A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  First |       [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 201 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  

  First |       [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 109: Exploring the Relationship between
           Micronutrients and Athletic Performance: A Comprehensive Scientific
           Systematic Review of the Literature in Sports Medicine

    • Authors: Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi, Mariam Ali Hussain, Khadija Majdy Raziq, Khawla Khaled Alsendi, Reem Osama Alaamer, Manar Jaradat, Sondos Alobaidi, Raghad Al Aqili, Khaled Trabelsi, Haitham Jahrami
      First page: 109
      Abstract: The aim of this systematic review is twofold: (i) to examine the effects of micronutrient intake on athletic performance and (ii) to determine the specific micronutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, that offer the most significant enhancements in terms of athletic performance, with the goal of providing guidance to athletes and coaches in optimizing their nutritional strategies. The study conducted a systematic search of electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus) using keywords pertaining to micronutrients, athletic performance, and exercise. The search involved particular criteria of studies published in English between 1950 and 2023. The findings suggest that vitamins and minerals are crucial for an athlete’s health and physical performance, and no single micronutrient is more important than others. Micronutrients are necessary for optimal metabolic body’s functions such as energy production, muscle growth, and recovery, which are all important for sport performance. Meeting the daily intake requirement of micronutrients is essential for athletes, and while a balanced diet that includes healthy lean protein sources, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is generally sufficient, athletes who are unable to meet their micronutrient needs due to malabsorption or specific deficiencies may benefit from taking multivitamin supplements. However, athletes should only take micronutrient supplements with the consultation of a specialized physician or nutritionist and avoid taking them without confirming a deficiency.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060109
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 110: The Effects of Massage Therapy on Sport and
           Exercise Performance: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Miloš Dakić, Lazar Toskić, Vladimir Ilić, Saša Đurić, Milivoj Dopsaj, Jožef Šimenko
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Background: A massage is a tool that is frequently used in sports and exercise in general for recovery and increased performance. In this review paper, we aimed to search and systemize current literature findings relating to massages’ effects on sports and exercise performance concerning its effects on motor abilities and neurophysiological and psychological mechanisms. Methods: The review has been written following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis) guidelines. One hundred and fourteen articles were included in this review. Results: The data revealed that massages, in general, do not affect motor abilities, except flexibility. However, several studies demonstrated that positive muscle force and strength changed 48 h after the massage was given. Concerning neurophysiological parameters, the massage did not change blood lactate clearance, muscle blood flow, muscle temperature, or activation. However, many studies indicate pain reduction and delayed onset muscle soreness, which are probably correlated with the reduction of the level of creatine kinase enzyme and psychological mechanisms. In addition, the massage treatment led to a decrease in depression, stress, anxiety, and the perception of fatigue and an increase in mood, relaxation, and the perception of recovery. Conclusion: The direct usage of massages just for gaining results in sport and exercise performance seems questionable. However, it is indirectly connected to performance as an important tool when an athlete should stay focused and relaxed during competition or training and recover after them.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060110
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 111: Exercise-Induced Fatigue Impairs Change of

    • Authors: Zlatan Bilić, Filip Sinković, Petar Barbaros, Dario Novak, Erika Zemkova
      First page: 111
      Abstract: This study investigates the effect of exercise-induced fatigue on change of direction performance and serve precision among young tennis players. A group of 21 players (age 12.90 ± 0.76 years), ranked among the top 50 players on the national tennis federation scale and the top 300 on the “Tennis Europe” scale, participated in the study. They underwent a standardized physiological load protocol using the “300-m running test” which consists of consecutive runs for 15 shares of 20 m (15 × 20). Its intensity was determined using the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale where subjects evaluated their level of experienced load on a scale from 0 to 10. Prior to and after the protocol, they performed a pre-planned change of direction T-test and serve precision test. Results showed significant increase of time in the T-test (from 11.75 ± 0.45 s to 12.99 ± 0.4 s, p = 0.00) and decrease in serve precision parameter from (6.00 ± 1.04 to 4.00 ± 1.26, p = 0.00) after the fatigue test protocol. The RPE increased from 5 to 9, after the fatigue protocol, indicating the desired fatigue effect. These findings indicate that exercise-induced fatigue impairs change of direction performance and serve precision among young tennis players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060111
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 112: CrossFit®: ‘Unknowable’ or
           Predictable'—A Systematic Review on Predictors of CrossFit®

    • Authors: Nicole Meier, Jennifer Schlie, Annette Schmidt
      First page: 112
      Abstract: The functional fitness training program CrossFit® is experiencing fast-growing and widespread popularity with day-to-day varying ‘Workouts of the Day’ (WOD). Even among tactical athletes, the training program is widely applied. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data on which parameters influence CrossFit® performance. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the existing literature to identify and summarize predictors of CrossFit® performance and performance enhancement. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search of the following databases was conducted in April 2022: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science. Using the keyword ‘CrossFit’, 1264 entries are found, and 21 articles are included based on the eligibility criteria. In summary, the studies show conflicting results, and no specific key parameter was found that predicts CrossFit® performance regardless of the type of WOD. In detail, the findings indicate that physiological parameters (in particular, body composition) and high-level competitive experience have a more consistent influence than specific performance variables. Nevertheless, in one-third of the studies, high total body strength (i.e., CrossFit® Total performance) and trunk strength (i.e., back squat performance) correlate with higher workout scores. For the first time, this review presents a summary of performance determinants in CrossFit®. From this, a guiding principle for training strategies may be derived, suggesting that a focus on body composition, body strength, and competition experience may be recommended for CrossFit® performance prediction and performance enhancement.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060112
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 93: Acute Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant
           Extract on Cycling Time-Trial Are Performance Dependent in
           Endurance-Trained Cyclists: A Home-Based Study

    • Authors: Stefano Montanari, Sam D. Blacker, Mark E. T. Willems
      First page: 93
      Abstract: The intake of anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract (300 mg per day) over a week enhanced 16.1 km cycling time trial (TT) performance in endurance-trained cyclists without acute performance effects. In the present study, the acute effects of an intake of 900 mg of NZBC extract 2 h before performing the 16.1 km cycling TT were examined. A total of 34 cyclists (26 males; 8 females) (age: 38 ± 7 years, V˙O2max: 57 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed 4 16.1 km TTs (2 familiarization and 2 experimental trials) over 4 mornings on a home turbo-trainer connected with the online training simulator ZWIFT. There was no difference in time to complete the 16.1 km TT between conditions (placebo: 1422 ± 104 s; NZBC extract: 1414 ± 93 s, p = 0.07). However, when participants were split between faster (<1400 s; 1 female; 16 males) and slower (>1400 s; 7 females; 10 males) cyclists based on average familiarization TTs, a difference in TT performance was observed only in the slower group (placebo: 1499 ± 91 s; NZBC extract: 1479 ± 83 s, p = 0.02). At 12 km (quartile analysis), power output (p = 0.04) and speed (p = 0.04) were higher compared to the placebo with no effects on heart rate and cadence. The acute effects of 900 mg of NZBC extract on a 16.1 km cycling time-trial may depend on the performance ability of male endurance-trained cyclists. More work is needed to address whether there is a sex-specific time-trial effect of NZBC extract independent of performance ability.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050093
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 94: Whole Body Vibration Training Improves Maximal
           Strength of the Knee Extensors, Time-to-Exhaustion and Attenuates
           Neuromuscular Fatigue

    • Authors: Serge S. Colson, Jennifer Gioda, Flavio Da Silva
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Whole-body vibration (WBV) training programs were reported to improve knee extensor muscle (KE) strength in healthy participants. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms of these strength gains remain unresolved. In addition, WBV training was shown to increase the time-to-exhaustion of a static submaximal endurance task. However, the effects of WBV training on neuromuscular fatigue (i.e., a decrease of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction; MVIC) induced by an endurance task is unknown. We, therefore, investigated the influence of WBV training on (i) KE MVIC and neuromuscular function, (ii) the time-to-exhaustion of the KE associated with a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise, and (iii) KE neuromuscular fatigue and its etiology. Eighteen physically active males were assigned to a WBV group (n = 10) or a sham training group (SHAM; n = 8). The MVIC of the KE, voluntary activation, and electrically evoked responses of the KE were assessed (i) before and after a fatiguing exercise (i.e., submaximal isometric contraction) performed until failure, and (ii) before (PRE) and after a 6-week training (POST) period. At POST, the WBV training increased the KE MVIC (+12%, p = 0.001) and voluntary activation (+6%, p < 0.05) regardless of the fatiguing exercise. The time-to-exhaustion was also lengthened at POST in the WBV group (+34%, p < 0.001). Finally, the relative percentage of MVIC decrease after fatiguing exercises diminished in the WBV group between PRE and POST (−14% vs. −6%, respectively, p < 0.001). Significant neural adaptation enhancements account for the trend in KE strength improvements observed after the WBV training program. In addition, the WBV training was effective at increasing the time-to-exhaustion and attenuating neuromuscular fatigue.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050094
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 95: SCS 5th Annual Conference. São
           Paulo, Brazil, 2022

    • Authors: Pedro E. Alcaraz, Elena Marín-Cascales, Anthony J. Blazevich, Lucas A. Pereira, Valter P. Mercer, Túlio B. M. A. Moura, Victor Fernandes, Tomás T. Freitas, Irineu Loturco
      First page: 95
      Abstract: On behalf of the Strength and Conditioning Society (SCS) and the Nucleus of High Performance in Sport (NAR), we are pleased to present the abstracts of the SCS 5th Annual Conference, which, for the first time, took place outside of Europe. The event was held at NAR’s state-of-the-art facilities in São Paulo, Brazil, on 3–5 November 2022, and comprised several invited sessions from international and national speakers on a variety of topics related to strength and conditioning practices and their application to health, injury prevention and sports performance. These included strength training in high-performance sports and older adults, sleep and recovery in elite athletes, performance optimization of the female athlete, high-intensity interval training, velocity-based resistance training, and running and cycling biomechanics, among others. The Conference also included different practical workshops conducted by renowned academics and practitioners on post-competition recovery strategies, plyometric training, hamstring strain injuries in soccer, and resisted sprint training. Finally, the event disseminated up-to-date strength and conditioning research by providing practitioners and researchers with the opportunity to present their most recent findings. In this regard, all abstracts of the communications presented at the SCS 5th Annual Conference can be found in this Conference Report.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050095
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 96: Between-Session Reliability of Strength- and
           Power-Related Variables Obtained during Isometric Leg Press and
           Countermovement Jump in Elite Female Ice Hockey Players

    • Authors: Henrik Petré, Niklas Psilander, Hans Rosdahl
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Isometric leg press (ILP) and countermovement jump (CMJ) are commonly used to obtain strength- and power-related variables with important implications for health maintenance and sports performance. To enable the identification of true changes in performance with these measurements, the reliability must be known. This study evaluates the between-session reliability of strength- and power-related measures obtained from ILP and CMJ. Thirteen female elite ice hockey players (21.5 ± 5.1 years; 66.3 ± 8.0 kg) performed three maximal ILPs and CMJs on two different occasions. Variables from the ILP (peak force and peak rate of force development) and CMJ (peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and peak jump height) were obtained. The results were reported using the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of three trials. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were high (ICC > 0.97; CV < 5.2%) for all outcomes. The CV for the CMJ (1.5–3.2%) was lower than that for the ILP (3.4–5.2%). There were no differences between reporting the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of the three trials for the outcomes. ILP and CMJ are highly reliable when examining strength- and power-related variables in elite female ice hockey players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050096
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 97: Professional Athletes Maintain High TNF-Alpha
           or IFN-Gamma Related Inflammatory Status after Recovering from COVID-19
           Infection without Developing a Neutralizing Antibody Response

    • Authors: Mira Ambrus, Eszter Fodor, Timea Berki, Veronika Müller, Ádám Uhlár, István Hornyák, Zsombor Lacza
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Introduction: Professional athletes are endangered by COVID-19 and belong to the high-risk population due to their lifestyle. To obtain information on the behavior of COVID-19 in professional athletes, serological, cytokine, and virus neutralization capacities were analyzed. Materials and methods: Hungarian national teams participated in international sports events during the early phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020. Altogether, 29 professional athletes volunteered to donate plasma. Their serological status was evaluated by IgA, IgM, and IgG ELISAs and the highest virus neutralization titer in an in vitro live tissue assay. Plasma cytokine patterns were analyzed with a Bioplex multiplex ELISA system. Results: Surprisingly, only one athlete (3%) had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, while IgA was more common (31%). Neither plasma showed direct virus neutralization in a titer over 1:10; hence, they were not suitable for reconvalescent treatment. The ‘cytokine storm’ markers IL-6 and IL-8 were at baseline levels. In contrast, either the TNF-alpha-related cytokines or the IFN-gamma-associated cytokines were elevated. There was a strong negative correlation between the TNF-alpha- or IFN-gamma-related cytokines. Conclusions: Professional athletes are susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection without developing long-term immunity through neutralizing immunoglobulins. Elevated secretory and cellular immunity markers indicate that these systems are probably responsible for virus elimination in this subpopulation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050097
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 98: Age and Visual Contribution Effects on Postural

    • Authors: Arunee Promsri
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Postural control, the ability to control the body’s position in space, is considered a critical aspect of health outcomes. This current study aimed to investigate the effects of age and visual contribution on postural control. To this end, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract movement components/synergies (i.e., principal movements, PMs) from kinematic marker data of bipedal balancing on stable and unstable surfaces with eyes closed and open, pooled from 17 older adults (67.8 ± 6.6 years) and 17 young adults (26.6 ± 3.3 years), one PCA-analysis for each surface condition. Then, three PCA-based variables were computed for each PM: the relative explained variance of PM-position (PP_rVAR) and of PM-acceleration (PA_rVAR) for measuring the composition of postural movements and of postural accelerations, respectively, and the root mean square of PM-acceleration (PA_RMS) for measuring the magnitude of neuromuscular control. The results show the age and visual contribution effects observed in PM1, resembling the anteroposterior ankle sway in both surface conditions. Specifically, only the greater PA1_rVAR and PA1_RMS are observed in older adults (p ≤ 0.004) and in closed-eye conditions (p < 0.001), reflecting their greater need for neuromuscular control of PM1 than in young adults and in open-eye conditions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050098
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 99: Blood Flow Restriction Is Not Useful as Soccer
           Competition Recovery in Youth Male National-Level Soccer Players: A
           Crossover Randomised Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Christian Castilla-López, Natalia Romero-Franco
      First page: 99
      Abstract: In soccer, blood flow restriction (BFR) is used to optimise between-match recovery. However, the benefits are unclear. This study evaluated the effects of BFR as a recovery strategy after a competition on countermovement jump (CMJ) height, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the wellness of soccer players. Forty national-level soccer players were allocated into two conditions: BFR (an active recovery session wearing a BFR device, 24 h after a competition) or NoBFR (the same recovery without BFR). CMJ, RPE and wellness were evaluated the day (CMJ and RPE) or the morning (wellness) before the competition; just after the competition (CMJ and RPE); and 24, 48 (wellness) and 72 h later. After 4 weeks, the players changed conditions. All players showed impaired CMJ (p = 0.013), RPE (p < 0.001) and wellness (p < 0.001) after the match compared with the baseline. The CMJ returned to the baseline 24 h later and wellness returned 48 h later. Only in the BFR condition did the RPE remain impaired 24 h after the match, which was also the moment after finishing the BFR recovery session (p < 0.001). BFR during active recovery does not provide any additional benefits compared with traditional exercise modalities to recover CMJ, RPE and wellness in youth national-level soccer players. BFR could even induce an immediate higher RPE.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050099
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 100: Age-Related Differences between Maximum Flight
           Height of Basic Skills on Floor, Beam and Vault and Physical Condition of
           Youth Female Artistic Gymnasts

    • Authors: Christoph Schärer, Luca Reinhart, Klaus Hübner
      First page: 100
      Abstract: In women’s artistic gymnastics, difficult elements with great flight heights have to be performed on the apparatuses. However, the importance of the physical condition for generating flight height and its development with age remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the age-related differences of lower body power, reactive strength, 20 m sprint speed, flight heights (basic elements on beam and floor) and run-up speed on the vault of 33 youth female gymnasts. Further, we calculated correlations between all parameters separately for different age groups (7–9 y; 10–12 y; 13–15 y). We found larger differences between the age groups 7–9 y and 10–12 y than between 10–12 y and 13–15 y on the apparatuses (10–12 y vs. 7–9 y: +23% to +52%; 13–15 y vs. 10–12 y: +2% to +24%) and for physical conditioning variables (10–12 y vs. 7–9 y: +12 to +24%; 13–15 y vs. 10–12 y: + 5% to +16%). The correlations between flight heights and physical condition were the lowest for age group 7–9 y (r: from −0.47 to 0.78; 10–12 y: r: from −0.19 to 0.80; 13–15 y: r: from −0.20 to 0.90). An optimal application of the physical condition to enhance the gymnastics-specific performance (e.g., flight height) is strongly age-dependent. Regular monitoring of jumping abilities and the derivation of training recommendations can accelerate this development and the future performance of young athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050100
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 101: Effect of Physical Activity on Metabolic
           Syndrome Markers in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and

    • Authors: Mohammed Amin, Debra Kerr, Yacoba Atiase, Rami Kamel Aldwikat, Andrea Driscoll
      First page: 101
      Abstract: People with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are reported to have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which increases their risk of cardiovascular events. Our aim was to determine the effect of physical activity (PA) on metabolic syndrome markers in people with T2DM. The study design was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of PA on MetS in adults with T2DM. Relevant databases including SPORTdiscus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, SocINDEX were searched up to August 2022. Primary endpoints were changes in MetS markers (blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood sugar, and waist circumference) after an exercise intervention. Using a random effect model with 95% confidence interval (CI), the mean difference between intervention groups and control groups were calculated. Twenty-six articles were included in the review. Overall, aerobic exercise had a significant effect on waist circumference (Mean Difference: −0.34 cm, 95% CI: −0.84, −0.05; effect size: 2.29, I2 = 10.78%). The effect sizes on blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood sugar were not statistically significant. No significant differences were found between exercise and control group following resistance training. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise can improve waist circumference in people with T2DM and MetS. However, both aerobic and resistance exercise produced no significant difference in the remaining MetS markers. Larger and higher-quality studies are required to determine the full effects of PA on MetS markers in this population.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050101
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 102: The Effect of a Home-Based Tele-Exercise
           Training Program on the Quality of Life and Physical Performance in Breast
           Cancer Survivors

