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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted by number of followers
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Turfgrass Society Research Journal     Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Health Promotion & Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Strategies : A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reabilitacijos Mokslai : Slauga, Kineziterapija, Ergoterapija     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Football(s) : Histoire, Culture, Économie, Société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Corpoconsciência     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Law and Governance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access  
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Forum Kinder- und Jugendsport : Zeitschrift für Forschung, Transfer und Praxisdialog     Hybrid Journal  
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Arrancada     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access  
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access  
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access  
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Conexões     Open Access  
Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of National Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Türkiye Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Science     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Physical Education of Students     Open Access  
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Therapeutic Recreation Journal     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 161: Soccer and Disability, Is It Possible'
           Analysis of the Learning and Coaching Context in Spain

    • Authors: Antonio Burgos-García
      First page: 161
      Abstract: Coaching a youth soccer player is important, and the coach’s role is key. Actually, there is no profile or coaching program for grassroots-soccer coaches that favor the practice of soccer and disability, according to different research and experts. The main purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the professional profile of the grassroots-soccer coach who has soccer players with disabilities (learning and coaching context). This research applies a quantitative method, specifically, non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive, and inferential methodology. The sample of analysis is the staff members of the professional soccer clubs of LaLigaSantander Genuine (Spain). An important result is that half of the grassroots-soccer coaches have not received specific education to coach youth soccer players with disabilities. Finally, one important conclusion of this research is that by generating a climate of trust and empathy, grassroots-soccer coaches improve the performance of their soccer players with disabilities by recognizing and understanding their emotional states.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090161
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 162: The Impact of a Psychological Skills Training
           and Mindfulness-Based Intervention on the Mental Toughness, Competitive
           Anxiety, and Coping Skills of Futsal Players—A Longitudinal
           Convergent Mixed-Methods Design

    • Authors: Daniel Vella-Fondacaro, Stephanie Romano-Smith
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Despite the sport’s popularity, there is a paucity in futsal psychological interventional research. This study analysed the impact of a ten-session psychological skills training and mindfulness-based intervention (PSTMI) on the mental toughness, competitive anxiety, and athletic coping skills of national league futsal players (n = 13). It also analysed whether these variables were predicted by playing experience. Pre-/post-intervention questionnaires were filled in and analysed (Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire, and Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with seven athletes; quantitative and qualitative data were integrated in a convergent parallel mixed-methods design. Results revealed significant medium-to-large improvements in mental toughness, cognitive anxiety, and coping skills following the PSTMI. Years of playing experience positively and significantly predicted better self-confidence and coping skills. Thematic analysis generated five themes: (1) post-intervention enhancement in athletic performance and well-being; (2) the non-athletic commitments of futsal players; (3) diverse views on how to improve the intervention; (4) instilling social identity through sport psychology sessions; and (5) the impact of years of experience on skill learning. Results mirrored those from other sporting disciplines. The PSTMI was well-received and equipped athletes with beneficial psychological skills, stressing the need for more sport psychology resources in futsal.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090162
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 163: Influence of Practice Periodization and Sleep
           Duration on Oxidative Stress in High School Judo Athletes

    • Authors: Ena Yoshida, Harumi Hayashida
      First page: 163
      Abstract: Numerous research studies have investigated the relationship between exercise, oxidative stress level, and condition in athletes who engage in intense training on a daily basis. However, it is known that oxidative stress is affected by exercise, sleep, and the psychological state, but there are only a few studies that have comprehensively examined oxidative stress based on the actual practice periods and living conditions of athletes. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the influence of three distinct training periods (short training period, intensive training period, and pre-competition periods) as well as life situations (sleep and number of steps) on oxidative stress levels (diacron reactive oxygen metabolites: d-ROMs) in high school judo athletes. The results showed that, among the three periods, the level of oxidative stress increased the most during the pre-competition period, and the value was higher than during the training period, when the intensity of training was highest. The levels of the d-ROMs values during the pre-competition period were negatively correlated with the amount of sleep on the previous day. The findings suggest that, besides the exercise intensity, factors such as sleep duration and other life situations should be regarded as critical considerations for high school judo athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090163
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 164: Gender-Specific Patterns of Muscle Imbalance
           in Elite Badminton Players: A Comprehensive Exploration

