically, and building a system that can provide immediate feedback are considered to be useful. This study aims to improve data handling at sporting events by examining methods of enhancing data provision efficiency, such as collecting the athletes' physical condition and weather data, for the athletes, coach, and trainer. The data were collected using Google Forms and Google Sheets, and the study considered the problems associated with the data handling process. A questionnaire-based survey regarding data handling was conducted among seven athletes, one coach, and one trainer from a local triathlon team. The questions included collecting information on whether the (1) participants had viewed the Google Sheets, (2) data were useful for the race, (3) Google Sheets were easy to view, and (4) participants had any requests. In addition, eight university students were targeted as simulations for data organization. The results indicated that the use of Google Forms and Google Sheets was more efficient than the traditional paper-based method. In conclusion, this method is useful in collecting, organizing, and providing data at sporting events. The results of this study may lead to improvements in the way data are used in sports. In the future, it may be necessary to fine-tune the system to meet the needs of individual users.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Correlation between Deep Cervical Muscle Endurance, Cervical
           Proprioception, and Chronic Neck Pain: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Shwe Yee Wint   and Ashira Hiruntrakul   The main aim of the study was to investigate the relationship among deep cervical muscle endurance, cervical proprioception, and chronic neck pain (CNP). Subjects with CNP (n=47) aged 20 to 45 years were recruited to the study. Cervical joint position sense error (JPSE), deep cervical flexor and extensor endurance, pain intensity and neck pain associated disability were investigated by using common clinical tests. The correlations between measured variables were assessed by Spearman correlation coefficients. Only extension cervical JPSE component showed significant fair correlation with pain (σ = 0.30, p = 0.040) and disability (σ = 0.39, p = 0.006). Both the cervical flexor and extensor muscle endurance were found to have no relationship with both pain and disability. There was no association between deep cervical muscle endurance and the cervical JPSE. But a significant fair correlation was noted between the cervical flexor and extensor muscle endurance capacity (σ = 0.38, p = 0.008). Deep cervical muscle endurance and cervical proprioception were weakly associated with CNP. Chronic neck pain might not influence neck muscle endurance and cervical proprioception. Muscle endurance capacity and proprioceptive functioning also seem to be irrelevant to each other in people with CNP.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • The Effect of Physical Activity Programs and School Environments on
           Movement Activities and Mental Health

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  10  Number  2  Ahmad Chaeroni   Anton Komaini   Nuridin Widya Pranoto   and Despita Antoni   The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the physical activity program in the two groups of Physical Education and Physical Education + Out of School Hours Activity (OSHA) on movement activities and students' mental health based on the school environment where they studied. A total of 113 (57 students in a large school environment and 56 students in a narrow school environment) aged 16-19 years were involved in this study. Collecting data is to determine movement activities using the Barrow Motor Ability Test (BMT) and filling out a mental health questionnaire. The physical activity program was carried out for 12 weeks with a number of meetings once per week from each treatment group and for an additional Out of School Hours Activity program three times a week. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test technique at a significance level of = 0.05. The results show that: 1) There is a difference in the effect of physical activity programs on Physical Education and Physical Education + OSHA on movement activities and mental health of students in a large school environment; 2) There are differences in the effect of physical activity programs on Physical Education and Physical Education + OSHA on movement activities and mental health of students in a narrow school environment. Thus, the physical activity program has an influence on movement activities and mental health even though in a large school environment, which is better than in a narrow school environment.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
       
  • Effects of Service Quality, Social Environment and Financial on
           Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance for Athletes at Training Center
           PON XX in DIY

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Agung Nugroho   Tomoliyus   Sumaryanto   and Ilham   Background: The training center programs are integrated exercises carried out by the Indonesian National Sports Committee (INSC) in the Yogyakarta region in preparing for the weekly National Sports (PON XX) multi-event in Papua. Purpose: The aim was to explore a deeper understanding along examining empirically variable-indicators relationships, simply known as the correlation of service quality, financial support, social environment, motivation, satisfaction, and athlete performance in sports. Design/method/approach: The research is descriptive with the mixed method. The approach was tested using structural equation modeling involving 137 athletes from the training center-INSC in Yogyakarta. Results: The scale/indicators and items used to evaluate the relationship of the variables and whether variable-indicators are valid and meaningful. By employing SPSS.23 and Smart PLS-SEM while testing data, construct validity and reliability compounds (Cronbach's alpha, rho-A, composite reliability, and AVE) were all verified and valid. When testing the correlation between indicators-variables, significance correlation was found in almost relation. However, correlating between variables-variables, a large number of data did not verify such correlation. The expected reason was that the researcher employed many variables with multiples items in one study. Linear regression was also analyzed and found in some aspects with P-value < 0.05. Conclusion: Although not all results showed a significant effect especially on dependent variables, service quality, social environment, financial support should be elaborated in the wake of improving satisfaction, motivation, and athlete achievement. As a suggestion, it could be the first study to be applied directly to the current situation in the PON XX-DIY training center programs.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Flexible Learning in College Physical Education in the Time of a Global
           Health Crisis and Beyond

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Heildenberg C. Dimarucot   Jerrwin C. Aguinaldo   and Elaine Carie A. Andres   Flexible learning has never been more relevant in Physical Education (PE) than during the COVID-19 pandemic as universities continuously provide opportunities to improve students' physical health and address the lack of physical activity among the youth. To understand the importance of flexible learning to the college students in a private university in the Philippines, the extent of the flexibility offered, and the students' satisfaction with it, an online survey and focus group discussions involving college Physical Fitness students were conducted. The significant relationship among the importance of flexibility, the extent of flexibility, and the level of students' satisfaction was also tested. It was revealed that the students found all the flexible learning dimensions vital to them, with the flexibility of time as the most important due to the duality of their roles while studying at home. The students also mentioned that the level of flexibility and the academic and technical support they received benefited them significantly as they became more independent, resilient, resourceful, and critical learners. It was also found that there is a significant relationship among the importance of flexibility, the extent of flexibility, and the level of students' satisfaction. This study could give the higher education institutions feedback on making flexible learning more suitable to the changing needs of the students. Further research on the applicability of flexible learning in other areas of the country and in other disciplines in the academe would give a better perspective on the compatibility of flexible learning in the Philippine university context.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Content Validity of the HIIT Training Program in Special Preparations to
           Improve the Dominant Biomotor Components of Kumite Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Dewangga Yudhistira   Wawan Sundawan Suherman   Arodotonafo Wiratama   Uden Kusuma Wijaya   Paryadi   Mohammad Faruk   Husnul Hadi   Samsuddin Siregar   Jufrianis   and Kukuh Wahyudin Pratama   Background: Kumite is a physical contact fight in a karate match characterized by short explosive and intermittent movements. Kumite needs endurance, power, and agility. To achieve optimal performance, special training must be programmed. Purpose: This study aims to test the content validity of the HIIT training program that was created in a special preparation to improve the dominant motor components, namely endurance, power, and agility in the performance of Kumite athletes. Methods: This is development research with a quantitative approach. This research was carried out in 3 stages. The first stage was to analyze journals, eBooks, and textbooks to design a HIIT program. This was followed by the second stage in the form of the Delphi technique by meeting directly with experts to conduct an assessment of the HIIT program created. The third stage is data analysis using the content validity ratio (CVR) formula to test content validity. Participants consisted of 10 experts and documents. Results: The results of the content validity test using the content validity ratio (CVR) formula found that all assessment items from 10 experts showed CVR values of 0.8 and 1.00. In other words, the assessment results can be categorized as having high content validity. Conclusion: The HIIT training program in special preparation to improve the dominant biomotor components of endurance, power, and agility developed by the author has high content validity so it is suitable for use in karate athletes, especially Kumite.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Weight Loss through Play-Based Physical Activity for Overweight Children
           Aged 9-12 Years

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Nawan Primasoni   Sugiyanto   Furqon Hidayatullah   and Muchsin Doewes   Overweight is the result of a complex interaction between several factors, both non-modifiable and modifiable factors. Modifiable factors include food consumption, lifestyle, and physical activity. If childhood overweight problems continue and are left untreated, it will have a significantly worse impact and can threaten their lives in the future. The most effective and safe method to lose weight is by doing physical activity. This study examines the effectiveness of a play-based physical activity model to lose weight for overweight children aged 9-12 years. This study used an experimental method by involving 20 overweight children aged 9-12 years. Bodyweight measurements were carried out in the control group and the experimental group. The collected data were analyzed using a t-test with SPSS 19 software. The results indicated that: (1) there is a significant effect of play-based physical activity on children's weight loss; (2) the play-based physical activity model is effective for reducing children's weight. The play-based physical activity model needs to be developed and implemented in schools as weight loss strategies for overweight children. The results of this study can be used by sports teachers, instructors, parents, and stakeholders to jointly solve the children's overweight problem. Due to the benefits of physical activity for overweight children, other types of physical activity that can be practiced individually without reducing its enjoyment and satisfaction should be further studied and developed.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • A Study of Learning Physical Fitness Activities Based on Traditional
           Balinese Sports Games for Students' Physical Fitness

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  I Ketut Hendry Wijaya Kusuma   Moch. Asmawi   Hernawan   Firmansyah Dlis   Widiastuti   and I Nyoman Kanca   The implementation of traditional game-based learning aimed at improving students' physical fitness is very important to do. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the comparison of learning physical fitness activities based on traditional Balinese sports games for the physical fitness of students in junior high schools in Denpasar City. This study used a survey research design using a quantitative approach with a comparative descriptive design. Where, the sample in this study amounted to 200 junior high school students obtained based on cluster sampling technique. The instrument used was the ACSPFT test for junior high school students. The data analysis used includes descriptive statistics (mean, min, max, category) and inferential statistics using MANOVA followed by the Poshoc Tukey test and independent sample t-test. The integration of local wisdom in this case is traditional games in learning very well, in addition to strengthening and introducing local culture, integrating traditional games into learning will make it easier for teachers to teach the learning they want to teach, especially in Physical Education subjects. Physical education is very compatible with the character of traditional games that make children play, which contains elements of cognitive, affective, psychomotor. Moreover, Physical Education for junior high schools in its implementation must generate student interest in learning Physical Education, so one of the learning methods is by using traditional games. Traditional games can be used as an alternative in junior high school physical education. Because traditional games contain elements of play, they are not bound by many rules such as competition which will improve students' physical fitness. Due to the physical fitness of students will be formed, if physical activity is carried out continuously for a long time and is sustainable.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Does the Implementation of the Management Function Have an Impact on
           Service Quality' A Study at the HSC Fitness Center

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Ahmad Nasrulloh   Sumaryanto   Sumarjo   Sigit Nugroho   and Muhammad Sigit Antoni   The management of a fitness center needs to apply good management functions in order to improve the quality of its service. HSC Fitness Center is one of the public services which are engaged in physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the application of management functions on service quality at the HSC Fitness Center Yogyakarta. This research uses qualitative and quantitative approaches (mixed method) with data collection techniques through observation, interview, documentation and questionnaire methods. The data sources of this study consisted of directors, managers, front office staff, fitness instructors and members of the HSC Fitness Center. Data collection on the application of management functions is obtained from observations and interviews with data sources, while data on service quality is known by using an instrument in the form of a questionnaire. Based on the results of research and discussion, it can be concluded that the overall HSC Fitness Center Yogyakarta has implemented management functions in the form of planning, organizing, placing, directing, and controlling optimally. This implementation has a positive impact on service quality which includes several factors: reliability, tangibles, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Analysis of Force Transfer between Feet during Backhand Short Serve in
           Elite Badminton Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Vorramate Prajongjai   Saowanee Woravutrangkul   Tatpicha Pongsiri   and Nongnapas Charoenpanich   The original badminton scoring system has been changed into the rally 21-point scoring system since 2006. The alteration allows badminton players to capably score a point in the first shot as service, causing them to equip themselves with faster-and-more precise style of play. Backhand short serve is most frequently used, especially in doubles, to improve the game situation as the players get an opportunity for attacking their opponents, and easily getting a score. The backhand short serve is executed by an upper part of the body which diagonally sends a shuttlecock over the net to land in a receiver's area within boundary line. Components of the service, however, are accompanied by not only the upper part of body but also the lower one. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the accomplice of the lower part through analyzing the force transfer between feet at back swing, forward swing and contact during backhand short serve in elite badminton players. Fourteen Thai elite badminton double players (eight men and six female) were chosen to participate in the study. Two force plates which got set up in front of a badminton court behind short service line, and eight motion capture cameras installed around the court were used. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in anterior-posterior peak ground reaction force between left and right foot at back swing phase (p=0.00), at forward swing phases (p=0.00) and at contact (p=0.00), and there was distinction in each phase of left foot between back swing with forward swing phase, back swing phase with contact, and forward swing phase with contact of medial-lateral peak force (p=0.008). Finally, right foot was found to show difference between back swing phase with contact, and forward swing phase with contact of vertical peak force (p=0.013). In conclusion, the ground reaction force was transferred from right foot to left foot for controlling the center of mass upon effective serving, and for preparing to hit the next shot.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Investigating Lecturers' Perceptions of the Performance of Computer-Based
           and Paper Pencils-Based for Assessing Sports Training Program during
           COVID-19

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Achmad Sofyan Hanif   Syeni Ratna Amelia   Fatah Nurdin   Hernawan   Uzizatun Maslikah   Meirizal Usra   Ruslan Abdul Gani   Edi Setiawan   and Hasanuddin Jumareng   The lack of information regarding exercise program assessment tools during the COVID-19 pandemic was the main gap in this research. The purpose of this study was to investigate lecturers' perceptions of computer-based and paper pencil-based performance to assess sports training programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, a combination of quantitative and qualitative (mixed) is used as a method. Participants in this study were male and female lecturers from Jakarta State University (N=15) and Sriwijaya University (N=10). Quantitative instruments use questionnaires and qualitative instruments use in-depth interviews with participants. Quantitative data analysis use the IBM SPSS version 25.0 to find descriptive data, namely mean, standard deviation and percentage of responses from participation. Meanwhile, qualitative data analysis use qualitative thematic data. The results of the study based on quantitative data found that the majority of lecturers strongly agreed to use computer-based instead of paper pencil-based to assess sports training programs. Meanwhile, research results based on qualitative data show that most lecturers favour computer-based over paper pencil-based during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, computer-based has better performance and advantages than paper pencil-based when used in the pandemic era. This research provides benefits for the development of science assessment tools in the field of sports.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Institutional Excellence in the Egyptian and Saudi Federations of Football
           in View of European Model of Excellence EFQM "A Comparative Study"

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Mohamed Soliman Mohamed Ghreeb   Ahmed Mohamed Abdelkader   and Sameer Mohammed Sayyd   Objectives: The research aims to identify the level of institutional excellence in the Egyptian and Saudi football federations in view of the dimensions of the European Excellence Model EFQM. Methods: The researchers used the descriptive approach, following the survey method, to accommodate it with the nature and procedures of the research in order to achieve the goal of the research and answer its questions. Results: The overall score for the average application of the dimensions of the European Excellence Model EFQM in the Egyptian Football Association research sample is 1.84, which is in the intermediate level raise the level of administrative performance of the Egyptian Football Association through the application of the dimensions of the European Excellence Model EFQM. It is clear that the average level of application of the dimensions of the European Excellence Model EFQM in the Saudi Football Association is 2.41. There are statistically significant differences between the averages of the answers about each of the Egyptian Football Association and the Saudi Football Federation in the application of the dimensions of the European Excellence Model EFQM and the overall degree of application of the dimensions of the European Excellence Model EFQM in favor of the Saudi Football Association. It is also evident that there are no statistically significant differences between the average answers about both the Egyptian Football Association and the Saudi Football Association in the application of some partnerships and resources.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Research on Selection of Tests to Assess Students' Physical Fitness at Ho
           Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education (Viet Nam)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Thanh Nguyen Duc   The purpose of this study is to select tests to assess physical fitness for students at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technical and Education (HCMC UTE). Through reference to scientific works that have been published in the country as well as abroad, the topic has synthesized 53 tests. On the basis of tests following the selection principles, the topic has omitted complicated and less common exercises, leaving 41 tests to include in the expert interview step. Proceeding a survey of 20 experts, lecturers of physical education and 600 students of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, finally, the study selected 15 tests including: 03 morphological tests [Standing height (cm), Weight (kg), BMI]; 08 fitness tests [Lying on your back with sit-ups/30s (times), Standing flexible with your body flexed (cm), Force of squeezing your dominant hand (KG), Jumping in place (cm), Long jump (cm), Shuttle running 4x10m ( s), Running 30m (s), Running 800m/1500m(s); 02 physiological tests [Vital capacity (l), Cardiac function (Hw)]; ); 02 psychological tests [Test Tapping (e), LanDolt Open Loop (bit/s)]. These tests have met the conditions such as convention, as well as ensure reliability and informability to be included in the physical assessment test of students of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education. The research results will be a useful basis for adjusting the content and curricula, contributing to improving the physical quality of graduates, meeting the labor requirements of the society.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Formation of Physical Readiness of Cadets for Professional Activity under
           the Conditions of Quarantine

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Oleksandr Mozolev   Andriy Chudyk   Valentina Miroshnichenko   Klavdiia Тushko   Valentyna Kupchyshyna   Anton Datskov   and Artur Gorbenko   The article analyzes the results of the formation of physical readiness of cadets aged 18-21 of the National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine for professional activity under the conditions of quarantine. The study involved 168 cadets of 2-4 years of study. The aim is to investigate the influence of motivational and value orientations of cadets on the results of conducting independent classes on the formation of physical readiness for professional activity under the conditions of quarantine restrictions. It is established that in the process of physical self-improvement, the conscious attitude of cadets to their own physical development, state of health, acquisition of professionally significant skills and abilities is formed. It is established that quarantine restrictions of motor activity negatively affect the growth of indicators of physical readiness of cadets to perform professional tasks. Purposeful independent physical exercises can be the alternative to traditional classes. Independent physical training of cadets during quarantine restrictions allows keeping physical qualities at professionally necessary level.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Profile: Interpersonal Communication Skills for Future Coaches

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Eko Purnomo   Amung Ma'mun   Nurlan Kusmaedi   Yudy Hendrayana   Yusuf Hidayat   Nina Jermaina   and Eddy Marheni   Interpersonal communication is the key to success in communication between coaches and athletes to understand and know the state of an athlete. The purpose of the study was to determine the interpersonal communication skills possessed by prospective trainers. The research method used a descriptive method with survey techniques related to the interpersonal communication skills of prospective trainers. The number of samples in this study was 105 samples with a sampling technique using purposive samples. The sample used in this study is a prospective trainer who has currently completed the basic material and is in the process of completing the advanced material. The results of this study obtained data: 1) Session 1: Sending clear messages, getting a score of 60% (Need more consistent attention); 2) Session 2: Listening Ability scored 56.19% (Need more consistent attention); 3) Session 3: Giving and Getting Feedback scored 60% (Need more consistent attention), 4) Session 4: Handling Emotional Interactions scored 60% (Need more consistent attention). These results are considered still not high enough, considering that prospective coaches will meet and deal with athletes who have very different characteristics. So, it is hoped that the prospective trainer can improve interpersonal communication skills (not only the ability to train). In this study, it is still limited to find out and collect data on the interpersonal communication skills of prospective trainers. Interpersonal communication improvement programs will be very possible for future research.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Effect of Responsibility-Based Aquatic Teaching on the Respect and
           Caring of Middle School Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Ermawan Susanto   Johan Irmansyah   Nur Indah Pangastuti   and Fifukha Dwi Khory   Accident cases in the aquatic teaching indicate that students have not yet formed an attitude responsibility. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an effect of responsibility-based aquatic teaching on respect and caring. This study used an experimental method with one group pretest-posttest design. The study population was eighth-grade students who studied the aquatic lesson (the experimental condition, n = 75). The research sample was selected using cluster random sampling. The 75 participants consist of 40 boys and 35 girls. The experimental test of the effect of the responsibility-based aquatic teaching was carried out for 10 sessions. By analyzing the paired sample t-test data, the results show that the students who took the aquatic lesson demonstrated that there is significant effect between responsibility-based aquatic teaching on increasing student' respect (p 
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Postural Stability Challenges in Narrow Walking after Traumatic Brain
           Injury

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Langenderfer Joseph E.   Mara R. Thompson   and Ustinova Ksenia I.   The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictability and complexity of gait under preferred and narrow walking conditions for groups of TBI and age matched control subjects in order to determine if non-linear measures may be appropriate for identifying gait deviations not detected with more routine techniques. Ten participants from each group walked at preferred gait and with a narrow base of support. Center of mass motion was calculated from marker motion recorded with motion capture. Measures of predictability and complexity of center of mass motion were calculated with Recurrence Quantification Analysis. Walking with a narrow base of support resulted in a less predictable center of mass motion (reduced %Determinism) for TBI and control groups (p=0.0019 and p=0.0008, respectively), but no difference was found between groups. For the TBI group, there was a significant decrease in complexity of center of mass motion (lower Entropy, p=0.0038) with narrow base of support compared to preferred walking, but no difference in Entropy was found between groups. These results suggest non-linear measures determined using techniques such as Recurrence Quantification Analysis might have potential to be valid and reliable measurement techniques for predicting gait deviations in future studies.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Improving Coordination of Young Footballers Aged 9-10 Years

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Sergey H. Sobko   Natalia H. Sobko   Tatiana V. Maleniuk   Victoria A. Babalich   and Halyna I. Panchenko   The purpose of the study was to examine how the upgraded system of training based on 12 exercises for the development of coordination abilities influenced the coordination of young footballers aged 9-10 years. The quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data in the study. The study used the quasi-experimental design that was based on the pretest-posttest measurements accompanied by observations. The experiment involved only one group and the results of the students before and after the intervention were compared. The study proved that the upgraded system of training based on 12 exercises for the development of coordination abilities influenced the coordination of young footballers aged 9-10 years. The system of training also improved the students' abilities to adjust and adapt motor actions; kinaesthetic differentiation of movements (ball sensation). The overall improvement was approximately 21% which was statically significant. The students were found to have improved in the seven coordination abilities. It was also found that there was shift in students' level of coordination from ‘low' to ‘average' and ‘above'.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Physical Literacy in the Culture of Physical Education in Elementary
           Schools: Indonesian Perspectives

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Johan Irmansyah   Ermawan Susanto   Ria Lumintuarso   FX. Sugiyanto   Ahmad Syarif   and Hermansyah   Several countries around the world have promoted, advocated, and developed the concept of physical literacy. The concept of physical literacy is being believed to offer alternative solutions in the future as an effort to overcome global problems related to the lack of interest in individuals in performing physical activity. This research aims to develop a model of physical literacy in the culture of physical education in elementary schools, reviewed from the perspective of West Nusa Tenggara and the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The research method uses a mixed method with sequential exploratory strategies. The research procedure consists of three phases; Phase 1. Design of Physical Literacy; Phase 2. Expert Consensus (n=8); and Phase 3. Practitioners Assessment (n=12). The results of the study in Phase 1, which was analyzed qualitatively, produced three main themes, namely; (a) theoretical foundation, (b) construction of physical literacy, and (c) operationalization of physical literacy. In Phase 2 and 3, which were analyzed quantitatively, experts and practitioners reached a statement of agreement regarding the physical literacy model which was developed, with a percentage value of 86.01% (Phase 2) and 91.84% (Phase 3). These results show that the physical literacy model developed is in accordance with the culture of physical education in elementary schools, and can be implemented in the physical education learning process.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Integrating Social Skills in Traditional Games with Physical Education
           Interventions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Dwi Hartanto   Nurlan Kusmaedi   Amung Ma’mun   and Bambang Abduljabar   This study was based on the previous research which found that traditional games given at the elementary level were significantly effective for the improvement of students' socialization in the classroom and the improvement of the quality of students' relationships between classes. This study aimed to examine whether traditional games could affect social skills. The design used in this research was a 3x2 factorial study with the randomized pretest-posttest control group design, while 90 samples were divided into three groups. The result of this research revealed that: 1) there were differences in social skills between groups given traditional games with social elements and groups given traditional games without any social elements. 2) Students with Dayak ethnic/cultural background showed better social skills and social behaviour than students with Malay and Javanese ethnic/cultural backgrounds. 3) Traditional games that contain social elements with Dayak cultural background had a better influence on elementary school students' skills and social behaviour than other groups. 4) There was an interaction between the types of traditional games with cultural/ethnic backgrounds of social skills, while for social behavior; there was no interactional relationship between the two.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Eight Days a Week: Eustress and Distress among the Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Uhud Darmawan Natsir   Tenri S. P. Dipoatmodjo   Arjang Arjang   M. Hidayat   and Muhammad Yushar Mustafa   The athletes who are attached to coaching and training programs for long periods will have more potential of dealing with stress. In line with this phenomenon, this study indicates that a great number of professional athletes, specifically who formally registered in sports organizations in Makassar, Indonesia, are apparently disclosed on lack of better coaching and training program achievements, decreasing on their performance during coaching and training times, etc. Through the literature review, this study discloses that there is a lack of body of knowledge, specifically in East Region of Indonesia context explaining the effect of such disorders on professional athletes of Makassar. This study hence aims to investigate whether there is a possibility that stress exists among the professional athletes through the application of quantitative approach. There are 258 athletes considered as the population and 72 athletes as the research sample in this study. The results indicate that stress is confirmed statistically to have affected athlete performance and consequently indicate that the effect of stress is negative and significantly impacts the athletes' performance. This study therefore concludes that the stress issue is crucially urgent to be managed properly, especially in the sports field.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Study of Service Ability in Sepaktakraw (Effect Leg Muscle Power,
           Flexibelity and Self Confidence of Service Abilities)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Didin Tohidin   Endang Sepdanius   and Ahmad Arhadni Putra   Service is the basic technique in the Sepaktakraw game. Serve is the initial attack to earn points. To be successful in the implementation of this special technique in Sepaktakraw, a good physical condition and good psychological condition are needed. To see the effect of physical conditions and psychological conditions that have a direct and indirect effect on the ability to serve Sepaktakraw, a research on the ability to serve Sepaktakraw was carried out. The research method used is a quantitative method using a Path Analysis approach. The study population was the athletes of West Sumatra Sepaktakraw. The sampling technique was carried out by means of positive sampling and obtained 40 sepaktakraw athletes. The data obtained will be processed using data analysis techniques with the Path Analysis approach. The research instrument used are vertical jump for leg muscle explosive power, stand and rich test for flexibility, self-confidence questioner for self-confidence and service ability test instrument for service skill. The results showed that leg muscle explosive power has a direct effect on serviceability by 10.1%, flexibility has a direct effect on serviceability amounting to 39.81%, and self-confidence has a direct effect on serviceability amounting to 6.81%. Influence of explosive power through self-confidence on the service ability of sepaktakraw athletes is 19.2%. Influence of flexibility on serviceability through confidence in sepaktakraw athletes is 18.1%, and the influence of the variable explosive power, flexibility and self-confidence had an effect on serviceability amounting to 49.6%. However, the remaining 50.4% is influenced by other factors.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Effect of Joint Mobilization and Deep Neck Flexor Training on the
           Range of Motion in Adults with Non-specific Neck Dysfunction-A Pilot Study
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Kang Min-Bong   Shin Hee-Joon   Shin Hyeong-Su   and Jung Nam-Jin   This study was conducted to identify the effects of mobilization, deep cervical flexor training(DCFT), and mixed training on the mobility of adults with nonspecific neck dysfunction. Thirty adults with nonspecific neck dysfunction were selected as subjects through the Korean version of the neck disability index (K-NDI) and classified into a joint mobilization group, deep neck flexor training group, and mixed group. They were then subjected to an intervention for four weeks. To examine the effect of the intervention on the range of motion of the neck, the range of motion of the neck before and after the experiment was measured. As the result of the four-week intervention, the flexion and extension of the joint mobilization group and the mixed group increased significantly compared to that of the deep neck flexor training group (p < .05). As a result, joint mobilization and mixed training for nonspecific neck dysfunction were effective in increasing the range of motion of the neck. Based on these results, an intervention program including joint mobility can be effective in treating adults with nonspecific neck dysfunction caused by various factors.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Influence of Wearable Resistance Loading on Taekwondo Axe Kick
           Kinematics among Elite Taekwondo Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Ali Md Nadzalan   Mandra Janep   Ahmad Aqil Ahmad Jahizi   Nor Fazila Abd Malek   Tuan Muhammad Shafiq Tuan Ibrahim   and Nur Ikhwan Mohamad   Wearable resistance (WR) is an alternative proposed to be used in training with the aim to increase sport performance by allowing specific movements to be performed with additional loading. Although the benefits of allowing more sport-specific movement are undeniable, studies conducted on the effects of this WR in Taekwondo sport are scarce. This study aims to determine the acute effects of WR loading on Taekwondo axe kick kinematics. Twenty-four (n=24) state-level taekwondo athletes were recruited and were required to perform axe kick in four conditions by wearing a WR suit on their thigh and shank. Four different loadings were attached at the suit; i) 3% of body mass (3WR), ii) 5% of body mass (5WR), iii) 8% of body mass (8WR) and iv) without load (0WR). During the movement, movement kinematics (maximum kick height, angle between thighs, range of motion (ROM) of hip, ROM of knee, duration of power load, maximum speed of ankle, duration of drive and total time were analyzed for both dominant and non-dominant leg. Cameras attached to motion analysis systems were used to record participant's kicking kinematics. The kinematics data obtained were compared between each loading condition. Results showed that only wearing WR of 3% body mass did not change the kinematics of kicking (except for maximum kick height) as without WR. Wearing WR of 5% and 8% body mass caused significant changes to the movement kinematics when compared to without WR. To conclude, this study has added the knowledge on the alternatives for resistance training that can be performed among Taekwondo athletes. Through the findings of this study, it was found that wearing WR of 3% body mass is suitable for athletes during training session as they can maintain their technical effectiveness while also increase stimulus for body to adapt in long term while a minimum of 5 % body mass might affect the kicking technical efficiency. It is suggested for chronic studies to be conducted to determine the long term effects of WR loadings on the kicking techniques efficiency.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Current Application of the OSTRC Knee Injury Prevention Program among
           Professional Basketball, Handball, Soccer, and Volleyball Players in the
           Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Wesam Saleh A. Al Attar   Saud Alarifi   Ahmad Alanazi   Msaad Alzhrani   Shady Alshewaier   Saad Alhosayni   Sami Alharbi   Yasser Alraddadi   and Hussain S. Ghulam   Sports are associated with an increased risk of lower limbs injury that may significantly impact the quality of life for the athletes and negatively affected several functions of individuals for many years. For this reason, several injury preventions programs have been developed. These programs involved exercises that focused on core stability, balance, stretching, and strengthening. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) Knee Injury Prevention Program is an evidence-based injury prevention program designed and developed to prevent knee injuries. The implementation of injury prevention programs is a challenge in sports medicine. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the implementation of the OSTRC Knee Injury Prevention Program among professional basketball, handball, soccer, and volleyball players in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries. An online questionnaire to investigate the implementation of the program was dismissed to 500 professional players. A total of 433 players responded to the survey with a response rate of 86.6%. Basketball was the most practiced sport reported 119 (27.5%), followed by handball 109 (25.2%), then soccer 102 (23.6%), and volleyball 103 (23.8%). The highest percentage of participants were from UAE 79 (18.2%), and Saudi Arabia 78 (18%), followed by Oman 76 (17.6%), whereas an equal percentage of athletes participated from Bahrain and Qatar; 67 (15.5%), the least percentage was recorded from Kuwait 66 (15.2%). The most common exercises performed by the participants were squat+ 229 (52.9%), Nordic hamstring 225 (52%), single-leg sideways hop 223 (51.5%), jumping lungs 218 (50.3%), and flyer 217 (50.1%). This study concluded that implementation of OSTRC knee injury prevention exercise was low among participants, and the implementation was not statistically different between different sports or GCC countries.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Influence on Mitochondrial Energy (ATP), Lactate-Pyruvate- and
           Muscularity-Metabolism (CK): Cellular Magnesium Level and Magnesium
           Supplementation in Elite Sports

