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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science
Number of Followers: 18  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2202-946X
Published by Australian International Academic Centre Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Wearable Applications in Rugby for Performance Quantification and Player
           Health Assessment: A Brief Review

    • Authors: Colbert Lehra, Othmane Omalekb, Sam Osborne, Zachary Warren, David Saucier, Reuben F. Burch V, John Ball, Harish Chanderd
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Background: Wearable technology use in sports has amassed increased attention in recent years. Technological advancements have provided less labor-intensive methods for practitioners and athletes to track kinematic movements, workload metrics, and biometric markers to assess performance and safety. As such, wearables research has spread to a variety of sports; however, the specific wearable technologies used in the rugby codes—rugby league and rugby union—have not been reviewed. Objective: Herein, we present a review that aims to understand the use of wearable technology for performance demand quantification and player health assessment in rugby league and rugby union. Method: We classify extant scientific wearable literature into four research categories: Prehabilitation (preventative rehabilitation), Performance, Rehabilitation, and Data Analysis. Results: Eighteen articles were found using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and were grouped into these four research categories. Through this review process, Global Positioning System or GPS-based wearables were found to be utilized more when compared to all other wearable devices associated with peer-reviewed studies for the sport of rugby. In general, wearables were found to be used to support player and practitioner efforts to promote health and ensure peak performance prior to competition. Wearables were also used to determine injury severity and mitigation strategies—such as collision monitoring—and to develop positional activity profiles. Conclusion: Data collected through wearable technology may enhance rugby conditioning programs by enabling the tracking of numerous aspects of training performance and safety in competitive match play. Future research is warranted for standardization of player evaluation and injury predictive modeling.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.2p.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Use of Wearable Technology to Quantify Power and Muscle Load
           Differences During Running Against Varying Wind Resistances

    • Authors: Marissa L. Bello, Derick A. Anglin, Zachary M. Gillen, JohnEric W. Smith
      Pages: 11 - 15
      Abstract: Background: Wearable technology has increased in popularity due to its live feedback and ability to adjust within training sessions. In addition to heart rate (HR) monitoring, measuring power and internal load may provide useful insight and a more comprehensive view of training differences. Objectives: Assess the efficacy of wearable technology in endurance runners to determine changes in performance variables with varying wind resistance. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was designed and recruited twelve endurance-trained runners currently running ≥120 min/week for the past 3 months. Participants completed two sessions: V̇O2peak testing, and a 20-min run at 70% V̇O2peak. The run was evenly divided into no wind resistance (W0) and 16.1 km/h wind resistance (W16). Power was assessed via a power meter and internal/external load measured via surface EMG sensor-embedded compression shorts. A HR sensor was used and V̇O2 and RER were monitored using a metabolic cart. Paired t-tests were used to compare differences and Pearson correlations were conducted for each segment. Significance was set a priori at p<0.05. Results: There were significant differences in power (W16 > W0; p=0.002), as well as a strong positive correlation between power and internal load for W0 (r=0.692; p=0.013) and W16 (r=0.657; p=0.02). Conclusions: The lack of significance changes in HR, V̇O2, and RER demonstrates a sustained similar physiological response. The significant increase observed in power suggests the power meter can be useful in differentiating wind resistance, and the positive correlations suggest a combination of these devices may be beneficial in distinguishing performance changes during fluctuating conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.2p.11
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Effect of Five-Week Aerobic Interval Training on The Body Composition
           of Pencak Silat Elite Athletes