    • Authors: Andreana Andrioti, Argyro Papadopetraki, Maria Maridaki, Anastassios Philippou
      First page: 102
      Abstract: The number of breast cancer (BCa) survivors has been steadily increasing due to advances in anti-cancer treatments, though these individuals suffer from various cancer- and treatment-related long-term side effects. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of a home-based tele-exercise training intervention on physical- and mental health-associated parameters in BCa survivors. A total of 13 female BCa survivors (age: 58.31 ± 3.13 years, BMI: 25.68 ± 0.62 kg/m2, waist circumference: 96.54 ± 1.84 cm) participated in a two-month group tele-exercise program twice per week which included aerobic, resistance and flexibility exercises. The results of the study revealed that the tele-exercise intervention improved participants’ body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.001), cardiorespiratory fitness (6 min walk test) (p < 0.001) and muscle function (sit to stand (p < 0.01), sit ups (p < 0.001) and push-ups (p < 0.001)). Beneficial effects were also observed on perceived anxiety (Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale) (p < 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (PCL-C) (p < 0.01), self-reported fatigue (p < 0.001), quality of life (QoL) (p < 0.05) and physical (p < 0.05), cognitive (p < 0.01) and emotional (p < 0.05) functioning (EORTQ-QLQ-C30). Our findings suggest that common cancer- and treatment-related adverse effects on physical performance, mental health and the overall QoL can be ameliorated through tele-exercise training programs in BCa survivors.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050102
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 103: Sports Performance and Breathing Rate: What Is
           the Connection' A Narrative Review on Breathing Strategies

    • Authors: Gian Mario Migliaccio, Luca Russo, Mike Maric, Johnny Padulo
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Breathing is a natural and necessary process for humans. At the same time, the respiratory pace and frequency can vary so much, depending on the status of the subject. Specifically, in sports, breathing can have the effect of limiting performance from a physiological point of view, or, on the other hand, breathing can regulate the psychological status of the athletes. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review is to focus on the literature about the physiological and psychological aspects of breathing pace in sports performance, merging these two aspects because they are usually considered split, in order to create a new integrated vision of breathing and sports performance. Voluntary breathing can be divided into a slow or fast pace (VSB and VFB, respectively), and their effects on both the physiological and psychological parameters are very different. VSB can benefit athletes in a variety of ways, not just physically but mentally as well. It can help improve cardiovascular fitness, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve overall health and well-being, allowing athletes to maintain focus and concentration during training and competition. VFB is normal during physical training and competition, but away from training, if it is not voluntary, it can cause feelings of anxiety, panic, dizziness, and lightheadedness and trigger a stress response in the body, affecting the athlete’s quality of life. In summary, the role of breathing in the performance of athletes should be considered, although no definitive data are available. The connection between breathing and sports performance is still unclear, but athletes can obtain benefits in focus and concentration using slow breathing strategies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050103
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 104: A Holistic Analysis of Team Dynamics Using
           Relational Coordination as the Measure regarding Student Athlete Total
           Load: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Cathrine Nyhus Hagum, Espen Tønnessen, Marie Aarrestad Nesse, Shaher A. I. Shalfawi
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Background: Despite its small population, Norway wins a disproportionately large number of medals in international competitions. Therefore, it has been thought that the Norwegian sports model and sports school programs are influential in developing young Norwegian athletes to achieve such results. Today, more than 110 Norwegian private and public schools offer the elite sports program in Norway. Most student athletes attending those schools combine their high school education with elite sports, where they attend training sessions at both school and clubs. The number of people involved with the student athlete on a daily basis (i.e., other student athletes, club coaches, school coaches, schoolteachers, parents, and health personnel) indicate the importance of optimal communication and coordination. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no previous studies have explored communication and coordination among this population group. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to use a holistic analysis of team dynamics using the Relational Coordination Survey as a measure to explore the relational coordination within and between student athletes, club coaches, and school coaches. A secondary objective of this study was to explore student athletes’, club coaches’, and school coaches’ relational coordination with schoolteachers, parents, and health personnel. In addition, the study aimed to explore differences in student athletes’ relational coordination with their significant others according to sport, school, performance level, sex, and school year. Methods: The quality of relational coordination was measured by a cross-sectional questionnaire of student athletes (n = 345), club coaches (n = 42), and school coaches (n = 25) concerning training load and life load. Multiple one-way analyses of variance were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The results show that student athletes, club coaches, and school coaches perceived moderate to weak relational coordination with parents, schoolteachers, and health personnel. Student athletes’ relational coordination score with parents was the only strong score observed. Furthermore, the results reveal notable differences in student athletes’ relational coordination with the roles according to their characteristics. Conclusions: The findings suggest a potential for enhancing relationships and communication within and between the significant roles involved with student athletes. The results further indicate that those involved with the student athlete should consider a holistic approach to enhance communication and coordination, including physical, psychological, and other life factors, for optimal student athlete management and development. More resources are necessary to facilitate effective communication and coordination regarding the student athlete’s total load.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050104
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 105: Single and Combined Effects of Preferred Music
           and Endpoint Knowledge on Jump Performance in Basketball Players

    • Authors: Nidhal Jebabli, Mariem Khlifi, Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Manar Boujabli, Anissa Bouassida, Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman, Roland van den Tillaar
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Both music and endpoint knowledge of exercise have been shown to independently influence exercise performance. However, whether these factors work as synergists or counteract one another during exercise is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the single and combined effect of listening to preferred music and types of endpoint knowledge on repeated countermovement jump (CMJ) test performance. Twenty-four (n = 24) current or previously competitive basketball players underwent CMJ testing under the following endpoint knowledge conditions: (1) unknown/no knowledge, (2) knowledge of the number of jumps, and (3) knowledge of exercise duration. For each of these, participants listened to either their preferred music or no music during the duration of testing. For the exercise portion, participants completed repeated CMJs where participants were encouraged to jump as high as possible with jump height, contact time, and flight time as outcomes. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and feeling scale were measured before and after exercise. The results showed that, regardless of knowledge type, preferred music resulted in a significant decrease in both contact time and flight time (F ≥ 10.4, p ≤ 0.004, and ηp2 ≥ 0.35), and a significant improvement of jump height (F = 11.36, p = 0.001, and ηp2 = 0.09) and feeling scale ratings (F = 36.9, p < 0.001, and ηp2 = 0.66) compared to no-music condition, while RPE was not significantly affected. Regardless of the presence of music, knowledge of the number of jumps and duration resulted in lower contact time (p < 0.001, 0.9 < d < 1.56) versus unknown condition during CMJs. Moreover, a significant decrease in RPE values was found during prior endpoint knowledge of number (p = 0.005; d = 0.72) and duration (p = 0.045; d = 0.63) compared to unknown condition. However, feeling scale ratings were not significantly affected. Moreover, no interactions with significance findings were found for any parameters. Overall, data suggest that listening to music and endpoint knowledge alter exercise responses in basketball players, but they do not interact with one another.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050105
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 106: Tennis Specialization and Consequence of
           Injury/Illness Following Retirement

    • Authors: Ecaterina Vasenina, Jeffrey R. Stout, David H. Fukuda
      First page: 106
      Abstract: (1) Background: There is a lack of literature that examines the impact of early vs. late sport specialization on quality of life after retirement from tennis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between early specialization in the sport of tennis and health outcomes after retirement from collegiate/professional sport; (2) Methods: Participants were recruited through social media posts, newsletters, and contacts with tennis organizations. Basic demographic and injury information was collected from 157 former tennis players, along with the age of tennis specialization and two questionnaires: the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Questionnaire on Health Problems (OSTRC), and the CDC HRQOL-14 “Healthy Days Measure” Questionnaire (HRQOL); (3) Results: Significant differences (F1,117 = 5.160, p < 0.025) in the specialization age between the low (11.9 ± 4.5 y) and high (9.8 ± 4.1 y) OSTRC groups were found after covarying for the current age. No difference (F1,72 = 0.676, p < 0.414) was shown among the high (10.9 ± 4.4 y) and low (11.28 ± 4.6 y) HRQOL groups for the specialization age after covarying for the current age. A weak negative correlation was identified between the OSTRC score and specialization age (r = −0.233, p = 0.008), while no significant changes were shown between the specialization age and HRQOL score (r = −0.021, p = 0.857), or between the OSTRC and HRQOL scores (r = 0.146, p = 0.208); (4) Conclusions: Retired tennis players with low injury/illness severity scores specialized in tennis later than those with high injury/illness severity scores, while no differences in the specialization age were noted when the sample was separated into HRQOL groups.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050106
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 107: Relationship between Bioelectrical Impedance
           Phase Angle and Upper and Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Athletes from
           Several Sports: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Everton Cirillo, Alberto Pompeo, Fabiane Tavares Cirillo, José Vilaça-Alves, Pablo Costa, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Antonio Carlos Dourado, José Afonso, Filipe Casanova
      First page: 107
      Abstract: The phase angle (PhA) of bioelectrical impedance is determined by primary factors such as age, body mass index and sex. The researchers’ interest in applying PhA to better understand the skeletal muscle property and ability has grown, but the results are still heterogeneous. This systematic review with a meta-analysis aimed to examine the existence of the relationship between PhA and muscle strength in athletes. The data sources used were PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science and the study eligibility criteria were based on the PECOS. The searches identified 846 titles. From those, thirteen articles were eligible. Results showed a positive correlation between PhA and lower limb strength (r = 0.691 [95% CI 0.249 to 0.895]; p = 0.005), while no meta-analysis was possible for the relationships between PhA and lower limb strength. Furthermore, GRADE shows very low certainty of evidence. In conclusion, it was found that most studies showed a positive correlation between PhA and vertical jump or handgrip strength. The meta-analysis showed the relationship between PhA and vertical jump, however, little is known for the upper limbs as was not possible to perform a meta-analysis, and for the lower limbs we performed it with four studies and only with vertical jump.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050107
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 108: Post-Activation Performance Enhancement and
           Motor Imagery Are Efficient to Emphasize the Effects of a Standardized
           Warm-Up on Sprint-Running Performances

    • Authors: Valentin Rumeau, Sidney Grospretre, Nicolas Babault
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Warm-up routines include various tasks focused on the peripheral contractile properties and nervous motor command. This present study was aimed at investigating the acute effects of different warm-up routines, emphasizing either peripheral (post-activation performance enhancement, PAPE) or central (motor imagery, MI) contributions on sport-specific tasks. Eleven young female athletes took part in this cross-over, randomized, controlled trial. They underwent three experimental sessions composed of a standardized warm-up followed by 10 min of (1) rest (CONTROL), (2) maximal concentric leg press (PAPE), or (3) mental repetitions of sprint tasks (MI). Post-tests consisted of reaction time, arrowhead agility test, 20 m sprint, repeated sprint ability, and NASA-TLX fatigue questionnaire. PAPE and MI significantly enhanced the arrowhead agility test (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively) and repeated sprint ability (p = 0.002 and p = 0.035, respectively) compared to CONTROL, without any difference between PAPE and MI. The 20 m sprint time was better after PAPE as compared to MI (p = 0.005) and CONTROL (p < 0.001), without any difference between MI and CONTROL. Reaction time and the NASA-TLX questionnaire were not affected by the warm-up modalities (p > 0.05). PAPE was the most efficient to optimize warm-up due to its greater peripheral contribution that would improve muscle contractility. MI specifically improved the imagined tasks mostly by central contribution.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050108
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 72: Relative Individual Sprint in Most Demanding
           Passages of Play in Spanish Professional Soccer Matches

    • Authors: Juan Ángel Piñero, Marcos Chena, Juan Carlos Zapardiel, Alberto Roso-Moliner, Elena Mainer-Pardos, Miguel Lampre, Demetrio Lozano
      First page: 72
      Abstract: (1) Background: The objective of this research was to analyse the most demanding passages (MDP) considering the sprint variable relative to the maximum level of sprint ability of each player as a function of player position, final outcome and part of the match during the competitive phase of a professional soccer season. (2) Methods: Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 22 players according to their playing position in the last 19 match days of the Spanish La Liga professional soccer in the 2020/2021 season. MDP were calculated from 80% of the maximum sprint speed of each player. (3) Results: Wide midfielders covered the greatest distance at >80% of the maximum speed (2.4 ± 1.63 seg) and the longest duration (21.91 ± 13.35 m) in their MDP. When the whole team was losing, it demonstrated greater distances (20.23 ± 13.04 m) and longer durations (2.24 ± 1.58 seg) compared to games in which it was winning. When the team ended up drawing, the relative sprint distance covered in the second half was significantly greater than in the first (16.12 ± 21.02; SD = 0.26 ± 0.28 (−0.03/−0.54). (4) Conclusions: Different demands of MDP, according to the sprint variable relative to the maximum individual capacity in competition, are required when contextual game factors are considered.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040072
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 73: Architectural and Mechanical Changes after Five
           Weeks of Intermittent Static Stretch Training on the Medial Gastrocnemius
           Muscle of Active Adults

    • Authors: Morgan Lévenéz, Matthieu Moeremans, Cédric Booghs, Florent Vigouroux, Clément Leveque, Walter Hemelryck, Costantino Balestra
      First page: 73
      Abstract: We investigated the effects of intermittent long-term stretch training (5 weeks) on the architectural and mechanical properties of the muscle–tendon unit (MTU) in healthy humans. MTU’s viscoelastic and architectural properties in the human medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and the contribution of muscle and tendon structures to the MTU lengthening were analyzed. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the study (four females and six males). The passive stretch of the plantar flexor muscles was achieved from 0° (neutral ankle position) to 25° of dorsiflexion. Measurements were obtained during a single passive stretch before and after the completion of the stretching protocol. During the stretch, the architectural parameters of the MG muscle were measured via ultrasonography, and the passive torque was recorded by means of a strain-gauge transducer. Repeated-measure ANOVA was applied for all parameters. When expressed as a percentage for all dorsiflexion angles, the relative torque values decreased (p < 0.001). In the same way, architectural parameters (pennation angle and fascicle length) were compared for covariance and showed a significant difference between the slopes (ANCOVA p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively) suggesting a modification in the mechanical behavior after stretch training. Furthermore, the values for passive stiffness decreased (p < 0.05). The maximum ankle range of motion (ROM) (p < 0.01) and the maximum passive torque (p < 0.05) increased. Lastly, the contribution of the free tendon increased more than fascicle elongation to the total lengthening of the MTU (ANCOVA p < 0.001). Our results suggest that five weeks of intermittent static stretch training significantly change the behavior of the MTU. Specifically, it can increase flexibility and increase tendon contribution during MTU lengthening.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040073
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 74: The Acute and Chronic Effects of Resistance and
           Aerobic Exercise in Hemostatic Balance: A Brief Review

    • Authors: Apostolos Z. Skouras, Dimitrios Antonakis-Karamintzas, Andreas G. Tsantes, Athanasios Triantafyllou, Georgios Papagiannis, Charilaos Tsolakis, Panagiotis Koulouvaris
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Hemostatic balance refers to the dynamic balance between blood clot formation (coagulation), blood clot dissolution (fibrinolysis), anticoagulation, and innate immunity. Although regular habitual exercise may lower the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by improving an individual’s hemostatic profile at rest and during exertion, vigorous exercise may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death and venous thromboembolism (VTE). This literature review aims to investigate the hemostatic system’s acute and chronic adaptive responses to different types of exercise in healthy and patient populations. Compared to athletes, sedentary healthy individuals demonstrate similar post-exercise responses in platelet function and coagulatory and fibrinolytic potential. However, hemostatic adaptations of patients with chronic diseases in regular training is a promising field. Despite the increased risk of thrombotic events during an acute bout of vigorous exercise, regular exposure to high-intensity exercise might desensitize exercise-induced platelet aggregation, moderate coagulatory parameters, and up-regulate fibrinolytic potential via increasing tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and decreasing plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) response. Future research might focus on combining different types of exercise, manipulating each training characteristic (frequency, intensity, time, and volume), or investigating the minimal exercise dosage required to maintain hemostatic balance, especially in patients with various health conditions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040074
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 75: Leg Dominance—Surface Stability
           Interaction: Effects on Postural Control Assessed by Smartphone-Based

    • Authors: Arunee Promsri, Kotchakorn Bangkomdet, Issariya Jindatham, Thananya Jenchang
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The preferential use of one leg over another in performing lower-limb motor tasks (i.e., leg dominance) is considered to be one of the internal risk factors for sports-related lower-limb injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of leg dominance on postural control during unipedal balancing on three different support surfaces with increasing levels of instability: a firm surface, a foam pad, and a multiaxial balance board. In addition, the interaction effect between leg dominance and surface stability was also tested. To this end, a tri-axial accelerometer-based smartphone sensor was placed over the lumbar spine (L5) of 22 young adults (21.5 ± 0.6 years) to record postural accelerations. Sample entropy (SampEn) was applied to acceleration data as a measure of postural sway regularity (i.e., postural control complexity). The results show that leg dominance (p < 0.001) and interaction (p < 0.001) effects emerge in all acceleration directions. Specifically, balancing on the dominant (kicking) leg shows more irregular postural acceleration fluctuations (high SampEn), reflecting a higher postural control efficiency or automaticity than balancing on the non-dominant leg. However, the interaction effects suggest that unipedal balancing training on unstable surfaces is recommended to reduce interlimb differences in neuromuscular control for injury prevention and rehabilitation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040075
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 76: A Systematic Review of Flywheel Training
           Effectiveness and Application on Sport Specific Performances

    • Authors: Andrea Buonsenso, Marco Centorbi, Enzo Iuliano, Giulia Di Martino, Carlo Della Valle, Giovanni Fiorilli, Giuseppe Calcagno, Alessandra di Cagno
      First page: 76
      Abstract: The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of flywheel training, which allows for the replication of specific sports movements, overloading both the concentric and eccentric phases. Inclusion criteria were injury prevention outcomes; ability in terms of strength, power, sprinting, jumping and change of direction; competitive athletes; and RCTs. Exclusion criteria were a lack of a control group and lack of baseline and/or follow-up data. The databases used were Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Sage. The revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool was used to assess the quality of the selected RCTs. The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence was used. A PICOS (participants, intervention, comparators, study outcomes, and study design) approach was used to evaluate eligibility. A total of 21 RCTs with 8 to 54 participants in each study analyzed flywheel technology and its application in nine sports. The results showed that flywheel training is a good strategy to improve sports performance, providing variation in training methodologies and athletes’ adherence. Further studies are needed to define guidelines on training modality, weekly frequency, volume, and inertia load. Only a few studies have applied the flywheel device directly to overload specific multidirectional movements at different joint angles. This method is not exempt from criticalities, such as the cost and the ability to carry out only individual training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040076
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 77: Ability of Countermovement Jumps to Detect
           Bilateral Asymmetry in Hip and Knee Strength in Elite Youth Soccer Players