    • Authors: Qais Gasibat, Borhannudin Abdullah, Shamsulariffin Samsudin, Dan Iulian Alexe, Cristina Ioana Alexe, Dragoș Ioan Tohănean
      First page: 164
      Abstract: The high-intensity demands of overhead sports exert significant stress on the bilateral shoulder complex, triggering adaptive kinematics and a distinct strength imbalance between internal and external rotators. The imbalance being referred to in the given statement poses a potential risk for humeral head displacement and puts nearby tendons under tension, heightening the vulnerability to injury. This study aims to assess muscle imbalances in badminton athletes. The first hypothesis (H1) suggests that there are differences in internal and external shoulder rotation movements between dominant and non-dominant segments in badminton players. The second hypothesis (H2) proposes that there are variations in muscle imbalances based on gender among elite badminton players. The objectives are to analyze these differences and explore potential gender-related variations in muscle imbalances. The study seeks to contribute to the understanding of muscle imbalances in badminton athletes and potentially guide training and injury prevention strategies in the sport. Using a cutting-edge Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD), a cohort of 30 elite badminton players underwent an assessment to uncover any bilateral shoulder rotation strength imbalances during a challenging five second isometric maximum contraction. The participants boasted an average age of 17.4 years and a mean playing experience of 7.23 years. The study revealed a notable difference in the ratio of external and internal strength between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders (p = 0.000). This discrepancy amounted to a striking 27.93% muscle imbalance in external rotation/internal rotation strength ratios, favoring the dominant shoulder. Moreover, gender-specific differences were detected, with male players exhibiting a 24.54% muscle imbalance in favor of the dominant shoulder, while female players showcased a more substantial 31.33% imbalance (p = 0.000). In light of these findings, it became evident that elite badminton players possess considerably stronger dominant shoulders compared with their non-dominant counterparts. Furthermore, the study revealed that male players experience less muscular imbalance than their female counterparts.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090164
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 165: Acute Effect of Four Stretching Protocols on
           Change of Direction in U-17 Male Soccer Players

    • Authors: Mohamed Amine Ltifi, Mohamed Chedly Jlid, Jérémy Coquart, Nicola Maffulli, Roland van den Tillaar, Ridha Aouadi
      First page: 165
      Abstract: Background: The ability to rapidly change direction while sprinting is a desirable athletic skill in soccer. Enhancing change of direction (COD) performance depends almost exclusively on specific training, with stretching traditionally considered one such intervention. However, the comparative impact of diverse stretching methods on COD in soccer players remains an area of interest. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of different stretching methods on COD ability in soccer players. Methods: Twelve male soccer players playing in the national championship football division II (age: 16.3 ± 0.3 years, height: 1.81 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 67.7 ± 7.2 kg) were tested for COD performance (i.e., Illinois agility test) after (1) control condition (20 min general warm-up without stretching), (2) static stretching, (3) dynamic stretching, (4) combined static-dynamic stretching, and (5) combined dynamic-static stretching. The duration of stretching intervention was approximately 6 min for static and dynamic stretching and 12 min for both the combined stretching conditions. The experimental sessions were separated by 72 h. Results: COD improved after dynamic stretching when compared to any other condition (p: 0.03–0.002; ηp2: 0.56–0.73), except for the control condition (p = 0.146; ηp2 = 0.18). In contrast, static stretching induced a detrimental effect on COD when compared only to the dynamic stretching condition (p < 0.01; ES = 1.35). Conclusion: Dynamic stretching exercises used by male soccer players in the warm-up improved COD. Other forms of stretching exercises, particularly static stretching, negatively impacted the COD performance. Therefore, coaches can consider integrating dynamic stretching protocols tailored to the athletes’ specific needs. Moreover, extending the investigation to encompass a wider range of athletes, including different age groups and genders, would enhance the applicability and generalization of the findings.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090165
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 166: Frequency of Knee Pain and Risk Factors and
           Its Impact on Functional Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study from Saudi