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Chanh Thuc Dao   Muscle injuries and lactate overload during training or at the end of the season, in top team sports, quickly preclude optimal results and participation. Is total magnesium deficiency responsible for these problems in elite athletes and whether magnesium supplementation improves their muscle metabolism or lactate-pyruvate-metabolism' Methods: In 55 elite athletes [male: 25 – female: 30 / soccer: 26 – Olympics: 14 – tennis: 15 – motorsports (DTM-Formula1): whole blood magnesium were determined. In 25 athletes serum and whole blood magnesium, creatine kinase (CK), venous pyruvate and lactate, and the mitochondrial energy level ATP were determined before and after 3 months of daily supplementation with 370mg magnesium and statistically correlated. A Spearman-ranking coefficient of correlation, a chi-quadrat-test by Pearson, and an independent t-test were used with p
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Effectiveness of Learning Freestyle Swimming Using the ISLAMT2E Based
           on Static Swimming Tools

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Andarias Ginting   Moch Asmawi   James Tangkudung   Raswin   and Anggi Setia Lengkana   Quality teaching is inseparable from the learning strategies applied in delivering material in theory and practice. However, implementing learning strategies that will provide meaningful learning and a learning atmosphere for students is not an easy matter because students are unique individuals, different from one another, especially in their cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects. Based on this, lecturers must have sufficient initiative, knowledge, competence, and adequate conceptual power to implement an effective lecture strategy. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of learning freestyle swimming by using the ISLAMT2E learning strategy for students. This study used an experimental method with a randomized pretest-posttest control group. The research subjects were 40 people in the experimental group and 40 people in the control group. The conclusion of this study proves that learning to swim freestyle using the ISLAMT2E strategy on static swimming tools has been proven to be effective in improving students' swimming skills. The magnitude of the increase in students' swimming skills in the experimental group was seven people (17.5%) in the low category, 33 people (82.5%) had the moderate category, and 0% high category. In the control group, the increase in swimming in the low category was 31 people (77.5%), nine people (22.5%) in the moderate category, and the high category 0%. This means that there are differences in learning outcomes of freestyle swimming skills between the experimental group and the control group.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Effects of Trunk Postures and Shoulder Flexion Angles on the Muscular
           Activity of Scapular Upward Rotators

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Jong-Rak Park   and Jong-Hyuck Weon   The forward bending posture is a risk factor that can cause musculoskeletal injury for workers working in industry. Previous studies have been largely concerned with examining the effects of turtle neck, slouched posture, and kyphosis on the scapular upward rotators. However, no studies have investigated the effect of forward bending of the trunk on the scapular upward rotators to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of forward tilting of the trunk and the shoulder flexion angle on the muscular activity of the Upper trapezius. The participant population comprised of 10 male adults and 20 shoulders in total were assessed. To begin with, EMG electrodes were attached to the upper trapezius muscles. The participants were instructed to perform isometric shoulder flexion at 120° angles in upright standing and forward bending postures. The muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography to obtain a root mean square value and was expressed as a percentage of the mean maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). A paired t-test was used to determine the changes in muscle activity according to trunk posture and a shoulder flexion angle. A paired t-test was performed at α=.05. The result of Significant main effect for trunk posture was found for the upper trapezius muscles(p
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Effect of Cervical Stabilization Exercises with Thoracic Spine
           Extension Exercises on Forward Head Posture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Li-Jun Yu   and Tae-Ho Kim   This study was aimed at comparing the effects of cervical stabilization exercises with thoracic spine extension exercises and cervical stabilization exercises with breathing exercises on head posture in subjects with the forward head posture (FHP). FHP is a poor habitual neck posture that is defined by the forward translation of the cervical vertebrae and hyperextension of the upper cervical vertebrae. Continuous FHP adds the load to posterior cervical structures, for instance, ligament, and transforms scapular kinetics and kinematics, and affects the quality of life and activities of daily living. The study included 30 adults with FHP, with 15 participants in each group. The experimental group was asked to perform cervical stabilization exercises with thoracic spine extension exercises, and the control group was asked to perform cervical stabilization exercises with breathing exercises. After 4 weeks of exercise, the changes in head posture (cranial rotation angle and craniovertebral angle) were measured again. Craniovertebral angle and craniovertebral angle were assessed using digital, lateral-view photographs of the subjects in their usual standing postures. The results showed that there was a significant difference between experimental group and control group before and after exercise (p < 0.05). In between-group comparison, there were significant differences noted in craniovertebral angle and cranial rotation angle in the experimental group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Both two groups affect cranial rotation angle, craniovertebral angle, and postural alignment, but it is believed that cervical stabilization exercises with thoracic spine extension exercises directly affect the thoracic and cervical spines. As a result, cervical stabilization exercises and thoracic spine extension exercises are recommended to improve postural alignment.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Effects of the Biofeedback Units during PNF Pattern on the Abdominal
           Muscle Activity and Pelvic Rotation Angle in Patients with Chronic Back
           Pain

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Jin Park   Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide clinical information by comparing abdominal muscle activity and lumbopelvic rotation angle according to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) lower pattern with pressure biofeedback unit or PNF lower pattern without pressure biofeedback unit in patients with chronic back pain. Methods: In this study, 20 patients with low back pain were instructed to perform PNF lower pattern with biofeedback unit and PNF lower pattern without biofeedback unit. Surface electromyography data were collected from the ipsilateral internal oblique (IIO), contralateral external oblique (CEO), ipsilateral rectus abdominal (IRA) muscles, and lumbopelvic rotation angle were measured using the motion analysis device. Results: The activation of all abdominal muscles was found greater in PNF lower pattern with biofeedback unit than that PNF lower pattern without biofeedback unit. The degree of lumbopelvic rotation angle in PNF lower pattern with biofeedback unit was found lower than that PNF lower pattern without biofeedback unit(p
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Physical Education Teachers' Understanding of the 2013 Curriculum

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Bayu Hardiyono   Riyan Pratama   Arif Hidayat   and Hartati   This study aims to determine the level of understanding of the teachers in physical education, sports, and health in Muara Padang sub-District about 2013 Curriculum Learning. The research method used in this research is quantitative descriptive. The sample in this study is elementary school teachers in Line 20, Muara Padang sub-district, Banyuasin district with a total of 34 teachers. This study uses 3 indicators, namely understanding the PJOK learning syllabus in the 2013 curriculum, understanding the principles of preparing RPP in learning PJOK in the 2013 curriculum, and understanding the methods in learning PJOK in the 2013 curriculum. The PJOK learning syllabus in the 2013 curriculum got an average score of 54.8 with a percentage of 35.3% and was included in the high category, then for the level of understanding of PJOK teachers in understanding the principles of preparing RPP in learning PJOK in the 2013 curriculum, they received an average value of 43.16 with a percentage of 29.43% and included in the high category, then the level of understanding of PJOK teachers in understanding the methods of learning PJOK in the 2013 curriculum got an average score of 43.04 with a percentage of 38.23% and entered in the high category.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Effectiveness of the Fitness Program «WAY TO A HEALTHY LIFE»

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  5  Maryna Khmara   Oleksandr Mozolev   Inna Yashchuk   Oleksandr Alieksieiev   Vasil Kravchuk   Yuriy Dolynniy   Ihor Tomkiv   Oleksandr Binkovskyi   and Vasyl Prontenko   The article analyzes the results of testing the effectiveness of the author's fitness program "WAY TO A HEALTHY LIFE" and identifies its impact on physical and morphofunctional indicators of student development during quarantine restrictions. The study involved 149 students aged 17-19 of Khmelnytskyi of Humanitarian-Pedagogical Academy. Methods: Analysis of scientific and methodological sources, pedagogical modeling, pedagogical experiment, pedagogical observation, methods of functional state research (Ruffier test, Stange, Genchi, Yarotskyi, Recovery time after 20 squats), methods of physical condition research (running on the spot for 10 seconds; squats for 30 seconds, hyperextension, twisting the log scale (cm), lifting the torso to the buttocks from a supine position behind the head for 30 seconds, maintaining the position of the stop lying on the forearm, maintaining balance while standing on one leg with arms outstretched), methods of mathematical statistics. Results: The students of the experimental group improved their functional indicators of the development of the cardiovascular, respiratory systems and vestibular stability. The increase was: the Stange test + 7.3 ± 0.5 (s) (p
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Determining the Dynamic Balance, Maximal Aerobic Capacity, and Anaerobic
           Power Output of University Soccer and Rugby Players: A Cross-Sectional
           Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Mohammad Ahsan   and Mohammad Feroz Ali   Physical performance characteristics of players have been changed rapidly as team games have become more competitive. Research focusing on the anthropometrical and physiological characteristics of players and the demand of competition are reviewed. The dearth of research for today's elite players was highlighted, along with the need for standardized testing protocols. This research was conducted to investigate the differences in physical performance characteristics between soccer and rugby players with standardized testing protocols. A total of thirty-six male subjects (18 soccer players and 18 rugby players) were chosen for this study. The subjects had an average age of 20.50±1.36 years, a height of 175.28±5.554 cm, weight of 67.73±6.47 kg, and BMI of 22.01±1.01. Any player who had a musculoskeletal injury in their lower extremity or had a record in the previous three months was excluded from the research. Dynamic balance was determined using the Y Balance Test. The Beep test assessed maximal aerobic capacity, and the vertical jump test evaluated the anaerobic power output of the lower body. An independent t-test was applied to determine the differences between soccer and rugby players. Our finding showed that there were insignificant differences for dynamic balance (t=-1.31, p=.19), maximal aerobic capacity (t=.94, p=.35), and anaerobic power output (t=-.403, p=.69) between soccer and rugby players. Findings are also evident for the decrease in anaerobic performance with increased maximal oxygen capacity in soccer players while anaerobic performance increases and maximal aerobic capacity decreases in rugby players. Functional tests for performance parameters should be considered when planning to train players, predict performance, and identify sports talent.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Psychometric Properties at Indonesian Version of the Sport Anxiety
           Scale-2: Testing on Elite Athletes of Papua, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Miftah Fariz Prima Putra   Tri Setyo Guntoro   Yos Wandik   Saharuddin Ita   Evi Sinaga   Rodhi Rusdianto Hidayat   Eva Sinaga   Junalia Muhammad   Friska Sari Gracia Sinaga   Remuz Maurens Bertho Kmurawak   and Agnes Supraptiwi Rahayu   This study aims to adapt and validate the Indonesian version of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2Id). Data were obtained from a total of 268 (male = 154 and female = 114) elite athletes of Papua Indonesia with an age range of 16 to 43 years (M = 22.40 ± 5.01). Furthermore, language adaptation and validation were carried out through a forward-backward translation process using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An internal consistency approach was used to test for the reliability based on Construct Reliability (CR). The results evaluating the fit of the models showed that the SAS-2Id fits based on RMSEA, CFI, TLI, and PNFI. The three dimensions of SAS-2Id had standardized coefficient values from .77 to .81, with a significant p-value of ≤ .001. The SAS-2Id item factor loading values ranged from .51 to .88, indicating that it is above the recommended threshold (≥ .50). Furthermore, the reliability test carried out using the internal consistency approach discovered that the dimensions of worry (AVE = .60) and concentration disruption (AVE = .50) were above the recommended cutoff points. In contrast, the somatic dimension had the lowest value (AVE = .35). However, from the other two reliability test parameters, it was discovered that the CR and Cronbach's Alpha values were from .73 to .88 and .71 to .88, respectively, which indicated good reliability values. Therefore, the psychometric property at the Indonesian version of the SAS-2 is a valid and reliable measuring instrument for anxiety levels.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Analysis of the External and Internal Load in 4vs4 Large Sided Games:
           Differences between Fields of Different Sizes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Italo Sannicandro   Andrea Piccinno   Rosa Anna Rosa   and Giacomo Cofano   This study aims to describe and analyse the internal and external load deriving from LSG exercises carried out on two fields, defined as SLSG and BLSG, in the 4vs4 format, with goalkeepers. 22 professional soccer players participated (average age: 23.59±4.87 years, weight: 77.8±7.6 kg; height: 183.5±7.5 cm) including 20 forward players and 2 goalkeepers; the goalkeepers were not considered in the data collection of the external and internal load. The LSG 4vs4 + 2 goalkeepers exercises were carried out on a natural grass playing field. The exercises were performed on a field 55x49m (269.5 m2 per player) defined as "small" (SLSG) and on a field 60 x 54 meters (324 m2 per player) defined as "big" (BLSG). The results of the internal load analysis show how the BLSG provides higher and more significant HR values than those emerged during the SLSG exercise. Instead, the analysis of the external load related to the observed and described parameters shows that the values emerged from the exercise carried out on the BLSG are higher, except for the distance travelled by walking (
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Analysis of Single Leg Squat and Single Leg Landing Performance
           Variability among Professional Soccer Players Across a Season

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Msaad Alzhrani   Ahmad Alanazi   Mazen Alqahtani   Mohamed Sherif Sirajudeen   Lee Herrington   and Richard K. Jones   Objectives: This study investigated the performance variability between limb type (dominant versus non-dominant leg) with regard to time (over season with three categories: pre-, start- and end-season) of professional soccer players. Methods: A total of 88 out of 124 male soccer players aged 16-30 years were asked to perform the specific athletic tasks single leg squat (SLS) and single leg landing (SLL) during different times in a full sports season. These functional tasks were evaluated using outcome measures of coefficient of variation, including frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and hip adduction angle (HAA). Results: No significant difference was observed across all events between the dominant and non-dominant leg of the participants between screening sessions over time, for both SLS and SLL functional activities, except for one event in both second-order coefficient of variation for FFPA (FPPA V2) and HAA in SLS (at the start of season, p =0.006). The variations in FPPA and HA are clinically irrelevant, as no statistically significant differences were observed between limb types (dominant versus non-dominant leg) between screening sessions over a season, thereby suggesting that the performance variability is fairly consistent over time. Conclusions: There is consistency across the sports season in the performance variability of SLS and SLL.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effect of Unilateral and Bilateral Training Circuit with Ladder Drill
           and Plyometric Cone on Speed, Agility, Reaction and Balance of Elementary
           School Students in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Ashar Ashar   Hari Setijono   and Edi Mintarto   The purpose of this study was to examine and analyze the effects of using unilateral and bilateral circuit training with ladder drills and plyometric cones on the speed, agility, reaction, and balance abilities of elementary school students. The subjects of this study were 28 students in grade 5 of SDN Bawakaraeng II Makassar City, male, aged 10–11 years. The type of research used is quasi-experimental research with a quantitative approach. The results of ordinal pairing were divided into 4 groups. This study found that after the training, students who received the training of unilateral and bilateral circuit latter drills showed significantly increased on agility by 3.1 seconds and 2.4 seconds respectively. The balance also showed substantially rising by 8.9 and 6.6 seconds, with p value
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Instrument Speed Endurance Test of Pencak Silat Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Suwirman   Sepriadi   Nurul Ihsan   and Deswandi   Pencak silat is a branch of martial arts that really requires good physical condition to be able to achieve maximum performance. One of the most needed physical conditions is speed endurance. However, at this time, there is no instrument to measure speed endurance specifically for the branch of pencak silat. In pencak silat matches, the dominant technique used by fighters to carry out attacks and get value is kicks. Therefore, in the implementation of this designed test, the kick technique is used. The target to be achieved in this study is the birth of a standard instrument to measure the speed endurance of pencak silat athletes. This research is a development research that aims to develop a special speed endurance instrument for athletes in pencak silat. The stages of this study began with an analysis of the needs of the physical condition in pencak silat. After that, the next stage is carried out, namely the making of speed endurance instrument designs for pencak silat athletes. Before conducting field trials, expert validation is first carried out by involving experts in the field of pencak silat, namely pencak silat trainers, sports test and measurement experts, and sports physiology experts. Field trials were carried out by direct testing of the research sample involving 100 male and 60 female pencak silat athletes. This trial is to determine the validity and reliability of field data and to determine test norms. The data analysis technique was done by using the percentage technique. The results showed that: the instrument of speed endurance developed is suitable for use as a measure of the speed endurance of pencak silat athletes with a validity of 0.95 and a reliability of 0.97.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Efficient Archery Posture Training Analysis of Archery Performances for
           the Talent Development and Excellence Achievements

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Chaturong Hemara   Pravet Ketkan   Juthamas Singchainara   and Toansakul Tony Santiboon   The design of effective archery skills of archers for the excellence of international games was analyzed. The time taken for each shot between an arrow scored 10 points, and compared an arrow scored under 10 points with a sample size of 31 archers with international competitions‟ experiences for 6 times on Actual Form (scoring of 79% before their participation) and Preferred Form (scoring of 86% after they trained and practiced) Skills for the Archer Performance Skill (APA) Form, differently. The adaptation of the Archery Skill Analysis Assessment Form (ASAAF) was assessed. Assessing associations between the archery skill and the abilities of archers in their actual and preferred forms, their efficient archery posture training with archery performances for the excellence achievements is related to two variables, relatively. The efficient predictive R2 values indicate that 51% and 69% of the variances in archery abilities are related to their archery performance skills‟ achievements. Analysis of archery skills comprises 10 skills, such as, stability, hooking, drawing, anchoring, loading/transfer to hold, physical strength and stability, developing intense focus and concentration, aiming, releasing, and following through skills that are trained and practiced by professional archery expert. The study is very important, which is one of only a handful of studies in archery sport in Thailand, and represents one of the only studies worldwide that has focused on archery sport to improve the analysis of efficient archery posture training for excellence achievements. It may solve problems that have been accumulated for a long time.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Enhancing Individual with Disability Citizenship through Participation in
           Sport Activities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Ashraf Kan'an   Malek Jdaitawi   Nagla Eltanahi   Marwa Kholif   Nour Taha   Nahed Nasr   Noha Awad   and Nael Anabtawi   Recently, social and sport activities are important in improving individual health and promoting social integration. Human rights research among disabled individuals is relatively new and along with it, the call for citizenship development in the same demographic is just being initiated. The aim of this study is to investigate the key role of sports activities participation in the promotion of citizenship among disabled individuals. A descriptive study design was implemented using a survey which was adapted to collect data from a sample of 50 participants. A total of 50 participants in a group of special needs with the age of 15-44 years old participated in the study. As for the results, the participants performed moderate levels on the study variables (citizenship and sport participation). The results also illustrated that there were no significant differences on the study variables based on the participants gender and age groups. Added to this, the results showed that there was a significant relationship between sport participation and citizenship dimensions such as active, semi and passive citizenship. The study results extended literature concerning sport activities participation and citizenship behavior and provided evidence to the sport participation role in boosting citizenship. Based on the results, the study recommended to organize several sport activities among individual with special needs in order to help them to engage in the community as well as to improve their citizenship levels. Finally, practical implications are outlines.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Biomechanical Analysis of Sports Dance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Ganna Dorosh   Liudmyla Mova   Kateryna Lukianenko   Lidiia Shestopal   Daria Dehtiar   and Liudmyla Hladka   Sports ballroom dancing is a type of sports activity that makes serious demands on the development of new motor actions, the manifestation of reaction speed, the ability to concentrate and switch attention, and many more parameters. Success in sports dance competitions depends not only on natural skills but also to a greater extent on a sportsman's practical training. The analysis of the biomechanics of sports dance and the characteristics of the sportsman's dynamic data suggest assessing the feasibility, efficiency, improvement of the technique of the performed motor action, which determines the goals of the development of the motor abilities of young sportsmen at an early stage. Based on knowledge of biomechanics, it is easier for a teacher to teach his pupils. But for this, it is necessary to be able to analyze motor activity and indicate the direction of active search, form a motor task and, based on the foundations of biomechanics, the necessary fundamentals of technology. Information about the biomechanical structure of the movement is used both in the formation of the technique of motor actions of beginner dancers and in its improvement in qualified dancers. This is what determines the relevance of the study; therefore, the purpose of the article is to identify the features of movements in sports dances using their biomechanical analysis. The authors carried out a theoretical and methodological analysis of special literature on biomechanical analysis of sports dance, which allowed them to analyze the movements of two dances. The analysis made it possible to reveal the peculiarities of the performance of these dances, which means that making adjustments to special preparatory exercises with a similar amplitude of the knee joints will lead to better training of sportsmen. Also, this analysis effectively improves the skill level of performing dance steps by experienced dancers because it clearly shows all the features of the movement at a particular moment.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Using Movement Games in Physical Education Class to Improve Physical
           Fitness and Stabilize Vestibule for Children Aged 6 to 7 years

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Chanh Thuc Dao   The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of motor games to improve physical fitness and vestibular stability in primary school students aged 6-7 years. The study was carried out based on semi-boarding primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study was carried out with 142 students in grade 1 and grade 2, who are divided into four groups (male and female experimental group; male and female control group). The indicators of fitness status and vestibular stability of 6-7-year-old students before and after using motor games during PE lessons showed superiority compared to the control group. The study showed positive effects of guiding motor games and outdoor games on fitness status and vestibular stability. The indicators of fitness and vestibular stability of students in the experimental group are higher than the control group and their reliability (р< 0.05). Therefore, it is important to research and select the movement games suitably for the characteristics and interests of students and organize their application in practice. In reality, through the process of using conventional scientific research methods in the field of physical education, this study has selected four new movement games to help develop physical fitness and vestibular stability for primary school students aged 6-7 years old in Ho Chi Minh City and apply it in practice. The study process is carried out in two forms: Educational outdoor activities and extracurricular activities in the Physical Education period. The initial results of the application showed that the selected motor games have developed physical strength, stabilized the vestibule for primary school students aged 6-7 in Ho Chi Minh City, and created excitement in the physical education classes for primary school students.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Golf Learning: 3D Kinematics Approach to Long Drive Swing Shot

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Agus Rusdiana   Hadi Sartono   Angga M Syahid   and Tian Kurniawan   The aim of this study is to determine the difference between long drive swing mechanical movement and ball velocity among skilled and unskilled golfers using a 3D kinematics approach. The method used was descriptive quantitative, and the data analysis technique was an assessment of the average test difference. Moreover, the sample was 6 skilled and 6 amateur male player groups, with an average height of 1.67 ± 2.43 m, weight 72.4 ± 86.3 kg, and age 25.4 ± 36.2 years. According to the results, four indicators revealed significant differences among the ten kinematics variables investigated, including club speed at impact (P = 0.038), lateral bend after impact ball (P = 0.041), hip rotation at the top (P = 0.045), and shoulder rotation (P = 0.028). In summary, the long drive swing technique in producing maximum ball speed is dependent on the harmonization of the motion sequence from the lower body to the swing of the stick. Furthermore, the rotational speed of the hip joint at the beginning of the downswin followed by the shoulder angular velocity is a movement characteristic of professional players.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effectiveness of Application of Moodle Software in Traditional Sports
           Game Courses

