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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science
Number of Followers: 18  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2202-946X
Published by Australian International Academic Centre Homepage  [8 journals]
  • The Role of Aerobic Capacity and Strength Levels on Wingate Performance
           and Lactate Concentrations

    • Authors: Ali M. Al-Nawaiseh, Mo’ath F. Bataineh, Hashem A. Kilani, David M. Bellar, Olivia R. Huffman, Lawrence W. Judge
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Background: Blood lactate (La-) is commonly assessed in tests of sport performance. Sports that utilize intermittent high intensity effort, monitoring of La- from previous exercise can be useful to document intensity of effort. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role La- played during successive Wingate (Win) tests and subsequent anaerobic exercise performance. Method: Well-trained, national team athletes from Jordan (n = 31) volunteered to participate. A quasi-experimental design was utilized to test Win performance and La- concentration. All participants engage in two Win tests with one minute rest between sets. La- was collected at four time points (prior to Win test 1, immediately after Win 1, after Win 2 and after a 10 minute recovery period). Results: Findings from a multiple linear regression model (p = 0.032) showed increased levels of La- accumulation as a predictor to higher power and strength (p = 0.046). Conversely, peak aerobic capacity was a predictor for decreasing La- accumulation over time (p = 0.039), which may suggest faster recovery. Conclusion: Anaerobic athletes who participate in short, high intense bouts of exercise may require high intensity training programs to increase aerobic fitness, power output, and optimal performance. Practical applications include optimizing training programs to reflect competition.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Effects of Acute Exercise and Virtual Reality Tasks on Children’s
           Memory Function and Exercise Preference

    • Authors: Charalampos Krommidas, Evangelos Galanis, Emmanouil Tzormpatzakis, Mary Mary Hasandra, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Ioannis D. Morres, Nikos Comoutos, Yannis Theodorakis
      Pages: 7 - 17
      Abstract: Background: It is well established that regular participation in exercise and virtual reality (VR) environments are important tools for improving or maintaining human health and cognitive function. Objectives: This study examined the effects of acute exercise and VR environments on children’s memory function and exercise preference (i.e. cycling with or without the use of VR technology). Methods: Α 2×3 factorial design was adopted with two measures (pre, post) and three study groups. Forty-five healthy children aged 9 to 13 years (Mage = 10.91±1.24 years) voluntarily participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned into three groups receiving different treatment: (1) an exercise+VR group that cycled for 15 min in a VR environment (forest path) combined with basic mathematical problem-solving tasks, (2) an exercise group that cycled for 15 min, and (3) a no-exercise group that sat in a specific place in a lab for 15 min (the control group). Before and after the acute exercise, all the groups completed the Sternberg Memory Task. Upon completion of the intervention, the two exercise groups completed measures of enjoyment, intention and attitudes towards cycling. The exercise+VR group also completed a scale capturing the VR’s usability. Results: The results show that the exercise group scored higher on Sternberg’s Memory Task (p <.05) after the acute exercise treatment (post) than before it (pre). Similarly, the exercise+VR participants scored higher on the post-intervention memory task than did the exercise and control groups (p <.05). Moreover, the exercise+VR group reported higher scores on enjoyment, intention and attitude towards cycling than the exercise group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p >.05). Finally, the exercise+VR participants recorded high scores on the usability of the VR system during the acute exercise programme. Conclusions: These findings are in line with those of previous studies, underlining the important roles of exercise and VR environments on youths’ cognitive function.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Advancing Sports Science and Physical Education Research Through a Shared
           Understanding of the Term Motor Performance Skills: A Scoping Review with
           Content Analysis