    • Authors: Ali H. Alyami, Hussam Darraj, Khalid M. Hakami, Faisal Hakami, Mohammed Awaf, Nawaf Bakri, Sulaiman Hamdi, Abdulaziz Saber, Almuhanad Alyami, Mohammed Khashab, Abdulaziz H. Alhazmi
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Background: Adolescents frequently self-report pain, according to epidemiological research. The knee is one of the sites wherein pain is most commonly reported. Musculoskeletal disorders play a significant role in the prolonged disability experienced by individuals, leading to substantial global personal, societal, and economic burdens. Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a clinical knee pain commonly affecting adolescents. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of knee pain in Saudi adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to November 2022 and included 676 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. The participants were questioned regarding their demographics, school habits, and the impact of these factors on back pain, musculoskeletal pain in the past 12 months, as well as quality-of-life scale and knee pain symptoms. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, with frequencies and percentages presented for categorical variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare means between groups, while the chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: A total of 676 adolescents participated in the study, with 57.5% females and 42.5% males. Among the participants, 68.8% were aged between 15 and 18 years. The prevalence of knee pain was notably higher among females (26%) compared to males (19.2%). Age and BMI were identified as significant predictors of knee pain. A significant association was also found between BMI classification and knee stiffness (p-value = 0.008). Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between adolescents who engaged in physical activities during leisure time and those who experienced difficulty bending (p-value = 0.03). Conclusions: Our study highlights a high prevalence of knee pain among Saudi adolescents, emphasizing the need for increased awareness about its risk factors. Preventive measures, including conservative approaches and lifestyle/activity modifications, can effectively mitigate adolescent knee pain.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090166
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 167: Effect of Hip Muscle Strengthening Exercises
           on Pain and Disability in Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain—A
           Systematic Review

    • Authors: Gema Santamaría, Irene Rodríguez, Vicente Rodríguez-Pérez, Raúl Cobreros-Mielgo, Eva Lantarón-Caeiro, Marina Seco-Casares, Diego Fernández-Lázaro
      First page: 167
      Abstract: Low back pain (LBP) is a health problem that affects 70–80% of the population in Western countries. Because of the biomechanical relationship between the lumbar region and the hip, it is thought that strengthening the muscles of this joint could improve the symptoms of people with LBP. The objective of this study is to evaluate the current evidence on the efficacy of hip strengthening exercises to reduce pain and disability in people with LBP. Clinical trials were collected from the PubMed, PEDro, and Scopus databases published up to September 2022. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and using CASP and PEDro tools for methodological quality assessment, we selected studies that included hip strengthening exercises as part of LBP treatment and measured pain and/or disability parameters. Among the 966 records identified in the search, a total of 7 studies met the established selection criteria. Overall, participants who performed hip strengthening exercises had significantly improved in pain and disability. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed as “good”. In conclusion, the addition of hip muscle strengthening exercises iterating interacted with LBP, effectively improving pain and disability.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090167
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 168: The Percentage of Total and Regional Fat Is
           Negatively Correlated with Performance in Judo

    • Authors: Izabela Aparecida dos Santos, Gabriel Felipe Arantes Bertochi, Wonder Passoni Higino, Marcelo Papoti, Enrico Fuini Puggina
      First page: 168
      Abstract: This study investigated the associations between total and regional body composition with performance in the special judo fitness test (SJFT), as well as strength and power tests (countermovement vertical jump—CMJ, squat jump—SJ, plyometric push-up—PPU, and force push-up—FPU). Twenty-three high-level judo athletes participated in this study. Initially, they underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, after which they performed the CMJ, SJ, PPU, and FPU tests. On another day, the SJFT was carried out. Correlations were tested using Pearson’s test. The performance in the SJFT was correlated with the total and arm %fat mass (r = −0.759), torso fat mass (r = −0.802), torso %fat mass (r = −0.822) and in the lower limb regions with the leg fat mass (r = −0.803) and leg %fat (r = −0.745). In the strength and power tests, there were also negative correlations observed between regional fat and performance. There was a negative correlation between the percentage of total fat and performance in the SJFT (r = −0.824), SJ (r = −0.750), CMJ (r = −0.742), PPU (r = −0.609), and FPU (r = −0.736). Fat, both total fat and regional fat in the arms, torso, and legs, is strongly correlated with a poor performance in the SJFT and poor strength and power.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090168
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 169: The Effects of Different Re-Warm-Up Strategies
           on Power, Changing of Direction and Ball Shooting Velocity in Well-Trained
           Soccer Players