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Zihan Novita Sari   Arief Darmawan   Surya Adi Saputra   Qorry Armen Gemael   and Oktariyana   This research aims to determine the effectiveness of Moodle software to improve student learning outcomes in traditional sports game courses. This research uses a quantitative approach. The design used in this study is the pretest-posttest control group design. This research uses a student cognitive test instrument to measure the increase in student learning outcomes in traditional sports game courses. Based on the results of the test of information on the ability test of student learning outcomes with the test subject again 40 students (20 students for the experimental class and 20 students for the control class) obtained a significance value (sig.) in both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test or the Shapiro-test. Wilk 0.05 so that the data are normally distributed. Then, the test was carried out using an independent sample test, the value of Sig. (2-tailed) was 0, 000< 0.05 so that Ho (Statistical Hypothesis) is rejected and Ha (Alternative Hypothesis) is accepted so that there is a significant average difference between the post-test results of the experimental group and the post-test of the control group. Based on the N-Gain score test, the average N-gain score for the experimental class was 0.7, the findings were 0.85 in the high category. Meanwhile, the average N-gain score for the control class is 0.3, which is 0.34 with a low type. So it can be concluded that the implementation of Moodle software can improve student learning outcomes in traditional sports game courses.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • TennBasTech: A Scientific Approach to Teach Tennis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Gumilar Mulya   Anggi Setia Lengkana   and Resty Agustryani   From a curriculum perspective, technology has two meanings; as a tool and as a system. Technology as a tool supports the learning process, and technology as a system is related to the curriculum planning stage. Both curriculum planning and technology are objectives. Appropriate technology in every learning or training during the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to apply effectively and efficiently. The expected situation does not work as well as it should be. Therefore, this study investigates the effectiveness of using Android-based TennBasTech application technology to teach tennis with a scientific approach to young athletes aged 10 to 11 years. This study used an experimental method with a pretest-posttest-one-group design to test TennBasTech application in the scientific approach to teach tennis. The instrument used is the service accuracy test, the Groundstroke Forehand test and the Backhand drive test. The sample consisted of 35 participants of both male and female students. As a result, applying a scientific approach using the TennBasTech Android-based application contributes significantly in supporting young athletes to learn tennis at home. It is due to participants' interest in using some of the features in the application to help participants learn every movement well repeatedly. The limitation in this study lies in the form of evaluation that must be carried out by students not yet listed in the application. So for the following application development, research must include an evaluation model to make it easier for students to control their abilities.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Effect of Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Exercise on Quality of Life in Stroke
           Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Mahmoud Y. Elzanaty   Mai M. Gamal   Gehan M. Ahmed   Amira M. Abdel Rahman   and Rania M. Tawfik   Background: Stroke is one of the world's leading causes of death and long-term lack of ability. Objectives: This study aimed to test the effect of aerobic versus anaerobic exercise on stroke patients' quality of life. Methods: Thirty male patients with stroke enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into three groups at random: two research groups (GA) and (GB) and one control group (GC). A traditional physical-therapy program was provided for the control group (GC) including: Passive Range of motion exercises for tightens muscles, Facilitation for weak muscles through: PNF technique, quick stretching. Besides traditional physical therapy, an aerobic exercise was performed by the patients in a study group (GA). Other than traditional physical treatment, patients received anaerobic training in the study group (GB). The session time for each group was 50-60 min; it is conducted three times a week for eight weeks. The Outcome Measures: The Arabic version of a short form dimension test (SF-36) used to assess the QOL items of the SF-36 were divided into eight different domains. All groups were evaluated before and after intervention with a QOL questionnaire (SF36). Results: There was a statistical meaningful increase in physical functioning, (vitality) energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, social functioning, pain and general-health in study groups (GA), (GB) compared with that of control group (GC) after therapy. However, there was no significant difference between groups in role limitations due to physical health and role limitations due to emotional problems. There was no meaningful difference in the quality of life items within groups (GA), (GB) after therapy. Conclusion: Eight weeks of training revealed non-significant difference between aerobic and anaerobic groups. However, either aerobic or anaerobic training has a beneficial effect on quality of life in stroke patients.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Comparing Performance of Different Team Selection Methods Using Fantasy
           League Scoring System

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Bireshwar Bhattacharjee   and Dibyojyoti Bhattacharjee   Several authors of late have contributed significantly towards developing mathematical models for selecting the best possible team from a host of players in different team sports, including cricket. The performance of cricketers on the different skill sets of the game, such as batting, bowling, and fielding, is considered for selecting optimum teams. Most of these mathematical models are divided into two parts. The first part tells about a method that can quantify the performance of cricketers, and the second part tells about a method that can select a squad of players from a more extensive collection of players based on the value of their performance, taking into consideration the different constraints of team selection and expertise of players. The teams formed through different methods cannot be made to play against each other, so there is no direct way to find out which method delivers the best team. Also, no competition between optimum teams obtained through different methods was ever performed in the absence of objective methodology for such comparison. This paper attempts to compare different team selection methods and identify the best mathematical model for team selection in cricket using the fantasy league scoring system.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effectiveness of Constraints-Led Training on Skill Development in
           Football

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Tiziana D'Isanto   Felice Di Domenico   Francesca D'Elia   Sara Aliberti   and Giovanni Esposito   This study aimed to examine whether constraints-led training improved technical skills in young football players. Twenty-four Under-13 amateur football players were divided into two groups: the experimental group (CLA; n = 12) participated in the Constraints-led training protocol; the control group (n = 12) performed conventional training sessions based on the cognitive approach. The study consisted of a pre-test, two months of training intervention, and a post-test. Contextualized technical skills were tested using the Speed dribbling Test. The experimental CLA group recorded notable improvements in the observation variable, respectively: (d [95% CI] = 0.90 [0.70; 0.94] P 0.05). From the ANOVA repeated measurements, it was possible to appreciate a significant group x moment interaction, respectively: (d [95% CI] = 0.77 [0.54; 0.85] P
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Inter-Rater Reliability and Intra-Rater Reliability Testing of My Jump 2
           Mobile Application in Measuring Countermovement Jump

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Muhammad Faiz Alias   Hosni Hasan   Mohd Syafiq Miswan   and Daniyal Donny Man   My Jump 2 is a mobile application that is objectively valid and reliable to measure vertical jumping height. The objectives of this study are to find the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the My Jump 2 mobile application in measuring countermovement jump (CMJ) height. A total of 25 male recreational athletes performed CMJ for five attempts and was recorded by using iPhone 7 Plus in 240 frames per second. The videos were then rated by three raters and rated again seven days later using the My Jump 2 mobile application. An excellent degree of reliability was found between rater measurements. The average measure ICC was 1.00 with a 95% confidence interval from 1.00 to 1.000 (F(124,248)= 18867201.171, p
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Effect of Volleyball Training Program to Improve Reaction Time

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Sri Mawarti   Nur Azis Rohmansyah   and Ashira Hiruntrakul   This study aims to analyze the difference in the effect of the side shuffle drill and shuffle reaction ball drill training methods on the reaction speed of volleyball athletes. The study is a 2x2 factorial blinded randomized controlled trial. This study was divided into 4 treatment groups, each group (9 athletes) is trained by a trainer who has the same qualifications and in the implementation of the training program 3 times a week training for 18 times with a span of 120 minutes using side shuffle drill and shuffle reaction ball drill and supervised by a trainer coordinator. Trainers who carry out the training program are drawn at random so that all have the opportunity to train one of the four groups. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the effect of side shuffle drill and shuffle reaction ball drill exercises on the reaction rate of volleyball athletes. The shuffle reaction ball drill method has been proven to have a significant effect on increasing the reaction speed of volleyball youth athletes.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Microstructure of Practice Activities Engaged by Elite Youth Soccer
           Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Mohd Faridz Ahmad   Jeffrey Fook Lee Low   and Ali Md Nadzalan   The objective of this study was to examine the microstructure of practice engaged by elite youth soccer players and compare it to non-elite soccer players. A total of twenty four training sessions (n = 24) were recorded (with 3 days per week, 3 d/wk) over 8 weeks of pre-competitive season. The microstructure of practice activities was divided into two main types that are Training Form (TF) and Playing Form (PF). The sub-activities in the TF consist of technical and conditioning activities while PF consists of tactical, match-play and small-side games (SSG) activities. The result showed that elite youth soccer players spent 46.8% in training form activities (46.8%) followed by playing form (34.7%) and others (18.5%) while non-elite players spent 45% in training form, followed by playing form (36.6%) and others (18.4%). No significant differences were found between the elite and non-elite groups. In summary, elite youth soccer players had spent time in practice activities begin from training form, followed by playing form and others during pre-competitive season. During pre-competitive phase, coaches seem to focus on activities to regenerate and improve the player's conditioning and technical skills since the nature of training for these types of practice activities that had been done in isolation or in small group session. Therefore, an investigation on the types of activities engaged between the different phases should be included in future research.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Role of Sports Dance in Ensuring the Motor Activity of Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Iurii Vasiutiak   Olha Babych   Olena Shoptenko-Ivanova   Anastasiia Zhuravlova   Nataliia Myroniuk   and Anzhelika Nebesnyk   Comprehensive harmonious development of the personality provides adequate physical activity; it is one of the main factors that determine the level of health of young people. Considering students' interests when choosing motor loads increases their motivation for physical culture and health-improving activity in the conditions of sectional work and independent physical exercises. Despite its popularity, sports have become a sport relatively recently, so there is still little research on this topic. The article is devoted to studying influence of sports dance on the provision of students' motor activity. The authors considered the essence and features of sports dance, theoretical and methodological foundations of youth student's motor activity, its principle, identified methods and forms of its control. The theoretical and methodological basis allowed the authors to conduct an experiment during which sports dances replaced one pair of physical education. The authors assessed the influence of sports dance on physical activity, emotional state and physical qualities of students. The experiment showed that the systemic reaction of the body in response to adequate physical activity contributes to its influence on structural and functional restructuring, which is characterized by the appearance of several physiological effects. The results of the experiment showed that sport dance influences the emotional state of students best of all. The authors also gave recommendations on the implementation of sports dance in physical education classes.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Formation of the Psychological Component of the Personality of the Setter
           of the Student Volleyball Team

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Sergey P. Garbuzov   Andrey I. Matsko   Larisa G. Chernysheva   Natalia L. Satosova   and Vachagan S. Avanesov   The psychological component of the personality of the setter player in volleyball is one of the urgent problems of our time. Based on a brief review of scientific research, the author concludes that various aspects of the problem were considered by psychologists, sports psychologists; trainers - educators; teachers of physical culture, etc. However, according to the author, it is necessary to consider the issue of the formation of the psychological component of the personality of the setter player (maintaining a favorable environment in the team), since this aspect of the problem is not sufficiently considered in scientific research. Having studied scientific research, the author comes to his own understanding of the psychological component of the personality of the setter player in volleyball. The theoretical substantiation of the problem and his own understanding of the psychological component of the personality of the setter player gave the author the opportunity to monitor the maintenance of a favorable environment in the student volleyball team, to identify the correspondence of the setter player to his role in maintaining a favorable environment in the team and to develop a methodology for the formation of the psychological component of the personality of the setter player in volleyball, which in the long term allowed the coach of the team to select the setter player, taking into account the psychological component of the personality. The aim of the study was to form the psychological component of the personality of the setter player of the student volleyball team. A complex of methods of psychological and pedagogical research was used in the course of the research to obtain a reliable result: survey, testing, observation and experiment. Based on the analysis of the research results, the author comes to the following conclusions: the setter player does not fully fulfill the function of maintaining a favorable environment in the team; the selection of a setter player for a volleyball team is carried out without taking into account the psychological component of the personality; maintaining a favorable environment in the volleyball team is at a low level; the setter player does not know how to control the situation in the team; the developed and tested methodology for the formation of the psychological component of the personality of the setter player of the volleyball team is effective.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Stabilometric Characteristics of the Skateboarding Athlete from the
           Romberg Test

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Carlos A Castillo-Daza   Jhonatan C Peña-Ibagon   and Luis Eduardo Rodríguez Cheu   This research aims to find the characteristics of motor control at the level of body stability in skateboarding athletes from the city of Bogotá through a Romberg test with eyes open and eyes closed. The present study is of a descriptive cross-sectional type and the sample selection for the development of this research was for convenience, for which a direct invitation was performed at different skateboarding clubs in the city and the league skating Bogotá who supports the sport. The sample population corresponds to 30 people with an age between 22.86 +/- 7.88 years. Participants developed Romberg test with a duration of 30 s and under the modalities eyes open and closed on a platform of plantar pressure and stabilometry BTS P-Walk. Significant changes were found in comparison of the open and closed eyes tests in the lateral flexion of the spine (LSF) with p=0.018, body center of gravity with p=0.043, left center of gravity with p=0.018, showing improvements in body stability evaluation with eyes closed. It is evident that skateboarding athletes due to the dynamics and sports development on an unstable base present a high level of stability represented in mediolateral and anteroposterior stability and variability radii close to zero, additionally it is observed that work at eye level closed generates a better sports adaptation from the vestibular and peripheral system for motor control and balance.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Effects of Net Height Scale on Badminton Performance and Satisfaction
           among Children

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Henry Kota Pirak   Mohamad Nizam Nazarudin   and Mohd Firdaus Abdullah   The height of the net scaling accordance with the physical size is important to improve performance and produce optimal shot kinematic characteristics in children. This study aimed to identify the average rate of optimal net height scaling among children aged seven to nine years. This study uses an experimental design with a total of 48 children randomly selected as study participants. Participants were divided into 24 pairs (boys = 12 pairs, female = 12 pairs) which were equivalent in terms of skill level and gender. All participants played against their respective pairs using four net height situations namely JP (155 cm), JM100 (127 cm), JM92 (117 cm) and JM82 (104 cm) situations reciprocally. All matches are conducted using a singles competition system with 11 points which is two sets per match situation. Data collection was done through video recordings and questionnaires. Shot performance was analysed from the aspects of serve success, shot chances and rally length. Participants' satisfaction with the four paired match situations was obtained through a questionnaire. Study data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0 program. The results of one-way ANOVA test for repeated measurements showed that there was significant mean score differences (p
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Knowledge, Competence of Indonesian Climbing Sports Athletes in the
           Prevention and Management of Injuries

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Yustinus Sukarmin   Ilham   Hakim Irwandi Marpaung   Ruri Famelia   Anton Komaini   and Galih Dwi Pradipta   Despite the growing pace of climbing sports in Indonesia, the level of injury prevention and management could be among extraneous factors that may impede the athlete's achievement in such game. As a lack of adherence to preventive strategies is problematic in injury avoidance, the main purpose of the study is to determine/find out whether there is a significant relationship between variances-variables and variable-indicators along with disclose the level of knowledge, resources, and the ability in injury prevention and management among athletes. The nature of the research is descriptive with the mixed method where its approach was tested using structural equation modeling involving 76 athletes from all Indonesian provinces. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 23) and Partial Least Square Structure Equation Modelling. Results showed that information about their level of knowledge and competence towards prevention and management of injuries was still needed for improvement based on the values of data harvested and analyzed. There should be a significant correlation among research variable and indicators. However, not all data justified such relationship, where for some P-calculated was greater than 0.05 as the conventional scale. It is recommended that a certain program be designed and implemented that may nurture the improvement of athletes' skills and knowledge by giving them service training for the same purpose.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Effect of PMR and AGR to Improve Mood States in Beginner Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Eddy Marheni   Eko Purnomo   Nina Jermaina   Afrizal S   Vega Soniawan   Rizki Burstiando   and Faradifta Tirta Ardita   The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) program and also Autogenic Relaxation (AGR) on improving mood in high jump beginners. The design in this study is a pretest-posttest control group design, which is a design that has a pretest before being given treatment. The participants used were high jump beginner athletes with an average age of 17-20 years. The total participants were 38 people. Then they are randomized and divided into 2 groups (PMR and AGR). A total of 20 samples were in the PMR group and 18 samples were in the AGR group. The results of the study are based on the calculation of independent samples test. It is known that the value of Sig (2-tailed) is 0.000
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Perception and Prevalence of Dietary Supplements among Gym Users in
           Nasiriyah City: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study in Thi-Qar Provence,
           Southern Iraq

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Farouk M. Sakr   Khansaa A. Hussein   Ammar M. Atiyah   Tarig M. Hassan   and Al-Saboonchi A. A.   Background: Dietary supplements (DSs) are widely used in gymnastics around the world to improve health, save energy and increase strength. However, consumers should be familiar with the required knowledge regarding the benefits and risks of these supplements. Objective: To assess the perception and prevalence of dietary supplements among Gymnastics users in the city of Nasiriyah. Material and methods: The study was a pilot descriptive cross-sectional survey of 150 Gymnastics both males (n = 75) and females (n = 75). The data were statistically analyzed and a "p value ≤ 0.05" was taken as statistically significant. Results: Participants Socio-demographic characteristics varied widely and were shown to be related to DSs information sources, purpose of use and beliefs. The coaches were the main source of information for males and the internet for females. Males generally use DSs for Bodybuilding, while females mostly use DSs for weight loss. Gymnastics consumed between 1-2 types of DSs with less consumption of three or more. Electrolyte drink, amino acids, vitamin D, calcium, Red Bull or similar, Omega-3, and slimming products were among the most common DSs. Weight gain, ephedra, and anabolic hormones were less often used. Conclusion: The majority of dietary supplement information was received from unreliable sources. The purpose of using DSs differed greatly between males and females and was related to social and demographic factors. The impact of Covid-19 has limited the size of our participants and more research is needed on wider sample of gymnastics after the pandemic to get a better understanding of the use of DSs and their potential impact on health.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Effectiveness of Teaching Style: An Alternative Breaststroke Swimming
           Learning Model in Higher Education

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Pringgo Mardesia   Firmansyah Dlis   Abdul Sukur   Rusdi   and Abdillah   This study aims to see the effectiveness of inclusive and command teaching styles in improving breaststroke swimming learning outcomes for students of Sports Education, Universitas Negeri Padang. This study used an actual experiment research design; posttest only control group designing, which received the inclusive style teaching method and the control group, and the command style teaching method. Participants in this study were students of Sports Education who were studying at Universitas Negeri Padang. The total number of participants is 32. Sixteen participants were in the experimental group (aged 19-20 years), while the control group consisted of 16 participants (mean age 19-20 years). The research was conducted for 16 weeks (2 hours per week) by completing pre-test and post-test. The data analysis was started by testing the normality of the variables and then testing the equivalence of the covariance matrix. The results showed that the inclusive teaching style gave positive results compared to the inclusive teaching style on breaststroke swimming learning outcomes. Because by using an inclusive teaching style, students can choose the desired level of learning based on their abilities. The results of this study provide an implication, especially as an alternative to increase the effectiveness of learning in breaststroke swimming for college students.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Pencak Silat Side Kick in Persinas ASAD: Biomechanics Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Fajar Awang Irawan   Muhammad Thoyibun Nomi   and Hsien-Te Peng   The basic technique of kicking in pencak silat was often overlooked due to the consideration of increasing the level of the athlete and not on competence or skill. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanics analysis of pencak silat side kick of Persinas ASAD. This study used quantitative research to obtain data derived from video recordings of sidekick movements that were analyzed using the Dartfish version 8. The total participants in this test were 30 Persinas ASAD martial arts athletes. This study recorded 30 martial arts athletes from Persinas ASAD with an average age (15.37 ± 1.45 years old), height (160 ± 7.9 cm), weight (50.37 ± 8.61 kg), and leg length (86.37 ± 5.73 cm). The results of side kick motion analysis data are obtained from the video analysis using Dartfish version 8 where the focus of the movement is divided into 3 main phases. These phases include the horse stance, the take-off phase, and the impact phase. The results found that the fighters are in the appropriate category. To get very appropriate category, the participants were expected to improve the ability of the components of speed, accuracy, and reaction speed to be more effective and efficient. Further research was expected to do a motion analysis using video recordings high speed camera on the frontal and sagittal angles.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • A Statistical Model for Prediction of Lower Limb Injury of Active
           Sportsperson

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Hemantajit Gogoi   Poli Borah   Lakshyajit Gogoi   Yajuvendra Singh Rajpoot   Tadang Minu   Joseph Singh   and Mantu Baro   For an active sportsperson, running is the most common physical activity, but it carries a high risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Half of the running injuries are identified as overuse injuries, with the most affected areas being the lower limbs. Previous studies had revealed several factors responsible for the development of running-related lower-limb injuries of sportspersons. However, there have been few studies aiming at predicting them. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a predictive model to predict lower limb injury of active sportsperson. The BTS G-WALK system synchronised with two GoPro Hero 6 cameras were used to conduct the study on seventy-five (N=75) healthy male subjects without any lower limb injury history. The BTS G-WALK system provided spatio-temporal parameters while Kinovea software was used to extract kinematic data from raw videos of treadmill running movement of the subjects. A prospective cohort study design was used to investigate how the difference in running gait kinematic affects the outcome of lower limb injury occurrences of active sportspersons. Further, a prediction model was developed using binary logistic regression, for which IBM® SPSS® version 25 was used. All statistical analyses were tested at 0.05 (p = 0.05) level of significance. The model indicated that Range of Pelvic Obliquity (RPO) and Maximum Toe Out (MTO) were positively and Symmetry Index (SI) was negatively associated with an increased likelihood of exhibiting lower limb injury. The model explained 85.7% variance and correctly classified 93.3% cases of lower limb injury of an active sportsperson. The risk factors for lower limb injuries of a sportsperson can be identified and prediction of lower limb injury of a sportsperson is theoretically possible. To generalize the model for practical implications, the researcher suggested further research with larger sample size.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Validity and Reliability of Positive Youth Development Inventory
           Indonesian Version

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Risma   Amung Ma'mun   Berliana   and Nuryadi   Positive Youth Development has become a hot topic of research in sports, physical education and physical activity. Positive Youth Development is a youth approach based on the belief that all young people have strengths and skills that can be developed when matched with the right resources. Positive Youth Development is a strengths-based perspective that focuses on developing skills and natural potential to promote healthy and adaptive development in young people. Positive Youth Development is one of the important factors in producing a superior generation. Therefore, it is necessary to have an instrument to measure Positive Youth Development. The article presents an analysis of the validity and reliability of the Positive Youth Development Inventory Indonesian version, which adopts from the original Positive Youth Development Inventory. Questionnaires are translated by linguists who have more than 10 years of experience. The number of appropriate question items is 53 out of a total of 55 question items, so the level of conformity is 96.3%. The 2 question items should be corrected by the expert, until they were appropriate and legible by the expert. Validity test uses Pearson Product Moment and reliability test uses Cronbach's Alpha. The results of the validity test showed that 55 items had Sig. < 0.05, so that 55 items are valid. The results of the reliability test with Cronbach's Alpha = 0.967> 0.6, so the instrument is reliable.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Relationship between Curriculum-Based Intervention and Fundamental
           Movement Skills among Preschoolers: A Systematic Literature Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Zheng Xin   Borhannudin Bin Abdullah   Nasnoor Juzaily Mohd Nasiruddin   Shamsulariffin Bin Samsudin   and Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh   Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are positively correlated with academic achievement, psychology, and participation in physical activities. However, many children's FMS are insufficient, which highlights the need for intervention. The study is aimed at investigating the influence of curriculum foundation intervention on the development of children's FMS and related influencing factors. We systematically reviewed the peer-reviewed articles published across 6 databases (Sport discus, Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science) on curriculum-based interventions for fundamental movement skills, typically among developing children aged 3-6 years. The risk of bias within the study was assessed using the Quality Assessment and Validity Tool for Correlational Studies (QAVTCS). A total of 14 articles that met the criteria were included, with 1849 participants from across five countries. About 92.9% of the studies reported a significant improvement in the children's FMS after the intervention. Besides the research report on the instruction strategy, teacher experience, gender, and delivery quality influenced the intervention effect of the children's FMS. In future studies, a more rigorous control design, rich theoretical framework, multi-site study, and different perspectives are needed to identify more influencing factors with regards to intervention and an improvement in the efficacy of the intervention.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effect of Tissue Flossing Technique on Sports and Injury Prevention
           and Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of Recent Research

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Gao Jianhong   Chee Chen Soon   Thung Jin Seng   Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh   and Shamsulariffin Samsudin   Flossband, as a novel and effective tissue flossing technique, is becoming increasingly popular in the field of athletic training, sports injury prevention, and rehabilitation. The purpose of this literature review is to summarize updated evidence about the effects of flossband application on joint range of motion (ROM), pain, muscle tightness, strength, and physical functional performance as well as identify research gaps for future study. Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science were used to search related articles. The keywords of floss bands, flossbands, floss band, tissue flossing, flossing band, voodoo floss band, voodoo floss bands, track floss, rock floss, life floss band, and Rogue voodoo floss were used to extract target articles. English journal articles, full-text available, and content related to outcome measures were included. Conference abstracts, books, case studies, guideline reviews were omitted. 23 full-text journal articles were included for further qualitative analysis after removing duplicates and deleting articles that violate the screening criterion. Flossband application on limbs, soft tissue, or joints with about 50% flossing tension or 150 mmHg wrapping pressure could have small to medium effects on the parameters of ROM, muscle stiffness, muscle strength, and physical function performance, and large effects on pain management. Most previous studies were mainly focused on the acute effect of flossband application on peripheral joints or soft tissues in healthy and active participants or well-trained athletes. Therefore, for future studies, more evidence is needed on the benefits of long-term flossband trunk application and concerning patients with various diseases.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effect of Diving for Different Years on CD34+ Stem Cells and Some
           Physiological Variables for Commercial Divers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Mohammed Nader Shalaby   Mona Mostafa Abdo Sakoury   Suhailah S. Al-jameel   and Ahmad Alghamdi   The current study set out to determine the effect of diving on several physiological variables and stem cells in commercial divers for various years. Twelve divers and six non-divers were divided into three groups: 11 non-divers (1st group), two divers with a diving history of 5-6 years (2nd group), and three divers with a diving history of 9-10 years (3rd group). Physiological measurements of pulse, blood pressure, dynamic breathing functions, stem cells CD34+, and cortisol were performed before and after physical exertion during a day dive at a depth of 25-30 meters in the pressure room. The results showed a significant difference in pulse, blood pressure, stem cells, and cortisol, while no change in dynamic breathing functions after exertion. Further, diving for different years may positively affect biological changes of stem cells CD34+ in the adaptation process but may harm dynamic breathing functions. Therefore, periodic lung function evaluation should be encouraged to check for potential harm to divers. In our conclusion, diving for different years may have a positive effect on biological changes of stem cells CD34+ in the adaptation process, while a negative effect may be induced in a dynamic breathing function. Periodic lung function evaluation should be encouraged to monitor potential harm to the divers.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effect of Small Game Exercise on Freestyle Swimming Speed: A Case
           Study of Halu Oleo University Sport Science Student

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Saifu   Manil Karakauki   Syed Kamaruzaman Syed Ali   Aida Mustapha   Budi Ariyanto Muslim   Faridah Ismiyati   Cucu Sundara   Sri Wahyuni   Dwi Tiga Putri   Agus Kristiyanto   Kukuh Wahyudin Pratama   Ahmad Nasrulloh   and Dewangga Yudhistira   Mastering freestyle swimming focuses on increasing the swimming speed in order to complete the swimming distance in the shortest time. Because training for freestyle swimming must be carefully programmed and is progressive-based, this study is set to investigate the effect of small game exercises on freestyle swimming speed among the sport science student of Halu Oleo University. This study uses an experimental method with the one group pretest-posttest design. The population of this study consists of 10 students of Halu Oleo University Sport Science Student taken by simple random sampling. The instruments used were equipment for small games and exercises in the techniques of feet, hands, breath and freestyle swimming coordination. Samples of swimming exercises were speed records with a frequency of 3 times a week and carried out for 6 weeks. The results of the normality and homogeneity test data analysis showed a significance value of p> 0.05, which means that the data were normally distributed and homogeneous. T-test results showed a significance value of p> 0.05 with a calculated F value of 63.119 and an F table of 5.296, it can be concluded that there was a significant effect of small game training on the freestyle swimming speed for Sport Science Student of Halu Oleo University.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Development of an Android-Based Application as an Information System for
           Sports Venues and Sport Community

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Glady Sukma Perdana   Widiyanto   and Ilham   The application developed is android-based AYOOLAHRAGA, which is an information system for sports venues and sports communities for smartphone users. This development of such application has the main purpose to help users to find out some information readily and quickly about physical activities fields available in Yogyakarta and the nearest places. The information developed in the AYOOLAHRAGA application can be accessed by anyone having a smartphone especially those residing in Yogyakarta city (DIY). This research is a product development study, popularly known as Research and development (R&D) research. Whilst collecting data, three types of instruments were employed, namely a questionnaire for expert media validators, along with two different tests administered in two terms based on the sample size involved. The small-scale test used a sample of 50 respondents whereas the large-scale sample consists of 100 respondents. The data were analysed using quantitative and qualitative approaches. After addressing all data, it was revealed that the results of the material expert test obtained a percentage of 98.82%, felt in strongly agree category of application acceptance while the media expert test obtained a percentage of 97.21% likewise. The results of the small and large-scale testing showed that most respondents stated that the development of the present application for sports lovers' benefits is good and needed so far. Therefore, it can be concluded that an android-based sports venues and sports community information system is useful and feasible to use.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Effects of Ankle Joint Exercise Programs with Hip Joint and Lumbopelvic
           Exercises on the Muscle Activity of Adults with Functional Ankle
           Instability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Jae-Ik Lee   Min-Bong Kang   Jung-Hyun Ban   Young-Jae Jung   and Tae-Ho Kim   In subjects with functional ankle instability, lumbopelvic instability causes instability of the hip and lower extremities. The purpose of this study is to determine whether an ankle exercise program with hip strengthening exercise and lumbopelvic stabilization exercise affects spine and ankle stability through muscle activity in adults with functional ankle instability. Thirty adults with functional ankle instability were randomly assigned to a hip joint strengthening exercise group and a lumbopelvic stabilization exercise group. The subjects participated in the designated program three times a week for 40 minutes a day. In the hip joint strengthening exercise group, a general hip joint strengthening exercise was used, and in the lumbopelvic stabilization exercise group, a lumbopelvic stabilization exercise using a sling was added. The intervention lasted 4 weeks, and both groups were instructed to refrain from other exercise during the 4-week intervention period. The muscle activity of the tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, external oblique and contralateral latissimus dorsi was measured. Data were collected from the 30 patients. The results showed that the muscle activity of the tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, lateral oblique muscle, and contralateral latissimus dorsi was significantly increased in both groups. This suggests that the existing hip joint strengthening exercise and lumbopelvic stabilization exercise are effective approaches which not only help reduce hip joint pain and improve function, but also reduce functional ankle instability. Therefore, if an appropriate exercise program is provided for subjects with functional ankle instability, it is expected that it will help improve pain and function by reducing ankle instability and the frequency of re- injury.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Perception of Local Participants during Samosir Ultra Marathon 10
           Kilometers Championship