    • Authors: Hailey L. Wrona, Ryan Zerega, Victoria G. King, Charles R. Reiter, Susan Odum, Devon Manifold, Karyn Latorre, Timothy C. Sell
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Clinicians frequently assess asymmetry in strength, flexibility, and performance characteristics as a method of screening for potential musculoskeletal injury. The identification of asymmetry in countermovement jumps may be an ideal method to reveal asymmetry in other lower extremity characteristics such as strength that otherwise may require additional testing, potentially reducing the time and burden on both the athlete and clinicians. The present study aims to examine the ability of asymmetry in both the single-leg and two-leg countermovement jump tests to accurately detect hip abduction, hip adduction, and eccentric hamstring strength asymmetry. Fifty-eight young male elite soccer players from the same professional academy performed a full battery of functional performance tests which included an assessment of hip adductor and abductor strength profiles, eccentric hamstring strength profiles, and neuromuscular performance and asymmetries during countermovement jumps. Bilateral variables attained from both the single-leg and two-leg countermovement jump tests included concentric impulse (Ns), eccentric mean force (N), and concentric mean force (N) computed by the VALD ForceDecks software. Average maximal force (N) was calculated bilaterally for the strength assessments. Asymmetry was calculated for each variable using 100 × (right leg − left leg)/(right leg) and grouped into three categories: 0 to <10%, 10% to <20%, and 20% or greater. Analyses were performed for the two higher asymmetry groups. The accuracy to detect strength asymmetry was assessed as the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for positive and negative tests. The outcomes from the accuracy assessments suggest that the single-leg countermovement jump concentric impulse variable at the 20% threshold is indicative of a youth male soccer player having hip adduction strength asymmetry while also demonstrating more accuracy and applicability than the two-leg countermovement jump concentric impulse variable.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040077
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 78: Thermoregulatory, Cardiovascular and Perceptual
           Responses of Spectators of a Simulated Football Match in Hot and Humid
           Environmental Conditions

    • Authors: Johannus Q. de Korte, Thijs M. H. Eijsvogels, Maria T. E. Hopman, Coen C. W. G. Bongers
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Major sporting events are often scheduled in thermally challenging environments. The heat stress may impact athletes but also spectators. We examined the thermal, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses of spectators watching a football match in a simulated hot and humid environment. A total of 48 participants (43 ± 9 years; n = 27 participants <50 years and n = 21 participants ≥50 years, n = 21) watched a 90 min football match in addition to a 15 min baseline and 15 min halftime break, seated in an environmental chamber (Tair = 31.9 ± 0.4 °C; RH = 76 ± 4%). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), skin temperature (Tskin), and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously throughout the match. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and perceptual parameters (i.e., thermal sensation and thermal comfort) were scored every 15 min. Tri (37.3 ± 0.4 °C to 37.4 ± 0.3 °C, p = 0.11), HR (76 ± 15 bpm to 77 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.96) and MAP (97 ± 10 mm Hg to 97 ± 10 mm Hg, p = 0.67) did not change throughout the match. In contrast, an increase in Tskin (32.9 ± 0.8 °C to 35.4 ± 0.3 °C, p < 0.001) was found. Further, 81% of participants reported thermal discomfort and 87% a (slightly) warm thermal sensation at the end of the match. Moreover, the thermal or cardiovascular responses were not affected by age (all p-values > 0.05). Heat stress induced by watching a football match in simulated hot and humid conditions does not result in substantial thermal or cardiovascular strain, whereas a significant perceptual strain was observed.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040078
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 79: Nine Months of Hybrid Intradialytic Exercise
           Training Improves Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System

    • Authors: Christoforos D. Giannaki, Stefania S. Grigoriou, Keith George, Christina Karatzaferi, Paris Zigoulis, Eleftherios Lavdas, Dimitrios Chaniotis, Ioannis Stefanidis, Giorgos K. Sakkas
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Intradialytic aerobic exercise training has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular system function and reduces mortality in HD patients. However, the impact of other forms of exercise on the cardiovascular system, such as hybrid exercise, is not clear. Briefly, hybrid exercise combines aerobic and strength training in the same session. The present study examined whether hybrid intradialytic exercise has long-term benefits on left ventricular function and structure and the autonomous nervous system in HD patients. In this single-group design, efficacy-based intervention, twelve stable HD patients (10M/2F, 56 ± 19 years) participated in a nine-month-long hybrid intradialytic training program. Both echocardiographic assessments of left ventricular function and structure and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed pre, during and after the end of the HD session at baseline and after the nine-month intervention. Ejection Fraction (EF), both assessed before and at the end of the HD session, appeared to be significantly improved after the intervention period compared to the baseline values (48.7 ± 11.1 vs. 58.8 ± 6.5, p = 0.046 and 50.0 ± 13.4 vs. 56.1 ± 3.4, p = 0.054 respectively). Regarding HRV assessment, hybrid exercise training increased LF and decreased HF (p < 0.05). Both conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging indices of diastolic function did not change after the intervention period (p > 0.05). In conclusion, long-term intradialytic hybrid exercise training was an effective non-pharmacological approach to improving EF and the cardiac autonomous nervous system in HD patients. Such exercise training programs could be incorporated into HD units to improve the patients’ cardiovascular health.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040079
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 80: The Changing Landscape in Upper Limb Sports
           Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention

    • Authors: Eleftherios Paraskevopoulos, George M. Pamboris, Maria Papandreou
      First page: 80
      Abstract: This editorial aims to feature authors who intend to submit their research to this Special Issue of Sports entitled “Clinical Advances in Upper Limb Sports Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention” in areas that need special consideration [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040080
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 81: Low Energy Availability (LEA) and Hypertension
           in Black Division I Collegiate Athletes: A Novel Pilot Study

    • Authors: Troy Purdom, Marc Cook, Heather Colleran, Paul Stewart, Lauren San Diego
      First page: 81
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between low energy availability (LEA) and nutritional content with high blood pressure (HBP) in African American Division I athletes. Twenty-three D1 African American pre-season athletes were recruited to participate. HBP was defined as >120 systolic blood pressure (BP) and <80 diastolic BP. Athletes self-reported nutritional intake using a non-consecutive 3-day food recall which was then reviewed by a sports dietitian. LEA was evaluated as total energy intake—total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), which was predicted. Additionally, micronutrients were evaluated. A statistical analysis relied on Spearman correlation (R), standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval, mean ± SD, and odds ratios (OR). Correlation values were categorized: 0.20–0.39 = low; 0.40–0.69 = moderate; 0.70–1.0 = strong. A moderate relationship was observed between HBP and LEA (R = 0.56) with 14/23 having HBP. Of the 14 athletes observed with HBP, 78.5% (11/14) were calorically deficient (−529 ± 695 kcal) with an OR of 7.2. Micronutrient intake deficiencies were ubiquitous among the 23 HBP athletes: poly-unsaturated fatty acid −29.6%; omega-3 −26.0%; iron −46.0%; calcium −25.1%; and sodium −14.2%, amongst others. LEA and micronutrient deficiencies may contribute to HBP in Black D1 athletes, which has been shown to be the most common modifiable risk factor to decrease the risk of sudden cardiac death.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040081
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 82: Does Obesity Affect Neuromuscular and
           Cardiovascular Adaptations after a 3-Month Combined Exercise Program in
           Untrained Premenopausal Middle-Aged Women'

    • Authors: Konstantina Karatrantou, Vassilis Gerodimos
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Previous studies indicated different acute adaptations between obese and lean individuals, while there is limited information with conflicting results regarding long-term adaptations. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a 3-month integrated combined training between obese and lean middle-aged untrained premenopausal women. In total, 72 women (36 obese/36 lean) were divided into four groups: (a) obese exercise (OB-EG), (b) obese control (OB-CG), (c) lean exercise (L-EG), and (d) lean control (L-CG). The exercise groups followed a 3-month (3 times/week) integrated combined aerobic and strength training program. Health indices (body composition, body circumferences, blood pressure, respiratory function), functional capacity (flexibility, balance), and physical fitness (strength, aerobic capacity) were measured before and after the 3-month time period. Participants’ enjoyment was also assessed following the program. OB-EG and L-EG significantly improved (p < 0.05) similarly across all functional capacity and physical fitness indices (10–76%; depending on the evaluation index), except balance and strength indices of the non-preferred limb where OB-EG showed greater improvement (reducing the existing pre-training strength/balance asymmetries) than L-EG. Furthermore, both obese and lean individuals showed similarly high levels of enjoyment. This program could be effectively used in fitness settings causing similar neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations in obese and lean women.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040082
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 83: Comparison between Match and Training Session
           on Biomarker Responses in Handball Players

    • Authors: Zoran Nikolovski, Nikola Foretić, Dario Vrdoljak, Dora Marić, Mia Perić
      First page: 83
      Abstract: A variety of loads are placed upon an athlete in team sports (e.g., training, match, or competitions). However, the volume of the training load plays an important role in match success. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the differences in biomarker dynamics during the match and during training, and to evaluate if such training represents a good stimulus for an athlete to adapt to match stress. Ten male handball players (average age of 24.1 ± 3.17 years, body height of 1.88 ± 0.64 m, and body mass of 94.6 ± 9.6 kg) took part in this study. Their saliva cortisol, testosterone, and alpha-amylase were sampled during the match and training (sessions of 90 min duration, respectively). The results showed that cortisol had higher values after the match (0.65 µg/dL) than after training (0.32 µg/dL) (p = 0.05; ES = 0.39). Testosterone concentrations had a steeper increase during a match (65%) than after training (37%). Alpha-amylase levels did not differ significantly between the match and training (p = 0.77; ES = −0.06). Overall, the results showed that the environment of a match was more stressful for the athletes; therefore, a match provoked a stronger endocrine response in the studied markers. Therefore, we concluded that a match seemed to be a stronger trigger for all of the measured biomarker responses.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040083
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 84: An Enjoyable Workplace Combined Exercise
           Program for Health Promotion in Trained Employees: Yoga, Pilates, and
           Circuit Strength Training

    • Authors: Konstantina Karatrantou, Christos Batatolis, Petros Chatzigiannis, Theodora Vasilopoulou, Anastasia Melissopoulou, Panagiotis Ioakimidis, Vassilis Gerodimos
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Corporate wellness has become an important public health priority through the designing and implementation of different workplace exercise interventions. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (a) the effectiveness of a 4-month workplace combined yoga, Pilates, and circuit strength training program (outside work shift) on health indices, functional capacity, and physical fitness in office employees; and (b) the employees’ enjoyment following the program. Fifty physically active office employees (26–55 years old) were equally divided into training (TG) and control groups (CG). The TG followed a 4-month (3 times/week, 50–60 min/training) combined yoga, Pilates, and circuit strength training program. Health indices (body composition, body mass, circumferences, musculoskeletal pains), functional capacity (flexibility, balance), and physical fitness (strength, aerobic capacity) were measured before and after the 4-month time period. After the completion of the program, the TG participants’ enjoyment was assessed. The TG significantly improved (p < 0.001) all health, functional capacity (11.3–82.0%), and physical fitness indices (33.9%), except for aerobic capacity, which did not change (p > 0.05). Furthermore, a great percentage of employees (84%) reported high levels of enjoyment. This program could be effectively and safely used in workplace settings as an enjoyable intervention to improve specific health, functional capacity, and physical fitness indices in office employees.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040084
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 85: Resting Blood Pressure in Master Athletes:
           Immune from Hypertension'

    • Authors: Mike Climstein, Joe Walsh, Mark DeBeliso, Tim Heazlewood, Trish Sevene, Luke Del Vecchio, Kent Adams
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Ageing is associated with decreased physical activity, obesity and increased risk of hypertension (HTN). Master athletes (MA) have either pursued a physically active lifestyle throughout their life or initiated exercise or sport later in life. We assessed resting blood pressure (BP) in male and female World Masters Games (WMG) athletes. This was a cross-sectional, observational study which utilized an online survey to assess the blood pressure (BP) and other physiological parameters. Results: a total of 2793 participants were involved in this study. Key findings included differences between genders with males reporting higher resting SBP (+9.4%, p < 0.001), resting DBP (+5.9%, p < 0.001) and mean arterial pressure (+6.2%, p < 0.001). Significant differences (p < 0.001) were also identified when comparing WMG athletes’ resting BP results (genders combined) to the general Australian population with WMG athletes having a lower SBP (p < 0.001, −8.4%) and DBP (p < 0.001, −3.6%). Additionally, 19.9% of males and 49.7% of female WMG participants were normotensive whereas 35.7% of the general Australian population were normotensive. Only 8.1% of the WMG athletes (genders combined) were found to be HTN compared to 17.2% in the general Australian population. These findings reflect a low prevalence of HTN in WMG participants and support our hypothesis of a low prevalence of HTN in an active, but aged cohort of MA.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040085
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 86: Relationship between Football-Specific Training
           Characteristics and Tibial Bone Adaptation in Male Academy Football

    • Authors: Ian Varley, Craig Sale, Julie P. Greeves, John G. Morris, Caroline Sunderland, Chris Saward
      First page: 86
      Abstract: We examined the relationship between football-specific training and changes in bone structural properties across a 12-week period in 15 male football players aged 16 years (Mean ± 1 SD = 16.6 ± 0.3 years) that belonged to a professional football academy. Tibial scans were performed at 4%, 14% and 38% sites using peripheral quantitative computed tomography immediately before and 12 weeks after increased football-specific training. Training was analysed using GPS to quantify peak speed, average speed, total distance and high-speed distance. Analyses were conducted with bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (BCa 95% CI). There were increases in bone mass at the 4% (mean ∆ = 0.15 g, BCa 95% CI = 0.07, 0.26 g, g = 0.72), 14% (mean ∆ = 0.04 g, BCa 95% CI = 0.02, 0.06 g, g = 1.20), and 38% sites (mean ∆ = 0.03 g, BCa 95% CI = 0.01, 0.05 g, g = 0.61). There were increases in trabecular density (4%), (mean ∆ = 3.57 mg·cm−3, BCa 95% CI = 0.38, 7.05 mg·cm−3, g = 0.53), cortical dentsity (14%) (mean ∆ = 5.08 mg·cm−3, BCa 95% CI = 0.19, 9.92 mg·cm−3, g = 0.49), and cortical density (38%) (mean ∆ = 6.32 mg·cm−3, BCa 95% CI = 4.31, 8.90 mg·cm−3, g = 1.22). Polar stress strain index (mean ∆ = 50.56 mm3, BCa 95% CI = 10.52, 109.95 mm3, g = 0.41), cortical area (mean ∆ = 2.12 mm2, BCa 95% CI = 0.09, 4.37 mm2, g = 0.48) and thickness (mean ∆ = 0.06 mm, BCa 95% CI = 0.01, 0.13 mm, g = 0.45) increased at the 38% site. Correlations revealed positive relationships between total distance and increased cortical density (38%) (r = 0.39, BCa 95% CI = 0.02, 0.66), and between peak speed and increased trabecular density (4%) (r = 0.43, BCa 95% CI = 0.03, 0.73). There were negative correlations between total (r = −0.21, BCa 95% CI = −0.65, −0.12) and high-speed distance (r = −0.29, BCa 95% CI = −0.57, −0.24) with increased polar stress strain index (38%). Results suggest that despite football training relating to increases in bone characteristics in male academy footballers, the specific training variables promoting adaptation over a 12-week period may vary. Further studies conducted over a longer period are required to fully elucidate the time-course of how certain football-specific training characteristics influence bone structural properties.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040086
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 87: Blood Lactate and Maximal Lactate Accumulation
           Rate at Three Sprint Swimming Distances in Highly Trained and Elite

    • Authors: Maria Mavroudi, Athanasios Kabasakalis, Anatoli Petridou, Vassilis Mougios
      First page: 87
      Abstract: We examined the blood lactate response, in terms of the maximal post-exercise concentration (Lamax), time to reach Lamax, and maximal lactate accumulation rate (VLamax), to swimming sprints of 25, 35, and 50 m. A total of 14 highly trained and elite swimmers (8 male and 6 female), aged 14–32, completed the 3 sprints in their specialization stroke with 30 min of passive rest in between. The blood lactate was measured right before and continually (every minute) after each sprint to detect the Lamax. The VLamax, a potential index of anaerobic lactic power, was calculated. The blood lactate concentration, swimming speed, and VLamax differed between the sprints (p < 0.001). The Lamax was highest after 50 m (13.8 ± 2.6 mmol·L–1, mean ± SD throughout), while the swimming speed and VLamax were highest at 25 m (2.16 ± 0.25 m·s–1 and 0.75 ± 0.18 mmol·L–1·s–1). The lactate peaked approximately 2 min after all the sprints. The VLamax in each sprint correlated positively with the speed and with each other. In conclusion, the correlation of the swimming speed with the VLamax suggests that the VLamax is an index of anaerobic lactic power and that it is possible to improve performance by augmenting the VLamax through appropriate training. To accurately measure the Lamax and, hence, the VLamax, we recommend starting blood sampling one minute after exercise.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040087
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 88: An Intense Bout of Acute Aerobic Exercise, but
           Not a Carbohydrate Supplement, Improves Cognitive Task Performance in a

    • Authors: Megan Sax van der Weyden, Joel Martin, Jose Rodriguez, Ali Boolani
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Background: There are contradictory findings in the literature on whether an acute bout of aerobic exercise leads to a post-exercise improvement in cognitive function (CF). Moreover, participants used in the published literature are not representative of the racial make-up of sport or tactical populations. Methods: A randomized crossover design was incorporated, with participants randomly consuming water or a carbohydrate sports drink within the first 3 min of a graded maximal exercise test (GMET) conducted in a laboratory. Twelve self-identified African American participants, (seven males, five females, age = 21.42 ± 2.38 years, height = 174.94 ± 12.55 cm, mass = 82.45 ± 33.09 kg) completed both testing days. Participants completed the CF tests immediately pre- and post-GMET. CF was assessed with the Stroop color and word task (SCWT) and concentration task grid (CTG). Participants completed the GMET when they reported a score of 20 on the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale. Results: Time to complete the SCWT incongruent task (p < 0.001) and CTG performance (p < 0.001) significantly improved post-GMET in both conditions. VO2max was positively correlated with pre- and post-GMET SCWT performance. Conclusions: The findings of our study suggest that an acute bout of maximal exercise significantly improves CF. Additionally, cardiorespiratory fitness is positively associated with CF in our sample of student athletes from a historically Black college and university.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040088
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 89: Low Pre-Season Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Strength
           Ratio Identified in Players Who Further Sustained In-Season Hamstring
           Strain Injuries: A Retrospective Study from a Brazilian Serie A Team