    • Authors: Demetris Matsentides, Marios Christou, Nikolaos Zaras
      First page: 169
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a re-warm-up training session either with tuck jumps and linear sprints or with changing of directions may enhance power, agility or ball shooting velocity in well-trained soccer players. Ten soccer players (age: 18.2 ± 1.7 years; body mass: 64.4 ± 8.0 kg; body height: 1.71 ± 0.04 m) participated in the study. Players performed three different re-warm-up interventions including no re-warm-up (C), change of direction (COD) and jump-sprint condition (JS). Before each re-warm-up intervention, players performed the same warm-up condition followed by 8 min of passive rest. Following the re-warm-up interventions, countermovement jump (CMJ), T-Test agility time-trial and ball shooting velocity were measured. Performance in CMJ height, power and power per body mass remained unchanged following all three conditions (p > 0.05). However, the agility time-trial was significantly reduced following COD re-warm-up compared to C (−1.7 ± 1.6%, p = 0.03). Ball shooting velocity was increased following COD compared to C (4.7 ± 3.8%, p = 0.014), while a statistical trend was found between JS and C interventions (4.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.060). These results suggest that a re-warm-up intervention including changing of directions may significantly enhance T-Test agility time-trial and ball shooting velocity in well-trained soccer players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090169
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 170: A Muscle Load Feedback Application for
           Strength Training: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    • Authors: Lisa Noteboom, Anouk Nijs, Peter J. Beek, Frans C. T. van der Helm, Marco J. M. Hoozemans
      First page: 170
      Abstract: Muscle overload injuries in strength training might be prevented by providing personalized feedback about muscle load during a workout. In the present study, a new muscle load feedback application, which monitors and visualizes the loading of specific muscle groups, was developed in collaboration with the fitness company Gymstory. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of this feedback application in managing muscle load balance, muscle load level, and muscle soreness, and to evaluate how its actual use was experienced. Thirty participants were randomly distributed into ‘control’, ‘partial feedback’, and ‘complete feedback’ groups and monitored for eight workouts using the automatic exercise tracking system of Gymstory. The control group received no feedback, while the partial feedback group received a visualization of their estimated cumulative muscle load after each exercise, and the participants in the complete feedback group received this visualization together with suggestions for the next exercise to target muscle groups that had not been loaded yet. Generalized estimation equations (GEEs) were used to compare muscle load balance and soreness, and a one-way ANOVA was used to compare user experience scores between groups. The complete feedback group showed a significantly better muscle load balance (β = −18.9; 95% CI [−29.3, −8.6]), adhered better to the load suggestion provided by the application (significant interactions), and had higher user experience scores for Attractiveness (p = 0.036), Stimulation (p = 0.031), and Novelty (p = 0.019) than the control group. No significant group differences were found for muscle soreness. Based on these results, it was concluded that personal feedback about muscle load in the form of a muscle body map in combination with exercise suggestions can effectively guide strength training practitioners towards certain load levels and more balanced cumulative muscle loads. This application has potential to be applied in strength training practice as a training tool and may help in preventing muscle overload.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090170
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 171: Accelerometer-Derived Intensity Thresholds Are
           Equivalent to Standard Ventilatory Thresholds in Incremental Running

    • Authors: Matthias Schützenhöfer, Philipp Birnbaumer, Peter Hofmann
      First page: 171
      Abstract: Accelerometer cut-points are commonly used to prescribe the amount of physical activity, but this approach includes no individual performance measures. As running kinetics change with intensity, acceleration measurements may provide more individual information. Therefore, the aim was to determine two intensity thresholds from accelerometer measures. A total of 33 participants performed a maximal incremental running test with spirometric and acceleration (Axivity AX3) measures at the left and right tibia. Ventilatory equivalents (VE/VO2, VE/VCO2) were used to determine a first and second ventilatory threshold (VT1/VT2). A first and second accelerometer threshold (ACT1/ACT2) were determined within the same regions of interest from vector magnitude ( v = √(ax2 + ay2 + az2). Accelerometer data from the tibia presented a three-phase increase with increasing speed. Speed at VT1/VT2 (7.82 ± 0.39/10.91 ± 0.87 km/h) was slightly but significantly lower compared to the speed at ACT1/ACT2 from the left (7.71 ± 0.35/10.62 ± 0.72 km/h) and right leg (7.79 ± 0.33/10.74 ± 0.77 km/h). Correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between speed at thresholds determined from spriometric data or accelerations (r = 0.98; p < 0.001). It is therefore possible to determine accelerometer thresholds from tibia placement during a maximal incremental running test comparable to standard ventilatory thresholds.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090171
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 172: Anthropometric Profiling and Changes in
           Segmental Body Composition of Professional Football Players in Relation to
           Age over the Training Macrocycle