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Joen Parningotan Purba   Widiastuti   Iman Sulaiman   Milda Vinna Br Payung   and Yafi Velyan Mahyudi   This study aims to determine the perception of local athletes participating in the Samosir Ultra Marathon based on ambience, achievement, escape, satisfaction and behavioral intention after participating in the championship. The championships that are followed can determine the athlete's perception of participating in this event the following year and can promote friends and family to take part in this championship. The research method used is mixed methods with a sample of 87 local athletes determined by purposive sampling. The results of this study indicate that Ambience gets a score of 885 with a percentage of 84.77%, achievement score 931 with a percentage of 89.18%, escape scores 1237 with a percentage of 88.86%, satisfaction score 548 with a percentage of 83.91% and Behavioral Intention score 606 with a percentage of 87.07%. According to them, the ambience and support from the spectators during the race was very good so that the athletes could achieve their goals by participating in the event. Athletes can also evaluate the results of the race well. All athletes can escape the routine of life and emotions for a while by participating in this event. They are also satisfied with their decision to participate in this event because it is only held once a year and is an international event. As many as 81.61% of the athletes said they wanted to participate in this event next year and wanted to recommend this championship to their friends and family. Ambience, achievement, and escape have a positive effect on satisfaction of athletes based on their experience in participating in this championship, so they want to participate in next year and sports management must maintain its quality in organizing marathon events and be managed properly.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effectiveness of the Application of the Cheerful and Creative
           Children's Gymnastics Model to Improve the Physical Fitness of
           Kindergarten Children

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Noviria Sukmawati   Firmansyah Dlis   Ramdan Pelana   Muslimin   and Oktariyana   The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the application of the Cheerful and Creative Child Gymnastics model to improve the physical fitness of kindergarten children. This study uses a quantitative approach. The design used in this study was a pretest-posttest control group design. This study uses a physical fitness instrument designed specifically for children aged 3 and 7 years, namely the PREFIT Battery Test. From the results of PREFIT battery test data for kindergarten children with the test subjects totaling 60 kindergarten children (experimental group (n=30) and control group (n=30), it is known that the significance value (sig.) is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Shapiro-test. Wilk> 0.05 then the data is normally distributed. Based on the results of the t-test using the independent sample test, the value of Sig (2-tailed) is 0.028
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effect of Push-Up Exercises on the Precision of Men's Permata Club
           Volleyball Smash

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Aprizal Fikri   Muslimin   Samsudin   Hernawan   Firmansyah Dlis   James Tangkudung   Widiastuti   and Arif Hidayat   The problem to be answered in this study is whether there is an effect of push-up training on smash accuracy in volleyball games at Club Permata. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of push-up training on smash accuracy in volleyball at Club Permata. The research used in this research is pre-test and post-test which are experimental. Researchers collected data from 12 male players of Club Permata as the research sample. Data in this study are collected using test techniques. The type of test is a smash accuracy test. Based on the analysis with inferential statistical techniques, smash accuracy test obtained a calculation that is t_count of 16.55 with t table with a significant level of 5% d.b: (N-1) (12-1) = 11 of 2.201. So t_count is greater than table or t_count =: 16.55> t_table = 2.201. The conclusion of this study is that push-up training can improve smash skills at Club Permata volleyball players. The contribution of this study is a new push-up training model that is appropriate for improving the accuracy of Club Permata's men's volleyball smash and can be implicated for other coaches in an effort to improve men's volleyball smash skills.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • The Effect of Traditional Games and Drill with Motor Ability on Skills
           (Running, Jumping, Overhand Throw and Catching) at Elementary School

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Hendra Saputra   Achmad Sofyan Hanif   Iman Sulaiman   Desy Tya Maya Ningrum   and Razali   Fundamental skills are obtained through physical education learning. Students can master one particular sport that is useful in everyday life. Elementary school students aged 6-12 years like to play or have fun in activities. Teachers are expected to design structured games that provide benefits for children's kinesthetic development. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference between TG and Drill that affects the fundamental skills (run, jump, overhand throw and catch) in elementary school. The method used in this research is experimental treatment by level 2 x 2 with a sample of 40 students. Data on the results of fundamental skills were obtained from TGMD-2. The data analysis technique was a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then continued with the t- Dunnet test at a significance level of α = 0.05. The results of this study indicate that students who learn with the TG model (A1) are higher than the drill model (A2) with a t0 value of 2.243> ttab 1.684. There is an interaction effect between physical education learning methods and motor ability tests on students' fundamental skills (running, jump, overhand throw and catch) with a value of F0 12.835> Ftab 4.08. The fundamental skills of students taught by the TG model (A1B1) were higher than practice (A1B2) for high motor ability tests with a t0 value of 5.448> ttab 1.684. The fundamental skills of students taught by the TG model (A1B2) are lower than a drill (A2B2) for low motor ability tests with a t0 value of 1.886> ttab 1.684. The study concludes that TG has effects on improving students' fundamental skills for high motor skills. Meanwhile, drill has effects on improving students' fundamental skills for low motor skills. The findings of this study also state that traditional games can be used as a physical education learning model because there are elements of physical movement and building cooperation between students.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Patterns of Physical Activity and Its Impact on Health Risk and Life
           Satisfaction: An Evidence from Adults in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Ali Maksum   and Nanik Indahwati   Along with changes in people's lifestyles, the tendency of non-communicable diseases such as heart attacks, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes is increasing. This condition does not only occur in developed countries, but also in developing countries such as Indonesia. As a result, health costs that must be borne by the state are increasingly high. Sedentary living is suspected to be the main cause of the problem. This research aimed to examine the impact of physical activity on health risk and life satisfaction. The research was conducted in Surabaya and surrounding areas with a total of 529 respondents, consisting of 49.7% men and 50.3% women. They were between 40 and 97 with an average of 54.6 years old. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using structural equation modeling. The examination showed that the model was compatible with the data. The test results of the model proved that the value of χ2/df= 2.66, RMSEA= .056, NFI= .95, and CFI= .97. The model explained that involvement in physical activity had a significant effect on decreasing health risks and increasing life satisfaction. The involvement of the participants in physical activities reduced blood pressure, heart rate, obesity, and health problems. Physical activity also increased happiness and reduced stress. Therefore, physical activity needs to be promoted continuously to create a healthier and happier life in easiness and fun.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Creatine Kinase and Blood Lactate on High Intensity Short Period Exercise

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  6  Nasuka   Anies Setiowati   and Fitri Indrawati   High intensity of physical exercise in long period causes muscle damage. Muscle damage in physical exercise can occur due to muscle stretching followed by sarcomere disruption. Muscle damage can be detected by measuring several indicators or markers. Muscle protein efflux during severe physical activities signed by the increase of LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) and CK (Creatine Kinase). Many studies explained the effect of high intensity physical exercise in long period on muscle damage, but only few studies investigated the effect of high intensity exercise in short period. The purpose of research is to analyze the high intensity short period exercise on blood lactate and creatine kinase serum between elite and non-elite athlete. The post test only group design study was conducted to reach the aims of research. Seventy-five participants involved in this research and they were elite athletes (n=37) and non-elite athletes (n=38). The elite athletes were 24.71 ± 4.753 years old, while the non-elite athletes were 20.19 ± 1.619 years old. All participants perform Running -based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) as a high-intensity short period exercise. The velocity of athletes was calculated for each running track. The blood for lactate level and creatine kinase (CK) measurement was taken as soon as they finished the RAST. The blood lactate level was 6.96 mmol/L (non-elite) and 5.5 mmol/L (elite). The serum level of CK was 241 (non-elite) and 198.8 (elite). Both of elite and non-elite CK level were higher than normal value. There was no difference in blood lactate (p=0.063) and serum level of CK (p=0.241) between elite and non-elite athlete. The conclusion was the blood lactate and CK serum level after high intensity short period increased higher than the normal value. There was not difference between elite and non-elite athletes, suggesting that the elite and non-elite athletes put in the same effort in performing and running the test. The recommendation of this research is that the high intensity short period exercise should be alternatively implemented to avoid muscle damage to athlete.
      PubDate: Nov 2021
       
  • Grip Strength Represents Total Muscular Strength in a Sample of Young
           University Students from the City of Bogotá, Colombia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Jhonatan Camilo Peña-Ibagon   William Felipe Martin-Aleman   Carlos Alberto Castillo-Daza   and Cristian Andres Yanez   There is no conclusive evidence determining whether grip strength (GS) correctly represents total muscular strength (MS) in young university students. To determine the correlation between GS and total MS of a sample of university students from the city of Bogotá, Colombia, a descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out on 191 students from the University Foundation of the Andean area, located in Bogotá, Colombia. GS was measured using a model T.K.K.540 dynamometer. The total MS was evaluated through the assessment of one-repetition maximums (1RM) in five different exercises. The five exercises were assessed in the following order: bench press, squats on the Smith Machine, military press, leg press, and pull down. Following the assessment, the results of the individual tests were summed together and divided by five in order to estimate a variable known as the general strength index. Results were evaluated for correlations between the variables using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The criteria to interpret the strength of association were as follows: small (0.1-0.3), medium (0.3-0.5), large (0.5-1.0). In women, large correlation was present between GS and general strength index (r= 0.894; p=0.001). In men, this correlation was medium (r= 0.492; p=0.001).
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Trend Improving Soccer Professional Referees Performance in West Java
           Using Psychological Skill Training and Physical Fitness

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Deni Mudian   Moch Asmawi   Taufik Rihatno   Muhsana El Cintami Lanos   Veny Elisyah   and Tri Aji   The referee has an important role in football matches. The referee determines the level of fairness in the match so they must be mentally and physically fit. The purpose of this study was to examine the application of psychological skills training and the level of physical fitness to the performance of the referee. Psychological skill exercises used are relaxation, imagery, and relaxation-imagery combination that exist in conditions of high and low physical fitness. This research is quantitative with a quasi-experimental method. The research sample consisted of 48 people who were taken using purposive sampling based on the criteria that the referee had a provincial level referee license (Code C2) and has led a provincial level competition. Data collection techniques are through pre-test, post-test and treatment during the study. The data analysis technique used two-way ANOVA analysis followed by the Tukey test. The findings showed that psychological skill training, both relaxation, imagery, or a combination of imagery-relaxation and physical fitness, had a positive effect on the performance of the referee in leading the match. These results have implications for the concept of psychological training for football referees in West Java, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic, who had limited access to training in the field. However, this psychological skill training makes it easier to train the referee mentally.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Facility Gaps for Players at International Cricket Stadiums in Sri Lanka
           vs. Australia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  H. R. Dharmadasa   and H. P. N. Perera   The main intention of the study is to identify the differences between facilities available for players at International Cricket Stadiums in Sri Lanka and Australia. To successfully explore the differences, the study was conducted using a qualitative research approach. Data were gathered primarily through interviews and observations. Photo-elicitation was the data analysis technique used and two sites: Optus Stadium in Western Australia and R. Premadasa Cricket Stadium in Sri Lanka were focused under this study. Accordingly, the study identifies facilities available for players at R. Premadasa Cricket Stadium, Sri Lanka and Optus Stadium, Western Australia separately. In total, seven managerial level interviewees took part in the study. Four interviewees came from Western Australia and three interviewees from Sri Lanka. These participants were directly linked with the two research sites and perception of these managerial level individuals was considered under the current study. The findings of the study confirm that there is a difference between R. Premadasa Cricket Stadium and Optus Stadium, in terms of facilities available for players. This reflects a gap between facilities available for players at International Cricket Stadiums in Sri Lanka and Australia.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Effect of Fundamental Motor Skills Intervention Program on
           Kindergarten Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Nuridin Widya Pranoto   Amung Ma'mun   Mulyana Mulyana   and Nurlan Kusmaedi   Background: The ability of motor skills becomes the basis for children to master movement skills. There are still many students whose motor skills are below average. Objective: The aim is to compare the fundamental motor skills (FMS) regular program with the intervention FMS program conducted in 12 meetings within 6 weeks in schools. Methods: 80 kindergarten students were sampled and split into two equal groups where 40 students were placed in the control group to receive regular training and the rest 40 students in the intervention group. The test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2) was employed while measuring the motor skills through pre-test and post-test approach. Results: There was an increase in motor skills in both learning groups. After testing with the Mann-Whitney test, obtained with the mean range of 21.44 in the regular FMS program which was found lower comparing to the other one of the FMS in the intervention program of 59.56, Sig. equal to 0.000
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Implementation of the OSTRC Back Injury Prevention Program among
           Professional Basketball, Handball, Soccer, and Volleyball Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Wesam Saleh A. Al Attar   Yousef M. Alshehre   Khulud Alanazi   and Hussain S. Ghulam   The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) back injury prevention program (IPP) is an evidence-based injury prevention exercise designed to prevent back pain and other related injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the implementation of the OSTRC Back IPP among professional basketball, handball, soccer, and volleyball players in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. The survey was developed by the study authors and it consisted of two sections: the socio-demographic and questionnaire assess the implementation of OSTRC Back IPP. A total of 360 athletes responded to the survey (response rate was 93.75%). The mean (±SD) of the total implementation score was 6.6 (±1.8) out of 13. Jumping lunges exercise was the highest implemented exercise, making up 56.1% of the participated players, followed by the side plank and jump turns 53.3% and 53.1%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest implemented exercise was the rotational strength exercise which accounts for 46.4%. There were no statistically significant differences between the GCC countries in the implementation of all exercises except for the side lunges exercise. The rate of implementation of the OSTRC Back IPP among players was low in the GCC countries.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Cardiorespiratory
           Fitness and IL-6 in Adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Intan Suraya Ellyas   Sugiyanto   Muhammad Furqon Hidayatullah   Muchsin Doewes   Rumi Iqbal Doewes   and Fadilah Umar   Cardiovascular disease (CVD) , as a cause of death and illness, is increasing, which is also associated with lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Physical exercise can improve CRF and spur increases IL-6 (an anti-inflammatory) induced through this same means, which therefore reduces the risk of non-communicable diseases. In addition, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) have a positive effect on health. This study aims to compare the effect of HIIT versus MICT on CRF and the acute response to exercise-induced plasma IL-6 in healthy and untrained adolescents. Methods: An experimental study with a pre-post design was conducted on 60 untrained and healthy adolescents aged 16.1 ± 0.4. The groups had been trained for 6 weeks with a frequency of three days weekly, while VO2max and blood sampling were performed before and after this activity. The CRF was tested using a multi stage fitness test (MFT), and IL-6 plasma levels were measured with ELISA methods. Results: HIIT increased CRF from 31.2 ± 5.8 to 35.6 ± 6.9 mL / kg / min (p
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Basic Locomotor Motion Characteristic Design Using Games Model for
           Elementary School Student

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Hary Muhardi Syaflin   Fatah Nurdin   Widiastuti   Syafaruddin   Muhsana El Cintami Lanos   and Sylvia Lara Syaflin   Locomotor is a fundamental aspect of learning to move effectively and efficiently. For children, locomotor motion becomes a variety of movement activities in daily activities so that this movement becomes a fun learning process if done through activities. The study aimed to get the concept of basic locomotor motion characteristic using games. Locomotor motion learning increases the students' endurance and academic achievement. The method used to research and development is Dick and Carey procedure. Data are collected using observation, interview, questionnaire, and test. The data analysis used judgment expert and the result of the test using the independent sample t-test. The findings show that students need some variation of basic locomotor motion using traditional games. The motion is walking, running, and jumping which creates 14 basic locomotor motions. They have differences in goals and objectives motion. This model is feasible and effective, which can be used in the school. Also, it can use for the public elementary school in Indonesia because all motion with the traditional games is familiar games for Indonesia children. It is easy to do at school. In Indonesia, many traditional games are used to support learning process in physical activity. Thus, the learning activity can do in the class or out of class.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Shooting Skills Training Needs Analysis in Handball Game for Young Athlete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Wahyu Nopianto   Yasep Setiakarnawijaya   Widiastuti   Daryono   and Muhsana El Cintami Lanos   Handball games are currently favored by young athletes in primary and secondary schools. The purpose of the study was to see athlete's needs of shooting skills training. It is one of the basic techniques of playing handball, especially for the young athlete. The study used qualitative descriptive approach through survey which has been used to collect data in handball club. The primer data are taken from questionnaire. It is divided into five parts. Part A is related to the coaches' style, part B is related to the shooting training variations, part C is related with the facilities of training, part D is related to the athlete needs of shooting training through basis coordination playing, and part E is related to the model of shooting training. The secondary data are taken from observation, and interview. Sample of study is young athletes that are taken from school clubs in Palembang. They are 15-17 years old. Data analysis used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The finding shows that the shooting skill training variation needs used 54 models to play handball game. It focused on the coordination-based game that has been divided into two types, namely type (invention) and type (improvement). Also, the concept of training instruction is individual, pair and group training which completed using appropriate media for handball game. The implication of the study is that the study helps some coaches to increase the game to be interesting and fun for the young athlete.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Reliability of Testing of the Electrical Activity of Muscles during
           Isometric Contractions in Archery

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Ihor Zanevskyy   Romana Sirenko   Oksana Shukatka   Natalia Bashavets   and Ivan Rybchych   BACKGROUND. The archery sport needs a high level of accuracy and coordination between muscle forces. Electromyography is a useful and effective method in studding the electrical activity of muscles in archery. Resulting in a great variation in EMG data repeatability, the results regarding a theory of test reliability should be studied. PURPOSE. The research aims to develop a method of determination concerning reliability of testing of the electrical activity of muscles during isometric contractions in archery. METHODS. The electrical activity of rectus femoral muscle during isometric contractions with the maximal effort in bending of a thigh from −15º to 70º is tested in a sample of twenty skilled male archers of 23–28 years old. ANOVA for repeated measures, ICC and regression models are used. RESULTS. The electrical potential is found to be maximal (7.15 mV), when the joint angle equals −8.9º and minimal (1.44 mV), when the joint angle equals 62.8º. A ratio of sum of squares due interaction between subjects’ and joint angles’ variability to the total sum of squares variability of all measures is accepted as a measure of the error in a hypothetical function of dependence of the electrical activity of muscles on joint angles (23.3%, p < 0.001). A single measure test after elimination of trends in test–retest results shows a sufficient level of reliability: ICC(1,1)=0.745. Corresponding mean scores reliability of the test with five trials is estimated as good: ICC(1,k)=0.936, (k = 5). CONCLUSION. A method of determination concerning reliability of testing of the electrical activity of muscles during isometric contractions specifically to the archery sport is recommended to the practical employment.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Identifying Barriers to Women's Participation in Sports Activities in both
           Urban and Rural Communities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Somayeh Farzaneh   Rosa Rahavi Ezabadi   Samaneh Sadat Khalili Rad   Pari Khalili Marandi   and Vikram Ranawat   Today, the role of women in social activities in Iranian society is more important than ever. Despite the increasing presence of women in the social arena, their participation and attendance in sports activities are limited. The purpose of this study is to investigate the barriers affecting women's non-participation in sports activities in both urban and rural communities. The data of this study were collected using a questionnaire on barriers to women's participation in sports activities. Findings indicated that the two groups of urban and rural women reported similar priorities, with the highest priority being related to economic and personal barriers. The lowest priorities were related to family, cultural barriers. With extensive and targeted advertising, a variety of mass entertainment programs of sports activities can be assigned to the adult age categories. Such interventions will lead to better welfare and quality of life for women in urban and rural communities.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Mental Strength and Coping Strategy of Confined Athletes Dealing with
           COVID-19

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Imane El Moutaraji   Said Lotfi   and Mohammed Talbi   Due to this unexpected pandemic situation, the objective of this study is to explore the mental strength of elite athletes and their coping strategies to manage stress in different types of sports and according to their level of competition. 344 competitive athletes responded to a questionnaire on the training characteristics during this period, a Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire to assess mental strength and coping strategies to manage stress was assessed by the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory ACSI-28. The data were analyzed by ANOVAI. We found that the coping strategies adopted by elite athletes during this pandemic period vary significantly depending on the type of sport practiced, namely in terms of confidence and achievement motivation, freedom from worry and coping with adversity. We also found that coping strategies to manage stress have significant relationship with level of competition in terms of goal setting and mental preparation. For mental strength we found significant variation in self-confidence and control depending on the type of sport practiced. Also, depending on the level of competition, the control dimension varied significantly. It is suggested that the mental health for professional athletes be carefully managed during confinement to anticipate a possible recurrence of this epidemic.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Basic Athletic Motion of 40 Meters Running Based on the Traditional Lahat
           Game at the Elementary School Level

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Veni Elisyah   James Tangkudung   Wahyuningtyas Puspitorini   Oktariyana   Ever Sovensi   Deni Mudian   Heru Setiawan   and Muhsana El Cintami Lanos   The purpose of this study was to create and test the effectiveness of basic athletic motion of 40 meters running based on the traditional Lahat game at the elementary school level. This research uses research and development (R&D) methods. This research has been carried out at the primary school level in Lahat Regency, South Sumatera, with the subject of small group trials totaling 20 elementary school students and large group trials of 60 elementary school students by applying 30 basic motion learning models of 40-meter athletic running based on games traditional Lahat. Based on the results of the effectiveness test with 40 elementary school students as the test subjects, the N-gain score was obtained an the average value for the experimental class was 85.04% and it can be said to be "effective". Meanwhile, the average N-gain score for the control class is 46.53% and it can be said to be "ineffective", so the products that have been developed have been proven to be feasible and effective in improving the basic movement skills of elementary school students.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Common Patterns of Brain Dominance and Its Effects on the Emotional
           Intelligence among the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science
           Students at the Hashemite University

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Akef M Taifour   Aman S Khasawneh   Wasfi M Al-Kazaleh   Salwa A Alshorman   Haitham M Bani Eisa   Gada M Khasawneh   and Malek S Khasawneh   The purpose of this study is to determine the common patterns of brain dominance and the levels of the emotional intelligence of students, also the study aimed to recognize the variances of the common patterns as well as levels of the emotional intelligence according to the independent variables (gender, specialization, academic year), furthermore, the study identifies the variances of levels of the emotional intelligence among students according to the left, right and integrated dominance brain patterns. The Sample of study consisted of (329) male and female students who are chosen randomly from the faculty of physical education and sports science. The study used Othman and Rizk Emotional Intelligence Scale and Diane scale to measure the brain dominance after confirming its validity and reliability. The results of the study showed that the prevailing pattern among students was the integrated dominance brain patterns. Also, there was no significant effect of the independent variables (gender, specialization, academic year) on the left, right, and integrated dominance brain patterns. Moreover, high levels of emotional intelligence, the results appeared no effect of the dominance brain pattern in the emotional intelligence.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Integral Analysis of Cognitive Motor Skills and the Social Dimension of
           Sport: Approach to Sports Initiation and School Sports

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Vélez-Meza Edda   Méndez-Urresta Jacinto   Vargas-Chagna Johanna   and Flores-Torres Diego   Cognitive-motor skills and the social dimension of sports games are relevant factors in sports initiation. The research aimed to analyze the theoretical-practical mastery of the cognitive, motor and social abilities of the game and its compliance in sessions by the basketball and football coaches of Imbabura. As well as establishing the relationship of the skills developed by sports children with coaches who have a traditional teaching approach versus those with a formative focus on sports initiation. The research is descriptive-observational, mixed and transversal. The survey and participatory observation were applied to 12 coaches. It shows that most teachers have little information about the skills and dimensions that the sport develops at the initiation stage. Participatory observation of the indicators of motor skills and the social dimension of the game is carried out in a high and medium degree by the coaches. Indicators of cognitive abilities were achieved to a limited and medium degree by coaches. Motor and social skills show greater development in the practice of children's play and sport to the detriment of cognitive abilities. The Wilcoxon Mann Whitney Test for each of the game's skills and dimensions chronicles that the strata of trainers with a traditional approach have a higher score on motor skills, while cognitive skills and social dimension have a lower score compared to the training focus coach. It is concluded that the development of the game's abilities and dimensions depends significantly on the approach to teaching sports initiations that coaches have.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • An Analysis of Junior Weight Vest Development to Improve Physical
           Abilities of Junior Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Made Agus Dharmadi   Ni Ketut Widiartini   and I Gusti Lanang Agung Parwata   Background: Increasing the athlete's physical element is the foundation for improving sports performance. One way to improve physical abilities is through weight training. Junior Weight Vest is one way to exercise weight for junior athletes. This study aims to analyze the development of the Junior Weight Vest to obtain accurate and complete information about the needs, benefits, urgency, form and specifications of the Junior Weight Vest in an effort to improve the physical abilities of junior athletes. Method: This research is a descriptive qualitative study with interviews (Focus Group Discussion), questionnaires and literature studies as the data collection methods. The subjects of this study are 20 people consisting of 15 sports coaches and 5 sports training experts. Results: The results showed that 1) weight training for junior athletes is needed for physical improvement of athletes, 2) the existence of Junior Weight Vest is not widely known by trainers and sports training experts, 3) the need for Junior Weight Vest is needed, 4) the benefits of Junior Weight Vest are believed to be able to improve junior athlete physical abilities, especially speed, endurance and strength. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that the development of Junior Weight Vest is greatly needed by coach and sports experts with all the benefits it causes, so that junior athletes can gradually improve their physical abilities in accordance with the rules of sports training.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Effect of Limb Muscle Power Training with Leaps on Athlete's Speed during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Yogi Mandala Putra   Sugeng Purwanto   and Erick Burhaein   This study aims to determine the effect of leg muscle power training with leaps on athlete's speed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The method in this study was a true experiment with pretest-posttest control group design. The total participants were 38 male athletes with an age range of 15-18 years (M = 17.3; SD: 1.26). Data analysis in this study is descriptive analysis and hypothesis testing. The results of the study are: 1) For the control group, the statement H0 "There is no effect of leg muscle power training with leaps on athlete's speed during the COVID-19 pandemic", is accepted. Then, there was a decrease in the mean of 0.23 or 1.78%; 2) For the experimental group, H1 statement "There is effect of leg muscle power training with leaps on athlete's speed during the COVID-19 pandemic", is accepted. Then supported by an increase in the mean of 0.44 or 3.42%. The conclusion is that there is an effect of leg muscle power training with leaps on athlete's speed during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings may have implications, namely being a reference for trainers in developing training programs to increase leg muscle power with leaps that seem to be of significant effectiveness. For further researchers, it is hoped that they can modify other types of training and conduct research with a wider sample and population as well as add different variables so that the treatment given is to influence speed through treatment of leg muscle power.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Effect of Using Small-Sided Games on Developing the Skill Performance
           Level of Advanced Football Course Students at Mutah University

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Esam Najeh Abu-Shihab   The small-sided games are widely used by coaches to develop physical abilities, technical and tactical skills. This study aimed at investigating the effect of using small-sided games on developing the level of skillful performance of students of an advanced football course at Mutah University. The study sample consisted of 28 students of both genders, which were chosen from an advanced football course at Mutah University and were divided into two groups (14 each). The experimental approach was applied, while "t-test" was used to detect the differences between the control and the experimental and to detect the differences between the members of the two groups at the post application stage. The results showed statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α≤0.05) in the Pre- and post-measurements of the effect of using small-sided games on developing abilities and the skill level. And statistically significant differences were detected for the benefit of post measurement for students of an advanced football course. The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences at the significance level (α≤0.05) in the Post measurement, between the use of small-sided games and the regular training in developing the level of skill performance, and for the benefit of the small-sided games for students of an advanced football course. The researcher recommended the importance of making use of the small-sided games program to developing the level of skillful performance of students in football courses, in all departments and colleges of Physical Education and for both genders in Jordan.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Increase the Performance Level of Young Basketball Players through the Use
           of High Intensity Interval Training