    • Authors: Filipe Veeck, Cassio V. Ruas, Matheus Daros Pinto, Rafael Grazioli, Gustavo Pacheco Cardoso, Thiago Albuquerque, Lucas Schipper, Henrique Gonçalves Valente, Victor H. Santos, Márcio Dornelles, Paulo Rabaldo, Clarice S. Rocha, Bruno Manfredini Baroni, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
      First page: 89
      Abstract: A common pre-season injury prevention assessment conducted by professional football clubs is the hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio calculated by peak torque (PT). However, it is debatable whether players that present low pre-season H:Q ratios are more susceptible to further sustaining in-season hamstring strain injuries (HSI). Based upon retrospective data from a Brazilian Serie A football squad, a particular season came to our attention as ten out of seventeen (~59%) professional male football players sustained HSI. Therefore, we examined the pre-season H:Q ratios of these players. H:Q conventional (CR) and functional (FR) ratios, and the respective knee extensor/flexor PT from the limbs of players further sustaining in-season HSI (injured players, IP) were compared to the proportional number of dominant/non-dominant limbs from uninjured players (UP) in the squad. FR and CR were ~18–22% lower (p < 0.01), whereas quadriceps concentric PT was ~25% greater for IP than UP (p = 0.002). Low scores of FR and CR were correlated (p < 0.01) with high levels of quadriceps concentric PT (r = −0.66 to −0.77). In conclusion, players who sustained in-season HSI had lower pre-season FR and CR compared to UP, which appears to be associated with higher levels of quadriceps concentric torque than hamstring concentric or eccentric torque.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040089
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 90: The Positive Effect of Four-Week Combined
           Aerobic–Resistance Training on Body Composition and Adipokine Levels
           in Obese Females

    • Authors: Purwo Sri Rejeki, Adi Pranoto, Ilham Rahmanto, Nabilah Izzatunnisa, Ghana Firsta Yosika, Yetti Hernaningsih, Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu, Shariff Halim
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Obesity is a metabolic disease that is caused by a lack of physical activity and is associated with an increased risk of chronic inflammation. A total of 40 obese adolescent females with an average age of 21.93 ± 1.35 years and average body mass index (BMI) of 30.81 ± 3.54 kg/m2 were enrolled in this study, randomized, and divided into four groups, i.e., control (CTL; n = 10), moderate intensity aerobic training (MAT; n = 10), moderate intensity resistance training (MRT; n = 10), and moderate intensity combined aerobic–resistance training (MCT; n = 10). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits method was used to analyze the adiponectin and leptin levels between pre-intervention and post-intervention. Statistical analysis was conducted using a paired sample t-test, while correlation analysis between variables used the Pearson product–moment correlation test. Research data showed that MAT, MRT, and MCT significantly increased adiponectin levels and decreased leptin levels compared to the CTL (p ≤ 0.05). The results of the correlation analysis of delta (∆) data showed that an increase in adiponectin levels was significantly negatively correlated with a decrease in body weight (BW) (r = −0.671, p ≤ 0.001), BMI (r = −0.665, p ≤ 0.001), and fat mass (FM) (r = −0.694, p ≤ 0.001) and positively correlated with an increase in skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (r = 0.693, p ≤ 0.001). Whereas, a decrease in leptin levels was significantly positively correlated with a decrease in BW (r = 0.744, p ≤ 0.001), BMI (r = 0.744, p ≤ 0.001), and FM (r = 0.718, p ≤ 0.001) and negatively correlated with an increase in SMM (r = −0.743, p ≤ 0.001). In summary, it can be concluded that our data show that adiponectin levels increased and leptin levels decreased after the intervention of aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic–resistance training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040090
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 91: High-Intensity Training for Knee
           Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Domiziano Tarantino, Tine Theysmans, Rosita Mottola, Jonas Verbrugghe
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. Exercise therapy has been identified as a first-line treatment option in patients suffering from knee OA. High-intensity training (HIT) is an innovative exercise modality with potential in improving various disease-related outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore the impact of HIT on knee OA symptoms and physical functioning. A comprehensive search of scientific electronic databases was conducted to identify articles on the effects of HIT on knee OA. Thirteen studies were included in this review. Ten compared the effects of HIT with those of low-intensity training, moderate-intensity continuous training, or a control group. Three evaluated the effects of HIT alone. Eight reported a decrease in knee OA symptoms (especially pain), and eight reported an increase in physical functioning. HIT was shown to improve knee OA symptoms and physical functioning, but also aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life with minimal or no adverse events. However, compared with other exercise modalities, no clear superiority of HIT was found. HIT is a promising exercise strategy in patients with knee OA; nonetheless, the actual quality of evidence remains very low, and more high-quality studies are needed to confirm these promising outcomes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040091
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 92: Impact of the Anatomical Accelerometer
           Placement on Vertical Jump Performance Characteristics

    • Authors: Damjana V. Cabarkapa, Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Nicolas M. Philipp, Andrew C. Fry
      First page: 92
      Abstract: With rapid technological development over recent years, the use of wearable athlete monitoring devices has substantially gained popularity. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of the anatomical placement of an accelerometer on biomechanical characteristics of countermovement vertical jump with and without an arm swing when compared to the force plate as a criterion measure. Seventeen recreationally active individuals (ten males and seven females) volunteered to participate in the present study. Four identical accelerometers sampling at 100 Hz were placed at the following anatomical locations: upper-back (UB), chest (CH), abdomen (AB), and hip (HP). While standing on a uni-axial force plate system sampling at 1000 Hz, each participant completed three non-sequential maximal countermovement vertical jumps with and without an arm swing. All devices recorded the data simultaneously. The following variables of interest were obtained from ground reaction force curves: peak concentric force (PCF), peak landing force (PLF), and vertical jump height (VJH). The findings of the present study reveal that the most appropriate anatomical locations to place the accelerometer device when attempting to estimate PCF, PLF, and VJH during a countermovement vertical jump with no arm swing are CH, AB, and UB, and during a countermovement vertical jump with an arm swing are UB, HP, and UB, respectively. Overall, these findings may help strength and conditioning professionals and sports scientists to select appropriate anatomical locations when using innovative accelerometer technology to monitor vertical jump performance characteristics.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040092
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 50: A Systematic Review of Dynamic, Kinematic, and
           Muscle Activity during Gymnastic Still Rings Elements

    • Authors: Roman Malíř, Jan Chrudimský, Michal Šteffl, Petr Stastny
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Still rings are a unique gymnastics apparatus allowing for a combination of dynamic and static elements in a specific technique. This review aimed to compile the dynamic, kinematic, and EMG characteristics of swing, dismount, handstand, strength, and hold elements on still rings. This systematic review was conducted in concordance with PRISMA in PubMed, EBSCOhost, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. In total, 37 studies were included, describing the strength and hold elements, the kip and swing elements, swing through or to handstand, and dismounts. The current evidence suggests that the execution of gymnastics elements on still rings and training drills requires a high training load. Specific preconditioning exercises could be used to train for the Swallow, iron cross, and support scale. Negative impacts of load during hold elements can be reduced by special support devices such as the Herdos or support belts. Another aspect is improving strength prerequisites by exercises such as bench presses, barbell exercises, and support belts, where the main focus should be on muscular coordination similar to the other considerable elements. Electromyography is an appropriate tool for the investigation of muscular coordination and force platforms for assessing a sufficient strength level to successfully perform elements on still rings.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030050
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 51: Comparing Two Methods of Acute: Chronic
           Workload Calculations in Girls’ Youth Volleyball

    • Authors: Claire Schumann, Monica Wojciechowski, Jennifer A. Bunn
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Monitoring training load using acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) enables coaches to maximize fitness potential while mitigating injury risks by maintaining an optimal ACWR range. There are two methods of determining ACWR: rolling average (RA) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA). This study aimed to (1) compare weekly changes in kinetic energy (KE) output in female youth athletes (n = 24) during the high school (HSVB) and club volleyball (CVB) seasons and (2) evaluate the agreement in RA and EWMA ACWR calculations during the HSVB and CVB seasons. Weekly load was measured using a wearable device, and RA and EWMA ACWRs were calculated using KE. The HSVB data showed spikes in ACWR at the onset of the season and during one week mid-season (p = 0.001–0.015), but most weeks were in the optimal ACWR range. The CVB data had greater weekly variations throughout the season (p < 0.05), and many weeks were outside of the optimal ACWR range. There were moderate correlations between the two ACWR methods (HSVB: r = 0.756, p < 0.001; CVB: r = 0.646, p < 0.001). Both methods can be used as a monitoring tool for consistent training like that in HSVB, but more research is needed to investigate appropriate methods for an inconsistent season like that of CVB.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030051
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 52: Mental Health Disorders in Ultra Endurance
           Athletes per ICD-11 Classifications: A Review of an Overlooked Community
           in Sports Psychiatry

    • Authors: Jill Colangelo, Alexander Smith, Ana Buadze, Nicola Keay, Michael Liebrenz
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Introduction: Although research suggests that exercise benefits mental health, psychiatric disorders have been acknowledged in the ultra-endurance-athlete population. At present, the mental-health consequences of high-volume training associated with ultra-endurance sports are not well understood. Methods: We conducted a narrative review summarizing primary observations about mental disorders per ICD-11 criteria in ultra-endurance athletes using a keyword search in Scopus and PubMed. Results: We identified 25 papers discussing ICD-11-classified psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia in ultra-endurance athletes. Discussion: Although evidence is limited, available papers indicate that there is a sizable incidence of mental-health issues and composite psychopathological vulnerabilities in this community. We contend that ultra-endurance athletes may represent a different, though similar, demographic than elite and/or professional athletes, as they often engage in high-volume training with similarly high motivation. This can have regulatory implications, which we also highlight. Conclusion: Mental illness in ultra-endurance athletes is an underrepresented topic in sports medicine, though psychiatric disorders may be especially prevalent in this population. Further inquiry is necessary to inform athletes and healthcare practitioners about the possible mental-health implications associated with participation in ultra-endurance sports.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030052
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 53: Comparison of Conservative Interventions for
           Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review and Recommendations
           for Rehabilitation

    • Authors: Pilar Dizon, Michael Jeanfavre, Gretchen Leff, Rachel Norton
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Knowledge of muscular forces and adaptations with hamstring-specific exercises can optimize exercise prescription and tendon remodeling; however, studies investigating the effectiveness of the current conservative management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) and outcomes are lacking. The purpose of this review is to provide insights into the efficacy of conservative therapeutic interventions in the management of PHT. In January 2022, databases including PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Embase were searched for studies assessing the effectiveness of conservative intervention compared with that of a placebo or combination of treatments on functional outcomes and pain. Studies that performed conservative management (exercise therapy and/or physical therapy modalities) in adults 18–65 years were included. Studies that performed surgical interventions or whose subjects had complete hamstring rupture/avulsion greater than a 2 cm displacement were excluded. A total of 13 studies were included: five studies compared exercise interventions, while eight studies investigated a multimodal approach of either shockwave therapy and exercise or a hybrid model incorporating exercise, shockwave therapy, and other modalities, such as ultrasound, trigger point needling, or instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization. This review supports the notion that the conservative management of PHT may best be optimized through a multimodal approach incorporating a combination of tendon-specific loading at an increased length, lumbopelvic stabilization exercises, and extracorporeal shockwave therapy. With regard to hamstring-specific exercise selection, PHT may be optimally managed by including a progressive loading program at combined angles of the hip flexion at 110 degrees and the knee flexion between 45 and 90 degrees.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030053
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 54: Long-Term Resistance–Endurance Combined
           Training Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Young Adult Females with

    • Authors: Adi Pranoto, Maulana Bagus Adi Cahyono, Reinaldi Yakobus, Nabilah Izzatunnisa, Roy Novri Ramadhan, Purwo Sri Rejeki, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Wiwin Is Effendi, Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu, Yoshio Yamaoka
      First page: 54
      Abstract: A sedentary lifestyle and an unhealthy diet increase the risk of obesity. People with obesity experience adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, thereby increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle modification using non-pharmacological approaches such as physical exercise prevents increased morbidity through its anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different types of exercise on decreased proinflammatory cytokines in young adult females with obesity. A total of 36 female students from Malang City aged 21.86 ± 1.39 years with body mass index (BMI) of 30.93 ± 3.51 kg/m2 were recruited and followed three different types of exercise interventions: moderate-intensity endurance training (MIET), moderate-intensity resistance training (MIRT), and moderate-intensity combined training (MICT). The exercise was performed at a frequency of 3x/week for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0, using the paired sample t-test. The results revealed that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased between pre-training and post-training in the three types of exercise (MIET, MIRT, and MICT) (p ≤ 0.001). The percentage change in IL-6 levels from pre-training in CTRL was (0.76 ± 13.58%), in MIET was (−82.79 ± 8.73%), in MIRT was (−58.30 ± 18.05%), in MICT was (−96.91 ± 2.39%), and (p ≤ 0.001). There was a percentage change in TNF-α levels from pre-training in CTRL (6.46 ± 12.13%), MIET (−53.11 ± 20.02%), MIRT (−42.59 ± 21.64%), and MICT (−73.41 ± 14.50%), and (p ≤ 0.001). All three types of exercise consistently reduced proinflammatory cytokines such as serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030054
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 55: Role Models of Aging among Older Men:
           Strategies for Facilitating Change and Implications for Health Promotion

    • Authors: Jordan Deneau, Rylee A. Dionigi, Paula M. van Wyk, Sean Horton
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Understanding later-life role model choice and motivations, particularly for older men in sport, exercise, and health contexts, is complex and heterogenous, making it difficult for health and exercise promotion initiatives. This qualitative study examined: (1) whether older men have aging role models, and if so, their characteristics; and (2) older men’s reasons for role model choice, or lack thereof, and how role models can influence meaningful change in perceptions and practices associated with aging, sport, exercise, and health. Through in-depth interviews and photo-elicitation with 19 Canadian men aged 75 years and over, thematic analysis determined two key themes: Role model choice, and Processes of role models facilitating change. Four key strategies for role models facilitating change in older men were determined: elite (biomedical) transcendence; valued exemplary endeavours; alliance connections; and disconnect and caveats. Ultimately, while promoting the biomedical achievements of role models may resonate with many older men, when applied too closely in sport or exercise contexts (e.g., using Masters athletes as role models), there is potential for unrealistic standards and overmedicalization that could miss uncovering the latent importance that older men place on the diverse experiences and perspectives of aging that go beyond traditional masculine ideals.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030055
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 56: Activity Videos Effect on Four-, Five- and
           Six-Year-Olds’ Physical Activity Level in Preschool

    • Authors: Karin Kippe, Pål Lagestad
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Physical activity provides positive health benefits for preschool children. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of physical activity videos on the physical activity levels of children aged 4, 5 and 6 in preschool time. Two preschools served as a control group, and four served as intervention groups. The study included 110 children aged 4–6 years, all wearing accelerometers in the preschool for two weeks. In the first week, both the control group and the intervention group carried out their ordinary activities. In the second week, the four preschools in the intervention group used the activity videos, while the control group continued their ordinary activities. The main finding is that the activity videos only increased the 4 year olds’ physical activity in MVPA (moderate to vigorous physical activity) from pre-test to post-test. Furthermore, the results show significantly increased CPM (counts per minute) in preschool among 4- and 6-year-old children in the interventions group from pre-test to post-test. However, the children in the control group did not have a significant change in their CPM or MVPA from pre-test to post-test. Our findings indicate that the use of activity videos may increase preschool children’s activity levels at preschool, but that the videos need to be developed differently depending on the age of the children.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030056
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 57: Factors Influencing the Training Process of
           Paralympic Women Athletes

    • Authors: Manuel Rodríguez Macías, Francisco Javier Giménez Fuentes-Guerra, Manuel Tomás Abad Robles
      First page: 57
      Abstract: (1) Background: Paralympic women athletes in their training process go through a series of interrelated stages which are parallel to their evolutionary development, during which a wide variety of psychological, social, and biological factors will have an impact. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors influencing the sports training process of Spanish Paralympic women athletes (social, sporting, psychological, technical–tactical factors, physical condition, as well as barriers and facilitators) who had won at least one medal (gold, silver, or bronze) in the 21st century Paralympic Games (from Sydney 2000 to Tokyo 2020). (2) Methods: The research involved 28 Spanish Paralympic women athletes who had won at least one medal at a Paralympic Games in the 21st century. An interview of 54 questions grouped into 6 dimensions (sport context, social context, psychological, technical–tactical, physical fitness, and barriers and facilitators) was used. (3) Results: Coaches, as well as families, were essential in the sport development of Paralympic athletes. In addition, most women athletes recognized that psychological aspects were of vital importance, as well as working on technical–tactical aspects and physical fitness in an integrated way. Finally, the Paralympic women athletes highlighted that they had to face numerous barriers, mainly financial challenges and issues with visibility in the media. (4) Conclusions: Athletes consider it necessary to work with specialists to control emotions, increase motivation and self-confidence, as well as to reduce stress and anxiety and manage pressure. Finally, the training process and sporting performance of Paralympic women athletes are conditioned by several barriers, including economic, social, architectural, and disability barriers. These considerations can be taken into account by the technical teams working with Paralympic women athletes, as well as by the competent bodies, to improve the sports training process of these athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030057
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 58: Rate of Responders for Post-Exercise
           Hypotension after Beach Tennis, Aerobic, Resistance and Combined Exercise
           Sessions in Adults with Hypertension

    • Authors: Leandro de Oliveira Carpes, Lucas Betti Domingues, Sandra Costa Fuchs, Rodrigo Ferrari
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is typically reported as mean values, but a great inter-individual variation in blood pressure (BP) response after a single exercise session is expected, especially when comparing different modalities of exercise. The purpose was to evaluate the inter-individual BP responses after beach tennis, aerobic, resistance and combined exercise sessions in adults with hypertension. We conducted a post hoc analysis of pooled crossover randomized clinical trials from six previously published studies of our research group, and analyzed data from 154 participants with hypertension (≥35 years). BP was assessed using office BP, and the mean changes throughout the 60 min after recreational beach tennis (BT, n = 23), aerobic (AE, n = 18), combined (COMB, n = 18), and resistance (RES, n = 95) exercise sessions were compared to a non-exercising control session (C). To categorize the participants as responders and non-responders for PEH, the typical error (TE) was calculated as follows: TE = SDdifference/√2, where SDdifference is the standard deviation of the differences in BP measured before the interventions in the exercise and control sessions. Participants who presented PEH greater than TE were classified as responders. The TE was 7 and 6 mmHg for baseline systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. The rate of responders for systolic BP was as follows: BT: 87%; AE: 61%; COMB: 56%; and RES: 43%. For diastolic BP, the rate of responders was as follows: BT: 61%; AE: 28%; COMB: 44%; and RES: 40%. Results evidenced that there was a high inter-individual variation of BP after a single bout of different physical activity modalities in adults with hypertension, suggesting that exercise protocols with aerobic characteristics (i.e., BT, AE, and COMB sessions) presented PEH in most of its practitioners.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030058
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 59: Effects of Concurrent High-Intensity and
           Strength Training on Muscle Power and Aerobic Performance in Young Soccer
           Players during the Pre-Season