    • Authors: Wiktoria Staśkiewicz-Bartecka, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok, Grzegorz Zydek, Mateusz Grajek, Agata Kiciak, Agnieszka Białek-Dratwa, Ewa Niewiadomska, Oskar Kowalski, Marek Kardas
      First page: 172
      Abstract: Body composition is an important indicator of the overall health and fitness of team sports athletes, including in football, and therefore, anthropometric profiling of elite football players is useful as part of determining their skills, strengths, and weaknesses to develop effective strength and conditioning programs. One of the tools available to coaches to track correlates of performance and health is routine body composition assessment. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare the body composition and anthropometric profiles of players using the Direct Segmental Multi-Frequency Bio-Electrical Impedance Analysis method, and to manage body composition throughout the round in the 2020–2021 season. The investigation was carried out during the Polish football league, PKO BP Ekstraklasa, spring round of the football season 2020–2021, in which male football players participated. Athletes between the ages of 18 and 25 (n = 16) made up the younger age group, while those between the ages of 26 and 31 (n = 22) made up the older age group. This manuscript is a continuation of the presentation of the results of the study, which was conducted between 7 January and 23 July 2021. At different stages of the macrocycle, participants underwent six different body composition analyses. The younger and older groups of athletes were compared, as well as measurements of time points 1–6. The dominant extremities, assisting extremities, and trunk had larger fat-free mass contents in the older age group. In the study groups, there was a difference in the fat-free mass content between measures 1–6 that was statistically significant. In the younger group, there was a statistically significant difference in the amount of fat mass content between measurements 1–6. In the older age group, no statistically significant changes were found. The study showed changes in fat-free mass and fat mass in body segments; differences were observed between age groups and between different moments of measurement. Age is an important factor in determining body composition and is also related to an athlete’s experience and seniority. Anthropometric profiling and comprehensive body composition analysis are important tools used in preparing athletes for competition.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090172
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 173: The Role of Motivation and Physical
           Self-Concept in Accomplishing Physical Activity in Primary School Children

    • Authors: Slobodan Pavlović, Vladan Pelemiš, Jovan Marković, Marko Dimitrijević, Marko Badrić, Sabolč Halaši, Ivko Nikolić, Nebojša Čokorilo
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Background: The goal of this research is to identify correlations of motivation and physical self-concept with physical activity among students of younger school age, as well as the level of prediction of motivation and physical self-concept with physical activity of students in physical education classes. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 411 students of the third and fourth grades from the territory of the Zlatibor district. A modified Self-Regulation Questionnaire was used to assess students’ motivational orientations, while appropriate subscales of the Self-perception Profile for Children measuring instrument were used to assess physical self-concept. Physical activity is shown as volume and intensive physical activity (vigorous physical activity (VPA)), measured with a Suunto memory belt pedometer and heart-rate monitor. Results: Boys’ motivational predictor variables accounted for 14% (volume) and 28% (VPA) of their physical activity in class, with intrinsic motivation, introjective regulation (just for the level of physical activity), and identified regulation as the most important determinants of physical activity. For girls, the identified regulation variable (from the system of motivational predictor variables) was shown to be the primary predictor variable on both criterion variables (R2 = 0.34 and 0.36). Conclusion: The teaching of physical education for students of younger school age should be conceived by creating a motivational climate, in order to encourage physical activity.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090173
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 174: Perspectives on Player Performance during FIFA
           World Cup Qatar 2022: A Brief Report

    • Authors: Luís Branquinho, Pedro Forte, Ronaldo V. Thomatieli-Santos, Elias de França, Daniel A. Marinho, José E. Teixeira, Ricardo Ferraz
      First page: 174
      Abstract: Changing the date of the FIFA World Cup Qatar 2022 may represent a factor to consider for the expected performance of participating players. This was due to fixture congestion at the start of the season and expected weather conditions during the competition. Thus, the main purpose of this brief report was to critically analyze the potential impact of changing the competition date and weather conditions on players’ performance. In addition, a brief description about the performance during the World Cup is also provided. For the research, the Web of Science, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were accessed using the primary keywords FIFA World Cup and World Soccer Cup associated with the secondary keywords match running performance, fixture congestion, fatigue and weather conditions. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 52 articles were considered for analysis. The results seem to indicate that although changes were expected due to the modifications made (i.e., the competition date and scheduling congestion), the performance of the players seems not to have been affected in terms of the analyzed indicators. Furthermore, it seems possible to identify some patterns in the behavior of the teams that reached the most advanced stages of the competition.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090174
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 175: Beneficial Effects of Asparagus officinalis
           Extract Supplementation on Muscle Mass and Strength following Resistance
           Training and Detraining in Healthy Males

