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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2202-946X
Published by Australian International Academic Centre Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Short-Term Effects of Eccentric Overload Versus Traditional Back Squat
           Training on Strength and Power

    • Authors: Cameron N. Munger, Bailey C. Jones, Isaac J. Halloran, Garrett G. Eggleston, Phillip G. Post, Lee E. Brown, Joseph M. Berning
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Background of Study: Benefits of training with eccentric overload (EO) include increased concentric strength, eccentric strength, explosiveness, and muscle adaptation. There is a lack of practical strength training protocols that compare traditional methods and EO. Purpose: Compare effects of eccentric overload versus traditional training on strength and performance. Method: Thirty-three trained males (age: 21.4 ± 2.7 years) were divided into three groups: Traditional (TRAD, N =12), EO, (N =11), and Control (CTRL, N =10). Back squat training lasted five weeks. The average intensity (%1RM) for each repetition and the volume was the same between groups. Results: Multiple 3x2 (Group x Time) Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) were performed on the following: 1RM, eccentric 1RM (Ecc1RM), countermovement jump height (CMJ), and 20-meter sprint times. A significant Group x Time interaction (p =.001) was observed for Ecc1RM. The source was a significant increase in Ecc1RM strength from pre to post-test for the EO group (+16.9 kg) and TRAD group (+12.7 kg). A significant Group x Time interaction (p =.026) was observed for CMJ. The source was a significant increase in CMJ height from pre to post-test for the EO group (+3.8 cm) and TRAD group (+2.9 cm). Conclusions: Using EO and TRAD during a short-term back squat training protocol enhanced vertical jump explosiveness and eccentric strength. Athletes aiming to enhance lower body explosiveness and eccentric strength are likely benefit from EO. Athletes looking to enhance concentric strength should adhere to methods whereby paired concentric-eccentric actions are the primary focus.
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.1p.1
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Does Sleep Quality between Back-to-Back Matches Influence Running
           Performance in Canadian Female University Soccer Players' A GPS-based
           Time-Series Analysis

    • Authors: David Turczyn, Diana McMillan, Phillip F. Gardiner, Stephen M. Cornish
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Background: Soccer competitions performed with less than or equal to 24 hours of recuperation, including inadequate amounts of quality sleep, may adversely affect performance. Objective: The purpose of this research was to assess running performance between self-reported good and poor sleepers in female university sport soccer players (N = 12) in matches played with ≤ 24 hours of recovery. Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study, twelve female university soccer players (mean age: 19.44 + 1.69 yr) were followed throughout one season of competition using a time-series analysis of running performance and comparing good (n = 7) versus poor (n = 5) sleepers. Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to evaluate jogging/sprinting performance throughout the 2016 soccer season. Good and poor sleepers were determined via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: There was a significant reduction (p <.05) in running performance from the first to the second game in the entire cohort, while post hoc analysis indicated that good sleepers performed better on the relative speed performance parameter when comparing the first game to the second game; however, there was no change in this performance variable in the poor sleepers between the first and second game. Conclusions: Our study indicates that Canadian female university soccer players may need longer than 24 hours of recovery to perform optimally in subsequent matches. Generally, good and poor sleepers perform similarly except for GPS relative speed in back-to-back matches with 24 hours of recovery.
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.1p.9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Coordination of Elbow, Shoulder, and Trunk Movements in the Backswing
           Phase of Baseball Pitching to Throw a Fastball

    • Authors: Hiromu Katsumata, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Fumiya Kunikata
      Pages: 18 - 29
      Abstract: Background: Baseball pitchers adopt a backswing motion to accelerate a forward swing of the arm and project the ball. However, knowledge about the backswing movement for delivering a fast pitch has not been accumulated enough. Objective: This study aimed to identify the kinematic parameters of the backswing movement associated with differences in the speed of pitches and capture the joint kinematics of the throwing arm in the backswing phase. Methodology: Based on the quasi-experimental study design, fifteen male college students with various levels of baseball experience pitched a baseball at their maximum, 40%, 60%, and 80% of their full ball speed. A motion capture system sampled data at 250 Hz, and three-dimensional data were acquired for shoulder and elbow joint movements, upper-trunk rotation, and ball movement in the backswing phase. Correlation analysis between the joint and ball parameters was conducted, and the relative timings of these parameters were calculated. Results: The speed of pitch showed a significant correlation with the ball peak speed in the backswing phase (r = 0.75), which showed a significant correlation with the velocity of the elbow flexion (r = −0.81), shoulder abduction (r = 0.75), external rotation (r = −0.86) and the upper trunk’s rotation (r = 0.75). Conclusions: The backswing movement producing the higher ball’s peak speed and its abrupt transition to the forward swing was associated with the higher release speed. This kinematic feature was achieved by the temporal coordination of the arm joint movements with the upper trunk’s rotation.
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.1p.18
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Effect of Walking Exercise on Blood Pressure and Blood Glucose in the