    • Authors: Pierros Thomakos, Konstantinos Spyrou, Christos Katsikas, Nikolaos D. Geladas, Gregory C. Bogdanis
      First page: 59
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate two different intervention programs applied during a 4-week pre-season period. Twenty-nine players participated in this study and were divided into two groups. One group (BallTrain, n = 12, age: 17.8 ± 0.4 years, body mass: 73.9 ± 7.6 kg, height: 178 ± 0.1 cm, body fat: 9.6 ± 5.3%) performed a higher percentage of aerobic training with ball and strength training using plyometrics and exercises with body weight. The other group (HIITTrain, n = 17, age: 17.8 ± 0.7 years, body mass: 73.3 ± 5.0 kg, height: 179 ± 0.1 cm, body fat: 8.0 ± 2.3%) trained with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) without the ball and performed resistance training with weights in the same session. Both groups trained for strength (two times/week) and performed aerobic–anaerobic fitness without the ball, passing games, and tactical and small-sided games. Lower limb power (CMJ) and aerobic fitness (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1-IR1) were evaluated before and after the four-week training program. Yo-Yo IR1 performance was improved in both groups, but the improvement was greater for the HIITTrain than BallTrain group (468 ± 180 vs. 183 ± 177 m, p = 0.07). CMJ showed a non-significant improvement in the BallTrain group (5.8 ± 8.8%, p = 0.16), but it decreased by 8.1 ± 9% (p = 0.001), in the HIITTrain group. In conclusion, we have shown that a short pre-season period of training results in improvements in aerobic fitness in both groups, with high-intensity interval training showing superior adaptations than training with the ball. However, CMJ performance was reduced in this group, possibly suggesting higher fatigue levels and overload, and/or showing the effects of concurrent HIITTrain and strength training in soccer.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030059
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 60: Do the Pelvic and Thorax Movements Differ
           between the Sexes and Influence Golf Club Velocity in Junior Golfers'

    • Authors: Tomas Gryc, Frantisek Zahalka, Matěj Brožka, Jitka Marenčáková, Petr Miřátský, Arnold Baca, Michael Stöckl
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the differences in golf swing execution in terms of the parameters of the pelvis and thorax movement between the sexes in junior golfers and their relation to the golf club velocity. Elite female and male players (age: 15.4 ± 1.0 and 15.8 ± 1.7 years, respectively) performed 10 golf swings with a driver under laboratory conditions. Pelvis and thorax movement parameters and golf club velocities were measured using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of pelvis–thorax coupling revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between boys and girls during backswing. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of sex on the parameters of maximal pelvic rotation (F = 6.28, p = 0.02), X-factor (F = 5.41, p = 0.03), and golf club velocity (F = 31.98, p < 0.01). No significant relationship was found between pelvis and thorax movement parameters and golf club velocity in the girls. We found a significant negative relationship between the parameters of maximal thorax rotation and golf club velocity (r = −0.941, p < 0.01) and between X-Factor and golf club velocity (r = −0.847, p < 0.05) in the boys. We suggest that these negative relationships in males were caused by the influence of hormones during their maturation and biological development, where there is decreased flexibility (lower shoulders rotation and X-factor) and growth of muscle strength (higher club head velocity).
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030060
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 61: Gross Motor Development in Preschoolers through
           Conductivist and Constructivist Physical Recreational Activities:
           Comparative Research

    • Authors: S. Calero-Morales, G. C. Vinueza-Burgos, C. L. Yance-Carvajal, W. J. Paguay-Balladares
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Developing gross motor function implies strengthening the basic body position and the balance associated with posture and mobility, for which different teaching models and psycho-pedagogical interventions are applied. Objective: to develop gross motor function in male preschoolers through physical recreational activities based on conductivist (Group 1) and constructivist (Group 2) teaching and determine the best teaching paradigm. Two basic skills were studied in two homogeneous independent samples (walking: w = 0.641; running: w = 0.556), selecting 25 children for each group (3–4 years) through the use of intentional sampling. The gross skills evaluation was based on norms established by the Education Ministry, including a mood assessment. Results: each group improved their basic skills in the post-test (Group 1: W = 0.001; W = 0.001. Group 2: W = 0.046; W = 0.038), but the conductivist paradigm was superior (w = 0.033; w = 0.027). Group 1 presented better indicators in the motor evaluations “Acquired” and “In Process” than Group 2, and lower percentages in the “Initiated” evaluation than Group 2 in the abilities “walking” as well as “running”, which were significantly different in the “Initiated” evaluation (p = 0.0469) for the walking ability, and significantly different in the “Initiated” and “Acquired” evaluations (p = 0.0469; p = 0.0341, respectively) for the running skill. Conclusions: The conductivist teaching model was superior in terms of gross motor function optimization.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030061
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 62: The Contralateral Repeated Bout Effect of Elbow
           Flexors Is Not Observed in Young Women Following Mild Muscle Damage from
           Eccentric Exercises

    • Authors: Bailey A. Brown, Xin Ye, Ling Xin
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Investigation of the contralateral repeated bout effect (CL-RBE) in women is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether CL-RBE exists in women. Twelve healthy women (age: 20.9 ± 2.5 years) performed two bouts of maximal elbow flexor eccentric exercise (3 sets × 15 repetitions per bout) separated by 14 days, using the opposite arms. Surface Electromyography (EMG) was recorded during both exercise bouts. The isokinetic muscle strength (60°/s), muscle soreness, range of motion (ROM), limb girth, and blood creatine kinase activity were measured pre-exercise, and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise with the muscle strength being measured immediately post-exercise as well. Significant main effects of time were observed for muscle strength, muscle soreness and ROM (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between bouts for all the measured variables including the EMG median frequency (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the CL-RBE of elbow flexors was not evident in young healthy women. This was because the mild muscle damage induced by the initial bout of exercise was either not enough to initiate the CL-RBE or the CL-RBE in women lasted shorter than two weeks. This study provides important information for future studies on CL-RBE in women.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030062
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 63: Including a Technical Factor with Physical and
           In-Game Movement Factors Improves Model Sensitivity When Evaluating Draft
           Outcome in Elite-Junior Australian Rules Football

    • Authors: Jacob Jennings, Daniel Wundersitz, Courtney Sullivan, Stephen Cousins, Michael Kingsley
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Determining characteristics that define talent is critical for recruitment and player development. When developing predictive models, sensitivity is important, as it describes the ability of models to identify players with draft potential (true positives). In the current literature, modelling is limited to a small number of selected variables, and model sensitivity is often poor or unreported. The aim of this study was to determine how a technical factor combined with physical and in-game movement factors affects position-specific model sensitivity when evaluating draft outcome in an elite-junior National Australia Bank (NAB) League population. Physical, in-game movement, and technical involvement data were collated from draft-eligible (18th year) participants in the under 18 boys NAB League competition (n = 465). Factors identified through parallel analysis were used in binomial regression analyses. Models using factor combinations were developed to predict draft success for all-position, nomadic, fixed-position, and fixed&ruck players. Models that best characterised draft success were all-position (physical and technical: specificity = 97.2%, sensitivity = 36.6%, and accuracy = 86.3%), nomadic (physical and technical: specificity = 95.5%, sensitivity = 40.7%, and accuracy = 85.5%), fixed (physical: specificity = 96.4%, sensitivity = 41.7%, and accuracy = 86.6%), and fixed&ruck (physical and in-game movement: specificity = 96.3%, sensitivity = 41.2%, and accuracy = 86.7%). Including a technical factor improved sensitivity in the all-position and nomadic models. Physical factors and physical and in-game movement yielded the best models for fixed-position and fixed&ruck players, respectively. Models with improved sensitivity should be sought to assist practitioners to more confidently identify the players with draft potential.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030063
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 64: Biceps Brachii and Brachioradialis Excitation
           in Biceps Curl Exercise: Different Handgrips, Different Synergy

    • Authors: Giuseppe Coratella, Gianpaolo Tornatore, Stefano Longo, Nicholas Toninelli, Riccardo Padovan, Fabio Esposito, Emiliano Cè
      First page: 64
      Abstract: The current study analyzed the excitation of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and anterior deltoid during bilateral biceps curl performed with different handgrips. Ten competitive bodybuilders performed bilateral biceps curl in non-exhaustive 6-rep sets using 8-RM with the forearm in supinated, pronated, and neutral positions. The ascending and descending phase of each variation was separately analyzed using the normalized root mean square collected using surface electromyography. During the ascending phase, (i) biceps brachii excitation was greater with the supinated compared to the pronated [+19(7)%, ES: 2.60] and neutral handgrip [+12(9)%, ES: 1.24], (ii) the brachioradialis showed greater excitation with the supinated compared to the pronated [+5(4)%, ES: 1.01] and neutral handgrip [+6(5)%, ES: 1.10], (iii) the anterior deltoid excitation was greater with the pronated and neutral handgrip compared to the supinated condition [+6(3)% and +9(2)%, ES: 2.07 and 3.18, respectively]. During the descending phase, the anterior deltoid showed greater excitation in the pronated compared to the supinated handgrip [+5(4)%, ES: 1.02]. Changing the handgrips when performing biceps curl induces specific variations in biceps brachii and brachioradialis excitation and requires different anterior deltoid interventions for stabilizing the humeral head. Practitioners should consider including different handgrips in the biceps curl routine to vary the neural and mechanical stimuli.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030064
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 65: Age and Sex Comparisons in Pediatric Track and
           Field Hurdle Injuries Seen in Emergency Departments of the US

    • Authors: Jacob Jones, Luke Radel, Kyle Garcia, David Soma, Shane Miller, Dai Sugimoto
      First page: 65
      Abstract: There is limited literature analyzing pediatric hurdle injuries based on sex and age. This study compares hurdle-related injury types, injured body parts, and injury mechanisms by age and sex in pediatrics. Hurdle-related injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used to retrospectively review the injuries of hurdlers 18 years and under. Differences in injured body parts, injury types, and mechanisms were analyzed by age (pre-high school vs. high school) and sex (male vs. female). A total of 749 cases were extracted. Fractures were more common in pre-high schoolers (34.1% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.001), while more sprains were identified in high schoolers (29.6%) than pre-high schoolers (22.8%, p = 0.036). Males suffered more fractures than females (35.1% vs. 24.3%, p = 0.001). Females sustained more joint sprains (29.1% vs. 21.0%, p = 0.012) and contusions/hematomas (12.7% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.020). Ankle injuries were more common in females (24.0%) than males (12.0%, p = 0.001), while wrist injuries were more prevalent in males (11.7% vs. 7.2%, p = 0.034). The most common injury mechanism was apparatus-related, with no differences based on age or sex. Injury types and injured body parts differed depending on age and sex in pediatric hurdle injuries seen in emergency departments. These findings may be helpful for injury prevention and medical care for pediatric hurdlers.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030065
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 66: Motion Analysis of Core Stabilization Exercise
           in Women: Kinematics and Electromyographic Analysis

    • Authors: Kyeongjin Lee
      First page: 66
      Abstract: As core stabilization exercise is essential for maintaining a stable spine and improving functional performance, understanding the activation of core muscles and the stabilization of the trunk and pelvis during such exercise is crucial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscle activation and stabilization of the lumbar–pelvic region during core stabilization exercise, with a specific focus on analyzing EMG and 3D motion kinematic data. The study aimed to understand how different tension settings on the reformer affect muscle activation and hip motion, as well as how these factors impact pelvic and trunk stability during the exercise. The reformer consists of a carriage that slides back and forth on rails, with springs providing resistance. The springs can be adjusted to vary the resistance level. Twenty-eight healthy women participating in this study were asked to perform ‘side splits’, a hip abduction exercise, on the reformer in both heavy and light tension settings. Activation of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MU), costal lumbosacral (IL), gluteus medius (GM), and adductor muscles (AL) were measured using electromyography (EMG) and 3D motion. Kinematic data using an assay were also measured during exercise. GM, IO, and MU muscles were more active when heavy springs were used, and AL muscles were more active when light springs were used. Hip motion was more symmetrical when lighter springs were used with a greater range of hip motion. There was less pelvis and torso weight transfer and more torso and pelvis stability when the heavier springs were used. In this study, we confirmed that core stabilization exercise on an unstable surface activates the deep muscles of the abdomen and back and is effective for pelvic and trunk stabilization training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030066
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 67: How Does Instability Affect Bench Press
           Performance' Acute Effect Analysis with Different Loads in Trained and
           Untrained Populations

    • Authors: Moisés Marquina, Jorge Lorenzo-Calvo, Carlos García-Sánchez, Alfonso de la Rubia, Jesús Rivilla-García, Amelia Ferro-Sánchez
      First page: 67
      Abstract: (I) The execution of different sports involves a significant number of throws, jumps, or direction changes, so the body must be as stable as possible while performing a specific action. However, there is no classification of unstable devices and their influence on performance variables. Furthermore, the effect on athletes’ experience using instability is unknown. (II) The aim of this study was to analyze the power and speed parameters in bench press with different loads and unstable executions: (1) stable (SB), (2) with asymmetric load (AB), (3) with unstable load (UB), (4) on fitball (FB) and (5) on a Bosu® (BB). A total of 30 male participants (15 trained and 15 untrained) were evaluated for mean propulsive speed (MPS), maximum speed (MS), and power (PW) with different types of external load: a low load (40% of 1RM), medium load (60% of 1RM), and high load (80% of 1RM) in each condition. Variables were measured with an inertial dynamometer. (III) The best data were evidenced with SB, followed by AB (3–12%), UB (4–11%), FB (7–19%), and BB (14–23%). There were no differences between groups and loads (p > 0.05) except in the case of MS with 60% 1RM, where trained participants obtained 4% better data (p < 0.05). (IV) Executions with implements and equipment such as fitball and Bosu® do not seem to be the most recommended when the objective is to improve power or execution speed. However, situations where the load is unstable (AB and UB) seem to be a good alternative to improve stabilization work without high performance. Furthermore, experience does not seem to be a determining factor.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030067
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 68: Risks and Benefits of Judo Training for
           Middle-Aged and Older People: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Federico Palumbo, Simone Ciaccioni, Flavia Guidotti, Roberta Forte, Attilio Sacripanti, Laura Capranica, Antonio Tessitore
      First page: 68
      Abstract: This systematic overview aimed to review studies investigating the benefits and risks of judo training in older people, and to explore practical methodological applications (Registration ID: CRD42021274825). Searches of EBSCOhost, ISI-WoS, and Scopus databases, with no time restriction up to December 2022, resulted in 23 records meeting the inclusion criteria. A quality assessment was performed through the following tools: ROBINS-I for 10 experimental studies, NIH for 7 observational studies, and AGREE-II for 6 methodological studies. A serious risk of bias emerged for 70% of the experimental studies, whereas 100% of the observational and 67% of the methodological studies presented a “fair” quality. When involving 1392 participants (63 ± 12 years; females: 47%), the studies investigated novice (n = 13), amateur/intermediate (n = 4), expert (n = 4), and unknown (n = 3) level judoka by means of device-based, self-reported, and visual evaluation measures. Mean training encompassed 2 ± 1 sessions. week−1 of 61 ± 17 min for 7 ± 6 months. In relation to judo training exposure and outcomes, three main themes emerged: (i) health (56% of studies; e.g., bones, anthropometry, quality of life); (ii) functional fitness (43%; e.g., balance, strength, walking speed); and iii) psychosocial aspects (43%; e.g., fear of falling, cognition, self-efficacy). Although the included studies presented relevant methodological weaknesses, the data support the positive effects of judo training with advancing age. Future research is needed to help coaches plan judo programs for older people.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030068
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 69: Investigating Sport Stakeholders’
           Understanding of Behaviour Management within a Competitive Youth Baseball

    • Authors: Joseph John Gurgis, Gretchen Kerr, Anthony Battaglia
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The following study employed an instrumental case study to investigate sport stakeholders’ understandings of behavioural management strategies used in competitive youth baseball, including the identification of common strategies and interpretations of these as punishment or discipline. Twenty-one participants, from one competitive (AAA) all-boys baseball team, including three coaches, eleven baseball players, and seven parents, were recruited to participate in an individual semi-structured interview. Interviews ranged between 30 and 150 min, and data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Several behaviour management tactics were identified, of which exercise, benching and yelling negative comments were most often reported. While participants interpreted excessive exercise and benching as punitive and/or disciplinary approaches to behavioural management, yelling was consistently viewed as punitive. Participants confused punishment and discipline as interchangeable, thus suggesting a lack of awareness regarding developmentally appropriate strategies of behavioural management and highlighting the normalization of certain punitive tactics in youth sport. The results underscore the necessity of imparting knowledge to the sports community regarding age-appropriate behavioural management interventions to foster safe and enjoyable athletic experiences for youth competitors.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030069
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 70: The Effects of Kinesio Taping® on Muscle
           Interplay within the Lumbo–Pelvic–Hip Complex: A Randomized
           Placebo-Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Dalibor Kiseljak, Vladimir Medved
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Coordination of muscle activity is determined by the recruitment order of agonists and synergists that results from their onset times. Motor recruitment deficits are possible. This study examined the acute and prolonged effects of three different techniques of the kinesio taping method in optimizing the intermuscular coordination within the lumbo–pelvic–hip complex. The sample consisted of 56 healthy participants of both genders, randomly divided into equal groups by kinesio taping muscle facilitation, muscle inhibition and functional correction technique, and placebo kinesio taping condition. The onsets of the ipsilateral and contralateral erector spinae muscles, in relation to the semitendinosus muscle of the tested leg, were measured using the surface electromyography, during the active performance of the prone hip extension test. Time span was also determined. Measurements were performed at baseline, 60 min, and 48 h post-intervention. For the control group, we did not find statistically significant differences in the onset between the measurement points (p > 0.05), while in the experimental groups, there was a significant delay in the onset of the contralateral erector spinae (p < 0.001) in the second and third measurement points. These results indicate that the kinesio taping method can optimize the intermuscular coordination, with the potential for primary injury prevention.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030070
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 71: Effects of Malocclusion on Maximal Aerobic
           Capacity and Athletic Performance in Young Sub-Elite Athletes