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Francesca D’Elia   Danilo D’Andrea   Giovanni Esposito   Gaetano Altavilla   and Gaetano Raiola   The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a specific 12-week HIIT methodology for improving aerobic and anaerobic performance in a group of young basketball players. Twenty-two (n=22) players participated in the study. (age 19.1 ± 1.1; height: 185 ± 5.2; body mass: 70.9 ± 6.0). In the pre-season (4 weeks, from July to August), the players performed Pizzolato's 7-minutes test, to evaluate aerobic and anaerobic performance before the start of the season. After 12 weeks of training (in-season), using the Tabata training methodology, the same players repeated Pizzolato's 7-minutes test to look for improvements in performance and evaluate if the distance covered during the test is better, equal, or worse compared to the pre-season. After 12 weeks of training, in the experimental group we found a significant increase in the values of VO2max (p = 0.02) and SAN (p = 0.01) and a significant decrease in the values of HRmax (p = 0.00), such as to be able to attribute them, with a margin of error of 5%, to the benefits produced by a twelve-week mesocycle based on HIIT principles. No differences between groups were found in the control group. The effectiveness of specific High Intensity Interval Training has been revealed in improving aerobic performance in young basketball players.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Effect of Endurance, Eye-Hand Coordination, and Confidence to
           Volleyball Referee Performance in West Java

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Subarna   James Tangkudung   Moch Asmawi   Anggi Setia Lengkana   Aam Ali Rahman   Ruslan Abdulgani   Defri Mulyana   and Benny Badaru   A sports competition is a measure of success for an athlete. However, factors affecting an athlete's success come from the athlete and all competition aspects, including referees. Referees need to have a good reputation before and after carrying out their role as court judges. A referee must have competencies, including refereeing skills, rules of the game/competition, physical condition, mental-psychological conditions (self-confidence, calm, consistency, the assertiveness of attitudes and actions, accuracy in weighing and deciding, high motivation, honest & sincere, socializing). Thus, this research aims to examine the effect of physical conditions, primarily components of endurance, eye-hand coordination, and self-confidence, as psychological aspects that strengthen the referee's performance. To achieve this research's objectives, a survey method was used using path analysis and measurement techniques in tests through standard performance evaluation of volleyball referees, confidence questionnaires, 12 minutes running fitness test, and eye-hand coordination. The population involved in this research was 335 referees who had regional and national diplomas. The sample of this research used the Slovin pattern with an error rate of 10%, so that the sample amounted to 77 volleyball referees in West Java. The conclusions of this research are (1) Endurance affects the performance of the referee by 42.9%, (2) Eye-hand coordination affects the performance of the referee by 39.6%, (3) Confidence affects the performance of the referee by 45.8%, (4) Endurance affects self-confidence by 51.2%, (5) Eye-hand coordination affects self-confidence by 40.8%.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Motor Activity and Physical Abilities of Students in the Conditions of
           Restrictions of COVID-19

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Oleksandr Mozolev   Oleksandr Polishchuk   Inna Shorobura   Valentina Miroshnichenko   Klavdiia Тushko   Volodymyr Voloshyn   Ihor Tomkiv   and Oleksandr Binkovskyi   The article analyzes the results of the research of impact of limitations of motor activity of students in the conditions of pandemic COVID-19 on the indicators of functional and physical condition of students 17-19 years who studied on the 2nd course in Khmelnytskyi Humanitarian-Pedagogical Academy. The study involved 121 students (89 girls; 32 boys). Methods: The assessment of the state of the cardiovascular system: heart rate at rest (HR); systolic blood pressure (SBP); diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has been done; assessment of the respiratory system (RS) has been conducted. The analysis of morphofunctional changes in the following indicators has been done: life index (LI), body mass index (BMI), Index of Robinson (IR), Ruffier-Dixon Index (RDI). Results: It is established that the restriction of motor activity has led to functional changes in the bodies of students, reducing their efficiency and recovery of the organism after physical exercises. In both groups of students after four months of research, there was deterioration in performance (RS), (LI); (IR); (RDI); (BMI). After nine months of quarantine restrictions, there was a gradual improvement in functional parameters in both groups, indicating the adaptation of students to the new conditions of limited motor activity. At the same time, the functional indicators failed to reach the initial level. It is found that during the first four months there was a decrease in physical fitness of students, namely: the development of strength by 34% in girls (р
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Cross Effect of Exercise, Gender and Level of Sport Expertise on
           Cognition: Visual Perception, Information Processing and Motor Response

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Imane El Moutaraji   Said Lotfi   and Mohammed Talbi   To address several recommendations proposing to cross the impact of different variables on cognitive performance, the objective of this study first is to examine the impact of physical exercise variables on cognitive tasks (visual perception, information processing and motor response) at different level of training. The study was carried out on a sample of 88 participants (experts: n = 29, advanced: n = 30, novices, n = 29) performed the coding decoding test, search symbol and the lead psychomotor tester, in order to assess the variations of cognitive profile, at rest and after bout of handball exercise. The results showed, a higher level of training corresponds to a higher level in visual perception with 301ms, motor reaction time with 170ms and choice reaction time with 472ms for the expert's group, although novices have a greater range of improvement following the exercise with a respective improvement of 33% and 20.20% in search symbol and coding decoding and a respective decrease in visual perception time, motor response and choice reaction time by 16.18%, 14.42% and 14.10%. Also, the combination of the level of training and exercise attenuates differences on some sensorimotor speed performance between the two sexes. The cross effect affects positively but selectively on certain cognitive functions. Our findings enlighten the sport cognition relationship and suggest using physical and sport activity as a means of stimulating cognitive skills and student development in school and university training programs.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Construction of Validity and Reliability of an Observational Instrument to
           Assess the Technical Execution in Lead Climbing

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Ilham   and Tomoliyus   Background: The speed world record (WR) performance is an achievement achieved by athletes in the competitive rock-climbing category, where the athlete must complete the climbing route on a standard artificial climbing wall with a height of 15m in the shortest possible time. Purpose: This study aimed to construct and validate an observational instrument to assess technical execution in lead climbing. The instrument developed can be used to assess progress to achieve the important aspects of climbing movement methods. Design / methodology / approach: Importantly, the construction of its validity and reliability was conducted in four stages. The first stage was a literature review on the construction of the observational instrument. In the second stage, the instrument's construction was established. The content validity coefficient was determined in the third stage using Aiken's V and 7 experts with various qualifications, including the level of understanding, appropriateness of the words, and the relevance of the statement with a grading scale of 0-10. The instrument's internal validity was calculated using 20 climbers and was quantitatively tested using the product-moment correlation. In the fourth stage, instrument reliability was determined using Cronbach's Alpha reliability test. Results showed that the observational instrument has content validity with optimal internal value as well as satisfactory reliability. Conclusion: Observational instruments were valid and reliable; therefore, they can be used to assess technical execution for novice climbers in lead climbing. It allows instructors, coaches, and teachers to assess the technical execution of novice climbers specifically in lead climbing.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Dealing with Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): Foam Roller or
           Mechanical Manipulation of Body Tissue

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  3  Mohamad Nizam Nazarudin   Mohd Firdaus Abdullah   Mohd Radzani Abdul Razak   Abu Yazid Abu Bakar   Denise Koh Choon Lian   and Wan Ahmad Munsif Wan Pa   This research focuses on determining the efficacy of sports massage (SM) and foam rolling (FR) to decrease Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) among users of recreational gyms. The goal of this study is to fit the physiotherapist's more efficient technique or techniques to scale back DOMS. SM and FR are two factors that help to illustrate the efficacy of DOMS scale back. Both therapies, SM and FR party, were handled with the selected samples for this analysis. Repeated measure ANOVA was used for testing results on the impact of SM on the range of motion (ROM). Results showed the effect of SM on pain meter supported on three occasions, and the effect of froth rolling on the pain meter on three times. Results suggest that there are not substantially different effects between therapies for all elbow flexion ranges of motion. Both therapies are often used to minimize DOMS due to growth over a 3-fold duration. The researcher has dressed up a couple of the guidelines and ideas required for future studies to be used. Future research should refer to the feminine community to boost the performance.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation towards Physical Activity among
           Malaysian Technical University (UTeM) Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  M. F. Abdullah   A. M. Pilus   M. R. A. Razak   A. Y. A. Bakar   and M. N. Nazarudin   This study explores the inherent and external factors which influence university students' involvement in physical activity. As the key respondents were reacting to the adapted Exercise Reward Inventory and Participation Motivation questionnaire, 400 students comprising 200 males and 200 females were sampled. It shows that health and fitness (M = 4.37) are the intrinsic highest mean value variables, whereas peers and friends (M = 3.97) are factors for extrinsic variables. There are substantial differences in the presence of inherent health and fitness motives between gender and physical influences (t = - 6.51, p < 1.05) (t = - 5.05, p < 0.05). Only in the family did there appear to be substantial sex variations in extrinsic motivation (t = 6.98, p < 0.05). There were only substantial variations of sex in relation to external motivation in the family (t = 6.98, p < 0.05). Lastly, the most contributing factors to physical activity are the inherent motivational and extrinsic motivational factors (the position of the university). University should emphasise the opportunity to promote physical activity among more students by encouraging safer cultural activities between men and women. This study is also important for the physical and spiritual growth of healthy students. This experience shows that the most successful way, particularly for students, is to make the next generation safe and energy efficient.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • The Validity and Reliability of Three Field Tests for Assessing College
           Freshmen Students' Cardiovascular Endurance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Heildenberg C. Dimarucot   and Luisito S. Macapagal   In an effort to reduce obesity rates among young adults resulting from their increasingly sedentary and stressful lifestyle and poor diet, three common endurance exercises that have been practiced in PE classes and also studied worldwide are jumping rope, step test, and beep test (20 meter multistage fitness test). This study shed light on the suitability of these three field tests as assessment tools for measuring the cardiovascular endurance of the college freshmen students of Physical Fitness (HKD-01) course since none has been investigated so far about this in the Philippine university context. Specifically, this study aimed to identify (1) the validity of the three tests as assessment tools for gauging cardiovascular fitness; and (2) their reliability as shown in the correlation between the directly measured and predicted VO2 max. The statistical analyses revealed that the fitness tests were found valid and reliable. Each fitness test has its own peculiarity and course of action that make each distinct from one another. The step test is known to measure submaximal, the jumping rope test can be categorized as mid-maximal, and the beep test is known as a maximal test for cardiovascular endurance. It is then recommended that these fitness tests be employed in PE classes in the university following correct protocols to develop the cardiorespiratory endurance of the students.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Tactics Analysis of Attacking the Pansa FC Women's Futsal Team Yogyakarta,
           Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Yulvia Miftachurochmah   Tomoliyus   Salvator Nahimana   Endang Rini Sukamti   Abdul Alim   and Fauzi   Background: Futsal tactics are very important elements in supporting athlete performance. Purpose: This study aims to observe and analyze the tactical attack process used by the Pansa FC women's futsal team. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive study with quantitative approach. The research sample was futsal team like Pansa FC, FFYK, JFA Angels, and Pansa Academy. The instruments employed in this study were Counter Attack (CA), Organized Game (OG) and Stopped Ball (SB) used to see the success rate of attacking tactics based on the finishing performance by the Pansa FC women's team during the offensive play. Data analysis with descriptive statistic used SPSS.26 version. Result showed that OG has an efficiency value of 12.66%, SB has an efficiency value of 14.29%, and is followed by CA which has an efficiency value of 17.28%. Conclusion: Thus, based on the number of finishes, the CA is dominant. Meanwhile, based on the influence of the attacking tactics process used along with the total goals marked, CA has an efficiency value of 40%, SB has an efficiency value of 10% whereas OG has an efficiency value of 50%. In the wake of these results yielded, it can be concluded that the influence of the attack tactic process used along the total goals marked in such futsal game the OG tactic was more dominant.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Exercise Machines in Speed and Coordination Development among Students
           Playing Basketball

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Oleksii Tymoshenko   Valery Arefiev   Zhanna Domina   Tetiana Malechko   Tetiana Bondar   Mykola Tymchyk   Olena Pliushchakova   Viktor Riabchenko   Grygoriy Griban   and Kostiantyn Prontenko   The article presents the original methodology for using exercise machines to develop speed and coordination of students playing basketball in order to improve traditional approaches to physical education of basketball players. The introduction of exercise machines in the training process increases the developmental effect of exercises due to the possibility of a targeted impact on physical qualities together with training, accurate dosing of physical parameters, and an increase in motor activity in classes. The study involved 169 students who play basketball between the ages of 17 and 23. Experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups, which included 127 and 42 students respectively, were formed. The EG students played basketball in classes using exercise machines according to the methodology developed. The CG students were trained according to the traditional methodology of teaching basketball. The experimental group was divided into two subgroups – EG1 (n=69) and EG2 (n=58), which included students with initial and high levels of technical preparedness in basketball. It was found that after the pedagogical experiment, ball speed was increased by 24.6% and 4.6% in the experimental groups, in comparison with 3.9% in the control group. The results of the complex test, which characterizes the level of coordination, were improved by 24.7% and 13.8% in the experimental groups, and by 11.4% in the CG. This indicated the efficiency of the proposed methodology for using exercise machines to develop speed and coordination of students playing basketball.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • The Advantages and Disadvantages of Physical Exercise among Future
           Engineers and Technologists

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Mohd Firdaus Abdullah   Asiah Mohd Pilus   Mohd Radzani Abdul Razak   Abu Yazid Abu Bakar   Denise Koh Choon Lian   and Mohamad Nizam Nazarudin   The goal of this paper is to explore perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of physical exercise, in particular workouts among students at Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). These students must ensure that they are clever and fit if they want to be created to become highly profitable staff who are keen to play their part in the dream of a developed country of world class. Objective: To explore perceived advantages and barriers to physical tasks among students of the Technical University. Method: 355 students from the curriculum courses at Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) completed the EBBS (Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale). Findings: Physical fitness was the foremost perceived advantage of exercise, accompanying the benefits of cognitive perspective, precautionary well-being, life improvement, and social interaction. Physical output was substantially above the other benefits. There were no major variations in psychological and preventive health outlook, but they are substantially beyond enhanced life and social ties. Also greatly beyond social interaction was the transition to life. Working-out's, slightly higher than time, exercise and family discouragement obstacles were the most perceived obstacles to exercise. The findings of this survey include the significance, for women, of perceiving a good benefit-barrier ratio that is conducive to exercise participation for preparation of physical activities services. In particular, methods must assist students to disengage or monitor physical perception ‘delusions' or flowing from perceived during physical operation (reduces their perceived barriers) or to further emphasize the various safety and other wellness advantages. (Increase their perceived benefits).
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • The Effect of Sprint Training on Vertical Jump Height of Female Youth
           Volleyball Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Nur Cholis Majid   and Fauzi   The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 60-m sprint training program on the vertical jump height of female youth volleyball players. In this quasi-experimental study, a one-group pretest/posttest design was utilized. Participants were 10 female youth volleyball players (aged 12-15) who were registered in a 12-session sprint training program at a junior sports organization in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The training program was carried out on a 100-m flat track at the Athletic Field, Faculty of Sport Sciences of Yogyakarta State University. The stand and reach method was used to measure the vertical jump height. To compare the pretest and posttest scores, a paired samples t-test was used. The results indicated that there was a significant increase in vertical jump height from pretest to posttest with a high effect size. Thus, it can be concluded that a 4-week sprint training program can effectively increase the vertical jump height of young volleyball players. It is recommended that volleyball coaches and trainers implement a sprint training program as a step towards developing the vertical jump of their young athletes.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Variables of Risk Management in Sports among Sports Administrators: A
           Mixed Method

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Linda N. Chukwurah   Umar Badaru   Oliver R. Ngwoke   and Oliver I. Abbah   Risks are inevitable in sports activities and organizations; however, there are increasing occurrences of risks in Nigeria sports organizations in spite of standard risk management process. This study therefore examined socio-demographics determining risks management among sports administrators in Nigeria. Mixed method design was adopted. 150 coaches provided quantitative data by completing a validated questionnaire. 10 interview sessions were conducted among 10 sports administrators for the qualitative data. Pre-tested validated questionnaire and an in-depth interview guide were used for collecting data. Descriptive statistics T-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the quantitative data. Using NVivo 11 pro, qualitative data were coded and thematically analyzed, and data were presented using verbatim quotes. It was found that type of sports (p => .05), educational level (p => .05) and job experience (p => .05) did not exert significant differences on risks management of sports administrators. However, the qualitative data show that majority of the participants view interactions between the variables and application of risks management, which is in line with contingency theory. The findings have implications for the effective risk management in Nigeria sports. Therefore, Nigeria sports governing bodies must demonstrate commitment and establish strong alignments between socio-demographics of sports administrators/managers and practice. These would ensure best practices in sports councils/organizations.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Validity and Reliability of Agility Test with Dribbling and Passing in
           Soccer Games

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Galang Qowiyyuridho   Tomoliyus   and Fauzi   This study aims to find the validity and reliability of the agility test with the dribbling and passing of soccer players. Data collection uses the Delphi technique with 5 experts and also test-retest. Twenty football players aged 13-14 years who had been training for one year in junior school soccer classes were used in this study to seek empirical validity and the reliability of the test. Analysis of content validity data uses the Aiken V formula, empiric validity uses Pearson Product Moment and Reliability uses Cronbach's Alpha. The results showed that the agility test with dribble and passing showed a high value of validity and reliability. The Aiken value on the Agility indicator according to the soccer gets a value of 0.87, the indicator of the level of difficulty following the soccer gets a value of 0.93, the component herding following the soccer gets a value of 0.87, the component of the bait component according to the soccer gets a value of 0.87, the distance indicator for dribbling is following the value of 0.87, the distance indicator between cones is in the value of 0.93, the distance indicator for baiting is in the amount of 0.87, the Instrument indicator safe to do is getting the value of 1.00, the indicator for short and clear language is in the value of 0.93. The results of the Pearson Product Moment data analysis results obtained 0.991. The Cronbach's Alpha score is 0.995. It can be concluded that the agility test with dribble and passing can be used to measure the agility of soccer players.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Tensile Force Transmission from the Upper Trunk to the Contralateral Lower
           Leg throughout the Posterior Oblique Sling System

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Wootaek Lim   Although recent studies have confirmed that muscles of the upper body are obliquely linked with the muscles of the contralateral lower extremity through posterior oblique sling (POS) system, the upper portion of the POS connected to the lower leg below the hamstring is yet to be determined. In the supine position, the active maximum dorsiflexion (DF) angles of the right and left legs were randomly measured. During passive trunk rotation performed by the therapist, the active maximum DF angles of the right leg (contralateral side) and left leg (ipsilateral side) were measured. In a long sitting position with and without trunk rotation, the active maximum DF angles in both legs were measured. The left upper body was made to rotate rightward in trunk rotation. In the contralateral lower extremity, the DF ROM in the sitting position with trunk rotation was significantly different compared with those in the sitting position without trunk rotation, and in the supine position with trunk rotation. In the comparison between the ipsilateral and contralateral lower extremity, significant differences were found in the DF ROM in the sitting position with trunk rotation. This study indicates that the tensile force generated by trunk rotation is transmitted to the contralateral terminal end by examining changes in DF ROM. Since the upper portion of the POS is connected all the way down to the contralateral calf, the POS must be considered during the clinical treatment of patients with restricted DF mobility.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Influence of Nonoperative Treatments for Subacromial Shoulder Pain: A
           Review Article

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Tengku Fadilah Tengku Kamalden   Qais Gasibat   Agiela Emhemed Rafieda   Walied Ashoor Sulayman   Roxana Dev Omar Dev   Alif Syamim Syazwan   and Mohd Rozilee Wazir   Sub-acromial pain syndrome (SAPS) in overhead athletes is the most common reason for shoulder pain. As a rational decision, the medical treatments of today will likely be the best cure for this particular population. Conservative techniques are generally utilised to treat inflammation and pain through electrophysical approaches or to control the subacromial space to avoid impingement by rotator cuff and scapular muscle exercises, as the SAPS (subacromial pressure) mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this analysis is to assess the efficiency of these measures for pain reduction and function improvement. The literature, the best research source to be used, was searched using such search engines as PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. The articles were chosen in a manner that relates to the study objective and also their scientific relevance. This research may inform that in subjects with a reduced subacromial space, exercise can have a greater impact on overhead athletes. The effectiveness of centred therapy with Extracorporeal Shockwave (ESWT) on severe plantar fasciitis is uncertain. A greater cohort with its training efficiency in comparison with the conventional physiotherapy programme is required to demonstrate the efficacy of SAPS bodyblade exercise on overhead athletes.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • A Review of Parental Input, Investment and Social Stratification in
           Children's Sport Participation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Min Liu   Rui Gao   Klaudia Kukurová   Walter Ho   and Jian Wang   Background: The difference of parental involvement in children's sport activities is a hot social issue when parental socio-economic background is investigated. Parental input, investment and social stratification could influence children's sport participation. Purpose: This study investigates the levels of parental physical activity and their investment in children's sport involvement across different socio-economic backgrounds. It expects to find out the best predictor in understanding the relationship of parental sport involvement across different socio-economic situation. Methods: Questionnaire survey method was selected and 863 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire content included questions about families' basic information, social stratification, parental physical activity and parental investment in children's sport involvement. Results: When parents in low, middle and high social classes were compared, there were significant differences in parents' levels of physical activity, spiritual support, financial support, opportunities given and daily physical activity (all p < 0.01). Significant correlations between daily physical activity, physical exercise and social stratification were found (p < 0.01). Another significant correlation was found between spiritual and financial support, opportunities given and social stratification (p < 0.01). Parental investment, parents' level of physical activity and physical exercise were the predictive values for understanding children's sport involvement. Conclusion: The higher social stratification, the higher parental physical activity and parental investment will be involved in children's sport. Physical exercise had the highest predictive power as it related to parental investment in children's sports participation.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Effects of an Adapted Physical Education Course on Attitudes toward Sport
           of Omani Individuals with Disabilities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Badriya Al-Hadabi   Suhail Al-Zoubi   Bakkar Bakkar   Fakhriya Al-Yahyai   Mohammad Al-Gaseem   and Ibrahim Al-Qaryouti   The adapted physical education (APA) is a set of sports activities, programs, and exercises that are adjusted to be compatible with individuals with special needs. This research explored the effect of an adapted physical education course on attitudes toward the sport of Omani individuals with disabilities. Participants were 25 undergraduate female students from the Department of Physical Education at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), Sultanate of Oman. The participants responded to the attitudes toward APA scale before and after studying the APA course. This scale consisted of 30 items distributed into three domains related to course instructor, course topics, and course teaching methods. The results revealed that studying the APA course significantly contributed to modifying the participants' attitudes toward the sport of Omani individuals with disabilities. In other words, these effects were demonstrated by the high effect size of the studying the APA course on modifying the participants' attitudes. The research recommends converting the course into a compulsory one, upgrading its credit to 3 credit hours, and adding other courses on Paralympic Games to the program plan at Physical Education Department, SQU. The contributions of this research focused on university special education courses. The presence of these courses will actually contribute to modifying college students' attitudes toward the sport of individuals with disabilities.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • ViMoT - Development of Visual-Motor Tests Methodology Including the
           Adoption of Uniform Rules and Digital Test Development

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Jelena Turlisova   and Anita Jansone   The authors have previously researched and analyzed, both manually and with the help of a computer program, preschool and primary school children's performance in the eye-hand coordination test and their depth perception. The study used the standardized DTVP-2 test - a psychophysiological test, and it will report as a golden standard for evaluation of visual - motor and visual perception integration. Computer-aided test processing significantly accelerates the collection and acquisition of test results - as we know, time is now a very high resource that everyone needs to spare. We evaluated the stereo vision of 56 participants by using the TNO test and eye-hand coordination. The participants were children of preschool and primary school age. Twenty of them were from a school for children with cognitive disabilities. The TNO test results showed that 54% of children between the ages of 5.5 and 9.0 years old had 60 arcsec, 18% - 120 arcsec, and 29% - 240 arcsec. The DTVP -2 test execution rate shows a very strong correlation with the stereoacuity (r = 0, 90; p < 0, 05). A computerized DTVP -2 test performance coefficient shows a higher correlation with stereo (r =0, 99; p < 0, 05). The DTVP -2 performance coefficient related to stereovision value - the higher the eye-hand coordination performance coefficient, the lower are the stereo threshold value. The conclusions of master thesis research became hypotheses of PhD research and started developing a ViMoT methodology. The development of a new methodology (ViMoT) for assessing visual-motor coordination and visual perception in electronic format and the subsequent development of a computer program will facilitate many specialists' work. It will make it possible to devote more time to processing, but correction or help of an individual (patient), depending on his problem. By working in an interdisciplinary manner, there is an in-depth knowledge of the topic, researched, and new solutions relevant to e-learning. Ensures the quality of the research and increases competitiveness. The following primary research methods will be applied to achieve the aim of the study: theoretical data research as descriptive analysis, content analysis, and comparative method; mixed type of methods as both qualitative research methods and quantitative research methods – document use, case studies, surveys, focus groups discussions and interviews with target groups, experimental and practical testing of recommendations; analysis methods as descriptive analysis, statistical analysis, and others. Today's users and learners require a user-oriented and personalized approach, not only in applications but also in education. The primary study aims to develop components for improving e-learning and learning process Visual-Motor Test (ViMoT) methodologies based and a new computerized tool on visual science basic principles, psychophysiological, and learners' needs.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Warok Dance: A Medium of Child Aesthetic Fulfillment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Hartono   Agus Cahyono   and Eny Kusumastuti   Dance can serve as an effective medium to instill aesthetic values for children given the many artistic elements of this type of art including movement, music, visual, and performance. For this reason, incorporating dances is an appropriate medium to introduce the aspects of aesthetics to children. This literature review specifically analyzed the elements of the Warok Dance that actualizes the fulfillment of aesthetic values and how the children express their aesthetic needs. The data from the observation and interview were interactively analyzed; its stages involved data display, data reduction, and verification. The results showed that the medium of expression of aesthetic needs involves the elements of movements, music, makeup, and costume of the Warok dance. The fulfillment of aesthetic needs in the dance was conducted directly and indirectly. As appreciators, the children were directly involved in the dance practice and performance sessions. Moreover, the children were also indirectly involved into the dance when they watched their peers practice and perform the dance. In particular, the study concludes that the elements of Warok dance serve as the medium of fulfillment and expression of children’s aesthetic needs, either by participating into the dance directly, or by watching their peers perform the dance (indirectly).
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Development of Defensive Training Futsal Model University of Suryakancana

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Muslimin   Muhamad Syamsul Taufik   and Eneng Fitri Amalia   This research aims to find out use the development in depth training model at Suryakancana University. In addition, research and development were conducted to obtain in depth information about the development and application of training models, to find out and effectiveness, efficiency of the models made, and to increase the curiosity and motivation of athletes in practicing can deepen the exercise. This research and method development used applied for the Research & Development (R & D) of Borg and Gall. The method subjects in this research and development were the futsal players the University of Suryakancana. The effectiveness tests that the average value of the game results in futsal before given the training model is as much as 7.0 times and after given the treatment with the model of futsal survival exercise result in 8.4 times the average, which means that there is an increase in the results of the game futsal defending. The model uses the Survival game 0.00 < 0.05 with an equivalent significance to 0.05 then H0 rejected. Based on the information can be concluded that the defensive exercise Model of the University of Suryakancana Futsal game can be applied effectively and efficiently in order to improve the defensive of playing futsal.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • The Validity and Reliability Construct Skills Assessments Skill in
           Korfball by Using Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor
           Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Budi Aryanto   Awan Hariono   and Cukup Pahalawidi   This research aims to know the quality of instrument proved through the construct validity and construct reliability of korfball-playing skill assessment. This research and development applied the modified development model of Strand & Wilson. The performance control sheets were used as the main instrument to observe the korfball-playing skills. The data were analyzed using the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) technique, which is prolonged by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) technique to make a good instrument for performing korfball-playing skills observation. The EFA analysis uses software support of SPSS 23.0 and CFA analysis uses software LISREL 8.8. This research is obtained that the estimation of construct of reliability is reliable, where the result of estimation of reliability use confirmatory factor analysis in the indicator of skill execution as well as decision making which are about 0.80 to 0.88. This research is also obtained of construct of validity is valid, where the result of estimation of validity use confirmatory factor analysis in the indicator of skill execution which are about 0.87 to 0,95. Estimation of validity in the indicator of decision making is about 0.73 to 0.79. The result of this research shows that the instrument which used to measure korfball-playing skill is considered valid, reliable, and meets the criteria of a good instrument which shows that the developed assessment model is fit to the actual data.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • The Effect of Target and Netting Games on Overhead Pass Volleyball
           Accuracy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Khurotul Aini   Moch. Asmawi   Ramdan Pelana   James Tangkudung   and Muslimin   The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of target games and net games training on the accuracy of passing volleyball. The research method used is the experimental design method using pretest-posttest control group design. The research subjects used the experimental method. The research subjects were 120 participants of men's volleyball extracurricular activities at Makassar City Junior High School. Participants are divided into two groups using total sampling, namely 60 subjects in the experimental group (net games) and 60 control subjects (target games). The test instrument is passed over the head using the Russell-Lange test. The effectiveness test was delivered to see the difference between the control group and the experimental group using the t-test. Data analysis techniques used the help of SPSS 21 application. The results of the study with a value of t = 10,971, df = 118 and sig (2 tailed) or p-value = 0.000
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • The Effectiveness Learning of Physical Education on Pandemic COVID-19