    • Authors: Muhammad Rizka, Rachmah Laksmi Ambardini, La Ode Adhi Virama, Dewangga Yudhistira
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Background: Walking exercise is a physical activity that stimulates various components of physical fitness. Particularly in the elderly, it improves blood circulation, strengthens bones, lowers blood pressure and glucose. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of walking exercise on blood pressure and blood glucose in the elderly. Method: This research was experimental research that used a quantitative approach. Participants were elderly aged 60 years with a history of hypertension and high blood glucose. The samples in this study were 34 people who were determined based on a simple random sampling technique. The experimental group was given physical activity treatment for walking 3x a week with mild to moderate intensity for 60 minutes for three weeks. The control group did not participate in any treatment. The walking program took place outside on a 1 mile/1,609 meter track. Before beginning the exercise program, participants should warm up for 5-10 minutes with a leisurely walk. In this case, the participant’s mileage is 1 mile. The instrument used to measure blood pressure in this study was an aneroid sphygmomanometer, while a glucometer was used to measure blood glucose levels. Results: This study found that: Based on the Mann-Whitney test, it showed that there was a significant effect of walking exercise on decreasing systolic blood pressure (p < 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.018), and reducing blood sugar (p < 0.031). Conclusion: Walking exercise has a significant effect on blood pressure and blood glucose in the elderly.
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.1p.30
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Benefits of IMU-based Wearables in Sports Medicine: Narrative Review

    • Authors: Jacob S. Arlotti, William O. Carroll, Youness Afifi, Purva Talegaonkar, Luciano Albuquerque, Reuben F. Burch V, John E. Ball, Harish Chander, Adam Petway
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Background: Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) based wearables have been the focus of many recent sports medicine research efforts. Objective: The goal of this narrative-driven literature review is to provide the current state of IMU-based wearable technology in Sports Medicine for the benefit of practitioners and athletic trainers. Method: A search was performed using university library resources; specifically, PubMed, EBSCO Discovery and Google Scholar search engines were used to identify appropriate peer-reviewed studies in this field. Results: IMU wearables have shown to be a cost-effective way to measure biomechanical and physiological data for athletic training and rehabilitation compared to laboratory gold standards. While IMU wearables show potential, barriers such as IMU drift and complicated calibrations limit the technology’s ability to flourish in the commercial market. Conclusion: IMU-based wearables provide kinematic information without the constraints and costs of gold standard laboratory equipment such as video-based motion capture and force plates; however, further innovation is required to overcome their major obstacles.
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.1p.36
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • The Influence of Shoe and Cleat Type on Lower Extremity Muscle Activation
           in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    • Authors: Jacob R. Gdovin, Chip Wade, Lauren A. Luginsland, Charles C. Williams, Riley Galloway, John C. Garner
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Background: Baseball pitching is a dynamic movement where the lower extremities generate and sequentially transfer energy to the upper extremities to maximize ball velocity. The need for lower body muscular strength to produce adequate push-off and landing forces has been documented; however, the influence footwear and surface inclination has on muscle activation remains unknown. Objectives: Determine how pitching in molded cleats and turf shoes from a pitching mound and flat ground affects stride-leg muscle activation in youth baseball pitchers while determining percent activation during each pitching phase. Methods: Cross – sectional study analyzing mean muscle activity and percent activation of the vastus medialis, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius on the stride-leg of 11 youth baseball pitchers when pitching fastballs. Results: Footwear did not significantly alter vastus medialis or semitendinosus muscle activation (P > 0.05). The turf shoe x pitching mound interaction elicited significantly (P < 0.05) greater mean muscle activity in the medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior from stride foot contact to maximum glenohumeral internal rotation. Molded cleats produced greater activation levels in the tibialis anterior on flat ground from stride foot contact (0.374 ± 0.176 mV) to ball release (0.469 ± 0.150 mV). Conclusion: Findings suggest footwear significantly alters the activity level of the ankle stabilizing musculature. Youth baseball pitchers and coaches should be cognizant of what footwear is worn on a pitching surface. Maximal activation of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius can ensure the stride leg is adequately stabilized to absorb the momentum generated by trail leg.
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.1p.44
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
  • Application of Strategic Self-Talk: An Experimental Study on the Effects
           on Shooting Stability and Performance

    • Authors: Emmanouil Tzormpatzakis, Evangelos Galanis, Annitsa Chaldeaki, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis
      Pages: 52 - 56
      Abstract: Background: Pistol shooting is a sport with high attentional demands. Strategic self-talk has been shown to assist learning and increase performance, in particular due to its effects on attention. Objective: The current study aimed to examine the impact of a strategic self-talk intervention on the learning of pistol shooting. Methods: An experimental study was designed and implemented. Forty sport sciences students with no experience in pistol shooting were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The study took part in nine sessions, one for familiarization, two for baseline measurements, four for training, and two for final measurements. The shooting was performed from a distance of five meters and recorded through the SCATT shooting system. Performance as Average Score (AS) and two stability variables, Average Length of Tracing (ALOT) and Stability of Aim (SOA), were recorded. Results: Repeated measures MANOVA showed a significant multivariate group by measurement interaction. Pairwise comparisons revealed that (a) AS increased for both the experimental (p<.001) and the control group (p=.006), with the experimental group showing greater improvement, and (b) SOA and ALOT improved for the experimental group (p<.001 and p=.003, respectively) but not for the control group (p=.37 and p=.21, respectively). Conclusions: The increases in performance for both groups can be attributed to the learning effect; however, the impact of self-talk was evidenced in the greater performance improvement, but also in the improvement of the stability variables that were targeted through the instructional self-talk cues that were used. The greater performance change for the self-talk group may be attributed to attentional mechanisms that brought about the improvement of the stability parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.10n.1p.52
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
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