    • Authors: El Mokhtar El Ouali, Hassane Zouhal, Loubna Bahije, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Bahae Benamar, Jihan Kartibou, Ayoub Saeidi, Ismail Laher, Sanae El Harane, Urs Granacher, Abdelhalem Mesfioui
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Oral pathologies can cause athletic underperformance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of malocclusion on maximal aerobic capacity in young athletes with the same anthropometric data, diet, training mode, and intensity from the same athletics training center. Sub-elite track and field athletes (middle-distance runners) with malocclusion (experimental group (EG); n = 37; 21 girls; age: 15.1 ± 1.5 years) and without malocclusion (control group (CG); n = 13; 5 girls; age: 14.7 ± 1.9 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants received an oral diagnosis to examine malocclusion, which was defined as an overlapping of teeth that resulted in impaired contact between the teeth of the mandible and the teeth of the upper jaw. Maximal aerobic capacity was assessed using the VAMEVAL test (calculated MAS and estimated VO2max). The test consisted of baseline values that included the following parameters: maximum aerobic speed (MAS), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate frequency, systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), blood lactate concentration (LBP), and post-exercise blood lactate assessment (LAP) after the performance of the VAMEVAL test. There were no statistically significant differences between the two study groups related to either anthropometric data (age: EG = 15.1 ± 1.5 vs. CC = 14.7 ± 1.9 years (p = 0.46); BMI: EG = 19.25 ± 1.9 vs. CC = 19.42 ± 1.7 kg/m2 (p = 0.76)) or for the following physical fitness parameters and biomarkers: MAS: EG = 15.5 (14.5–16.5) vs. CG = 15.5 (15–17) km/h (p = 0.47); VO2max: EG = 54.2 (52.5–58.6) vs. CG = 54.2 (53.4–59.5) mL/kg/min (p = 0.62) (IQR (Q1–Q3)); heart rate before the physical test: EG = 77.1 ± 9.9 vs. CG = 74.3 ± 14.0 bpm (p = 0.43); SAP: EG = 106.6 ± 13.4 vs. CG = 106.2 ± 14.8 mmHg (p = 0.91); DAP: EG = 66.7 ± 9.1 vs. CG = 63.9 ± 10.2 mmHg (p = 0.36); LBP: EG = 1.5 ± 0.4 vs. CG = 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L (p = 0.12); and LAP: EG = 4.5 ± 2.36 vs. CG = 4.06 ± 3.04 mmol/L (p = 0.60). Our study suggests that dental malocclusion does not impede maximal aerobic capacity and the athletic performance of young track and field athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11030071
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 20: Generalization of Psychosocial Skills to Life
           Skills in Collegiate Athletes

    • Authors: Yuki Yabunaka, Ryo Kametani, Hironobu Tsuchiya
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This study investigated how needs–supportive and needs–thwarting coaching behaviors, basic need satisfaction (BNS), and basic need frustration (BNF) are positively or negatively related to collegiate athletes’ generalization of psychosocial skills in competitive sports. Japanese collegiate athletes (N = 228, Mage = 19.7 years) completed the measures to assess the study variables. Structural equation modeling for the hypothesized models of associations among the variables showed that needs–supportive coaching behavior positively influenced BNS, which, in turn, positively affected the generalization of all 10 psychosocial skills in competitive sports. Moreover, needs–thwarting coaching behavior had a positive influence on BNF, which, in turn, negatively affected the following skills: generalization of stress management, appreciating others, communication, and maintaining etiquette and manners. These findings highlight that coaches and life skills educational supporters should display needs–supportive behaviors that help to improve participants’ BNS and promote generalization of the psychosocial skills for life skills development through competitive sports. Furthermore, they should prevent needs–thwarting behaviors that frustrate their basic needs in competitive sports.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020020
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 21: Playing Disability Rugby League with
           Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A Case Study

    • Authors: Luke Manny, Taylor Wileman, Che Fornusek, Daniel A. Hackett
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a common inherited neurological disorder that causes damage to peripheral nerves. Reports of CMT patients participating in team-based sports such as disability rugby league are scarce. The objective of this case report was to evaluate the benefits of participation in disability rugby league in a 50-year-old male with CMT. Leg muscle mass and strength was worse for the case subject compared to two age-matched CMT participants with an exercise history; however, evidence of greater function in the case subject was observed through better 6-min walk test performance. Performance in a series of sport specific tests was noticeably worse for the case subject compared to a fellow rugby league player (age matched) with cerebral palsy. Inferior in-game performance was observed for the case subject compared to his fellow rugby league player in terms of distance covered, top running speed, and intensity. However, the case subject may have assumed a different role when playing as evident by the different behaviours he displayed during the games (i.e., less player contacts, tackles, or touches, but more passes of the ball). This case study provides information concerning disability rugby league as an adjunctive mode of treatment for CMT populations.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 22: Quadriceps Muscle Morphology Is an Important
           Determinant of Maximal Isometric and Crank Torques of Cyclists

    • Authors: Fábio Juner Lanferdini, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Andressa Germann Ávila, Antônio Renato Pereira Moro, Stephan van der Zwaard, Marco Aurélio Vaz
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine if quadriceps morphology [muscle volume (MV); cross-sectional area (CSA)], vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and muscle quality [echo intensity (ECHO)] can explain differences in knee extensor maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), crank torque (CT) and time‒to‒exhaustion (TTE) in trained cyclists. Twenty male competitive cyclists performed a maximal incremental ramp to determine their maximal power output (POMAX). Muscle morphology (MV; CSA), muscle architecture of VL and muscle quality (ECHO) of both quadriceps muscles were assessed. Subsequently, cyclists performed three MVICs of both knee extensor muscles and finally performed a TTE test at POMAX with CT measurement during TTE. Stepwise multiple regression results revealed right quadriceps MV determined right MVIC (31%) and CT (33%). Left MV determined CT (24%); and left VL fascicle length (VL‒FL) determined MVIC (64%). However, quadriceps morphological variables do not explain differences in TTE. No significant differences were observed between left and right quadriceps muscle morphology (p > 0.05). The findings emphasize that quadriceps MV is an important determinant of knee extensor MVIC and CT but does not explain differences in TTE at POMAX. Furthermore, quadriceps morphological variables were similar between the left and right quadriceps in competitive cyclists.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020022
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 23: Reliability of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with
           and without Compression Tights during Exercise and Recovery Activities

    • Authors: Brett Biddulph, John G Morris, Martin Lewis, Kirsty Hunter, Caroline Sunderland
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is widely used in sports science research, despite the limited reliability of available data. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of NIRS with and without compression tights. Thirteen healthy active males, (age 21.5 ± 2.7 years, body mass 82.1 ± 11.2 kg, BMI 24.6 ± 3.2 kg·m−2) completed four trials (two control trials and two trials using compression tights) over a 28-day period. During each trial, participants completed 20 min each of laying supine, sitting, walking (4 km·h−1), jogging, and sitting following the jogging. An NIRS device was attached to the muscle belly of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius and recorded tissue saturation index (TSI), muscle oxygenation, and muscle deoxygenation. Systematic bias and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to report reliability measures for each activity type. For TSI, systematic bias (LOA) at the gastrocnemius during the control and tights trial ranged from −0.4 to 1.7% (4.4 to 10.3%) and −1.9 to 3.5% (8.1 to 12.0%), respectively. For the vastus lateralis, the systematic bias (LOA) for the control trial ranged from −2.4 to 1.0% (5.1 to 6.9%) and for the tights trial was −0.8 to 0.6% (7.0 to 9.5%). For TSI, the CV during the control trial ranged from 1.7 to 4.0% for the gastrocnemius and 1.9 to 2.6% for the vastus lateralis. During the tights trials, the CV ranged from 3.0 to 4.5% for the gastrocnemius and 2.6 to 3.5% for the vastus lateralis. The CV for muscle oxygenation during the control and tights trials for the gastrocnemius was 2.7 to 6.2% and 1.0 to 8.8% and for the vastus lateralis was 0.6 to 4.0% and 4.0 to 4.5%, respectively. The relative reliability was poorer in the tights trials, but if the aim was to detect a 5% difference in TSI, NIRS would be sufficiently reliable. However, the reliability of muscle oxygenation and deoxygenation varies considerably with activity type, and this should be considered when determining whether to employ NIRS in research studies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020023
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 24: Normative Scores for CrossFit® Open
           Workouts: 2011–2022

    • Authors: Mangine, Grundlingh, Feito
      First page: 24
      Abstract: To create normative scores for all CrossFit® Open (CFO) workouts and compare male and female performances, official scores were collected from the official competition leaderboard for all competitors of the 2011–2022 CFO competitions. Percentiles were calculated for athletes (18–54 years) who completed all workouts within a single year ‘as prescribed’ and met minimum scoring thresholds. Independent t-tests revealed significant (p < 0.05) sex differences for 56 of 60 workouts. In workouts scored by repetitions completed, men completed more repetitions in 18 workouts by small to large differences (d = 0.22–0.81), whereas women completed more repetitions in 6 workouts by small to medium differences (d = 0.36–0.77). When workouts were scored by time to completion, men were faster in 10 workouts by small to large differences (d = 0.23–1.12), while women were faster in 3 workouts by small differences (d = 0.46). In three workouts scored by load lifted, men lifted more weight by large differences (d = 2.00–2.98). All other differences were either trivial or not significant. Despite adjusted programming for men and women, the persistence of performance differences across all CFO workouts suggests that resultant challenges are not the same. These normative values may be useful for training and research in male and female CrossFit® athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020024
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 25: Effect of Increasing the Number of
           Substitutions on Physical Performance during Periods of Congested Fixtures
           in Football

    • Authors: Abraham García-Aliaga, Adrián Martín-Castellanos, Moisés Marquina Nieto, Diego Muriarte Solana, Ricardo Resta, Roberto López del Campo, Daniel Mon-López, Ignacio Refoyo
      First page: 25
      Abstract: (I) This study aimed to evaluate the impact on physical demands induced by FIFA’s new rule implemented based on the number of substitutions caused by COVID-19. (II) Sixty-six matches were analysed in peak periods (microcycles of three matches in a week) in the competition period before and after the pandemic. The variables collected were organised by team (22 from LaLigaTM SmartBank 2019–2020) for a total of 132 team records and 1077 player performance reports using a multi-camera tracking system and Mediacoach® software. Physical performance variables were analysed in the first half, second half and whole match, thus determining the individual and collective performances of the team. (III) This study shows how, despite the increase in substitutions allowed with the new rule, physical performance increased in some variables in the congested periods (e.g., total distance run and distance run in the first and second halves). Additionally, the players’ physical performance involved in a substitution was greater than it was for players who completed the game. (IV) The new substitution rule helps to maintain and even improve physical performance. This measure could improve intensity levels in both individual and team performance. It could even safeguard the physical integrity of the players by reducing the risk of injury, as fewer players have to play the full match.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020025
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 26: Evaluation of Athlete Monitoring Tools across
           10 Weeks of Elite Youth Basketball Training: An Explorative Study

    • Authors: Branson L. Palmer, Grant E. van der Ploeg, Pitre C. Bourdon, Scott R. Butler, Robert G. Crowther
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The growth of sport science technology is enabling more sporting teams to implement athlete monitoring practices related to performance testing and load monitoring. Despite the increased emphasis on youth athlete development, the lack of longitudinal athlete monitoring literature in youth athletes is concerning, especially for indoor sports such as basketball. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of six different athlete monitoring methods over 10 weeks of youth basketball training. Fourteen state-level youth basketball players (5 males and 9 females; 15.1 ± 1.0 yrs) completed this study during their pre-competition phase prior to their national basketball tournament. Daily wellness and activity surveys were completed using the OwnUrGoal mobile application, along with heart rate (HR) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) recordings at each state training session, and weekly performance testing (3x countermovement jumps [CMJs], and 3x isometric mid-thigh pulls [IMTPs]). All of the athlete monitoring methods demonstrated the coaching staff’s training intent to maintain performance and avoid spikes in workload. Monitoring IMU data combined with PlayerLoad™ data analysis demonstrated more effectiveness for monitoring accumulated load (AL) compared to HR analysis. All six methods of athlete monitoring detected similar trends for all sessions despite small-trivial correlations between each method (Pearson’s correlation: −0.24 < r < 0.28). The use of subjective monitoring questionnaire applications, such as OwnUrGoal, is recommended for youth sporting clubs, given its practicability and low-cost. Regular athlete education from coaches and support staff regarding the use of these questionnaires is required to gain the best data.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020026
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 27: Effects of Combined Horizontal Plyometric and
           Change of Direction Training on Anaerobic Parameters in Youth Soccer

    • Authors: Yiannis Michailidis, Panagiotis Venegas, Thomas Metaxas
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the combination of soccer training, plyometric training (PT), and change of direction (COD) exercises would enhance anaerobic performance to a greater extent than training on its own in youth U17 soccer players. Twenty youth players participated in this study. Players were randomly separated into two groups: the control group (CG, n = 9) and the intervention group (EX), which performed extra PT and COD exercises (EX, n = 11). The duration of the training program was six weeks. Sprint 10 m, 30 m, countermovement jump (CMJ), single leg countermovement jump (CMJ right and left), squat jump (SJ), 505 test, and Illinois agility test were measured pre and post of the training program. The performance in the 505 test improved for the EX group (right leg: p = 0.031, left leg: p = 0.004). In addition, Illinois test performance increased in the EX group (2.9%, p = 0.019). The performances of the two groups differed significantly in the Illinois agility test (p = 0.001). This study supports that a short-term combined program of PT and COD exercises can improve change of direction ability in youth U17 soccer players. The lack of effect of the intervention program on sprint and jump performance may be due to the type and volume of plyometric exercises used. The results reflect the training principle of specialization of stimulus. The improvement in performance was presented in tests that had similar characteristics to training stimuli.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020027
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 28: Balance and Fall Risk Assessment in
           Community-Dwelling Older Adults after Recovery from COVID-19: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Amira E. El-Bagalaty, Mariam El-Sayed Mohamed, Osama R. Abdelraouf, Mohamed A. Abdel Ghafar, Alshaimaa K. Abdelaal, Abdelgalil A. Abdelgalil, Gihan S. Mousa
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Background: SARS-CoV-2 atypical symptoms in older persons include falls, confusion, dizziness, and unusual weariness. Falls and their consequences are among the most prevalent causes of disability among older adults, significantly lowering quality of life and resulting in the loss of independence as well as impaired psychosocial functioning. The study purpose was to examine the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 infectious disease on balance in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: Sixty-four older adults aged ≥ 60 years from both sexes, 31 treated for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 33 matched normal controls participated in the study. The Biodex Stability System (BSS) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were used for evaluation of balance and fall risk. The correlation between the Biodex overall stability index and the Berg Balance Scale score was investigated. Results: When compared to controls, the SARS-CoV-2 group had significantly higher values of the Biodex overall stability index (OSI) (p = 0.011), anterior–posterior stability index (APSI) (p = 0.013), mediolateral stability index (MLSI) (p = 0.018), and fall risk index (FRI) (p = 0.008), as well as statistically lower scores on the Berg balance scale (p = 0.003). A moderate negative correlation was found between the two assessment tools in the SARS-CoV-2 group. Conclusion: Balance impairment and an increased risk of falling are among the outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 in community-dwelling older adults.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020028
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 29: A Novel Approach to the Determination of Time-
           and Fatigue-Dependent Efficiency during Maximal Cycling Sprints

    • Authors: Anna Katharina Dunst, Clemens Hesse, Olaf Ueberschär, Hans-Christer Holmberg
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Background: During maximal cycling sprints, efficiency (η) is determined by the fiber composition of the muscles activated and cadence-dependent power output. To date, due to methodological limitations, it has only been possible to calculate gross efficiency (i.e., the ratio of total mechanical to total metabolic work) in vivo without assessing the impact of cadence and changes during exercise. Eliminating the impact of cadence provides optimal efficiency (ηopt), which can be modeled as a function of time. Here, we explain this concept, demonstrate its calculation, and compare the values obtained to actual data. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the time course of maximal power output (Pmax) reflects time-dependent changes in ηopt. Methods: Twelve elite track cyclists performed four maximal sprints (3, 8, 12, 60 s) and a maximal-pedaling test on a cycle ergometer. Crank force and cadence were monitored continuously to determine fatigue-free force-velocity profiles (F/v) and fatigue-induced changes in Pmax. Respiratory gases were measured during and for 30 min post-exercise. Prior to and following each sprint, lactate in capillary blood was determined to calculate net blood lactate accumulation (ΔBLC). Lactic and alactic energy production were estimated from ΔBLC and the fast component of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. Aerobic energy production was determined from oxygen uptake during exercise. Metabolic power (MP) was derived from total metabolic energy (WTOT). ηopt was calculated as Pmax divided by MP. Temporal changes in Pmax, WTOT, and ηopt were analyzed by non-linear regression. Results: All models showed excellent quality (R2 > 0.982) and allowed accurate recalculation of time-specific power output and gross efficiency (R2 > 0.986). The time-constant for Pmax(t) (τP) was closely correlated with that of ηopt (τη; r = 0.998, p < 0.001). Estimating efficiency using τP for τη led to a 0.88 ± 0.35% error. Conclusions: Although efficiency depends on pedal force and cadence, the latter influence can be eliminated by ηopt(t) using a mono-exponential equation whose time constant can be estimated from Pmax(t).
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020029
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 30: Influence of Sports Training in Foothills on
           the Professional Athlete’s Immunity

    • Authors: Kristina A. Malsagova, Tatiana A. Astrelina, Evgenii I. Balakin, Irina V. Kobzeva, Elena Ya. Adoeva, Kseniya A. Yurku, Yuliya B. Suchkova, Alexander A. Stepanov, Alexander A. Izotov, Tatyana V. Butkova, Anna L. Kaysheva, Vasiliy I. Pustovoyt
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Neuroplasticity and inflammation play important part in the body’s adaptive reactions in response to prolonged physical activity. These processes are associated with the cross-interaction of the nervous and immune systems, which is realized through the transmission of signals from neurotransmitters and cytokines. Using the methods of flow cytometry and advanced biochemical analysis of blood humoral parameters, we showed that intense and prolonged physical activity at the anaerobic threshold, without nutritional and metabolic support, contributes to the development of exercise-induced immunosuppression in sportsmen. These athletes illustrate the following signs of a decreased immune status: fewer absolute indicators of the content of leukocytes, lowered values in the immunoregulatory index (CD4+/CD8+), and diminished indicators of humoral immunity (immunoglobulins A, M, and G, and IFN-γ). These factors characterize the functional state of cellular and humoral immunity and their reduction affects the prenosological risk criteria, indicative of the athletes’ susceptibility to develop exercise-induced immunosuppression.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020030
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 31: Identification of Optimal Movement Patterns for
           Energy Pumping