    • Authors: Johansyah Lubis, Nakrob Thongdaeng, Aridhotul Haqiyah, Abdul Sukur, Dindin Abidin, Astri Ayu Irawan, Sri Sumartiningsih, Yulingga Nanda Hanief
      Pages: 16 - 24
      Abstract: Background: Background: The direction of coaching is emphasized as a factor affecting the physical conditions of pencak silat martial arts athletes in all categories. One of the physical exercises that affects body composition is aerobic activity. Objective: This study aimed to examine the effects of aerobic interval (AI) training performed for five weeks on the body mass index (BMI), basal heart rate, and the VO2max of elite athletes. Methods: The study used an experimental design involving total sampling. Thirty national-level pencak silat elite athletes (17 men and 13 women) were involved in this study. Of the participants, 23 had a normal BMI of 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2, and 7 had a BMI above 25 kg/m2 (overweight). Their average age was 23.67 + 4.10 years with an average height of 166.03 + 7.15) cm and average initial weight of 64.84 + 12.65 kg. They were in the preparation phase of their training. This experimental research used a one-group pre-test and post-test design. The Mi Xiaomi Body Scale 2 was used for bioimpedance analysis (BIA), and body composition (body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, bone mass, protein percentage, total water body percentage, visceral fat, body age, muscle mass, and basal metabolic rate [BMR]) and VO2max measurements were acquired using a multistage fitness test (MFT). The athletes lived in a dormitory where the food, type of training and exercise, and sleeping time were controlled to the exact condition. The AI training lasted 67–77 minutes per session, twice a week for five weeks, with vigorous intensity at 80–85% of the maximal heart rate, 5 minutes per interval, and 1 minute of rest between each interval. Results: The weight, BMI, body fat percentage, basal heart rate, and VO2max showed significant differences (p < 0.05) after five weeks of AI training. However, AI training did not significantly alter muscle mass, percentage of water, percentage of protein, bone mineral density, or biological age. Conclusion: AI training performed for five weeks improved VO2max and decreased basal heart rate, body weight, and fat percentage.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.2p.16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Effects of a Six-Week Ketogenic Diet on CrossFit Performance
           Parameters: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Steven Vitti, Emily Miele, Michael L. Bruneau Jr., Laura Christoph
      Pages: 25 - 33
      Abstract: Background: CrossFit is a popular high-intensity functional training method. Despite the importance of muscle glycogen in fueling such high-intensity efforts, research exploring the use of a ketogenic diet in CrossFit practitioners is limited. Objectives: To conduct an experimental trial examining the effects of a 6-week ketogenic diet on CrossFit performance parameters. Methods: Eight men and seven women (N = 15; 30.2 ± 4.11 years) were recruited for this experimental study design and were randomly assigned to either the ketogenic diet (KD; n = 8) or the control group (CON; n = 7) for 6 weeks. Several measures of anaerobic performance were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks utilizing the following series of standardized exercise tests: timed 500 m row, Wingate Anaerobic Test, and 3-repetition maximum (3-RM) deadlift. Aerobic capacity was also assessed by measuring VO2peak. In addition, body composition was assessed via BodPod. Results: Multiple 2 X 2 mixed factorial analyses of variance were performed for measures of body composition and aerobic and anaerobic performance variables. No significant differences in body composition (p < 0.05), anaerobic performance (p < 0.05), or aerobic performance (p < 0.05) were observed between groups. Conclusion: A 6-week ad libitum KD had no effect on exercise performance or body composition in CrossFit practitioners. Our findings demonstrate that a KD does not impair CrossFit performance, which may be of interest to those considering a KD when participating in CrossFit.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.2p.25
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Changes in College Students’ Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, and
           Motivation Before and During the COVID-19 Third-wave Lockdown

    • Authors: Yangyang Deng, YongJu Hwang, Taewoo Kim, Sami Yli-Piipari
      Pages: 34 - 41
      Abstract: Background: It is less known how the constraints placed upon public spaces and social interaction have impacted college students’ motivation to be physically active. Objective: This study examined, first, the changes in college students’ body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), and self-determined motivation before and during the COVID-19 third-wave lockdown and, second, the role of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-determined motivation on BMI during the lockdown. Method: This study was a longitudinal prospective study with two data collection phases. A sample of 104 college students (69 females, 35 males, Mage = 18.19[1.5]) completing both pre- and posttest data turned in self-report data on BMI, PA (vigorous PA - VPA, moderate PA - MPA), MVPA, and self-determined motivation. Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase in participants’ BMI (t[79] = 4.70[2.98], p =.001, d =.11) but no statistically significant changes in PA. The findings demonstrated changes in college students’ integrated regulation (↓; t[78]= -3.20[.16], p =.002, d =.35), identified regulation (↓; t[76] = -4.07[.16], p <.001, d =.52), extrinsic regulation (↑; t[78] = 2.28[1.80], p =.025, d =.02), and amotivation (↑; t[78] = 4.42[1.21], p <.001, d =.48). Finally, neither PA nor self-determined motivation played a role in BMI, but the previous MVPA and BMI did. Conclusion: This study suggests that COVID-19 had a negative impact on self-determined motivation decreasing adaptive and increasing maladaptive motivation. However, neither MVPA nor self-determined motivation played a role in BMI during the COVID-19 lockdown. Instead, pre-COVID BMI (large effect) and MVPA (small effect) determined students’ BMI during the lockdown.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.2p.34
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of a Plyometric Training Program in Sub-Elite Futsal Players
           During Pre-Season Period