    • Authors: Andrew Sortwell, Michael Behringer, Urs Granacher, Kevin Trimble, Pedro Forte, Henrique P. Neiva, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Ferman Konukman, Ertan Tufekcioglu, Bijen Filizn, Luis Branquinho, Ricardo Ferraz, Hassan Sadeghi, Juan Jaime Arroyo-Toledo
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: Background: The inappropriate usage of terms and concepts and/or unclear definitions provided in the scientific literature hinder progress in any scientific field. This risk is especially noticeable in applied fields of research such as sports science and physical education. Objective: This study explored existing literature that uses the term ‘motor performance skills’ and aimed to propose a comprehensive definition to be applied in future research. Method: Following an adapted scoping approach grounded in the rapid review model, we searched electronic databases Pub-Med/Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus until February 2022. The primary demographic focus was sports science and physical education disciplines. After screening of titles and abstracts, 184 papers were identified for a full review. Twenty-two papers met the inclusion criteria from the full review and received qualitative content analysis. The qualitative content analysis focused on the elaborated qualities of the term ‘motor performance skill’. Coding was used to identify and extract content, identify patterns, and observe the depth of interpretation of the term. Results: Only six papers used descriptive language, and three used explanatory language to convey aspects of the term’s meaning. All included papers extrapolated or provided examples to demonstrate the term’s meaning. Based on a collaborative process, the study reached a proposed definition that has the potential to be coined for the term ‘motor performance skills’ and used in future research. Conclusion: Thus, the current analysis revealed the need to collaboratively address the conceptual ambiguity and develop a comprehensive definition of ‘motor performance skills’
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Spencer Muscle Energy Technique Versus Conventional Treatment in Frozen
           Shoulder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Qais Gasibat, Agiela E. Rafieda, Radea B. Alajnaf, Ahlam A. Elgallai, Hala A. Elzidani, Eiman M. Sowaid
      Pages: 28 - 36
      Abstract: Background: The latest osteopathic manual therapy method widely used is the Spencer Muscle Energy Technique (SMET) adopted in western clinical practices to treat various shoulder ailments. Objective: The study compares conventional treatment procedures’ effects and the SEMT for a frozen shoulder. Methodology: A randomized, single-blind observational experiment was carried out from February to May 2019. The study included idiopathic frozen shoulder patients of either sex aged 30 to 70 years, phases 1 and 2, or a stiff joint of an agonizing shoulder for a minimum of 3 months. Among the 60 patients examined, 40 were involved: 20 (50 %) in both groups. The mean age in the control and experimental groups was 49.75±8.52 and 49.10±9.01, respectively, the dissimilarities of the groups in terms of disability and pain were not substantial (P > 0.05) at standard, but there was a considerable variance in the assessments of halfway and post-intercession (p < 0.05), and similarly was the issue of shoulder Range of Motion (ROM). They comprised 30 (65 %) females and 10 (35 %) males randomly divided into two groups. The first group received SMET, and the second group received the conventional treatment procedure. Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) was utilized to evaluate Shoulder pain, comprising 11 objects of no pain with a value of 0 and objects of most pain with a value of 10. Standard physical goniometer used to record Shoulder ROM as a consistent device for the analysis of degrees’ movement. Results: NPRS score values were t = 26.1, p-value of 0.000. The Wilcoxon Sign Rank test was adopted in the control group to discover the significance of the pain intensity treatment. The NPRS score values were W = -4.06, p-value of 0.000. A double-sample t-test was adopted to discover the treatment significance with the experimental and control group. The values for the Disability Index (SPADI) score in the experimental group were t=17.31p-value of 0.000. The values for the SPADI score in the control group were t=18.55 p-value 0.000. Conclusions: SMET was more effective in shoulder pain reduction, in which conventional treatment showed more effectiveness in enhancing the shoulder ROM. It can be concluded that SMET can be used or incorporated as an alternative treatment method or combined with other treatment procedures for pain reduction.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effects of a Core Strengthening Program on Muscle Activity Patterns,
           Strength, and Endurance in People with and without a History of Low Back
           Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Gillian L. Hatfield
      Pages: 37 - 46
      Abstract: Background of Study: Altered patterns of abdominal and low back muscle activity have been reported in people in the sub-acute phase of low back injury. Specifically, higher overall muscle activity and less ability to match activity to task demands have been found. Objective: This study determined if an 8-week group exercise intervention would alter muscle activity, strength, and endurance in people with/without a history of low back pain (LBP). Method: In this randomized controlled trial 46 participants (age 19-55) with a history of LBP were randomized to exercise (LBPEx, n=24) and no-exercise (LBPCon, n=22) groups. 27 participants without a history of LBP (NoLBP) also exercised. 17 LBPEx and 19 NoLBP participants completed the intervention. 19 LBPCon were tested at 8-week follow-up. The exercise intervention was an 8-week, choreographed, 30-minute group exercise intervention (Les Mills CoreTM) focused on building core strength, stability, and endurance. Pre and post-intervention surface electromyograms from abdominal and low back muscles were recorded during a trunk stability task (TST), and analyzed using Principal Component Analysis to extract patterns corresponding to overall amplitude and relative activation during the TST loading phase. Abdominal and back extensor strength and endurance were also measured. Results: It was found that overall abdominal activity decreased for left anterior external oblique (p=0.019 for TST level 3), left lateral external oblique (p=0.012 for TST level 3), and right posterior external oblique (p=0.035 for TST level 3) in LBPEx and for right lateral external oblique (p=0.009 for TST level 2 and p=0.004 for TST level 3) and left posterior external oblique (p=0.014 for TST level 2 and p=0.011 for TST level 3) in NoLBP during the TST. Abdominal strength and endurance, and back extensor endurance increased for LBPEx and NoLBP (p<0.05). Back extensor strength increased for NoLBP (p<0.05). Relative abdominal activation during the TST level 2 loading phase increased for right upper rectus abdominus (p=0.05), right lateral external oblique (p=0.002), and left posterior external oblique (p=0.006) for NoLBP, and for left anterior external oblique (p=0.042) for LBPEx. Conclusion: Les Mills CoreTM is readily available and may be recommended as a safe, accessible, and effective intervention to increase abdominal strength and endurance, and back extensor endurance, even for people with a history of LBP.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Consequences of the Restrictive Measures Due to Two Strict Covid-19
           Lockdowns on Self-Reported Physical Activity in Adolescents

