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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1531-0930 - ISSN (Online) 2327-8455
Published by U of Nevada, Las Vegas Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Knowing When to Fold'em: A Monte Carlo Exploration of Card Shuffling
           and How Poker Players Can Gain an Advantage

    • Authors: David W. Merz et al.
      Abstract: This work demonstrates that the card shuffling procedure commonly performed in casino poker rooms is insufficient for randomizing a deck of cards. We explore this in the context of Texas Hold’em, which has established itself as the most popular form of poker worldwide over the past few decades. We show the degree to which the resulting distribution of the orderings of all 52 cards in the deck after shuffling is not uniform. Rather, any given card may be substantially more (or less) likely to show up as an important card in the subsequent hand. Additionally, we find that the shuffling procedure does not sufficiently separate cards from their starting point; that is, cards are more likely to stay close together after shuffling than they should by chance. Thus, in this work, we demonstrate that Texas Hold’em players can gain an advantage over their opponents by recognizing these deficiencies in the shuffling procedure.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Aug 2022 02:08:00 PDT
       
  • How Much of ‘Home Field Advantage’ Comes from the Fans' A Natural
           Experiment from the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Kevin Krieger et al.
      Abstract: Home field advantage has been a commonly discussed and researched topic in sports. How much of this advantage is due to the home team’s supporters’ physical attendance at the game where they might encourage their team, intimidate the opponent, and influence game officials' We utilize the unique natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic and consider the case of American professional (NFL) and collegiate (NCAA) football to examine this question. We measure how typical spreads, relative to home teams, changed in the 2020 season compared to their historical levels, and we determine that roughly half of what football fans and analysts consider to be home field advantage emanates from spectators. Generally, the betting market was rather accurate in its predictions of how football game results would change in 2020, during the pandemic, so that wagering strategies failed when based on the betting market possibly underappreciating or overcorrecting for home field advantage without fans.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jul 2022 06:48:43 PDT
       
  • Estimating the Effect of Poker Room Promotions on Player Traffic

    • Authors: Michael T. Paz et al.
      Abstract: This paper examines the impact of poker room promotions on player traffic in casino-based poker rooms. Casinos regularly spend significant portions of their marketing budget on promotions, including free-play, item-based offers, complementary hotel rooms, and travel reimbursements (among others), in an effort to drive casino traffic. Poker room promotions, by contrast, are unique within the context of casino promotions because they are both player-funded and paid in cash. Despite these significant differences between poker room and other casino promotions, prior research has not provided empirical evidence on the effectiveness of poker room promotions. Using collected data on casino-based poker games and poker room promotions over an eight-month period, we present an analysis investigating the impact of common types of poker room promotions on player traffic. Our research conclusively demonstrates a consistently strong positive effect of poker room promotions on player traffic. This research offers a number of important insights not only for the gaming industry, but also for other industries which make use of a variety of promotion types (e.g. retail, hospitality and tourism, etc.).
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jul 2022 14:19:10 PDT
       
  • Unveiling Macau Gaming Inspectors: Functions, Conditions and Operations

    • Authors: Changbin Wang et al.
      Abstract: Macau has seen the rapid development of casinos in the past two decades. Long-established regulatory control of the city’s gaming industry ensures compliance with the applicable regulations and standards. Among other regulators and staff, gaming inspectors are responsible for the first-line supervision of gaming operations across Macau casinos. This paper is the first attempt to review the casino regulatory inspection in Macau with a particular focus on the functions and practices of gaming inspectors stationed at casinos. Existing internal and external factors affecting the functions of gaming inspectors are identified and discussed in this paper. The authors of this paper consider that high-caliber gaming inspectors play a pivotal role in the regulatory performance of the gaming industry. Suggestions for further improvement are also provided for Macau to develop an effective regulatory inspection system for the gaming industry.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 May 2022 11:16:22 PDT
       
  • Does Variable Wagering Affect the Ability of Reel Slot Players to Detect
           Differences in Pars by Way of Changes in Play Time'