    • Authors: Luís Branquinhoa, Ricardo Ferraz, José Teixeira, Henrique P. Neiva, Andrew Sortweel, Pedro Forte, Daniel A. Marinho, Mário C. Marquesb
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: Background of Study: Plyometric training (PT) programs can improve several motor skills during the pre-season. Even so, its impact during the pre-season specifically in futsal remains unclear. Objective: The present observational study examines the impact of a six-week PT program that included varied strength exercises in adult male futsal players. Method: Fourteen futsal players from a Portuguese men’s sub-elite team that competed in a national championship (mean ± Standard deviation (SD) age: 25.78±7.05 years) were included in this cross-sectional study that analyzed the consequences of a PT program during the pre-season, followed by four weeks of detraining. Players were monitored 3 times: at the beginning, after six weeks of PT and four weeks after the end of PT. Results: The current research presented significant mean changes with the application of the training program in the three assessment moments for agility (small to moderate effect), countermovement jump (CMJ) height (trivial to small effect), and sprint performance (trivial to moderate large effect). When assessing the mean differences between pre- and post-training, the differences are more evident in their magnitude (Δ = -12.73 to 3.69%, d = 0.38 to 2.08). Furthermore, the PT program showed the greatest influence on 20 m sprint with a large effect (Δ = -12.73%, d = 2.08), followed by a small and moderate effect for agility (Δ = -6.46%, d = 0.85) and for the 10 m sprint (Δ = -3.53%, d = 0.38). Conclusions: These results confirmed the impact of a six-week plyometric training during the pre-season in sub-elite futsal players. This new evidence can be particularly useful in pre-season planning in futsal.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.2p.42
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Graded Compression Garments Worn During Resistance Exercise: Impact on
           Muscle Damage, Fatigue, and Oxygenation in Untrained Individuals

    • Authors: Joshua A. Cotter, Makenzie R. Stade, Bria G. Morse, Evan E. Schick
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Background: Use of compression garments during and after exercise has gained notable popularity, yet their utility in augmenting performance and recovery from resistance exercise remains elusive. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of wearing compression garments during resistance exercise on exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), muscle fatigue and muscle oxygenation. Methods: Ten healthy, untrained individuals (8 females, 2 males, 22.10 ± 2.23 years, 159.09 ± 3.47 cm, 66.22 ±15.93 kg; mean ± SD) performed two exercise trials in a randomized crossover (within-subject) design: 1) with compression garments worn on the legs and 2) without compression. Exercise trials were randomized and separated by seven days. Participants performed 12 sets of 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension, at a velocity of 120 degrees per second, in the CON/ECC mode of a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle oxygenation of the vastus medialis oblique was assessed using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TRS-21, Hamamatsu). Leg circumference, ratings of perceived muscle soreness (RPMS) and blood samples for creatine kinase (CK) were collected before, immediately after, and 24, 48 and 72 hours after exercise. Results: Total hemoglobin (p = 0.021) and deoxyhemoglobin (p <0.001) were significantly reduced by 8.6% and 9.2% respectively with compression compared to control. No significant differences were found in oxyhemoglobin, oxygen saturation, muscle fatigue, leg circumference, RPMS and CK (p = 0.0791) between conditions. Conclusions: Although lower body compression worn during resistance exercise reduced total hemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, there was no impact on muscle fatigue, RPMS, leg circumference or CK.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.2p.51
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
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