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Sumbara Hambali   Asep Akbaruddin   Domi Bustomi   Achmad Rifai   Tatang Iskandar   Azi Faiz Ridlo   Yopi Meirizal   Ruslan Rusmana   and Rury Anggoro Tyas   In some countries, the COVID-19 pandemic has become a major disaster that has caused several areas to experience serious problems. One of them is the field of education, which requires online learning. However, this is effective' The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The object of this research is the Effectiveness Learning of Physical Education in the Pandemic COVID-19 at West Java Elementary School. This study aims to reveal field data by explaining what is revealed in the field, analyzing and concluding the results of the research. This research uses descriptive research with the process of collecting and compiling data, as well as analyzing and interpreting the data. The sample used is the West Java Elementary School, such as Bandung City, Cimahi City, Subang City, Bekasi City and Karawang City. The data collection technique in this study used a google form questionnaire that was sent through the WhatsApp application group through the homeroom teacher. After collecting data using a questionnaire, it can be seen that the effectiveness of the Physical Education Learning at the time of the COVID-19 Pandemic was at a score of 50%. This means that physical education learning carried out online is still not optimal. Students and teachers must be able to better adapt to the implementation of the online Physical Education learning process.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Public Policy for Financing the Practice of Physical Education

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Irfan   Rusdin   Sri Yanti   Shutan Arie Shandi   and Ihsan   Purpose: Analyze government policies regarding the financing of physical education. Design/methodology/approach: This research is a descriptive study using qualitative methods. The research subjects were 32 people. The research analysis is data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing. Findings: (1) the regional budget allocation policy for financing education delivery exceeds the minimum limit of 20% of the regional revenue and expenditure budget. (2) the operational implementation of physical education in educational units only relies on school operational assistance funds. (3) the education budget allocation is not proportional to the funding of programs to increase the competence of human resources, only 0.3% is budgeted by the Education Office. The funding for physical education providers is more dominant in the program to improve sports facilities and infrastructure, namely 8% of the budget for education providers. Originality/value: (1) The education financing policy model needs budget allocation management to increase human resources (internal) to strengthen the competence of technical personnel in various fields in the Education Office in the form of training. (2) Model of budget allocation for human resource development (external), the budget allocated for teacher and student activities in the form of technical guidance and training. The realization of this policy model requires policy intervention in the form of political will with an approach of communication, authority, trust, value.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Movement Intensities in Student Using Polar Global
           Positioning System (GPS): A Pilot Study in Physical Education Learning

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Lutfi Nur   Arief Abdul Malik   Didik Rilastiyo Budi   and Muchamad Arif Al Ardha   This research is a pilot study aimed at analyzing the intensity of male and female students' learning movement comparison using a polar global positioning system (GPS). It is a comparative study, and participants in this study were junior high school students aged 12-13 years, totaling eight students (four males and four females). The research instruments used were Polar GPS RC3 and Polar Heart Rate Sensor H3 to measure the distance and heart rate of students during the learning process. All participants were given a tactical learning model and a technical learning model on different physical education learning days. After that, they were analyzed comparatively to find out the difference. The results showed differences in the intensity of movement in male and female students, with the tactical learning group had higher intensity of movement. Besides, the average male students had higher movement intensity than female students. This study's findings could be used as evaluation material for teachers to improve the physical education teaching and learning process quality. Furthermore, the use of technology, such as the Polar Global Positioning System (GPS), helps teachers monitor their students' level of physical activity. Since this research is a pilot study, further research is needed to determine the differences between the two learning models and gender-based student movement intensity more comprehensively. Besides, the comparison of giving feedback during the lesson is also suggested for further research.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Efficacy of Speed, Agility and Quickness Training with and without
           Equipment on Athletic Performance Parameters – A Randomized Control
           Trial

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Umair Anwer   Shibili Nuhmani   Saurabh Sharma   Mohd Arshad Bari   Shaji John Kachanathu   and Turki Saeed Abualait   Speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) are the key determinants in soccer which enable the player to address decisive situations. Therefore the objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of the SAQ training with and without specialized training equipment on sports performance parameters in amateur soccer players. In this study, 64 amateur male soccer players between the ages of 18-25 were recruited and randomized into the experimental group and control group. The experimental group received SAQ training with specialized equipment whereas the control group received SAQ training without equipment for six weeks (three times/ week). The study adopted a pretest-posttest design. Vertical jump test, 20-meter sprint test and Illinois agility test were the outcome measures. Both groups were significantly improved (p< 0.05) from pre to post-training in all sports performance measures. Between-group analysis by independent t-test showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group significantly in vertical jump test t(53)=7.71; p=.01,Cohen's d =1.24; 20 m sprint test t(53)=5.05; p=.03,Cohen's d =1.12 and in Illinois agility test t(53)=2.84; p=.03,Cohen's d =0.72. This study found that SAQ training is an effective training program for improving selected sports performance measures in amateur soccer players. Addition of specialized training equipment in SAQ training can cause a significant improvement in sports performance measures. The findings of the study can assist the clinician to design the late stage of rehabilitation protocol, preseason training and conditioning in novice and semiprofessional athletes.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Use of Exercise Classics in Physical Education Classes for the Development
           of Vestibular Stability of Schoolchildren

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Polevoy G. G.   Aim: to determine the influence of exercise Classics on the development of vestibular stability of schoolchildren aged 9-10. Methods: the study was conducted over a period of 9 months, and 40 9-10-year-old schoolchildren took part in. Physical education classes were held 2 times a week for 40 minutes each lesson. The level of development of coordination abilities was assessed on the "Shuttle run " test, and the indicators of vestibular stability on the "Turns on the gym bench " test. The programs bio-stat 2009, Microsoft excel 2016 and t-student were used for mathematical and statistical processing of results. Results: at the beginning of the pedagogical experiment, the indicators of school children between the groups did not have significant differences (P>0.05). At the end of the study, the indicators in both groups improved. In CG, in the Shuttle run test, the indicators improved from 10.2±0.6 to 9.9±0.5 (P>0.05); and in the vestibular stability test, the indicators improved by 2.9% (P>0.05). In EG, in the "Shuttle run 3x10 m " test, performance improved from 9.9±0.5 to 8.5±0.4 (P
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Improving Skills and Character Youth Football Player through Games
           Experience Coaching Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Sulistiyono   Sugiyanto   Agus Kristiyanto   and Sapta Kunta Purnama   Coaching in sport is a complex activity where several components influence each other to achieve the goal, especially in team sports. Skills, physical abilities, and tactics are not enough, but with strong character by the players increasingly the chances of achieving team success. Researchers have not found coaching models that aim to improve technical skills and character integrated and proven to be effective. This research aims to find the effectiveness of the games experience learning coaching model to improve passing, receiving, dribbling, shooting technical skills and teamwork, respect, discipline character in a youth football player. This research used experimental methods. The sample was 46 youth football players from some football schools in Sleman District, Yogyakarta Region, Indonesia. Twenty-three players sampled the intervention group and 23 players sampled the control group. Data collection used skill tests for technical skills and observation tests for character players. Skill and character measurements are carried out before and after treatment, where the treatment is carried out for 10 weeks. Data analysis was done with the ANCOVA technique, strengthened by paired t-test using SPSS 22 program. The results of the study are games experience learning base coaching model (1) having a significant influence on technical skills and character youth football player, (2) effective to improve skills and character youth football player. The limitation of this study is the interaction activities of players with peers in the environment, with families that researchers cannot control may influence the results of the study. The games experience learning base coaching model can be an alternative that can be used by football coaches in charge of coaching young players. This coaching model is following the youth positive development policy where sports activities not only think about winning but also attention to attitude, life skills, character that can be a provision for the lives of young athletes in the future. The games- experience learning based coaching model requires improvement in some parts of the game to make skill improvement more optimal.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Synchronized Breathing with Pelvic Floor Contractions Increase the Lower
           Limb Power in Young Football Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  2  Vijayamurugan Eswaramoorthi   Mohamad Razali Abdullah   Naresh Bhaskar Raj   Rabiu Muazu Musa   and Ahmad Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki   The aim of this study was to find out the most significant exercise training in improving lower limb power in young male football players. Sixty non-smoking young male football players with the mean age of 14.18 (0.79) years, were randomly allotted to four groups (Group A, B, C, D) of 15 players in each group. Lower limb power was assessed at baseline by vertical jump test. The Group A athletes were instructed to perform diaphragmatic breathing exercise with conventional sports training. Group B athletes instructed to do pelvic floor muscle exercise with conventional sports training. Group C athletes advised to do synchronized diaphragmatic breathing with pelvic floor contraction with conventional sports training and Group D (Control group) players received conventional sports training alone. The training regimen was scheduled for 15-minute length 5 times per week for 8 weeks, along with their 60-minute conventional sports training. Mid and post intervention assessment were carried out at the fourth week and the eighth week with similar baseline assessment regimen. The repeated measures of ANOVA exposed that, noticeable development in lower limb power was obvious amongst all of intervention groups, however post hoc analyses implicated that synchronized diaphragmatic breathing with pelvic floor contraction was advantageous in enhancing lower limb power than the pelvic floor exercise, diaphragmatic breathing exercise and conventional sports training (P
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Pattern of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Childhood

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Adang Suherman   Nur Indri Rahayu   Jajat   and Mohammad Zaky   The research aimed to examine the prevalence and comparisons between physical activity and sedentary behavior of early-year children in preschool. The samples were 55 early-year children under five years old whose parents were willing to become participants voluntarily. Considering that the children have a plasticity characteristic, it is possible to form movement and healthy behavior from this early stage. Twenty-four-hour movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep) were assessed using the ActiGraphTM accelerometer. Compared to early childhood children in a rural area, the results showed that early childhood children in urban areas were more physically active and spent less time on sedentary behavior (p < 0.05). Overall, there were no physical activities or sedentary behavior differences based on gender (p> 0.05). Meanwhile, male children in the rural area spent less physical activity and were more sedentary than male children in the urban area (p < 0.05). There was no difference in both physical activity and sedentary behavior (p> 0.05). These findings suggest that interventions aiming to improve physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in early childhood may be more effective by considering the residential location.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Effects of Ular Tangga Games on the Development of Locomotor Skills in
           Elementary School

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Udi Sahudi   Ali Priyono   and Yudha M. Saputra   Locomotor skill has an important role in the implementation of Physical Education learning, especially sports that require moving places or stresses, such as sprinting, long jump, high jump, and other sports. This study aimed to determine the differences in the student locomotor skills before and after the students played the Ular Tangga game. In a quasi-experimental study design, thirty-two (n=32) grade 3 elementary school students (age: mean ± SD) participated in this study. Findings showed that the t-count value was greater than the t-table value in the initial and final test results (12.155> 2.042). The results showed that the post-test mean score was higher, 8.28, with a higher standard deviation, 9.71. It means that there was a difference in the average score of the student locomotor movement skills before and after playing the Ular Tangga game. The average value and the t-count value was 12.15. It was due to an increase in student's locomotor movement skills. The application of the Ular Tangga game caused students to move places. Thus, the student movement increased. It concludes that children who play Ular Tangga games will experience better motor skill development and improvement than their peers.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Backhand Serve Test Model for Junior Badminton Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Septian Williyanto   Agus Wiyanto   Nurhadi Santoso   and Masri   This study aimed at developing a backhand serve test model for junior badminton athletes. The research method used was a research and development method. The samples of the study were more than 120 athletes divided into ten badminton clubs in Central Java. This study involved academics and badminton practitioners with an excellent design validation score that reached an average score more than 3.5. The product of the research was Backhand Serve Test Model development, which was equipped with the test norms for junior badminton athletes. The Short Serve Test validity score was 0.702 and the reliability of the test score was 0.910. The developed Serve Test model is proven suitable to be used for measuring the serve skills of junior badminton athletes, because the samples of this study were athletes aged 15-18 years. Of course, the developed test model will be useful as a measuring tool for the backhand serve test for junior badminton athletes at the regional level.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Aquatic Training with Play Methods in Improving Swimming Skills in
           Preschool Children

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Sandra Arhesa   and Dewi Laelatul Badriah   This study aimed to determine the increase of swimming skills in aquatic training by playing methods for preschool children. The research method used was pre-experimental with a one-shot case study design. The populations were forty swimming participants at the Arhesa Swimming Club. Thirteen preschool children aged four to six years old (five males and eight females) were involved in the study. The research instrument were swimming skills test for preschool children's with water recognition indicators, pool entry, breath control, float, arms push, leg movement, and complete swimming. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that six children were in a good category with a percentage of forty-six point fifteen, four children were in a moderate category with a percentage of thirty point seven six, and three children were in a low category with a percentage of twenty-three point zero seven. It concludes that aquatic training with the play method can improve swimming skills of pre-school children. It is suggested for further research to use other experimental methods, with a large sample, and increase the number of meetings.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Application of Tactical Approach to Developing Students' Enjoyment and
           Skills in Playing Football

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Sucipto   Yunyun Yudiana   Burhan Hambali   Lilis Komariyah   and Agus Gumilar   This study aimed to examine the effect of tactical approach on students' enjoyment and skills in playing football. The study used an experimental method with a pre-test post-test control group design. A total of 40 students aged 14-15 years were involved in the study at one of junior high schools in West Bandung Regency, Indonesia. Data were collected using the Pleasure Scale and Game Performance Assessment Instruments (GPAI) which were aimed to measure the level of enjoyment and skills of the students in playing football. The measurement data were analysed using the one-way MANOVA technique. The results of the analysis showed that the F value (df = 37) was 47.57, p value = 0.00. These results indicate that the learning approaches given to students, both tactical and technical approaches, have a significant effect on the enjoyment and skills of playing football in a multivariate manner. While the analysis of the mean comparison between the two groups obtained p value = 0.00. This proves that the tactical approach has a higher and significant effect on the development of enjoyment and football playing skills. The results of the analysis also conclude that the application of tactical approach has a significant effect on the development of students' enjoyment and playing skills.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Volleyball Information System for Volleyball Performance Assessment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Yunyun Yudiana   Yusuf Hidayat   Burhan Hambali   Agus Gumilar   and Mudjihartono   This study aimed to test the application of the volleyball information system (VIS) based performance appraisal model to assess the performance of volleyball athletes. The research method used a quasi-experimental design with interrupted times-series design. Participants in the study were 12 volleyball athletes who were trained at one of the volleyball clubs in Bandung, Indonesia, aged 15-17. The instrument used in this research was the observation format developed from the VIS FIVB 2005 which measured six skills to play volleyball, namely serve, receive, set, spike, block, and dig. All data from the measurement results of the VIS assessment model were analysed using the one-way analysis technique of variance in the overtime measurement (repeated measures ANOVA). The results of the study proved that the VIS-based performance assessment model has a significant impact on improving the basic skills of playing volleyball. The result of analysis concludes that the implementation of the VIS-based performance assessment instrument model can be used in the volleyball training process and contributes to improving the basic skills of volleyball performance.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • The Implementation of Mini Volleyball in Physical Education to Increase
           Students' Creative Thinking Ability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Dupri   Oki Candra   and Novia Nazirun   The challenges of the current industrial revolution era 4.0 have an impact on the skills that must be possessed by the younger generation, one of which is the ability to think creatively to face fast technological developments. Therefore, the research objective was to observe the effect of volleyball on students' creative thinking skills. The method used was an experimental design with one group of pre-test post-test each. Meanwhile, the research location was a high school, and a sample size of thirty-five students from the tenth grade was selected by cluster random sampling. This research was conducted for two months, with meetings held weekly, resulting in a total of eight sessions. The ability to think creatively was evaluated with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), while t-tests were employed for the data analysis. Subsequently, the study results indicated an increase in creative abilities at the application of volleyball during physical education learning. With this research outcome, it is necessary to perform other development studies, which involve utilizing a control group and more interesting strategies. Consequently, mini volleyball modification is suitable to be applied in physical education learning at schools because it provides a sense of comfort, joy, and activity in the game.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • The Impact of Sports Course on ITB Student Participation and Enjoyment in
           Physical and Sporting Activities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Doddy Abdul Karim   Yudi Hendrayana   Amung Mamun   and Dian Budiana   Objective: The Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia (KEMENKES) says that obesity, stress, and degenerative diseases are among the symptoms and impacts of the less participation of Indonesia's youths in doing physical activities. The major goal of the present research is to measure the impact of compulsory sports course on student motivation to take part in sport activities after the course, as well as on the fitness of ITB first-year students. Materials and Methods: The research used a qualitative-descriptive research method. 310 informants were involved in the research. All informants filled in a three-stage questionnaire, including informant identification, informant motivation, and the impact of their involvement in compulsory sports general course (MKU). The data analysis used in the research was statistic-descriptive. Results: The research results showed that 86 (57%) informants said that they had not background in doing sports and 64 (43%) informants said that they routinely did sports. Moreover, the data showed that all informant (150) said that they would do sport activities individually and be motivated by the compulsory sports general course they did at ITB. Conclusion: Based on the questionnaire that we had developed and distributed, the research showed that there were some changes in both motivation and enjoyment in doing sport activities individually after having taken part in compulsory sports course at ITB.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Scientific Approach in Physical Education: Improving Creativity and
           Physical Fitness of Senior High School Students in Mountainous Areas

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Beltasar Tarigan   Background: This paper discusses the scientific approach in Physical Education. Physical Education emphasizes personal or body fitness. It promotes healthy living by exercising the body. Purpose: This study was aimed at analyzing the influence of the Physical Education approach to the creativity and physical fitness of high school students in mountainous areas. Methods: The method used was an experiment with pre-test and post-test designs. The populations of this study were students of Lembang Public Senior High School 1, consisting of 2 groups. 36 students were taken as samples through simple random sampling technique. The instruments used were creativity tests and physical fitness tests. The data were processed using independent t-test statistical analysis with a confidence level of 0.05. Results: The independent t-test calculation results, both the student's creativity and physical fitness components, showed a significant effect. Conclusion: The scientific approach in Physical Education carried out 3 times a week can increase the creativity and physical fitness of high school students living in mountainous areas. Meanwhile, if it is only done once a week, the results will be lower.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Sports Facilities and Local Government Policy: A Case Study in West Java,
           Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Didik Subhakti Prawira Raharja   Nurlan Kusmaedi   Amung Ma'Mun   and Berliana   The completion of the sports facilities available in each region is not evenly distributed, apart from the 4th largest population in the world, the various sports activities carried out by the community must be supported by means of transport. Support, the availability of sports facilities is affected by the policies of each regional government. SPOrT (Integrated Sports Development Center) Jabar Arcamanik is a sports complex owned by the West Java Regional Government. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the emergence of local government policies in the provision of sports facilities. The case study method used in this study is the semi-structured interview and observation as a data collection tool, as well as the participants involved, namely the head of the relevant department and the management of the sports facilities. The presence of sports facilities is the implementation of local government policies through the transformation of national and regional development plans, in order to bridge the gap between regions in terms of infrastructure development. Infrastructures for sports facilities bring cultural heritage and benefits to the community. Therefore, the construction of sports facilities can be achieved when policy makers have a desire and understanding of regional regeneration associated with regional development, the allocation of budgets related to the needs are determined and adjusted to current regulations so that the benefits from the availability of sports facilities can be felt by the community.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Neurotracker Training to Improve Shooting Performance of Archery Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Komarudin   Yusuf Hidayat   and Geraldi Novian   Nowadays, there are a number of non-conventional training methods utilizing science and technology that can improve athlete performances, one of them is NeuroTracker technology. In Indonesia, this technology is still limited. Meanwhile, in developed countries, this method is developing rapidly and implemented for gaining sport achievements, including in archery. In archery, athletes must focus on performing techniques consistently, be fast, and be precise in making decisions when aiming and releasing arrows. In this condition, athletes often experience disturbances and doubts in aiming and releasing arrows so that the shooting performance is often not optimal. To overcome this problem, NeuroTracker technology can be provided in the training process to improve the archery athlete shooting ability. The method of this research used the experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. The population of this study consisted of 40 archery athletes of one of the campus sports clubs. Samples were selected using non-random sampling to obtain 20 athletes. The samples were divided into two groups, including the experimental group and control group. The experimental group received NeuroTracker trainings, while the control group received the conventional trainings. The instrument used to measure the archery shooting ability was the 30m shooting test. The results showed that NeuroTracker training and conventional training had a significant effect on the archery athlete shooting performance. Furthermore, NeuroTracker training had a greater effect than conventional training on the archery athlete shooting performance.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Mental Imagery Applicative Model for Beginner Badminton Coaches

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Yusuf Hidayat   Komarudin   and Tri Martini   The implementation of mental imagery in the badminton sport coaching is often neglected, especially for beginner badminton coaches. As an integral part of psychological skill training (PST), the intervention of mental imagery could be conducted in education and training programs. The objective of the study is to help improve the knowledge, attitude, and skill of badminton coaches of the beginners about how mental imagery could be integrated in the training process. The program was conducted in a workshop and coaching practical training involving 20 beginner badminton coaches and 56 beginner student-athletes aged 10 - 13. The results of the analysis showed that the education and training program were successful on improving knowledge, attitude, and skill of the badminton coaches for beginners regarding the implementation of integrating mental imagery in a training process. Hence, it can be concluded that the applicable conceptual framework of using mental imagery developed in this study can be used as an applicative model for implementing mental imagery programs in an integrated manner with the training process.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Life Kinetik Training to Increase Concentration and Skills in Playing
           Football

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Komarudin   Patriana Nurmansyah Awwaludina   Yusuf Hidayat   and Novrizal Achmad Novan   This study examines the influence difference between Life Kinetik training and conventional training on increasing concentration and football playing skills. This exercise has not been widely applied in the training process to improve psychological abilities and football skills. The method used in this study is an experiment with 90 football athletes subject in one of the state universities in Indonesia. Through random selection subjects, 40 people were taken, and the random assignment of subjects was divided into two, namely the experimental and control groups of 20 people each. The instrument to measure concentration was used, the Concentration Grid Test (CGT), and the instrument to measure football playing skills, the Games Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI). This study uses a pretest-posttest control group design. The data analysis technique used the non-parametric Mann Whitney Test with SPSS version 21. The results showed significant differences in the effect of Life Kinetik training and conventional training on increasing concentration and football playing skills. Life Kinetik Training is better than conventional training for increasing concentration and soccer-playing skills. The authors would like to recommend coaches and athletes in the football to use Life Kinetik in the training process because it can improve athlete concentration and football playing skills.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Leaping through Hurdles: Adaptability among Female Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Arvin A. Andacao   and Carla Jane B. Linganay   Background: Basketball is a popular team sport played mostly by men. However, female athletes are quite daunting to play. Aims: This study was designed to explore and unveil the adaptability among female athletes in playing basketball. Settings and Design: Using the qualitative and interpretive orientation research, the study employed a phenomenological approach with ladies' varsity and athletes in the Davao Oriental State College of Science and Technology. Methods and Material: The researchers utilized a validated content and conducted interview guide schedule prior to obtain the investigated data from the informants through in-depth interviews and focus group discussion techniques. Statistical analysis used: Thorough transcription, careful translation, and appropriate decoding of data were conducted before the generation of the interview results operating the NVivo 12 software. Results: The findings of the study indicated that adaptability occurred when there was a need for change. Time-management, focus, conflicts among teammates and coaches, and physical qualities were recognized as problems and challenges by the informants. Identified limitations brought negative interconnected effects from their academics, athletics, and social relationships in which athletes self-assess for obtaining poor performance. Focus and adjusting are a few of the essential elements as a resolve to overcome hurdles. Conclusions: Finally, adaptability varies depending on the perception and the range of the experience of the athletes. Few of the informants have been now not all successful in overcoming playing basketball. Moreover, the authors recommend the RID Adaptation Framework as a guide for the athletes to play and future researchers for further investigation and improvement of this context.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Knowledge Enhancement of Aceh Province Coaches on Basic Life Support
           Material

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Yusni Yusni   Muhammad Ridwan   and Amiruddin Amiruddin   Objective: The research objective was to analyze the effect of providing material about Basic Life Support (BLS) on increasing the knowledge of coaches. Methods: This study was an experimental study with one group pretest and posttest design. Subjects of the study were 10 male coaches from Aceh Province, aged 22-32 years, from 5 different types of sport, namely Rugby, athletics, Taekwondo, Archery, and Karate. Data analysis used descriptive analysis, chi-square (p
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Is Physical Activity Level in Physical Education Lesson Related to
           Fundamental Movement Skills at Elementary Schools'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Ricky Wibowo   Didin Budiman   Gano Sumarno   Mesa Rahmi Stephani   and Wulandari Putri   Objectives: The results of the study in various countries show that students do not achieve the recommended level of physical activity during physical education class. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of physical activity of elementary school students in a physical education class and the relation between the level of physical activity of elementary school students and fundamental movement skills (FMS). Methods: Correlational approach was used to analyze the results of this study. Third grade elementary school students (n=43; boys=23; girl=20) were enrolled in this study. The instrument used to measure the level of physical activity was the heart rate monitor chest strap (Polar H10) connected to IPAD Polar Team application Mini that was used during physical education class. To measure FMS, TGMD-2 was used consisting of locomotor and object control skills. Results: The results indicated that the distribution of physical activity levels in Physical Education learning at elementary school classes in Indonesia did not reach the recommended level of physical activity (31.20%) MVPA. Boys only reached 32,65% MVPA on average and only 10% of them managed to reach the recommended MVPA. Meanwhile, the girls reached 31,08% MVPA and only 16% of them reached the recommended MVPA. FMS was correlated with the level of physical activity of students during Physical Education learning at the low level (.203). Conclusions: Physical education class needs to pay attention to the intensity of children's physical activities to get benefit from physical activities besides learning through movement.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Increasing Self-esteem through Traditional Sundanese Games and Sport from
           Indonesia in Physical Education

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Indra Adi Budiman   Brio Alfatihah Rama Yudha   and Yoyo Zakaria Anshori   Self-esteem has been identified as an initial buffer against childhood mental illness and with participation in physical activity as an approach to mental health promotion, as well as additional therapy treatments for mental illness. The purpose of this study was to determine the results of the traditional Sundanese ethnic game intervention on the self-esteem of elementary school students in physical education learning. The method used in this research is quasi-experimental. Participants in this study were all students of grade 6 elementary school and were selected as the experimental group (N=30) and one class 6 as the control group (N=30). The experimental group and the control group were treated for 12 weeks. The instrument used in this study was the Self-esteem Rating Scale (SERS). Paired t-test results obtained p t table or 2.830> 2.143, so it can be said that there is a significant difference in the experimental group's self-esteem before and after the application of traditional Sundanese ethnic game treatment in physical education learning. Based on the results of the research and discussion that have been described and explained above, it can be concluded that through traditional Sundanese ethnic games, the self-esteem of elementary school students can be increased.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Improvement on Gross Motor Skills of Intellectual Disability Students
           through Games

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Ali Priyono   Udi Sahudi   and Yudy Hendrayana   People with Intellectual Disability (ID) can and do learn new skills, but they learn them more slowly. Children and adults who were consistently retarded were found to be significantly lower than non-retarded people in measures of physical development, gross motor skills, and fine motor skills. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of games toward gross motor skills on ID students. This study uses a quantitative method with a quasi-experimental design. Subjects were 28 moderate mental retardation students institutionalized at the Gelora Karya Special Needs School Majalengka, West Java, Indonesia. The Sig value obtained was 0.001 and the T-score was 3.774. The value of 0.025 is a significant level obtained from 0.05: 2 = 0.025 and 20 is the degree of freedom (df), namely n-k-1 = 22-1-1 = 20. These results indicate that games have an influence on students' motor skills. Games can develop themselves optimally in physical, motor, social, emotional and cognitive aspects. Moderate mentally retarded students have difficulty doing physical activities or basic movements. They can participate in playing activities but with simple directions, therefore they need practices that can develop their physical motor skills.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Effect of Playing Comprehension Model on Basketball Playing Skills