    • Authors: Anthony F. Lucas et al.
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to better understand the role of a slot machine’s house advantage (a.k.a. par) in the individual player’s gambling experience. On this issue, the results challenged the inveterate wisdom of the industry. A battery of simulations comparing outcomes produced on slot machines with different pars failed to produce significant differences in play time, i.e., spins per losing player. These simulations were the first to accommodate variable wagering behavior, as identified by player tracking data donated by a Nevada casino operator. The results inform operators and game makers alike as to the ability of gamblers to detect differences in the house advantage, based solely on their results from play. This information is critical to the formulation of revenue optimization strategies, price positioning strategies, and marketing communications. Additionally, critical insight is provided on the slot machine experience, within a profit center vital to the success of many of the world’s gaming properties. The absence of significant differences in play time for individual gamblers suggests potential for gains in aggregated slot revenue, without fear of “price” detection by individual gamblers. The findings add to a growing stream of research on the impacts of pay table metrics.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Mar 2022 13:19:10 PST
       
  • An Innovative Approach to Understanding Employers' Commitment to
           Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

    • Authors: Becky Harris
      Abstract: Diversity, equity, and Inclusion in the workforce have been topics of discussion in corporate America for years. In an effort to better understand employers’ commitment to hiring a more diverse, equitable, and inclusive workforce, and to collect robust data for analysis, the Nevada Legislature authorized the University Nevada, Las Vegas to launch a survey of Nevada employers concerning their workforce composition, employee representation at the frontline, supervisory, managerial and executive levels, employee benefit packages, and attrition rates. Every Nevada employer, including for-profit, non-profit and educational institutions are invited to participate. A link to the survey is provided in the article and the survey questions are included as an appendix.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 15:25:45 PST
       
  • The Role of Government Delegates in Macau Casino Gaming Concessionaires
           – Evolution and Prospective

    • Authors: Pedro Cortés
      Abstract: Macau Government announced in the consultation document for the amendment of Law No. 16/2001 (Macau Gaming Law) – whose public discussion ended on October 29, 2021 – that it intends to introduce Government Delegates into the casino gaming concessionaires.According to the consultation document, the appointment of government delegates will extend the Government direct supervisory powers over the casino gaming concessionaires and ensure that public interest is given precedence, as well as will be a form of proper guaranteeing compliance and fulfillment of the duties and obligations of the casino gaming concessionaires.Such a system has existed in Macau since at least 1956, with the extension to Macau of the applicability of the Decree-Law No. 40 833, of October 29, 1956, enacted by the Presidency of Council of Ministers of Portugal, in which the duties of the delegates and directors appointed by the government are defined in an extensive and comprehensive manner.The referred Decree-Law established the general principles in force in the current regime – under Decree-Law No.13/92/M, of March 2, 1992 – for the government delegates and directors appointed by the government. Such current regime will serve as the basis for the amendments to be introduced to the Macau Gaming Law.This article intends to provide a historical view of the concept and how it applies to the concessions of public services and other exclusive rights companies, such as the concessions for casino games in Macau, and to resort the regime that may be expected when the amendments to the Macau Gaming Law are introduced.We will provide an overview of the concession regime and its roots, the rules applicable to government delegates and their role throughout history, the reasons for the proposal to introduce the government delegates in the Macau casino gaming concessionaires, the results of the consultation process recently published, and what can be expected in the amended Macau Gaming Law.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 09:29:54 PST
       
  • The house edge and play time: Do industry heuristics fairly describe this
           relationship'