    • Authors: Micha Luginbühl, Micah Gross, Silvio Lorenzetti, David Graf, Martin J. Bünner
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Energy pumping is a way to gain kinetic energy based on an active vertical center of mass movement in rollers in sports like skateboarding, skicross, snowboard cross and BMX. While the principle of the energy transfer from the vertical movement to the horizontal movement is well understood, the question of how to achieve the optimal energy transfer is still unresolved. In this paper, we introduce an inverse pendulum model to describe the movement of the center of mass of an athlete performing energy pumping. On this basis, the problem of identifying the optimal movement pattern is formulated as an optimal control problem. We solve the discretized optimal control problem with the help of a SQP-algorithm. We uncover that the optimal movement pattern consists of a jumping, flying, and landing phase, which has to be timed precisely. We investigate how the maximal horizontal speed depends on parameters like rollers height and maximal normal force of the athlete. Additionally, we present a qualitative comparison of our results with measured results from BMX-racing. For athletes and coaches, we advice on the basis of our results that athlete’s performance is optimized by using maximal force and adopt an exact and proper timing of the movement pattern.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020031
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 32: Controlling Behavior, Sex Bias and Coaching
           Success in Japanese Track and Field

    • Authors: Yuka Tsukahara, Hiroshi Kamada, Suguru Torii, Fumihiro Yamasawa, Aleksandra Katarzyna Macznik
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Coaching athletes is a complex and lengthy process. Recently, attention has been given to coaches over-controlling behavior toward the athletes’ personal lives and possible sex bias, but the impact of these behaviors on coaching success is unclear. An anonymous survey was answered by 412 track and field coaches (male: 369; female: 43), comprising questions regarding controlling behaviors, sex bias, and personal background. A Chi-square test and logistic regression were performed to determine the factors related to the coach’s characteristics and their success in coaching athletes (to national vs. non-national level). The results showed that controlling behaviors and sex-bias-related beliefs were present. The coaches who coached national-level athletes were more likely to be older, more experienced, and were national level athletes themselves. More national-level coaches reported controlling behaviors but fewer held sex bias beliefs than the non-national level coaches. However, the strength of these beliefs (scores for controlling behavior and sex bias) was not related to the coaching success.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020032
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 33: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis on the
           Effects of Plyometric-Jump Training on the Physical Fitness of Combat
           Sport Athletes

    • Authors: Alex Ojeda-Aravena, Tomás Herrera-Valenzuela, Pablo Valdés-Badilla, Eduardo Báez-San Martín, Rohit K. Thapa, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
      First page: 33
      Abstract: We aimed to assess the athletic performance changes in combat sport athletes (CoSAs) after plyometric-jump training (PJT), compared to control conditions, through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Following PRISMA guidelines, three electronic databases were searched for includable articles, according to a PICOS approach. Using a random-effects model, Hedges’ g effects sizes (ES) were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic, with values of <25%, 25–75%, and >75% representing low, moderate, and high levels of heterogeneity, respectively. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Twelve eligible articles were identified for systematic review, seven of high quality and five of moderate quality, according to the PEDro scale. The studies recruited taekwondo, silat, wrestling, judo, fencing, and karate athletes (292 total participants), including specific–active and active controls. Most participants had a mean age of <18 years and were males (n = 225). Compared to the control, PJT programmes, involving 4–12 weeks and 2–3 sessions per week, induced small to moderate improvements (ES = 0.47 to 1.04) in athletes’ maximal strength (e.g., 1RM squat), vertical jump height, change-of-direction speed, and specific performance (e.g., fencing movement velocity), although without meaningful effects on body mass, fat mass, and muscle mass (ES = 0.02 to −0.06). Most (7 of 8) outcomes attained low heterogeneity. The outcome-level GRADE analysis indicated a certainty of evidence from low to moderate. In conclusion, PJT, when compared to control conditions, may improve CoSA athletic performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020033
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 34: The eSports Medicine: Pre-Participation
           Screening and Injuries Management—An Update

    • Authors: Agostino Rossoni, Marco Vecchiato, Erica Brugin, Eliana Tranchita, Paolo Emilio Adami, Manuela Bartesaghi, Elena Cavarretta, Stefano Palermi
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Recently, electronic sports (eSports) became one of the growing forms of new media due to the wide diffusion of games and online technologies. Even if there is still a debate about the definition and characterization of eSports, eAthletes train heavily, compete in tournaments, must abide by competition, association, and governing body rules, just like all other athletes. Furthermore, as in any other competitive discipline, there can be injuries. Aberrant sitting posture, repetitive movements, screen vision, prolonged playing hours, and a sedentary lifestyle can lead to several medical hazards in musculoskeletal, ophthalmology, neurological, and metabolic systems. Moreover, several cardiovascular changes occur in eAthletes. This paper aims to explore the different injuries that can occur in a professional eAthlete, suggesting how every high-level gamer could benefit from a pre-participation evaluation and a correct injury prevention strategy.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020034
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 35: Notational Analysis and Physiological and
           Metabolic Responses of Male Junior Badminton Match Play

    • Authors: Ross Green, Andrew T. West, Mark E. T. Willems
      First page: 35
      Abstract: We examined the game characteristics of badminton and the physiological and metabolic responses in highly trained male junior players. Players from a Badminton England accredited Performance Centre (n = 10, age: 14.0 ± 1.2 y, height: 1.69 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 59.1 ± 5.0 kg) completed a 20-m shuttle run test (V˙O2max: 64 ± 7 mL·kg−1·min−1) and a simulated ability-matched competitive singles badminton game consisting of two 12-min games with a 2-min break wearing the COSMED K5 metabolic system with notational analysis. In five games, 427 points were contested with a rally time of 5.7 ± 3.7 s, a rest time of 11.2 ± 5.9 s, shots per rally of 5.6 ± 3.6, work density of 0.50 ± 0.21, an effective playing time of 32.3 ± 8.4%, and shots frequency of 1.04 ± 0.29. During badminton play, heart rate was 151 ± 12 b·min−1 (82 ± 10% of maximum heart rate), oxygen uptake was 39.2 ± 3.9 mL·kg−1·min−1 (62 ± 7% of V˙O2max), and energy expenditure was 11.2 ± 1.1 kcal·min−1 with a post-game blood lactate of 3.33 ± 0.83 mmol·L−1. Compared to adult badminton play, the physiological responses of junior badminton are lower and may be due to the shorter rally durations. Male junior badminton players should be exposed to training methodologies which include rally durations in excess of what they encounter during match play so as to develop greater consistency. Our observations on game characteristics and physiological responses during junior badminton can be used to inform training practice.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020035
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 36: Molecular Profiling of Athletes Performing
           High-Intensity Exercises in Extreme Environments

    • Authors: Kristina A. Malsagova, Arthur T. Kopylov, Alexander A. Stepanov, Dmitry V. Enikeev, Natalia V. Potoldykova, Evgenii I. Balakin, Vasiliy I. Pustovoyt, Anna L. Kaysheva
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of high-intensity training under extreme conditions (T = 40 °C) on the metabolism and immunological reactions of athletes. Male triathletes (n = 11) with a high level of sports training performed load testing to failure (17 ± 2.7 min) and maximum oxygen consumption (64.1 ± 6.4 mL/min/kg). Blood plasma samples were collected before and immediately after exercise. Mass spectrometric metabolomic analysis identified 30 metabolites and 6 hormones in the plasma, of which 21 and 4 changed after exercise, respectively. Changes in the intermediate products of tricarboxylic and amino acids were observed (FC > 1.5) after exercise. The obtained data can be associated with the effect of physical activity on metabolism in athletes. Therefore, constant monitoring of the biochemical parameters of athletes can help coaches identify individual shortcomings in a timely manner and track changes, especially as the volume of training increases. In addition, it was revealed that the immunological reaction (manifestation of a hyperactive reaction to food components) is personalized in nature. Therefore, it is important for coaches and sports doctors to analyze and control the eating behavior of athletes to identify food intolerances or food allergies in a timely manner and develop an individual elimination diet.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020036
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 37: In Vivo Monitoring of Acute and Intermittent
           Fatigue in Sport Climbing Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Wearable

    • Authors: Carlo Dindorf, Eva Bartaguiz, Jonas Dully, Max Sprenger, Stephan Becker, Michael Fröhlich, Oliver Ludwig
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The objectification of acute fatigue (during isometric muscle contraction) and cumulative fatigue (due to multiple intermittent isometric muscle contractions) plays an important role in sport climbing. The data of 42 participants were used in the study. Climbing performance was operationalized using maximal climbing-specific holding time (CSHT) by performing dead hangs. The test started with an initial measurement of handgrip strength (HGS) followed by three intermittent measurements of CSHT and HGS. During the test, finger flexor muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) was measured using a near-infrared spectroscopy wearable biosensor. Significant reductions in CSHT and HGS could be found (p < 0.001), which indicates that the consecutive maximal isometric holding introduces cumulative fatigue. The reduction in CSHT did not correlate with a reduction in HGS over multiple consecutive maximal dead hangs (p > 0.35). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in initial SmO2 level, SmO2 level at termination, SmO2 recovery, and mean negative slope of the SmO2 saturation reduction between the different measurements (p > 0.24). Significant differences were found between pre-, termination-, and recovery- (10 s after termination) SmO2 levels (p < 0.001). Therefore, monitoring acute fatigue using athletes’ termination SmO2 saturation seems promising. By contrast, the measurement of HGS and muscle oxygen metabolism seems inappropriate for monitoring cumulative fatigue during intermittent isometric climbing-specific muscle contractions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020037
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 38: A Narrative Review of Screen Time and Wellbeing
           among Adolescents before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications
           for the Future

    • Authors: Verity Y. Q. Lua, Terence B. K. Chua, Michael Y. H. Chia
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of many. In particular, during the height of the pandemic, many experienced lockdowns, which in turn increased screen time drastically. While the pandemic has been declared an endemic and most activities have been reinstated, there appears to still be elevated screen time among adolescents due to poor habits formed during the pandemic lockdowns. This paper explores the factors by which screen time affects well-being among adolescents and how the pandemic may have influenced some of these factors. For example, beyond having greater screen time, many adolescents have also reduced their physical activities and picked up poor sleeping habits. These findings highlight the importance of having integrated activity guidelines that go beyond limiting adolescents’ daily screen time. It is important to affirm that beyond ensuring that adolescents limit their daily screen time, they are also meeting physical activity and sleep guidelines so that they achieve a holistic sense of wellbeing.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020038
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 39: Training in the Initial Range of Motion
           Promotes Greater Muscle Adaptations Than at Final in the Arm Curl

    • Authors: Gustavo F. Pedrosa, Marina G. Simões, Marina O. C. Figueiredo, Lucas T. Lacerda, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Fernando V. Lima, Mauro H. Chagas, Rodrigo C. R. Diniz
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Objective: The effects of ROM manipulation on muscle strength and hypertrophy response remain understudied in long-term interventions. Thus, we compared the changes in strength and regional muscle hypertrophy after training in protocols with different ranges of motion (ROM) in the seated dumbbell preacher curl exercise using a within-participant experimental design. Design and methods: Nineteen young women had one arm randomly assigned to train in the initial ROM (INITIALROM: 0°–68°; 0° = extended elbow) while the contralateral arm trained in the final ROM (FINALROM: 68°–135°), three times per week over an eight-week study period. Pre- and post-training assessments included one repetition maximum (1RM) testing in the full ROM (0°–135°), and measurement of biceps brachii cross-sectional area (CSA) at 50% and 70% of humerus length. Paired t-tests were used to compare regional CSA changes between groups, the sum of CSA changes at 50% and 70% (CSAsummed), and the strength response between the training protocols. Results: The INITIALROM protocol displayed a greater CSA increase than FINALROM protocol at 70% of biceps length (p = 0.001). Alternatively, we observed similar increases between the protocols for CSA at 50% (p = 0.311) and for CSAsummed (p = 0.111). Moreover, the INITIALROM protocol displayed a greater 1RM increase than FINALROM (p < 0.001). Conclusions: We conclude that training in the initial angles of elbow flexion exercise promotes greater distal hypertrophy of the biceps brachii muscle in untrained young women. Moreover, the INITIALROM condition promotes a greater dynamic strength increase when tested at a full ROM compared to the FINALROM.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020039
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 40: Exploring the Well-Being of Slovenian and
           Serbian Sport Science Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic of Summer 2022

    • Authors: Brigita Banjac, Ivana M. Milovanović, Saša Pišot, Radenko M. Matić, Stevo Popović, Sandra S. Radenović, Patrik Drid
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic profoundly changed everyday life of social actors, which inferred mental health and well-being concerns. As students of health-related studies tend to adapt better to difficult circumstances, in this study, we explored the effect of the pandemic on sports science students’ well-being during the summer of 2022. The research was conducted in Slovenia and Serbia. The sample comprised n = 350 students. The PERMA-Profiler, a 15-item self-reported questionnaire, was adapted to assess well-being across five elements: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. Data were collected with a questionnaire through the summer of 2022 (from May to July) and analyzed in SPSS, AMOS 26.0. The results revealed normal functioning (M = 7.72, SD ± 1.38) for the overall well-being of the students. Although all dimensions indicated high scores, relationships (M = 7.95, SD ± 1.63), meaning (M = 7.76, SD ± 1.69), and engagement (M = 7.73, SD ± 1.36) rated the highest. Furthermore, the instrument was acceptable, as the confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate reliability based on Cronbach's alpha (15 items, α = 0.94) and strong internal correlations between the PERMA dimensions. This study contributes to the previously published research, emphasizing the positive responses and successful coping of sports science students in times of complex situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020040
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 41: Differences in Peak Knee Flexor Force between
           Eccentric-Only and Combined Eccentric-Concentric Nordic Hamstring Exercise

    • Authors: Jesper Augustsson, Håkan Andersson
      First page: 41
      Abstract: In many sports, the hamstring strain injury is a common injury. There is evidence that the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE), a knee flexor exercise, can reduce hamstring injury risk in athletes. In research on hamstring injury prevention, eccentric-only NHE is typically performed, whereas in sports, it is relatively common for athletes to perform NHE eccentrically-concentrically. Further, NHE strength is generally assessed by measuring knee flexor force through an ankle brace, attached atop of a load cell. An alternative method might be to assess knee flexor force about the knee joint using a force plate. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in peak knee flexor force between eccentric-only and combined eccentric-concentric NHE. The purpose was also to determine the correlation between hamstring force measured at the ankle using a load cell (current gold standard) and force assessed about the knee joint using a force plate during NHE. Fifteen junior and senior elite soccer and track and field athletes (3 women and 12 men aged 17–27 years) performed eccentric NHE (ENHE) in which they leaned forward as far as possible until breakpoint and eccentric-concentric NHE (ECNHE) where they returned to the starting position. A linear encoder measured the position at which peak force occurred during the NHEs. Force assessed at the ankle differed significantly (678 vs. 600 N, p < 0.05), whereas force about the knee joint did not (640 vs. 607 N, p > 0.05) between ENHE and ECNHE (12 and 5% difference, respectively). The forward distance achieved by the participants in cm at breakpoint for ENHE was 37% higher than at the coupling phase for ECNHE (74 vs. 54 cm, p < 0.001). Very strong significant (p < 0.01) correlations were noted between peak force assessed at the ankle and about the knee joint for ENHE and ECNHE, r = 0.96 and r = 0.99, respectively. Our results suggest that ECNHE, where peak knee flexor force was reached with 37% less forward movement, may complement ENHE, i.e., during hamstring injury rehabilitation, where a position of great knee extension may not be well tolerated by the athlete. Further, assessing knee flexor force about the knee joint using a force plate may provide an alternative to measuring force at the ankle using a load cell when testing NHE strength.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020041
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 42: Reliability and Validity of a Flume-Based
           Maximal Oxygen Uptake Swimming Test

    • Authors: Elizabeth F. Nagle, Takashi Nagai, Anne Beethe, Mita Lovalekar, Meghan S. Tuite, Meaghan E. Beckner, Jacquelyn N. Zera, Mary E. Sanders, Chris Connaboy, John P. Abt, Kim Beals, Scott M. Lephart, Robert J. Robertson, Bradley C. Nindl
      First page: 42
      Abstract: A mode-specific swimming protocol to assess maximal aerobic uptake (VO2maxsw) is vital to accurately evaluate swimming performance. A need exists for reliable and valid swimming protocols that assess VO2maxsw in a flume environment. The purpose was to assess: (a) reliability and (b) “performance” validity of a VO2maxsw flume protocol using the 457-m freestyle pool performance swim (PS) test as the criterion. Nineteen males (n = 9) and females (n = 10) (age, 28.5 ± 8.3 years.; height, 174.7 ± 8.2 cm; mass, 72.9 ± 12.5 kg; %body fat, 21.4 ± 5.9) performed two flume VO2maxsw tests (VO2maxswA and VO2maxswB) and one PS test [457 m (469.4 ± 94.7 s)]. For test–retest reliability (Trials A vs. B), moderately strong relationships were established for VO2maxsw (mL·kg−1·min−1)(r= 0.628, p = 0.002), O2pulse (mL O2·beat−1)(r = 0.502, p = 0.014), VEmax (L·min−1) (r = 0.671, p = 0.001), final test time (sec) (0.608, p = 0.004), and immediate post-test blood lactate (IPE (BLa)) (0.716, p = 0.001). For performance validity, moderately strong relationships (p < 0.05) were found between VO2maxswA (r =−0.648, p = 0.005), O2pulse (r= −0.623, p = 0.008), VEmax (r = −0.509 p = 0.037), and 457-m swim times. The swimming flume protocol examined is a reliable and valid assessment of VO2maxsw., and offers an alternative for military, open water, or those seeking complementary forms of training to improve swimming performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020042
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 43: Motivation Profile of Youth Greco-Roman
           Wrestlers; Differences According to Performance Quality