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Lukmannul Haqim Lubay   Amung Makmun   Tite Juliantine   and Nuryadi   The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the application of the playing understanding training method on the performance of basketball athletes. This study used an experimental research method involving 40 basketball athletes aged 11-14 years in Bandung Regency as the study population. A sample of 20 people was tested for understanding playing through the instrument used was the Game Performance Assessment Instrument observation sheet. The sample taken was a group of athletes with early ability to play high basketball who were given the playing comprehension exercise method, the sampling technique used was saturated sampling with a one group - pretest - posttest design. The results of data processing and data analysis were obtained using the sample t-test, namely paired t-test. Based on the results of these calculations, the conclusion is that the method of understanding play can improve the performance of a group of athletes with high initial abilities to play basketball.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Concurrent Validity of Front-Crawl Swimming Competence through Measurement
           of Basic Swimming Abilities for Beginners

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Badruzaman   Yudha M. Sapoetra   Agus Rusdiana   Jajat   and Septian Williyanto   The study aimed to examine the concurrent validity of front-crawl swimming competence as a criterion by measuring the basic swimming ability for estimated swimming distance. The research samples were 35 students (15 people from the Sports Science program and 20 from the Physics program) aged 19-21. The seven components of basic swimming ability, including submerging, floating, gliding (Gd), leg propulsion, hand propulsion, leg coordination, and breath control, were the predictors, while the front-crawl swimming competence referred to the criterion. Concurrent validity analysis used PPM correlation, while factor analysis used stepwise multiple regression methods. The results indicated a significant association between basic swimming abilities and swimming competence. The moderate relationship (r = 04-0.7, p
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • College Students' Motivation after Teaching Using Sport Education Season

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4A  Agi Ginanjar   Mochamad Zakky Mubarok   and Dicky Oktora Mudzakir   College Sports or Physical Education Teacher Education programs must be able to provide a learning experience that can motivate college students and also equip them to become sports teachers in the future. Motivation has an important function because it can determine the efforts of college students in the learning process and teaching process later. Therefore, we need a learning strategy that can provide a learning experience with motivation in the learning process. Sport Education (SE) can provide all of that. This study aims to see the level of college students' motivation after participating in the SE season according to their role in SE. The research method used descriptive approach. Participants were 35 college students in the eastern part of West Java Province, Indonesia. The instrument used in this study was the Learning Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-L). The data analysis technique used descriptive statistics. The results showed that the level of motivation of the coaches compared to all other roles and the roles involved in the team have a higher level of motivation than the roles involved out of the team. It is necessary to investigate what sports orientation underlies college students with the existence of competition activities in SE and a deeper study of research instruments.
      PubDate: July 2021
       
  • Effect of Technical Training Using a Ball on the Dribbling Speed for
           Football Players Aged 10-12 Years

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Sridadi   Tomoliyus   Erda Ayu Septiasari   Parijan   Hari Yuliarto   and Ilham   Background: One of the techniques used in football activities with the ball that must be mastered by players is the dribbling technique. Coaches are required to be more careful in choosing and applying a training method so that players can accomplish the exercises quickly and correctly. Purpose: The study was to determine the extent of the effect, if any, of technical training using the ball on the dribbling speed of 10-12 years old football players. Design/methodology/approach: The design employed in this study was the One Group Pretest-Posttest Design, while the population were soccer players aged 10-12 years at the SELABORA Football School, Yogyakarta State University. Of 27 soccer players were purposely selected to be a sample of the study. Retrieval of data using tests, with an instrument in the form of a dribbling test from the Bobby Charlton model has a validity of 0.973 and reliability of 0.864. The data were analyzed by using the t-test analysis through the prerequisite test for normality and homogeneity. Results: After addressing all data, results of hypothesis testing using t-test obtained t-calculated of 2.324> t table with α = 0.05. By it, data implied that there is a significant difference between the data before and after being given treatment. The increase in the mean was evident because there was an increase of 0.85 from 18.2900 to 19.1367, with the cumulative sig equal to 0.028 < 0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that technical training using the ball has a significant effect of 4.44% on the dribbling speed with a significant improvement between the pre-and posttest results among football players aged 10-12 years and subsequently hypothesis posed is accepted.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Effect of Self-talk on Pentanque Shooting Accuracy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Rony Mohamad Rizal   Mochamad Asmawi   and Johansyah Lubis   The background of this research is the petanque precision shooting athletes who are inconsistent in obtaining scores. Accuracy is an important part of petanque, especially in the precision shooting numbers, so that it is necessary to have a mental training process that can contribute to the athlete's ability to improve their accuracy. The purpose of this research is to see the effect of a mental training in the form of self-talk on improving shooting accuracy in petanque. Looking at the objectives of this study, the pre-experimental method with the one group pre-test and post-test design has been used. The instrumental test in this study is a shooting test of 20 athletes from FIPJP (Fédération Internationale de Pétanque et Jeu Provençal). The results of this research indicate that the test results are t = 2.690, with db = 19 and the number Sig. (2-tailed) or p-value = 0.014
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Development of the Ability to Unite Movements of Schoolchildren with the
           Help of Exercises Classics

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Polevoy G. G.   Background: The problem of lack of physical activity of schoolchildren can be solved by supplementing the standard physical education programs at school. Material and methods: Pedagogical experiment lasted nine months, which was attended by 50 children from the second grade. Children were engaged in physical culture at school twice a week for 40 minutes each lesson. General coordination abilities were determined by the test «Shuttle run 3x10m», and the ability to unite the movements of schoolchildren were determined by the test «Jumping on the spot». Statistical and mathematical analysis of the results was carried out using Microsoft Excel 2016 and Bio-Statistica 2009. The study used the parametric criterion T-Student. The result was significant at P
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Assessment on the Implementation of Special Program in Sports and
           Student-Athletes Performance in Sports Competition

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Rayvin D. Pestano   and Florante P. Ibarra   Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a Special Program in Sports (SPS) in eight secondary school implementers in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Likewise, student-athlete performance in sports competitions in the division level, regional level, and national level athletic meet was also assessed. Methodology: Using a descriptive correlational research design, 59 teacher/coach/trainer handling specialization subjects in SPS program participated in the study. Quantitative data were gathered using a self-made questionnaire as the main instrument. Findings: Respondents perceived evaluation on the implementation of a special program in sports were highly sufficient in the areas of the planned curriculum for sports, admission and retention policies, student support, manpower resources, and instructional resources and moderately sufficient in the areas of school sports facilities. Furthermore, student-athletes performance at the division level was found to be very satisfactory, while unsatisfactory at the regional and national level sports competition. Human resources and school sports facilities were found to have significant relationship with student-athletes performance in sports competition. Contribution and Recommendation: Therefore, it is highly recommended that schools that implement special program in sports should provide adequate sports facilities, equipment, and competent coaches as these more likely to have great impact on athletes' performance.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Degree of Availability of Crisis Management Elements in the Boards of
           Directors of Jordanian Football Sport Clubs in Light of the Coronavirus
           (COVID-19) Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Nedal Ahmad Alghafary   Khalaf Waleed Diabat   and Mohammad Ahmad Hamed Abuhawileh   The study aimed at investigating the degree of availability of crisis management elements in the boards of directors of Jordanian football sport clubs in light of the Corona virus pandemic (COVID-19). The study adopted the descriptive cross-sectional research approach. The sample of the study comprised of (208) members of clubs boards of directors. The study utilized a 5-domain. The findings revealed that the degree of availability of crisis management elements in the boards of directors of Jordanian football sports clubs in light of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic was at a moderate degree. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in the degree of availability of crisis management elements in Football sport clubs' boards of directors referred to the variables (administrative experience, educational qualification, team rank). The study recommended the necessity of activating the role of crisis management elements in sports bodies and institutions and the need to enact legislation and laws that oblige members of sports club boards of directors to obtain training courses in the field of crisis management.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Cycling during COVID-19 Pandemic: Sports or Lifestyle'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Didik Rilastiyo Budi   Rindha Widyaningsih   Lutfi Nur   Boby Agustan   Dicky Reva Apriana Sanga Dwi   Wildan Qohhar   and Arie Asnaldi   The increasing trend of cycling during the Covid-19 pandemic is a common social phenomenon that is common in various countries. This study aims to overview the cycling phenomenon during the Covid-19 Pandemic and the factors causing the cycling trend during a pandemic. In addition, the main highlight is to determine the emergence background of the cycling trend; whether it is an increase in people's awareness of sports or is it merely a lifestyle trend' The research method uses a systematic literature review by conducting literature reviews in reputable journals and scientific publications that discuss cycling in the pre-pandemic and pandemic times. Data analysis uses descriptive analysis and phenomenological approach as a theoretical framework. The results showed that four factors caused the cycling trend during the pandemic. Those factors are health, environment, media and lifestyle factors. Health reasons are due to the desire to maintain health and body immunity, and cycling is a sport recommended by health experts and according to the principle of physical distancing. Environmental factors are caused by being economical and environmentally friendly, supporting the "go green" program, and cyclist could get fresh and clean air. The media factor is driven by the significant influence of social media content and hashtags about cycling. While lifestyle factors arise due to following the latest trends, cycling can relieve stress and increase social status indicated by the price of bicycles and reasons for conformity in social groups. The increasing trend of cycling is mainly motivated by the desire to accompany the social demands of the current lifestyle, while the motivation related to health factors to increase body immunity in dealing with pandemic situations is secondary motivation. This conclusion is obtained based on the instability of the cycling trend and the downward trend in the cycling intensity graph.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Effects of Hip Joint Strengthening Exercises and Lumbopelvic Stabilization
           Exercises on Balance and Instability of Adults with Functional Ankle
           Instability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Jae-Ik Lee   and Tae-Ho Kim   In subjects with functional ankle instability, lumbopelvic instability causes instability of the hip and lower extremities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a lumbopelvic stabilization exercise program on the balance and instability of adults with functional ankle instability. 30 adults with functional ankle instability were assigned to a hip joint strengthening exercise group and a lumbopelvic stabilization exercise group at random. General ankle intervention was used in the hip joint strengthening exercise group, whereas a stabilization exercise using a sling was added in the lumbopelvic stabilization exercise group. The dynamic balance ability, static balance ability, and ankle instability were measured. A Paired-sample t-test was conducted to see the within-group changes in dynamic balance, static balance, and ankle instability scale before and after the experiment. To compare the changes between groups, an independent-sample t-test was conducted. The lumbopelvic stabilization exercise group showed increased the posterior-lateral distance and the scores on foot and ankle ability measures (p
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Comparison of Gluteus Medius and Tensor Fasciae Latae Muscle Activities
           during Pilates Clam Exercise Variations

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Hyojin Choe   and Joong-Hwi Kim   The purpose of this study was to compare three clam exercises (clam, modified clam 1, and modified clam 2) used in the Pilates physical fitness system, to examine the activity of the gluteus medius and tensor fascia latae and to determine which of the three exercises maximizes the activity of the gluteus medius while minimizing the activity of the tensor fascia latae. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this study. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to measure the electrical activities of the gluteus medius (GMed) and tensor fascia latae (TFL). This study showed significant differences between GMed and TFL muscle activities according to each of the three clam exercises (p < 0.05). The gluteus medius showed the highest activity during modified clam 2 and the lowest in clam (p < 0.05). Tensor fascia latae showed the lowest activity during clam and the highest in modified clam 2 (p < 0.05). The gluteus medius to tensor fascia latae ratio was the highest in modified clam 1 and the lowest in modified clam 2 (p < 0.05). Therefore, these findings inform clinicians and Pilates instructors that the appropriate exercise to maximize the activity of the gluteus medius while minimizing the activity of the tensor facia latae is modified clam 1.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Effect of Cryotherapy of Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients on Muscle
           Strength and Balance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Jin Park   In patients with total knee arthroplasty, the improvement of knee extensor muscle strength is an important factor in restoring stability, movement and function, and reducing pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cryotherapy to improve knee extensor strength and balance ability of total knee arthroplasty patients. In this study, 14 patients with total knee arthroplasty patients were recruited from a rehabilitation hospital. They were divided into two groups: a cryotherapy group (n=7) and a control group (n=7). They all received 30 minutes of continuous passive motion (CPM) and sit to stand training for 15 minutes and cryotherapy five times a week for two weeks. Knee extensor strength and balance ability were measured. Knee extensor strength was measured by Biodex system 3, balance ability was measured by Balancia software. To verify the difference in muscle strength and balance ability between groups, the pre-intervention value was set as a covariate and an analysis of covariance was performed. After the training period, the cryotherapy group showed a significant improvement in knee extensor muscle strength (p0.05). This study examined the effect of cryotherapy on muscle strength and balance ability after rehabilitation exercise in patients with total knee arthroplasty. The cryotherapy after rehabilitation exercise was found to have an effect on muscle strength improvement. However, it did not affect the balance ability. Therefore, it is recommended to improve muscle strength by applying cryotherapy after rehabilitation exercise for total knee arthroplasty patients.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Gross Motor Skills Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Diajeng Tyas Pinru Phytanza   Erick Burhaein   and Ratko Pavlovic   The purpose of this study was to determine the level of gross motor skills in ASD children during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Participants in this study were ASD children with a total of 25 children aged 8-12 years (M = 10.02; SD 1.27), who were selected by random sampling technique. This research instrument is the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2). Data analysis in this study is descriptive analysis. The results of gross motor skills show that 20 ASD children are in the average standard score of 4-5 (gross motor question = 70-79) in the low assessment category (80.00%) and 5 ASD children are in the average standard score of 1-3 (gross motor question =
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Combine Massage and Physiotherapeutic Exercise for Recovering Pain,
           Increasing Strength, and Flexibility

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Japhet Ndayisenga   Tomoliyus   and Ilham   Background: Chronic hip, knee, and ankle injuries are very common issues in the whole world. Musculoskeletal disorder hampers the development in several sectors including training and athletes' performance. Social, industrial, economic, and education declines are often caused by poor muscular-articular problems. This research aims to reveal the effectiveness of combine massage and physiotherapeutic exercises in: (1) the treatment of chronic hips, knee and ankle injuries; (2) improving and increasing the low limb strength and flexibility; (3) reducing the chronic pain of degenerative diseases; (4) improving the physical and mental wellbeing of human body; (5) increasing motor or sensory function; (6) increasing athlete's performance. This research is quasi-experimental with: quantitative approach. The sample of this study was 15 patients with chronic hips, knee and ankle injuries, taken by purposive sampling technique. The data were collected using measurement and treatment with combine massage and physiotherapeutic exercise. Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, paired sample t-test, and correlation among items using SPSS Amos.23. The result showed that there is a significant difference between pre-test-posttest strength measurement with P value (0.0030.5. In conclusion, massage and physiotherapeutic exercise were found to be a vital part to improve human body health and it can be used by everybody.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Impact of Running Techniques through the Sprint Ability in Athletes during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Purwanto Purwanto   Ria Lumintuarso   and Erick Burhaein   With the spread of the Covid-19 virus that is increasingly widespread, athletes cannot train optimally. This study aims to determine the effect of sprint running techniques on the ability of the 100-meter sprint in athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The method in this study was a true experiment with a pretest-posttest control group design. The total participants were 38 male athletes with an age range of 15-18 years (M = 17.3; SD: 1.26). Data analysis in this study is descriptive analysis and hypothesis testing. The results of the study are: 1) For the control group, the H0 (not significant) statement "There is no effect and difference of sprint running technique on the athlete's 100 meters running ability", is not rejected. Then, there was a decrease in the mean of 0.23 or 1.78%; 2) For the experimental group, the H1 (significant) statement "There is an effect of sprint running technique on the athlete's 100-meter running ability during the COVID-19 pandemic ", is not rejected. Then supported by an increase in the mean of 0.44 or 3.42%, the conclusion is that there is an effect of sprint running techniques on the ability of the 100-meter sprint in athletes. This finding can have implications, namely being a reference for coaches or teachers in compiling training programs to improve the achievement of the 100-meter sprints in athletic sports during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further researchers should be able to modify other types of exercise and conduct research with a wider sample and population and add different variables.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Effect of Aerobic Training on Body Composition among Sedentary Women of
           Manipur

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Loitongbam Baby Sujata Devi   and Takhellambam Inaobi Singh   Physical fitness was an important aspect for leading a complete life. Women, in general, have lesser involvement on a physical fitness regime. To maintain the youthfulness of body, regular physical activity and exercise was a key ingredient. This study aims to assess the effect of aerobic training on body composition among sedentary women of Manipur. The study made random inclusion of subjects who volunteer to participate in the training programme from Lairikyengbam Leikai, Imphal East District Manipur. Totally 30 subjects of age 46.5±4.9 years who volunteer to participate in the training were selected and minimize as control group and experimental group with N=15 each. Medical examination was conducted prior to training under registered practitioner. The training intensity was determining by using Karvonen formula. The training was given for 8 weeks regularly for 3 days alternately to determine the changes brought by training on body fat and fat free mass. The measurement was done before training as baseline score and after completion of 8 weeks as final score using Bio Electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) method, TANITA TBF300. The paired t test was used to analyze the data at a 0.05 level of significance for pre-and post-difference comparisons, followed by an independent t test to compare the mean difference between groups using SPSS software20. It shows statistically significant decrease in body fat (P0.05). It also shows that fat mass has a significant difference between the experimental and control groups while fat free mass shows no significant difference between groups. The result indicates that aerobic training can be an effective program for body fat reduction and positively alter one's body composition.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Relationship between Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Dynamic Stability in
           University Rugby and Soccer Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Mohammad Ahsan   and Mohammad Feroz Ali   The maximal oxygen uptake and dynamic stability is frequently assessed separately for different team players. However, most research is limited to specific sports players, so the maximal oxygen uptake and dynamic stability in rugby and soccer players are poorly documented. This study provides relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and dynamic stability in university rugby and soccer players. Twenty-eight participants were recruited for the study (14 rugby players and 14 soccer players). Maximal oxygen uptake was determined by multistage fitness test and dynamic stability was determined by Y balance test. A linear regression analysis was used to identify relationship and effect of maximal oxygen uptake and dynamic stability on university rugby and soccer players. Both groups were similar in characteristics. Our findings showed there was a significant relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake and dynamic stability for rugby players (r=.890) and soccer players (r=.811). Relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and dynamic stability (r=.836) was significant for both sports players. Rugby and soccer players achieved good scores in maximal oxygen uptake and dynamic stability and high maximal oxygen uptake scores lead to better dynamic stability in both teams' players. Maximal oxygen uptake affects the dynamic stability. Team coaches and physiologists must consider functional test outcomes while preparing players for competition. The individual training program should also be established on test outcome, which is more likely to improve performance.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Development of Agility Test Construction: Validity and Reliability of
           Karate Agility Test Construction in Kata Category

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Dewangga Yudhistira   Siswantoyo   Tomoliyus   Sumaryanti   Devi Tirtawirya   Paryadi   La Ode Adhi Virama   Sinta Naviri   and Noralisa   Background: Kata is a series of moves competed in karate that require agility in its movements. Purpose: This research aimed to determine the validity and reliability of karate agility test in kata category. Method: This was a developmental research. The data were collected using the Delphi technique, involving 7 experts and test-retest. The participants were 20 karate aged at least 20 years old who have practiced karate for 6 years and have won regional competitions. This was to determine the test of empirical validity and reliability. The content validity was calculated using the Aiken formula, the empirical validity was calculated using Pearson Product Moment, while the reliability was calculated using the Cronbach Alpha. Results: The results showed that the karate agility test in kata category had high validity and reliability. The Aiken results were as follows: Item (1) size has fit the karate in kata category with a value of V 0.85; Item (2) distance between cones has fit with a value of V 0.80; Item (3) equipment has fit with a value of V 0.80; Item (4) number of test repetitions has fit with a value of V 0.80; Item (5) test procedure has fit with a value of V 0.80; Item (6) safe instrument has fit with a value of V 0.85; Item (7) agility has fit with a value of V 0.85; Item (8) score taking has fit with a value of V 0.80. The results of Pearson product moment r-table were 0.444, r-count (test 1) was 0.927, r-count (test 2) was 0.903, significance was 0.000 < 0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the agility test can be used to measure the karate agility in kata category.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • An Analysis of the Factors involved in Providing Parental Support for
           Developing Sport Talent in Early Childhood

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Juriana Juriana   Yuli Rahmawati   Muhamad Syarif Sumantri   and Dede Rahmat Hidayat   The first phase of sports coaching often determines whether children maintain an interest into the next phase of coaching, therefore, parental support for children's sports activities in early childhood is very important. This qualitative research aims to explore the four dimensions of social support: emotional support, instrumental support, informational support, and companionship support for developing sport talent in early childhood. In addition, the differences between the roles of fathers and mothers in providing social support are examined. Participants involved in the study were seven parents of children aged between 0-6 years, who were members of a track and field club which has a Super Kids program. Super Kids is a program aimed at training fundamental movement skills. Interviews and observations formed the basis of the research methods and data were analysed by taxonomic analysis with results indicating that all parents provided the four types of emotional support, instrumental support, informational support, and companionship support to their children. Support from the father and/or mother plays an important role in develop children's positive characteristics to engage in sport and develop their talents through coaching. The study found that parents who had educational backgrounds and/or work in jobs associated with sport were more confident in providing detailed informational support.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Teaching Anatomy in Physical Education: Deductive Versus Inductive
           Methodology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Shahin Ahmedov   Figen Yaman Lesinger   Onur Sanivar   and Perihan Sanivar   Substantial knowledge in human anatomy is the premise for constructing lifelong effective exercise programs in public health. The level of public awareness of the basic structure of the human body remains low for years and continues to be a challenge for trainees. The traditional teaching approach in anatomy studies utilizes inductive methodology, where body parts of the structure are taught separately, which might be productive for medical students. Teaching anatomy in nonmedical programs like physical education (PE), however, intends for a holistic understanding of the subject to accentuate functional anatomy, which differs from its classical medical programs purely structural comprehension. Consequently, we suggested that a deductive rather than an inductive form of teaching anatomy in PE might bring the difference and ease the studying process. To statistically analyze this hypothesis traditionally utilized in the PE inductive educational approach for anatomy study was compared with the newly introduced deductive form of teaching through retrospective evaluation of student's exam results. Exam scores of 1167 first-year students were divided into population and sample groups. The former included 1055 exam results of students previously taught by inductive methodology, whereas the latter consisted of 114 students' exam results after the deductive presentation of anatomy. The comparative analysis made by t-test for population-sample groups demonstrated significantly higher (p
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Physical Education Survey during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Eastern
           Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Rizky Nurulfa   Christianti Anggraini Motto   Firmansyah Dlis   James Tangkudung   Johansyah Lubis   and Junaidi   Almost the whole world was affected by the Study From Home (SFH) policy from Elementary Schools to Higher Education during the Covid-19 Pandemic. However, teaching and learning activities did not stop even though the world was facing an outbreak of this disease including Indonesia. Despite face-to-face teaching and learning activities since last March, schools are not ready to reopen face-to-face teaching and learning activities physically because it is still difficult to implement the Covid-19 prevention health protocol and increasingly massive procedures in educational institutions during face-to-face learning. This study aims to see how the distance learning activities for students are implemented in eastern Indonesia. A total of 432 students from junior high school, high school and tertiary education were sampled in this study. Through this research, data about interest in distance learning can be obtained, as well as what they experience during the distance learning period. This study also provides an overview of difficulties during distance learning, the dominant material and tasks given by the teacher during the Pandemic period as well as inhibiting and supporting factors in distance learning. This study uses a descriptive method, with the research instrument using a questionnaire made through the google form application from respondents and direct visits of subject teachers to students’ homes that are not reached by the internet.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Use of Game as a Strategy in Strengthening the Role of Physical
           Education Teachers to Improve the Manipulative Motion Skills of Elementary
           School Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Feri Budi Setyawan   Suharjana   and Ria Lumintuarso   The physical education teachers' active role also affects the low level of elementary school students' movement skills. The aim of the study was to find out the game strategies in strengthening physical education teachers' role to improve students' manipulative motion skills selection for upper-class elementary school students because of the ease of research and conformity of research purposes. The research was conducted at the public elementary school and it was located in the Ngemplak sub-district. The researcher developed the instrument relevant of manipulative game instrument to measure elementary school students' manipulative skills; the instrument was more focused on manipulative assessment (throwing, catching, and kicking). The study used an experimental quasi-design, consisting of 48 upper-class students divided into control groups and experimental groups. This study was conducted in five elementary schools in Ngemplak Subdistrict. Manipulative motion skills tests were given as pre-tests and post-test. To analyze the data, independent and paired t-tests were used at a .05 significance level. The results showed that the experimental group students had higher scores on both dependent variables than the control group. This suggests that manipulative play significantly improves the experimental group of manipulative motion skills compared to students in the control group.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Effects of Health-Related Fitness Model to Improve Physical Fitness and
           Physical Activity in Vocational High School Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Sheila Dwi Loviani   Yudha Munajat Saputra   Nurlan Kusmaedi‪   Hamidie Ronald Daniel Ray   and Lutfi Nur‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬   Physical activity and physical fitness have a vital role in enhancing a healthy and active lifestyle for individuals. This study aimed to see the impact of providing a health-related fitness model on physical improvement and vocational high school students' physical activity. The experimental method with randomized control group pretest-posttest design was applied in this research. The sample selection was based on random cluster sampling to select two classes as the experimental group and the control group consisting of 33 students each, with an age range of 16-17. The instruments used in this study were physical fitness test instruments and students' physical activity tests. The data analysis technique used the Mann-Whitney test and t-test to determine the difference in influence between the experimental and control groups. The results showed that overall, the two groups had a positive impact on the improvement of students' physical fitness and physical activity. However, the experimental class showed a significant increase compared to the control class on the physical fitness variable. Meanwhile, in the physical activity variable, there was no significant difference between the two groups. From these findings, the researchers concluded that the health-related fitness model and the direct instruction model could be applied as an alternative for teachers to improve physical fitness and physical activity for vocational high school students. Furthermore, the researcher explicitly suggests the use of health-related fitness models to improve students' physical fitness.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Contribution of Leg Flexibility, Limb Length, Leg Power for the Split Leap
           Skills of Rhythmic Gymnastics Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Ranu Baskora Aji-Putra   Tommy Soenyoto   Agus Darmawan   and Roas Irsyada   This study examined the association between leg flexibility, leg length, jump height, and split leap movement scores at various levels of rhythmic gymnasts. Fifty-two young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 10.63 ± 2.9 years) were divided into two groups (qualifying, n = 32 and non-qualifying, n = 20) based on age and regional championship level. The gymnast underwent a series of fitness tests in the form of leg flexibility and leg explosive power as well as a split jump performance which was judged by 2 national and international certified judges. There was a significant difference and correlation between qualification and non-qualification in the split leap score (p = 0.00), body weight (p = 0.00; r = 0.351), limb length (p = 0.00; r = 0.420), High Jump (p = 0.01; r = 0.279), raised straight legs (p = 0.021; r = -0.279). There was no difference found in point feet but positively related at split leap score (p = 0.386; r = 0.373). The overall multiple regression analysis of all novice athletes revealed that Limb length, point feet, and high jump accounted for a medium part (32%) of the split leap score. In conclusion, the level of the gymnast (non-qualification), weight, Limb length, and arm length had a greater effect on the implementation of the split leap, whereas at the junior level (qualification) the leg explosiveness and flexibility of the leg effectively contributed to the split leap movement. Overall, the athlete's flexibility, body composition, and the explosive power of the limb variables effectively contribute to the split leap movement in youth rhythmic gymnastics.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Discipline Levels of Junior Students during Physical Education Lessons at
           Schools