    • Authors: Anthony F. Lucas et al.
      Abstract: Based on modified versions of licensed pay tables from reel slot machines, simulations of play failed to indicate a statistically significant difference in the spins per losing player (SPLP), despite a marked difference in the pars (i.e., 7.9% vs. 12.9%). To reflect a volume of play consistent with frequent gambling, the simulations included results from 1-4 visits per week, for the equivalent of one year. Additionally, this level of play was repeated for 100 “years,” within multiple scenarios of buy-in amounts and stoppage-of-play criteria. Still, most outcomes indicated a negligible decline in SPLP, in spite of the 63%-increase in the par. These results were reproduced from a second pairing of games featuring a 117%-increase in par (i.e., 4.6% vs. 10.0%). The findings spotlighted considerable limitations of popular industry heuristics related to the relationship between par and play time. While additional studies are warranted, the outcomes suggested that operators may be overly mindful of the fallout from increased pars. These overbroad beliefs are likely to impede critical progress toward revenue optimization.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Sep 2021 09:14:48 PDT
       
  • Increasing Investment in STEM Education for Females: Policy Considerations

    • Authors: Becky Harris et al.
      Abstract: During this difficult economic time, as policy makers decide how to use their limited resources to help prepare the rising generation for the demands of an ever-changing workforce, aligning K-12 educational priorities with higher education and economic development can help maximize public dollar investments in STEM education, particularly when females are given access to STEM and STEM-related education and programs. Smart public policy initiatives can help increase the representation of women in the technology, research and development, and innovation departments.The purpose of this article is to provide policy recommendations that could help increase gender diversity and participation in STEM education pipelines and stimulate innovation. Viewing public dollar investments in female STEM education as an economic development tool not only encourages diverse participation in traditionally male dominated industries but can help leverage STEM education into an economic driver that promotes strong technology sectors in state economies.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Apr 2021 17:11:34 PDT
       
  • What Happens Here' Educating Las Vegas’s Guests During COVID-19

    • Authors: Marta Soligo
      Abstract: When, in 2003, the Las Vegas Visitors and Convention Authority (LVCVA) launched the tag line “What happens here, stays here,” it reinforced the idea, already supported by the media, that in Sin City everything is allowed. Looking at the COVID-19 crisis, one might wonder how, after being seen for years as a place without restrictions, Las Vegas could convince its tourists to respect some rigid safety guidelines. This paper tries to answer that question starting from the framework of the host-guest relationship, which is widely used in anthropology and sociology of tourism. On the one hand, I state that short-time strategies, such as the new LVCVA’s campaign #VegasSmart and the health-related measures undertaken by integrated resorts might represent efficient ways to educate visitors while limiting the spread of the virus. On the other hand, I propose a sociological perspective, arguing that a long-term view that takes into consideration the—often ignored—role of the Las Vegas community might be key.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2021 17:23:43 PST
       
  • COVID-19 and its Implications for Women In Gaming: Move Towards
           Regulation, Policies, and Culture Changes in the United States

    • Authors: Shekinah Hoffman et al.
      Abstract: COVID-19 exposes structural inequalities within American society which can no longer be ignored. Here, we highlight the structural inequalities women and women of color face that are glaringly apparent or exacerbated in the pandemic. Inequalities that play a role in the unemployment, insufficient workplace protection, and increased work-life demands of women and women of color in the gaming industry. Instead of returning to “normal” business post-pandemic, we urge gaming leaders to reflect on these inequities within their workplaces. We offer that guaranteed paid leave and permanent flexible work arrangements could improve the life of gaming women employees and their families.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Feb 2021 10:19:17 PST
       
  • Picks on clicks with an RG schtick: Building long term sustainability in
           esports betting growth

    • Authors: Brett Abarbanel
      Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, esports and its associated betting markets grew – and in some cases, continue to grow – exponentially as consumer entertainment filled the gap left by a sport shut down around the world. What does this mean for gambling-focused organizations seeking to enter the esports and gaming space' What lessons from gambling should gaming and esports organizations be aware of as they embark on the hunt for gambling-related partners' What potential consumer impacts exist as brands, both endemic and non-endemic to esports and gaming, peddle their gambling wares'
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Nov 2020 16:05:48 PST
       