    • Authors: Ermioni S. Katartzi, Maria G. Kontou, Ioannis Pappas, Sofia Monastiridi, Foteini Girousi
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Background: Restrictions due to COVID-19 lockdowns reduced the possibilities of children and adolescents for being active, with negative consequences in adopting a healthy lifestyle. Purpose: To compare Greek adolescents’ self-reported weekly participation in physical activity, during and before the two initial strict lockdowns, due to COVID-19. Secondary aims were to examine these differences with regard to gender, and associations between weekly physical activity participation with health status variables. Methods: Three hundred and sixty-three adolescents (Ν=363) from secondary schools, in the Greek territory (108 boys and 255 girls) filled in the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire and the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Children’s Health-Related Quality of Life Children’s Form, online. It was a cross-sectional study and data were collected during first and second strict lockdowns, from different adolescents who filled in the above online questionnaires once. Results: Adolescents reduced significantly weekly frequency of strenuous, moderate and total physical activity, during lockdowns (p<.05). Time factor had a different effect on boys and girls, only in moderate physical activity (p<.05). Positive correlations were found between strenuous and total physical activity with positive moods, and moderate physical activity with cognitive functioning and school performance, during lockdowns (p<.05). Conclusions: This study adds information regarding the negative impact on physical activity participation in Greek adolescents during COVID-19 strict lockdowns. The findings, also, highlighted that reduced physical activity among adolescents during lockdowns associated with poorer psychosocial status. Thus, these results could be used to inform strategies for promoting health movement behaviors, in order to reduce possible negative consequences during future pandemics.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • A Descriptive Video Analysis of Helmet Impact Cases in North American
           Youth Football Players

    • Authors: Danielle L. Gyemi, Claudia M. Town, Yousef J. Alami, Ron Jadischke, David M. Andrews
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Background: Detailed characterization of on-field helmet impacts in football through video analysis has mostly been limited to professional games due to the availability of high quality, multi-view video (e.g., broadcast footage). Few studies have assessed youth football helmet impacts using video-based methods, often with only a single-camera view. Objective: A multi-camera approach was used in this observation-based study to describe the mechanisms and situational factors of in-game helmet impacts experienced by youth football players. Methods: A descriptive video analysis was performed in which video of three games from two old divisions (game A: 9–12 years; games B and C: 13–14 years) was reviewed and parameters related to all cases of observed helmet impact were documented. Results: Overall, 95 helmet impact cases were identified (single helmet contact: 81.1%; multiple helmet contacts: 18.9%), with 115 helmet contacts. Helmet-to-ground contacts were most common (59.1%), followed by helmet-to-helmet (24.3%) and helmet-to-body (16.5%). Helmet impact cases generally occurred during a rush play (67.4%) and were concentrated in the mid-field (81%). Helmet contact locations were predominantly distributed between the rear (upper) (28.7%) and side (upper) (27.8%) helmet regions. Tackling was the most frequent activity leading to helmet impact (41.1%). Conclusion: These findings offer detailed on-field helmet impact characteristics at the youth level that can help inform athlete safety improvement efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effect of Twelve Week Hypergravity Training on Sprinting Speed of the

    • Authors: Sandip Sankar Ghosh, Prosenjit Roy, Raju Biswas, Biswajit Biswas
      Pages: 64 - 76
      Abstract: Background: Sprinting speed as a derivative of lower-body power is considered to be the most vital component of physical ability of the players. Traditional training methods fail to improve sprinting speed of the experienced players up to a certain limit that demands newer training means for further development of speed. Hypergravity Training (HT) has been identified as such a new type of training that was used by few researchers for the improvement of sprinting speed and power of the experienced rugby and soccer players. But it has still not been implemented on the cricketers for the development of sprinting speed. Objective: Therefore, the current randomized control trial was directed to assess the development of sprinting speed of the cricketers through the implementation of HT in comparison with the Normalgravity Training (NT) condition. Method: The present study was a quasi-experimental research work. One hundred and five (N=105) state cricketers were selected as subjects. The participants were split into three equal groups (n=35 each) viz. i) Normalgravity Training Group (NGTG), ii) Hypergravity Training Group (HGTG) & iii) Control Group (CG). NGTG & HGTG groups underwent the same exercise protocol for the periods of twelve weeks in normal & hypergravity conditions respectively whereas CG was free from the training intervention. Sprinting speed of the cricketers was measured by a 30m run test. ANCOVA preceded by Tukey’s LSD test were performed for data analysis. Statistical significance was examined at p<.05 level. Results: Significant F-value (F=61.122; p < 0.001) was observed. Sprinting speed of both training groups (NGTG & HGTG) improved significantly (Mean Diff=1.28 & 0.86; Critical Diff =0.41) in comparison to the CG. HGTG also differed significantly (Mean Diff =0.42; Critical Diff =0.41) when compared with NGTG in sprinting speed. Conclusions: The sprinting speed of HGTG improved better than NGTG. Therefore, HT is found as an effective training means for developing sprinting speed.
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
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