    • Authors: Kreso Skugor, Barbara Gilic, Marijana Mladenovic, Valdemar Stajer, Roberto Roklicer, Kristijan Slacanac, Domagoj Bagaric, Hrvoje Karnincic
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Athletes have to possess high motivation levels to perform each training session and competition at the highest level. Thus, the motivation of the wrestler is essential to reach the highest performance quality. The research included 47 Greco-Roman wrestlers aged 17.71 ± 1.62 years. Variables included anthropometric indices, sports motivation assessed by the revised Sport Motivation Scale (SMS-II), and competitive success (medal winners and non-winners at the National Championship). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients checked the internal consistency of the SMS-II. Differences between performance quality were determined by Cohen’s d effect sizes, and MANOVA for motivation and anthropometric variables/body build variables. In the total sample, wrestlers had high levels of intrinsic motivation (5.97 ± 0.90), integrated (5.99 ± 0.83), and identified (6.08 ± 0.82) regulation, while they had low amotivation (2.53 ± 0.98) and external regulation (3.26 ± 1.24). Successful wrestlers had significantly higher intrinsic motivation than less successful wrestlers (Cohen’s d = 0.76, moderate effect size). Results evidenced that wrestlers have high self-determined motivation, which is vital for maximal performance and persisting in sports. Future research should investigate wrestlers from other age groups to ultimately determine the sport motivation profile of wrestlers and enable their optimal sports development.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020043
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 44: Propulsion Phase Characteristics of Loaded Jump
           Variations in Resistance-Trained Women

    • Authors: Timothy J. Suchomel, Shana M. McKeever, Olusegun Sijuwade, Logan Carpenter
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the propulsion phase characteristics of the jump squat (JS), hexagonal barbell jump (HEXJ), and jump shrug (JShrug) performed across a spectrum of relative loads. Thirteen resistance-trained women (18–23 years old) performed JS, HEXJ, and JShrug repetitions at body mass (BM) or with 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% BM during three separate testing sessions. Propulsion mean force (MF), duration (Dur), peak power output (PP), force at PP (FPP), and velocity at PP (VPP) were compared between exercises and loads using a series of 3 × 6 repeated measures ANOVA and Hedge’s g effect sizes. There were no significant differences in MF or Dur between exercises. While load-averaged HEXJ and JShrug PP were significantly greater than the JS, there were no significant differences between exercises at any individual load. The JShrug produced significantly greater FPP than the JS and HEXJ at loads ranging from BM–60% BM, but not at 80 or 100% BM. Load-averaged VPP produced during the JS and HEXJ was significantly greater than the JShrug; however, there were no significant differences between exercises at any individual load. Practically meaningful differences between exercises indicated that the JShrug produced greater magnitudes of force during shorter durations compared to the JS and HEXJ at light loads (BM–40%). The JS and HEXJ may be classified as more velocity-dominant exercises while the JShrug may be more force-dominant. Thus, it is important to consider the context in which each exercise is prescribed for resistance-trained women to provide an effective training stimulus.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020044
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 45: Protein Intake in NCAA Division 1 Soccer
           Players: Assessment of Daily Amounts, Distribution Patterns, and Leucine
           Levels as a Quality Indicator

    • Authors: Jun Kwon, Morgan M. Nishisaka, Alexandra F. McGrath, Aleksandra S. Kristo, Angelos K. Sikalidis, Scott K. Reaves
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Dietary protein is required to support recovery and adaptation following exercise training. While prior research demonstrates that many athletes meet total daily protein needs, intake seems to be predominantly skewed toward the evening meal. An even distribution of protein doses of ≥0.24 g/kg BW consumed throughout the course of a day is theorized to confer greater skeletal muscle anabolism outcomes compared to a skewed pattern of intake. Protein quality is also an important dietary consideration for athletes, with the amino acid leucine seemingly serving as the primary driver of the postprandial anabolic response. The present study investigates protein consumption characteristics among a cohort of NCAA D1 soccer players and evaluates differences between male and female athletes. Athletes were instructed to complete 3-day food diaries, which were subsequently analyzed and compared to UEFA expert group-issued nutrition guidelines for soccer players. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner accounted for 81.4% of the total daily dietary protein intake. Most athletes (77.8%) ingested optimum amounts of protein at dinner but not at breakfast (11.1%) or lunch (47.2%). In addition, statistically significant sex-based differences in daily dietary protein intake, meal-specific protein amounts, and protein quality measures were detected. Findings indicate suboptimal dietary protein intake practices among the collegiate soccer athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020045
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 46: Technical Differences over the Course of the
           Match: An Analysis of Three Elite Teams in the UEFA Champions League

    • Authors: Marco Magni, Matteo Zago, Paola Vago, Matteo Vandoni, Vittoria Carnevale Pellino, Nicola Lovecchio
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution of technical performance indicators over the course of football matches in the UEFA Champions League. Three elite football teams were the sample of the present study and were analyzed throughout four consecutive seasons within the previously mentioned competition. Data from 15 min periods were collected from Wyscout and elaborated. The effects of match location and competition stage were analyzed on nine technical indicators, including ball possession and variables related to offense and goal scoring. The effects of independent variables were assessed both independently and combined. The results showed a significant increase in the frequency of occurrence and accuracy of most of the parameters towards the end of the match. The effect of match location was generally significant with higher rates for teams playing at home. Differences were noted between the two stages of the competition with higher values in the technical indicators registered during the group stage. The existence of significant differences between the initial and final periods of football games was suggested by the results. The so-called home advantage was confirmed. Different team approaches between longer stages (e.g., group stage) and elimination games (i.e., knockout phase) were suggested by the results.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020046
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 47: Good Scientific Practice and Ethics in Sports
           and Exercise Science: A Brief and Comprehensive Hands-on Appraisal for
           Sports Research

    • Authors: Nitin Kumar Arora, Golo Roehrken, Sarah Crumbach, Ashwin Phatak, Berit K. Labott, André Nicklas, Pamela Wicker, Lars Donath
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Sports and exercise training research is constantly evolving to maintain, improve, or regain psychophysical, social, and emotional performance. Exercise training research requires a balance between the benefits and the potential risks. There is an inherent risk of scientific misconduct and adverse events in most sports; however, there is a need to minimize it. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical and ethical challenges in sports and exercise research. We also enlist solutions to improve method design in clinical trials and provide checklists to minimize the chances of scientific misconduct. At the outset, historical milestones of exercise science literature are summarized. It is followed by details about the currently available regulations that help to reduce the risk of violating good scientific practices. We also outline the unique characteristics of sports-related research with a narrative of the major differences between sports and drug-based trials. An emphasis is then placed on the importance of well-designed studies to improve the interpretability of results and generalizability of the findings. This review finally suggests that sports researchers should comply with the available guidelines to improve the planning and conduct of future research thereby reducing the risk of harm to research participants. The authors suggest creating an oath to prevent malpractice, thereby improving the knowledge standards in sports research. This will also aid in deriving more meaningful implications for future research based on high-quality, ethically sound evidence.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020047
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 48: Night-Time Heart Rate Variability during an
           Expedition to Mt Everest: A Case Report

    • Authors: Konstantinos Mantzios, Aggelos Pappas, Georgios-Ioannis Tsianos, Andreas D. Flouris
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Mt Everest has been gaining popularity from casual hiking athletes, climbers, and ultra-endurance marathon runners. However, living and sleeping at altitude increases the risk of injury and illness. This is because travel to high altitudes adversely affects human physiology and performance, with unfavourable changes in body composition, exercise capacity, and mental function. This is a case report of a climber who reached the summit of Mt Everest from the north side. During his 40-day expedition, we collected sleep quality data and night-time heart rate variability. During the night inside the tent, the air temperature ranged from −12.9 to 1.8 °C (−5.8 ± 4.9 °C) and the relative humidity ranged from 26.1 to 78.9% (50.7 ± 16.9%). Awake time was 17.1 ± 6.0% of every sleep-time hour and increased with altitude (r = 0.42). Sleep time (r = −0.51) and subjective quality (r = 0.89) deteriorated with altitude. Resting heart rate increased (r = 0.70) and oxygen saturation decreased (r = −0.94) with altitude. The mean NN, RMSSD, total power, LF/HF, and SD1 and SD2 were computed using the NN time series. Altitude reduced the mean ΝΝ (r = −0.73), RMSSD (r = −0.31), total power (r = −0.60), LF/HF ratio (r = −0.40), SD1 (r = −0.31), and SD2 (r = −0.70). In conclusion, this case report shows that sleeping at high altitudes above 5500 m results in progressively reduced HRV, increased awakenings, as well as deteriorated sleep duration and subjective sleep quality. These findings provide further insight into the effects of high altitude on cardiac autonomic function and sleep quality and may have implications for individuals who frequently spend time at high altitudes, such as climbers.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020048
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 49: Heat Acclimation Knowledge among Recreational

    • Authors: Alexander J. Heatherly, Jennifer L. Caputo, Samantha L. Johnson, Dana K. Fuller
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Heat acclimation (HA) is the foremost method of preventing exertional heat illness during exercise in hot and humid environments. However, the prevalence of HA training and its associated knowledge is not currently known in recreational running populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of recreational runners toward HA. A survey consisting of 38 questions that required approximately 10–15 min to complete was disseminated to running clubs throughout the Southeastern United States. Questions were designed to collect data on participant demographics, yearly training habits, and HA knowledge. Recreational runners (N = 125) demonstrated a lack of knowledge toward proper HA training and its associated benefits. Participants largely received HA advice from their peers (31.2%) and reported no professional guidance in their training (79.2%). Finally, participants’ beliefs toward proper HA training differed among training groups with moderate and high groups perceiving greater frequency, miles/wk, and min/wk as appropriate for HA compared to the low group (p ≤ 0.05). Due to the warmer temperatures and higher relative humidity experienced in the southeastern, southwestern, and mid-Atlantic locations of the United States and throughout certain regions of the European Union, governing bodies in sport and exercise science should develop more educational initiatives to convey the importance and advantages of HA, especially when runners are training for major marathons that are typically held in the late spring and early fall seasons.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11020049
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 13: Experience, Training Preferences, and Fighting
           Style Are Differentially Related to Measures of Body Composition,
           Strength, and Power in Male Brazilian Jiu Jitsu athletes—A Pilot

    • Authors: Christian G. Almeda, Gerald T. Mangine, Zackary H. Green, Yuri Feito, Duncan N. French
      First page: 13
      Abstract: To examine relationships between Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) descriptors (belt rank, experience, gi preference, and fighting style), resistance training (RT) experience, and measures of body composition, strength (maximal handgrip, 3-5-repetition maximum [RM] in barbell glute bridge [GB], prone bench row [PBR], and bench press [BP]), and velocity (GB, PBR, and BP at 7 kg and 30–60% 1-RM), 13 experienced (4.3 ± 3.4 years) BJJ athletes were recruited for this cross-sectional, pilot study. Significant (p < 0.05) Kendall’s tau and Bayesian relationships were seen between belt rank and body fat percentage (τ = −0.53, BF10 = 6.5), BJJ experience and body fat percentage (τ = −0.44 to −0.66, BF10 = 2.6–30.8) and GB velocity (τ = −0.45 to −0.46, BF10 = 2.8–3.1), RT experience and strength (τ = 0.44 to 0.73, BF10 = 2.6–75.1) and velocity (τ = −0.44 to 0.47, BF10 = 2.6–3.3), gi preference-training and relative PBR strength (τ = 0.70, BF10 = 51.9), gi preference-competition and height and lean mass (τ = −0.57 to 0.67, BF10 = 5.3–12.4) and BP velocity (τ = −0.52 to 0.67, BF10 = 3.5–14.0). The relevance of body composition and performance measures to sport-specific training and research interpretation are differentially affected by a BJJ athlete’s experience (BJJ, belt rank, RT), gi preferences, and fighting style.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11010013
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 14: Pyjamas, Polysomnography and Professional
           Athletes: The Role of Sleep Tracking Technology in Sport

    • Authors: Matthew W. Driller, Ian C. Dunican, Shauni E. T. Omond, Omar Boukhris, Shauna Stevenson, Kari Lambing, Amy M. Bender
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Technological advances in sleep monitoring have seen an explosion of devices used to gather important sleep metrics. These devices range from instrumented ‘smart pyjamas’ through to at-home polysomnography devices. Alongside these developments in sleep technologies, there have been concomitant increases in sleep monitoring in athletic populations, both in the research and in practical settings. The increase in sleep monitoring in sport is likely due to the increased knowledge of the importance of sleep in the recovery process and performance of an athlete, as well as the well-reported challenges that athletes can face with their sleep. This narrative review will discuss: (1) the importance of sleep to athletes; (2) the various wearable tools and technologies being used to monitor sleep in the sport setting; (3) the role that sleep tracking devices may play in gathering information about sleep; (4) the reliability and validity of sleep tracking devices; (5) the limitations and cautions associated with sleep trackers; and, (6) the use of sleep trackers to guide behaviour change in athletes. We also provide some practical recommendations for practitioners working with athletes to ensure that the selection of such devices and technology will meet the goals and requirements of the athlete.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11010014
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 15: Usefulness of ⩒O2 Kinetics and
           Biomechanical Parameters as Predictors of Athlete’s Performance in
           800 m Running Race

    • Authors: Vicente Torres Navarro, Jose Vicente Sánchez-Alarcos Díaz-Pintado, Diego Warr di Piero, Florentino Huertas Olmedo
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Incremental tests to exhaustion have been usually employed as the “gold standard” to establish the fitness level of athletes. However, during real competition in many sport disciplines, exertion is not characterized by an increasing effort until failure. The purpose of this preliminary study was to add new evidence regarding the usability of parameters obtained from an on-field testing in 800 m running athletes. ⩒O2 kinetics (mean, amplitude, phase time, and phase start time) and biomechanical parameters (velocity, stride frequency, and stride length) were analyzed in eight athletes during a maximal 800 m running race test. Our results showed that only the peak of blood lactate concentration after the 800 m test was correlated with the race time (p = 0.047). The race time was positively associated with both the phase duration and phase start time (all p-values < 0.05). Conversely, race time was negatively correlated with velocity, stride frequency, and amplitude (p-values < 0.05). Our results reveal that jointly studying the ⩒O2 kinetics and biomechanical parameters during a maximal 800 m running race test is a useful tool to predict the athlete´s upcoming performance and improve the planning and control of the training process of 800 m running athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11010015
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 16: Could Horse Gait and Induced Pelvic Dynamic
           Loads in Female Equestrians Be a Risk Factor in Pudendal Neuralgia'

    • Authors: Sébastien Murer, Guillaume Polidori, Fabien Beaumont, Fabien Bogard, Hassen Hakim, Fabien Legrand
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Pudendal Neuralgia (PN) is a rare, debilitating disease caused by damage to the pudendal nerve, which innervates the anus, rectum, perineum, lower urinary tract, and genitalia. Although its etiology remains scientifically unknown, a number of sports practices, including horse-riding, are reported as triggering and/or aggravating factors. The present work summarizes the experimental measurements of the contact pressure at the interface between the rider and saddle, for a population of 12 experienced female riders. These tests reveal that dynamic horseback-riding leads to high levels of peak pressures in the perineal region, which confirms that the practice of equine sports may cause neuropathologies such as PN. All collected data will be used as boundary conditions in a future numerical 3D model aimed at locating the possible areas of pudendal nerve crushing.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11010016
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 17: Physical and Performance Characteristics of
           3×3 Professional Male Basketball Players

    • Authors: Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Darko Krsman, Damjana V. Cabarkapa, Nicolas M. Philipp, Andrew C. Fry
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Despite exponential growth in popularity over the last decade and recently becoming an Olympic sport, the amount of scientific literature focused on depicting a profile of successful 3×3 basketball players is sparse. Thus, the purpose of this study was to present the physical and performance characteristics of professional 3×3 male basketball players and how they differ between elite and non-elite athletes. The anthropometrics, vertical jump, agility, and sprint performance parameters collected from ten players during regular training sessions were (x¯ ± SD): height (193.7 ± 4.5 cm), weight (89.2 ± 4.1 cm), wingspan (196.5 ± 5.2 cm), squat jump (43.5 ± 4.6 cm), countermovement jump with (53.3 ± 4.4 cm) and without an arm swing (46.3 ± 4.0 cm), reactive strength index (2.4 ± 0.3 m/s), t-test (10.3 ± 0.3 s), 505 drill (2.4 ± 0.2 s), 10 m sprint (1.5 ± 0.1 s), 30 m sprint (4.0 ± 0.3 s), shuttle run (27.7 ± 1.7 s), and bench press (98.2 ± 10.0 kg) and back squat (139.5 ± 17.6 kg) one repetition maximum. Additionally, the average and maximal heart rate (HR) responses during simulated games were 160.6 ± 8.0 and 188.5 ± 6.3 bpm, with players spending 6.3 ± 4.2, 11.4 ± 5.2, 13.9 ± 3.5, 26.4 ± 10.4, and 42.1 ± 10.0% of the total time in HR Zones 1–5, respectively. Interestingly, no statistically significant differences in the aforementioned physical and performance parameters were noted between elite and non-elite players. Overall, the findings of the present study provide coaches, sports scientists, and strength and conditioning practitioners with information that can aid in the athlete selection process, detection of areas for further improvement, and development of training regimens that resemble 3×3 basketball on-court competitive demands.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11010017
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 18: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Sports in

    • Authors: Sports Editorial Office Sports Editorial Office
      First page: 18
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11010018
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 19: The Concept of Optimal Dynamic Pedalling Rate
           and Its Application to Power Output and Fatigue in Track Cycling
           Sprinters—A Case Study

    • Authors: Anna Katharina Dunst, Clemens Hesse, Olaf Ueberschär
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Sprint races in track cycling are characterised by maximal power requirements and high-power output over 15 to 75 s. As competition rules limit the athlete to a single gear, the choice of gear ratio has considerable impact on performance. Traditionally, a gear favouring short start times and rapid acceleration, i.e., lower transmission ratios, was chosen. In recent years, track cyclists tended to choose higher gear ratios instead. Based on a review of the relevant literature, we aimed to provide an explanation for that increase in the gear ratio chosen and apply this to a 1000 m time trial. Race data with continuous measurements of crank force and velocity of an elite track cyclist were analysed retrospectively regarding the influence of the selected gear on power, cadence and resulting speed. For this purpose, time-dependent maximal force-velocity (F/v) profiles were used to describe changes in performance with increasing fatigue. By applying these profiles to a physical model of track cycling, theoretical power output, cadence and resulting speed were calculated for different scenarios. Based on previous research results, we assume a systematic and predictable decline in optimal cadence with increasing fatigue. The choice of higher gear ratios seems to be explained physiologically by the successive reduction in optimal cadence as fatigue sets in. Our approach indicates that average power output can be significantly increased by selecting a gear ratio that minimises the difference between the realised cadence and the time-dependent dynamic optimum. In view of the additional effects of the gear selection on acceleration and speed, gear selection should optimally meet the various requirements of the respective sprint event.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11010019
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-