  • Snackjack: A Toy Model of Blackjack

    • Authors: Stewart N. Ethier et al.
      Abstract: Snackjack is a highly simplified version of blackjack that was proposed by Ethier (2010) and given its name by Epstein (2013). The eight-card deck comprises two aces, two deuces, and four treys, with aces having value either 1 or 4, and deuces and treys having values 2 and 3, respectively. The target total is 7 (vs. 21 in blackjack), and ace-trey is a natural. The dealer stands on 6 and 7, including soft totals, and otherwise hits. The player can stand, hit, double, or split, but split pairs receive only one card per paircard (like split aces in blackjack), and there is no insurance.We analyze the game, both single and multiple deck, deriving basic strategy and one-parameter card-counting systems. Unlike in blackjack, these derivations can be done by hand, though it may nevertheless be easier and more reliable to use a computer. More importantly, the simplicity of snackjack allows us to do computations that would be prohibitively time-consuming at blackjack. We can thereby enhance our understanding of blackjack by thoroughly exploring snackjack.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2020 14:24:23 PDT
       
  • Sweden’s Casino Cosmopol Stayed Open During the Pandemic: What Can
           We Learn'

    • Authors: Kasra Ghaharian et al.
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has generated countless research questions for academics in every conceivable field. Chief among those are the biomedical questions, particularly those related to diagnosis, prevention and treatment (National Institutes of Health, 2020), as this public health crisis relentlessly spreads across the globe. Meanwhile, virtually every other research field finds itself exploring the intersections of those biomedical questions with more specific queries on a range of everyday impacts. Sweden’s approach to COVID-19 has captured the imaginations of critical thinkers worldwide. Sweden has resisted the tendency of governments to shut down society, instead electing for a more sustainable approach. Our question here is simple: what can the gaming world learn from what we might call “The Sweden Experiment”'
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jul 2020 06:30:12 PDT
       
  • Where Women Stand in Tribal vs. Non-Tribal Gaming Leadership

    • Authors: Toni Repetti et al.
      Abstract: Tribal casinos operate for the economic development and self-sufficiency of their members so additional profit generated directly benefits their communities. Gender diversity has been shown to increase firm performance across different types of business so if tribal casinos have gender diversity in management they may be able to increase their profits. This study evaluates casino management positions in 405 tribal and 567 non-tribal casinos in the United States. Results indicate that women in tribal gaming only make up 37.8% of all management positions and while they represent about half of managers, the percentage decreases as the position increases. When compared to non-tribal casinos, tribal casinos have a significantly higher percentage of women representation overall, 37.8% vs. 33.6%, but when evaluating each level there is only a significant difference at the top position with tribal casinos having 23.5% of women representation compared to 17.1% in non-tribal casinos. While these results indicate that tribal casinos have a higher percentage of women in top positions compared to non-tribal casinos there is still room for additional gender diversity across the top levels.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Mar 2020 11:15:05 PST
       
  • Teaching a University Course on the Mathematics of Gambling

    • Authors: Stewart N. Ethier et al.
      Abstract: Courses on the mathematics of gambling have been offered by a number of colleges and universities, and for a number of reasons. In the past 15 years, at least seven potential textbooks for such a course have been published. In this article we objectively compare these books for their probability content, their gambling content, and their mathematical level, to see which ones might be most suitable, depending on student interests and abilities. This is not a book review (e.g., none of the books is recommended over others) but rather an essay offering advice about which topics to include in a course on the mathematics of gambling.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 12:55:58 PST
       
  • Pair-a-Dice Lost: Experiments in Dice Control

    • Authors: Robert H. Scott III et al.
      Abstract: This paper presents our findings from experiments designed to test whether we could use a custom-made dice throwing machine applying common dice control methods to produce dice rolls that differ from random. In earlier research we calculated the percentages of control a craps player needs to break even or beat the house (Smith and Scott, 2018). Using the most common practices of dice control in craps, we established how dice should be configured (i.e., set) and thrown to achieve certain outcomes such as not rolling a seven in the point cycle. We decided to run experiments to see if a dice throwing machine that generally mimics the biomechanical properties of expert craps players (e.g., back spin, on-axis throw, repeatable throwing angle etc.) could achieve at least a break-even level of control. Using our machine (named “Lucky Lil”) on a six foot craps table we filmed dice throws using a Phantom® VEO4K 990s high-speed digital camera captured in 4K resolution. Watching these videos we calibrated the machine to ensure throws were on-axis and flying correctly. We then recorded 7,557 craps throws using various settings. We use chi-squared tests to determine if we were able to produce a statistically significant number of on-axis rolls.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 07:27:55 PST
       