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Eddy Marheni   Eko Purnomo   Nina Jermaina   Afrizal S.   Surya Rezeki Sitompul   I Kadek Suardika   and Faradifta Tirta Ardita   This research is based on the importance of student discipline in learning at school. In this study, the authors conducted a quantitative research using the pre-experimental design type one group pretest-posttest method. One group pretest-posttest design is a research activity that provides a pre-test before being given treatment, after being given treatment then gives a final test (post-test). The sample of this research was 50 students of class XII Vocational High School 1 Bangkinang. This study was analyzed using a quantitative descriptive technique. The study results as a whole are that there was an increase in the level of student discipline by 9.11% with the acquisition of pre-test scores of 76.68% and post-test of 85.78%. The results explained an increase in the level of student discipline when given physical education learning treatment. The score is still considered very low and needs to be improved so that later students have a high discipline level. One of the most effective ways to improve student disciplinary behavior at schools is to carry out physical activity. This research still has shortcomings and weaknesses; namely, the research was conducted in just one month. This allows further researchers to carry out research to improve student discipline for a longer time.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Defense Warm-Up Exercise Material for 13-Age Athlete Using Video
           Technology in Covid-19 Era

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Ardo Okilanda   Firmansyah Dlis   Hidayat Humaid   Dede Dwiansyah Putra   Arisman   and Muslimin   The purpose of the study was to make the material model for the defence warm-up exercise using video. Technology advance gave a new perspective on organizing football. While the pandemic Covid-19 has influenced all human activities and limit them at home. Therefore, the method used mixed method which uses research and development. The participants of the study are 120 students from football school at South Sumatera and Lampung. The data are collected through observation, interview, the trial of the product, and test. The analysis data used two independent raters (judgment expert and peer assessment). While the result of the test used an independent sample T-test to get the effectiveness of the product, the result of mean of a pre-test for the defence warm-up exercise model in football games before using the new material model is 12.8 and after using the new material model has increased to 20.7. In the significance test of the difference with SPSS 21, the results of t-count = -17.065, DB = 119 and p-value = 0.00
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Influence of the Learning Environment on Students' Physical and Mental
           Health Based on Gender

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Ahmad Chaeroni   Nurlan Kusmaedi   Amung Ma'mun   Dian Budiana   and Fahmil Haris   The learning environment is a place that has an impact on physical activity so that it affects the level of physical fitness and mental health of students. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of the learning environment in urban and rural areas on the physical fitness and mental health of students who are grouped by sex (male and female). A total of 160 students aged 15-18 years are involved in this program, consisting of 80 urban learning environments (40 male and 40 female) and 80 rural learning environments (40 male and 40 female). To determine the level of physical fitness of students measured using the Indonesian Physical Fitness Test (TKJI), while for mental health data were obtained using a questionnaire. Based on the analysis that has been done, there are differences in the physical fitness of students based on the learning environment (urban and rural) in general, rural students are better than urban students. Seen from gender, it proves that the level of physical fitness of rural male students is better than urban men and rural women are better than urban women. Meanwhile, mental health proves that urban students are better than rural students. Based on gender, it proves that the mental health of urban male students is better than that of rural students, while the mental health of urban female students is lower than that of rural students.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Effect of Physical Fitness on Body Fat

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Asep Prabowo   Resty Gustiawati   Dian Pujianto   Eka Purnama Indah   Palmizal Abu Hanifah   and Sahabuddin   This study aimed to determine the effects of physical fitness on body fat. Research methods: The researcher implemented causal studies and path analysis testing Causal studies, aiming to determine whether the independent variable or dependent variable affected the outcome. In causal studies, the cause is considered as the independent variable, while the effect is the dependent variable. 14 respondents were selected by purposive sampling. Harvard step test was used in order to measure the physical fitness, and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) was used in order to measure the body fat. The findings of this study are the path coefficient value of the physical fitness on body fat is -0.212, while the value of t-count is -2.468. Therefore, the value of t-count is smaller than t-table, while the degree of freedom = 9 and α = 0.05, such as -2.26, and the probability value of Sig. (0.036) < significant level (0.05). In other words, physical fitness significantly has direct negative effect on body fat. In conclusion, physical fitness has a significant and direct negative effect on body fat. Even when the athlete's physical fitness is better, it does not guarantee his body fat is also good.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Effect of Game Analytical Game (GAG) to Increase of Basic Skill
           Shooting Soccer Player 6-9 Years Old

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  4  Dede Dwiansyah Putra   Moh Agung Setiabudi   Usman Nasution   Ibrahim   Habibi Hadi Wijaya   Yafi Velyan Mahyudi   and Desy Tya Maya Ningrum   Training units are commonly used in basic techniques of playing football through training models for players over 12 years old. Drill practice is practiced more on players than games. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the Game Analytical Game (GAG) training model in improving basic soccer shooting skills. This research method is quantitative research with Quasi-Experiment. The designs used were pre-test and post-test non-equivalent control group design. Participants who took part in this study were school soccer players (SSB) PORASS totaling 80 players aged 6-9 years. The data was collected by conducting tests using basic shooting technique instruments. The results of this study are based on data analysis through independent sample t-test. It is known that the sig (2-tailed) value is 0.000
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Testing the Level of Knowledge of Physical Fitness among the Employees of
           Hashemite University

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Mahmoud AL-Haliq   Esam Abu-Shihab   Manal Al-Kloub   and Ibrahim Harafsheh   Physical fitness is one of the most important indicators of adults’ health and low mortality. The mastery of cognitive physical fitness and the methods of its application may help in improving performance. The need to engage this concept in sporting activities for both genders becomes vital for the value and benefits that reap through it. This study aimed at identifying the cognitive level test of physical fitness for female employees of the Hashemite University. Using a descriptive design, 135 female employees were surveyed by a questionnaire which consisted of (39) items testing the cognitive level of the university's faculty and staff. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Arithmetic means and standard deviations were also applied to measure the cognitive level in physical fitness. Three-way ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of the independent variables (scientific qualification, experience, job title) on the knowledge outcome of female employees. The results revealed that there was no statistically significant effect of the independent variables on the cognitive results of female employees, because their true significance levels were (0.324, 0.76, 0.379) respectively. Hence, all of them were greater than the real significance level (α≤0.05), which indicates a lack of significant differences in these variables. Accordingly, the researchers recommend establishing special ladies’ facilities to increase sport activities, and conducting more special courses to develop the elements of fitness, including wider segment of female employees.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Synchronized Breathing with Pelvic Floor Contractions Expands Maximum
           Voluntary Ventilation in Young Soccer Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Vijayamurugan Eswaramoorthi   Mohamad Razali Abdullah   Naresh Bhaskar Raj   Rabiu Muazu Musa   and Ahmad Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki   The intention of this investigation was to decide the most significant exercise intervention in enhancing maximum voluntary ventilation in young male soccer players. Sixty non-smoking young male soccer players with the mean age of 14.18 (0.79) years, were randomly assigned to four groups (Group A, B, C, D) of 20 players in each group. Maximum voluntary ventilation was measured at baseline using digital pony FX micro spirometer. The Group A athletes were instructed to do diaphragmatic breathing exercise with conventional sports training. Group B athletes received pelvic floor muscle exercise with conventional sports training. Group C athletes received synchronized diaphragmatic breathing with pelvic floor contraction with conventional sports training and Group D (Control group) players received conventional sports training alone. The training protocol was designed for 15 minutes duration 5 times per week for 8 weeks, along with their 60 minutes conventional sports training. Mid and post intervention measurements were carried out at the fourth week and the eighth week with identical baseline assessment protocol. The repeated measures of ANOVA revealed that, marked improvement in maximum voluntary ventilation was evident amongst all of intervention groups except control group however post hoc analyses implicated that synchronized diaphragmatic breathing with pelvic floor contraction was beneficial in enhancing maximum voluntary ventilation than the pelvic floor exercise, diaphragmatic breathing exercise and conventional sports training (P
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • A Study on the Behavior of Change & Korean Dance Creation by Foreign
           Visitors

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Ji Young Yoo   and Yeon Soo Kim   In general, each of the aggregates is favored as not being a carrier. Foreign visitors were applied, information responsive, and visit experience. The reason was, the intimacy of behavior change and behavior change of attitude later became an opportunity to create Korean dance. In this study, 268 foreign visitors were examined to derive the creation and behavior of Korean dance. We investigated the behavioral change and its impact on the creation of Korean dance. It was supported by factor variables: intimacy, attitude, behavior change, and Korean dance creation. These results are probable as content factors of knowledge as manipulated variables estimated to increase. It applied the tools of the methodology to frequency analysis, factor analysis and regression analysis in social science with statistical use. Independent variables are intimacy, attitudes, and behavioral changes. The intervening variables are foreigner's visit experience, information acquisition. The dependent variables are behavior of change and Korean dance creation. As a result, there was a significant impact on visitor intimacy, attitude, nationality and behavioral change, which positively affected 67.8 (%) behavioral change. In addition, the creation of Korean dance was influenced by the result of behavioral change, intimacy, attitude, and visit experience and information acquisition, and 77.9 (%) very high result in behavioral change and creation of Korean dance. However, there was insufficient impact significant effect on performance viewing and time 9.8(%). When the results of the study are concluded, the factor contributing to the creative development of Korean dance has an indirect effect where there is a behavior of change by foreign visitors. It was found that it had an indirect effect on the new of Korean dance creation.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • The Effect of Smash Training Using Hanging Balls on the Accuracy of Open
           Smash

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Siti Ayu Risma Putri   Firmansyah Dlis   Samsudin   Mutiara Fajar   Sugar Wanto   and Puput Sekar Sari   The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smash practice using a hanging ball on the accuracy of open volleyball smash games. This research method is to use an experimental research design. The research sample consisted of 60 male volleyball players. The sample was divided into two groups, namely the experimental group and the control group with the matching ordinary pairing technique. The research instrument was the APHEER test smash skills. The data analysis technique used the t-test to see the effectiveness of increasing the training given to the sample, processing data analysis with the SPSS version 23 software program. The results showed that the average accuracy of the smash of male volleyball players who participated in extracurricular activities was the pretest group results, control of 6.83 and posttest control group of 5.65 which means there is no significant increase. Then for the results of the research group that was given exercise, the pretest score of 6.77 and posttest the experimental group was 10.63. Based on the research data, there was a significant increase in the smash results in the experimental group. The conclusion of this research is that there is an effect of smash practice using a hanging ball on the accuracy of open volleyball smashes. The results of this study provide a contribution for coaches and volleyball players to improve smash skills, especially increasing the accuracy of open smashes.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Effect of Tempe Drinks on Muscle Recovery (Malondialdehyde) and
           Sub-Maximum Activity on Sparta DK Percut Sei Tuan Football Players in Deli
           Serdang Regency, North Sumatra Province

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Winara   Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani   Sulaiman   and Rumini   The purpose of this study was to see: The effect of submaximal physical activity to increase MDA levels in the blood of soccer players given submaximal physical activity. The effect of giving tempe drinks for 2 weeks on changes in MDA (malondialdehyde) levels after getting submaximal physical activity in the sample. Providing tempe drinks with MDA levels in the players' blood, the sample consists of 15 players who get high sub-maximum physical activity (pulse) and 15 players who get sub-maximum physical activity (pulses). The instruments used to collect data are: physical activity running 2400 meter pulse measurement and MDA test (malondealdehyde). There was a significant effect on muscle recovery that was given tempe drinks, namely offering tempe drinks. The MDA (malondialdehyde) muscle recovery rate was very fast compared to samples that were not given tempe drinks (the average value of the players who were given tempe drinks was around F = 42). It can be seen from the MDA blood while without offering the tempe drink F = 47. The data will show that muscle recovery is faster if you are given tempe drinks defeatingly because in the tempe content there is a lot of protein so that muscle recovery is faster.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Development of Information and Technology-based Learning Media in Athletic
           Materials for Short Distance Running Numbers for Quality Junior N 2
           Students in Lubuk Linggau City, South Sumatra Province

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Nurul Ihsan   Khodijah Reza Amum   Willadi Rasyid   and Hendri Neldi   The athletic learning process in short distance running numbers at SMP Negeri 2 Quality in Lubuklinggau City, South Sumatra Province, has low learning outcomes in the aspect of knowledge, because it has not utilized information technology-based learning media and the learning needs of Physical Education in schools have not been fulfilled completely. The purpose of this study is to develop information technology-based learning media on athletic material for short distance running numbers for students and to determine the increase in learning outcomes before and after using the media. This study uses a development method with a model design adapted from Borg & Gall. The subjects of this study were students of SMP Negeri 2 Lubuklinggau City, South Sumatra Province, totaling 15 people from each class level, and three experts, namely one media or teaching materials expert and two athletic material experts. The learning media development process is carried out through a modular test stage which is packaged in an application that contains a description of the material accompanied by pictures and video tutorials. Then the validation test was carried out with the help of instructional media experts and inget a percentage of 88.89% in the Very Appropriate category from the media expert's assessment, while in terms of the learning material provided by the first material expert, the results are 86.42% in the Very Appropriate category and the second material expert's assessment results in the amount of 97.15% are in the Very Appropriate category to use and will attract students and make it easier for students to imitate the movements they have seen and indirectly shorten the time in learning the movements. In addition, there is an increase in learning outcomes before and after the use of instructional media that has been given. This study uses a development method with a model design adapted from Borg & Gall.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • The Effect of Shuttle Drill Training on the Ability of Dribbling Ball in
           Soccer Games in Extracuricular Students of Sma Negeri 1 Lembak

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Maya Kurnia   Putri Cicilia Kristina   Husni Fahritsani   Perabu Nita   Hengki Kumbara   and Daryono   The problem in this study is that there is an effect of shuttle drill training on the ability to dribble in extracurricular students at SMA Negeri 1 Lembak. This study aims to determine the effect of shuttle drill running on the ability to dribble in soccer games for extracurricular students at SMA Negeri 1 Lembak. This type of research is experimental research, using the one group pretest-posttest design method. The population in this study was 30 SMA Negeri 1 Lembak soccer players, while the sample in this study amounted to 20 people. The sampling technique used in this study was purposive sampling technique. The data collection technique used the dribbling or dribbling test method. The data analysis technique used the t-test formula. Based on the results of research conducted on football extracurricular students at SMA Negeri 1 Lembak, the average pretest result was 26.45 seconds and the posttest average was 19.55. This shows that shuttle drill practice can improve students' dribble skills in playing soccer football extracurricular activity at SMA Negeri 1 Lembak. Because there is an increase after being given treatment compared to before being given treatment. In testing the hypothesis, the value of t-count> t-table or 16.33> 1.73 is obtained, so it can be concluded that there is an effect of shuttle drill training on the ability to dribble in soccer games for extracurricular students of SMA Negeri 1 Lembak.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • The Effect of Gamma Wave Optimization and Attention on Hitting Skills in
           Softball

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Jajat Darajat Kusumah Negara   Sufyar Mudjianto   Astri Budikayanti   and Adhitya Nugraha PP   Hitting the ball is a complicated ability in softball academicie, because in appreciation to prioritizing movement skills, cognitive appearances additionally need to be investigated, one of which is attention. Meanwhile, going to hit the ball requires excellent attention for an individual student. Exhibiting gamma waves further influence arrangements of hitting performance. The objectives of this study were first, to determine the negative functional correlation between gamma brain waves and hitting skills, then second to know the positive functional correlation between attention and hitting skills and third to determine the effect of attention on increasing hitting skills. The method used in this research is an experimental method with a one-group pretest-posttest design research design. The sampling technique in this study was using a saturated sampling technique. This investigation amounted to 20 subjects, in the calculation of the Pearson product-moment correlation test using SPSS v.23. The first results collected were p-value 0.026 with an r square value of 0.25, so there is a significant negative functional correlation between gamma brain waves and hitting skills in softball learning of 25%. The second issue obtained p-value 0.017 with an r square value of 0.28, so there is a significant positive functional correlation between attention and hitting skills in softball learning by 28%. Furthermore, thirdly, the results obtained p-value 0.0001 between pre-test and post-test, with a significant increase in skills of 70.17%, so there is a significant influence between attention and hitting skills.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • A Variation of Push Up for Overhead Pass on Volleyball Games

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Fauziah Nuraini Kurdi   Hartati   Yeni Risnawati   and Destriana   This study aims to determine the effect of various push up exercises on the results of passing over in extracurricular volleyball activities for male students of class VIII Muhammadiyah Junior High School Megang Sakti, Musi Rawas. This type of research is a quasy experiment with a pretest-posttest one group design. The sample in this study amounted to 30 people. The instrument used was a passing test on the wall. The treatment in this study was in the form of various push-up training methods, after being given exercise for 6 weeks with a frequency of training 3 times a week. Based on the results of research and data analysis with statistical t test with a significant level of α = 0.05, it was obtained tcount (0.10) while ttable (1.70), then tcount> ttable, then Ha was accepted and Ho was rejected. Thus Ha can be submitted it can be accepted, that the push up exercise varies with the results overheadpass in the volleyball extracurricular activities of male students class VIII Junior High School Muhammadiyah Megang Sakti Musi Rawas. The findings in this study are the results of training methods of variation push up that can be used to improve the ability overhead pass volleyball. The implication of this research is that various push up exercises can be used as a type of exercise to improve of the volleyball overhead pass ability. This research was conducted in junior high schools and the samples were students who took volleyball extracurricular activities, so this study was aimed at novice athletes or new to volleyball, so this research is suitable for beginners.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Quality Physical Education Learning through Process Modeling Based on
           Kinesthetic Perception

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Eva Julianti P   Yusmawati   Heni Widyaningsih   and Abd. Halim   The aim of this study is to propose a practical, theory-based framework that can be applied in analyzing the modeling of quality physical education based on kinesthetic perception as a socio-technical entity, and in identifying potential improvements. Physical education learning in elementary schools is one of the important stages for optimizing the development of a child's fundamental movement, stimulating motor abilities and physical activities that stimulate intelligence optimization. However, kinesthetic perception is the feeling of muscle that directs the movement correctly, without using the eyes. Method of this research used Modeling Process and Mingers' sequential type multi-method research design. Since there is no single model, this study consolidated a hybrid model (motor learning Model, sport education model, Tactical Games Approach model and VARK learning model). Research process (Constructing thematic questionnaires, web-based data collecting and analyzing data) and this article presents the results of the first stage i.e. theory adaptation as resilient arguments about the need to develop a quality physical education learning model based on kinesthetic perceptions for elementary school students.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • The Basic Learning Model of Traditional Motion Based Games for Early
           Childhood (5-6) Years

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Nofi Marlina Siregar   Eka Fitri Novita Sari   Marlinda Budiningsih   and Zulham   This study aims to create a basic motion model of traditional games based on early childhood games (5-6) years. The aim of research is to create models and improve basic movements of early childhood education, especially those related to locomotor, non-locomotor and manipulative movements in early childhood (5-6) years. This research used a research and development (R&D) method which was carried out in DKI Jakarta with small experiment on 10 children and large experiment on 30 children by applying 20 basic movements based on traditional games. Based on the results of the effectiveness test on 30 research subjects, the initial test results of children's activities in motion were 12.8 and in the final test 20, there was an increase in children's activities in motion. The results of the initial test of children's activeness in non- motorized motion were 13.66 and in the final test 16.8 there was an increase in children's activeness in non-motorized movement. The initial test of children's activeness in manipulative movements was 19.7 and the final test 22, there was an increase in children's activeness in manipulative movements. Based on the results of the above research, basic motion models based on traditional games for early childhood (5-6) years old can be applied as well as effective basic motion models to increase activities, abilities and skills through movement, especially those related to basic locomotor motion techniques, non locomotor and manipulative.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Learning Model of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) for Children with Mild
           Intellectual Disability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Selvi Atesya Kesumawati   Fakhruddin   and Husni Fahritsani   The backgrounds of this study are (1) the Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) of children with mild Intellectual Disability (ID) experience barriers caused by mental disorders, (2) the limitations of teachers in developing play activities models to improve FMS of children with ID, (3) facilities and equipment in schools using for standard normal child. This study aims to produce a learning model to improve FMS for children with mild ID. The learning model is packaged in game activities, and takes one of the themes in the 2013 curriculum. This learning model is named activities in the morning. The research method used is research and development (R&D) proposed by Borg and Gall. The R&D procedure basically consists of two main objectives, namely: (1) developing products and; (2) testing the effectiveness of the product to achieve the goal. The subject of small group trial used 10 students (6 boys, 4 girls 8-10 years old) and 4 teachers, and the large group trial used 23 students (13 boys and 10 girls 8-10 years old) and 4 teachers in the 3 SLB in Palembang city. The results of the effectiveness test of the different learning model activities in the morning in small and large group trials for aspects of movement skills, cognitive skill and fun are analyzed, and focus of attention in trials small and large group obtained an average value of trial 2 greater than trial 1. Also, the calculated z-test is greater than the z-table value, so the difference is significant.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Influence of Different Training Activities on Development of Junior
           Athletes' Logical Thinking

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Mykhailo Khoroshukha   Grygoriy Griban   Nataliia Terentieva   Pavlo Tkachenko   Oleksandr Petrachkov   Bogdan Semeniv   Olena Otravenko   Zoia Dikhtiarenko   Eduard Yeromenko   Oksana Khurtenko   and Andrii Lytvynenko   The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different training activities on the development of the logical thinking of junior athletes who specialize in various sports. 131 students-athletes and 77 students-non-athletes aged 17-20 took part in the study. They were divided into two experimental groups (group A and group B) and one control group (group C). Group A included 69 students-athletes who were engaged in speed and power sports (boxing, freestyle wrestling, sprinting, hurdling, jumping, throwing). Group B included 62 students-athletes who were engaged in endurance sports (skiing, cycling, swimming). Group C included 77 students of higher education institutions who did not do sports. The study of the athletes' logical thinking was carried out according to the methodology of "Numerical series". It was found that the student-athletes who were engaged in endurance sports (group B) were registered to have significantly better (р
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • The Effect of Visualization, Relaxation, and Self-efficacy on the
           Performance of Men Speed World Record Athletes Category

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Ilham   and Dimyati   Background: The speed world record (WR) performance is an achievement made by athletes in the competitive rock-climbing category, where the athlete must complete the climbing route on a standard artificial climbing wall with a height of 15 m in the shortest possible time. Purpose: This study aims to determine: (1) the effect of visualization and relaxation training on athlete's performance; (2) the effect of self-efficacy on athlete's performance, and (3) the interaction between exercise (visualization, relaxation) and self-efficacy on the performance of rock-climbing athletes in the speed world record category. Design/methodology/approach: This research is experimental research with a true experimental design modified with a factorial design (2x2). The population in this study was all junior and youth WR speed rock climbing athletes, aged between 15-20 years in Yogyakarta and Central Java. A sample of 20 men athletes was taken with the Slovin Formula and ordinal pairing technique. The data were collected using the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE) to measure self-efficacy and motion climb to measure the performance of rock-climbing athletes with WR speed. A Two-Way ANOVA test was used with the following analysis prerequisites: normality test and homogeneity test. The results of this study showed that: (1) Visualization is better than relaxation; (2) Athletes who have high self-efficacy have better performance than athletes who have low self-efficacy; and (3) There is a significant interaction (p
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Model of National Athlete Training Centre-B toward the Prestige of
           Provincial Government of All Indonesian Athlete Association in East Java

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Rumpis Agus Sudarko   Hari Setijono   and Edy Mintarto   The aim of this research is to know whether the use of new guideline produced is effective toward the athlete’s prestige of National Athlete Training Centre-B of provincial government of all Indonesian athlete association in East Java. Type of this research is Research and Development (R&D) by following research procedure which is conducted by seven stages, including: 1) Potential and problem, 2) data collecting, 3) product design, 4) design validity, 5) revision of design, 6) product testing, 7) product revision. Kinds of data used in this research are Qualitative data including field observation data, interview and questionnaire, and quantitative data including validity counting of data and reliability of questionnaire assessment of design model of National Athlete Training Centre-B of provincial government of all Indonesian athlete association in East Java. Technique of collecting data is conducted into two stages such as processing qualitative and quantitative data. Analyzing data in this research uses qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis. Qualitative analysis is conducted on interview, input and reduction in product assessment, as well questionnaire about development model design. Meanwhile, quantitative analysis is used for assessment of development model design of National Athlete Training Centre-B of provincial government of all Indonesian athlete association in East Java. The research finding indicates that the prestige reached by the athletics athlete of National Athlete Training Centre-B of provincial government of all Indonesian athlete association in East Java after applying the model has been significant increased. This case shows that the model applying has good level of effectiveness. Therefore, the development model of National Athlete Training Centre-B of provincial government of all Indonesian athlete association in East Java is feasible to apply to improve the junior athlete prestige in East java.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Effect of Post-Exercise Yoga Poses on Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle
           Soreness, Pain, and Activities of Daily Living

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Chakravarthy Marx Sadacharan   The eccentric (ECC) exercises are an efficient way to exercise the muscles than concentric exercises. However, unaccustomed ECC may cause muscle damage, pain, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that may lead to temporary functional impairments. The aim is to measure the effects of performed yoga poses after various intensities of ECC exercise protocol with different ranges of motion (ROM) at the elbow and knee. Thirty-six participants aged between 18 and 30 years performed yoga after the ECC protocols (weeks 3, 5, 7, 9) and the ECC protocols without yoga poses (weeks 2, 4, 6, 8) on the elbow and knee muscles (5 × 10 repetitions each session) using their 25%/35% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). The subjective and objective assessments were carried out (activities of daily living (ADL), pain (visual analog scale (VAS), pain pressure threshold (PPT), and MVIC). The FROM ECC exercise with 35% of MVIC without yoga showed moderate pain (0-3.5) in ADL, VAS, and PPT for elbow extensors and showed a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the PROM ECC exercise with 25% of MVIC without yoga. ECC exercise performed with 35% of MVIC without yoga induced a higher degree of DOMS, pain, ADL limitations than 25% of MVIC without yoga. Yoga after PROM ECC protocol showed less pain, DOMS in VAS, and PPT for elbow flexors, knee flexors, and knee extensors. The overall percentage of increased MVIC value at the end of the study was between 30.53 and 43.12%. The upper extremity (extensors) muscles are more prone to DOMS and pain when compared to the lower extremity muscles. Performing yoga stretching poses after the eccentric exercise protocol may affect reducing DOMS and muscle pain.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Online Learning and Platforms Favored in Physical Education Class during
           COVID-19 Era: Exploring Student' Perceptions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Hasanuddin Jumareng   Edi Setiawan   Ihsan Abdul Patah   Mela Aryani   Asmuddin   and Ruslan Abdul Gani   The current COVID-19 pandemic becomes a problem for education, especially in the physical education learning process at the university level. The aim of this study is explore students' perceptions of online learning and preferred platforms in physical education classes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The method in this research was a qualitative exploratory study by interview. There were as many as 60 students became the sample from Suryakancana and Halu Oleo University. Data collection is done by interviews to find out student perceptions about the online learning and preferred platforms in physical education classes. The results of this study showed the different perceptions of students regarding online learning and platform favored in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, from those who consider online learning to be very helpful and some are highlighting the obstacles faced when implementing online learning. Overall, students' perceptions consider online learning very important in the current era of COVID-19, and the majority of the platforms that students like the most are Zoom Meetings. The contribution of this research can provide information to teachers and lecturers about online learning and platforms that can be used in physical education classes, so that later learning outcomes from students can be achieved more optimally.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Construction and Development - Field Hockey Specific Skills' Test

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences  Volume  9  Number  1  Lalit Mohan   Syed Tariq Murtaza   and Ashish Kumar Katiyar   In this existing time, the approaches made in field hockey are highly appreciable. As the synthetic surface introduced, many drastic changes have taken place. The game got a new trend for assessing functional playing abilities, and performance-based specific skills of advanced field hockey players. Field hockey is a stick-based game; where stick-work with speed and accuracy is required for controlling the movement of the ball. A number of specific skill tests had already been developed and produced to test the functional abilities of players’ stick-work with other developmental work as fielding, dribbling, driving, controlling, and shooting while moving the ball. However, no existing test fulfills the criteria of modern field hockey playing skills. In order to test the specific skills and evaluate the performance level of advanced hockey players; the authors designed and constructed a test with proper selection of specific skills, in which many other movements related to advance skills were combined with stick-work. Wherein major focus was laid upon the player’s ability to control the force element when contacting the ball, manipulation of stick-work by combining wrist and hand movement with quickness to control the movement of the ball while running in speed and hitting the right target was the prime concern. The idea presented in this paper is the need of the day and, the test is known as the ‘Veer- Lalit Field-Hockey Skills Test’ which meaningfully analyses the overall performances of advanced hockey players.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.231.247.88
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-