  • Value Relevance of Financial and Non-Financial Information: Evidence from
           the Gaming Industry

    • Authors: Lisa Goh et al.
      Abstract: Using financial and non-financial data from casino gaming firms listed in the United States from 1999–2017, we explore two research questions: (1) Is financial information value relevant to financial markets in the casino gaming industry' (2) Does non-financial information have incremental explanatory power over financial information' In general, we find that accounting numbers can explain a firm’s market value and stock returns in the casino gaming industry, except for accounting accruals, which may behave differently compared to other industries. We also find that non-financial information, such as the number of table games, number of slot machines, and their relative proportion, have significant value relevance in explaining market valuation. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the value relevance of financial and non-financial information in the casino gaming industry. We also provide analysis of firms characterized by these non-financial attributes.Keywords: hospitality, casino, gaming, value relevance, table games, slot machinesJEL Code: L83, M19, M41
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Nov 2019 18:58:13 PST
       
  • Nipped in the Budd' Assessing the wisdom of the Gambling Review
           Body’s recommendations in relation to problem gambling

    • Authors: Daniel Waugh et al.
      Abstract: The convening of the Gambling Review Body (the ‘Review Body’), between 2000 and 2001 was the most recent attempt by the British Government to consider fully policy objectives for the operation of its licensed gambling market. It followed in a tradition of comprehensive Government-sponsored reviews of gambling (carried out in the twentieth century by Royal Commissions) approximately every 20 to 25 years. The publication of its report in 2001 had a strong influence on the drafting of the Gambling Act 2005 (the ‘2005 Act’), Britain’s principal piece of gambling legislation.In 2019, Britain’s gambling laws are under review once more. The Labour Party (at the date of writing, the principal political party of Opposition) has set out plans for “a new Gambling Act that is fit for the digital age” ; while the House of Lords has approved a special inquiry committee on the “”Social and Economic consequences of the gambling industry ”.Against this backdrop, there may be merit in revisiting Budd.This essay considers two of the Budd Report’s key aims – the protection of vulnerable people and the protection of children[1]. It reviews those recommendations that were explicitly directed towards harm prevention; as well as a number of broader proposals which have clear relevance to the subject. This essay reviews Budd’s recommendations from 2001 against subsequent events – and in particular asks the question of whether the report contributed to the development of future regulatory problems and political controversies.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jul 2019 09:28:17 PDT
       
  • Optimal Conditional Expectation at the Video Poker Game Jacks or Better

    • Authors: Stewart N. Ethier et al.
      Abstract: There are 134,459 distinct initial hands at the video poker game Jacks or Better, taking suit exchangeability into account. A computer program can determine the optimal strategy (i.e., which cards to hold) for each such hand, but a complete list of these strategies would require a book-length manuscript. Instead, a hand-rank table, which fits on a single page and reproduces the optimal strategy perfectly, was found for Jacks or Better as early as the mid 1990s. Is there a systematic way to derive such a hand-rank table' We show that there is indeed, and it involves finding the exact optimal conditional expected return, given the initial hand. In the case of Jacks or Better (paying 800, 50, 25, 9, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0), this is a random variable with 1,153 distinct values, of which 766 correspond to garbage hands for which it is optimal to draw five new cards. We describe the hands corresponding to each of the remaining 387 values of the optimal conditional expected return (sorted from largest to smallest) and show how this leads readily to an optimal strategy hand-rank table for Jacks or Better. Of course, the method applies to other video poker games as well.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Mar 2019 16:10:20 PDT
       
 
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