    • Authors: Barakat Denben, Siriporn Sripinyowanich, Ratree Ruangthai, Jatuporn Phoemsapthawee
      First page: 175
      Abstract: The phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is widely used for resistance training (RT). Little is known about its potential ergogenic value and detraining effects post-RT. This study aimed to examine the effects of 20E extracted from Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) on muscle strength and mass, as well as anabolic and catabolic hormones following RT and detraining. Twenty males, aged 20.1 ± 1.1 years, were matched and randomly assigned to consume double-blind supplements containing either a placebo (PLA) or 30 mg/day of 20E for 12 weeks of RT and detraining. Before and after RT and detraining, muscle strength and mass and anabolic and catabolic hormones were measured. This study found that 20E reduced cortisol levels significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the PLA, yet no effect was observed on muscle mass, strength, or anabolic hormones after RT. Subsequent to 6 weeks of detraining, the 20E demonstrated a lower percentage change in 1RM bench press/FFM than the PLA (p < 0.05). Compared to the PLA, detraining throughout the 12 weeks resulted in a lower percentage change in thigh (p < 0.05) and chest (p < 0.01) circumferences, as well as reduced cortisol levels (p < 0.01), with 20E. Our findings demonstrate that 20E supplementation is a promising way to maintain muscle mass and strength during detraining. Accordingly, 20E may prevent muscle mass and strength loss due to detraining by lowering catabolic hormone levels.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090175
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 176: Educational Preparation and Course Approach of
           Undergraduate Sports Nutrition instructors in Large U.S. Institutions

    • Authors: Kayla Marie Norton, Randall Spencer Davies, James Derek LeCheminant, Susan Fullmer
      First page: 176
      Abstract: College courses are often offered from various disciplines, and depending on which department offers the class, the course could be taught by faculty with different educational preparation or training. This could result in significant differences in the approach and content of the course (i.e., theoretical or applied) or a difference in the instructors’ perceived importance and, therefore, the depth and time spent on various topics. We evaluated potential differences in the sports nutrition curriculum because it is a course that is usually taught by either nutritionists or exercise physiologists. A cross-sectional survey was sent to sports nutrition instructors at accredited large U.S. institutions. Descriptive statistics were analyzed via an ANOVA and Χ2 using Crosstabs in Qualtrics. Alpha was set at p < 0.001. Additionally, short interviews with some participants were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The findings of this study indicated that regardless of the instructor’s educational preparation and discipline, the majority of sports nutrition topics received similar time and depth and were rated as similarly important (p > 0.001). Out of 10 current textbooks, the majority of instructors preferred only 1 of 4 of them. From the short interviews, instructors reported that their courses were more applied than theoretical or balanced between the two. Most instructors designed their courses with a focus on achieving applied outcomes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090176
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 177: Short-Term L-Citrulline Supplementation Does
           Not Affect Blood Pressure, Pulse Wave Reflection, or Arterial Stiffness at
           Rest and during Isometric Exercise in Older Males

    • Authors: Andrea Tryfonos, Filippos Christodoulou, George M. Pamboris, Stephanos Christodoulides, Anastasios A. Theodorou
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Hypertension and arterial stiffness are significant factors contributing to cardiovascular disease. L-citrulline, a nitric oxide precursor, has been proposed as a nutritional, non-pharmacological blood pressure-lowering intervention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of L-citrulline on central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave reflection, and central arterial stiffness at rest and during an isometric knee extension exercise protocol. Twelve older males received 6 g of L-citrulline or a placebo for six days using a double-blind crossover design. Blood hemodynamics parameters (i.e., aortic and brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate), pulse wave reflection (i.e., augmented pressure, augmentation index, forward/backward wave pressure), and arterial stiffness (i.e., carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity) were measured at baseline, post-supplementation, and during isometric exercise. No significant effects of L-citrulline supplementation were observed at rest or during exercise on blood pressure, pulse wave reflection, or arterial stiffness. Both central and peripheral blood pressure were increased during the exercise, which is consistent with isometric contractions. The results of the present study do not support any blood pressure-lowering effect of short-term L-citrulline at rest or during low-intensity isometric exercise compared to the pre-exercise values in older males.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090177
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 178: Assessment Tools Measuring Fundamental
           Movement Skills of Primary School Children: A Narrative Review in
           Methodological Perspective

    • Authors: Ágnes Virág Nagy, Márta Wilhelm, Mihály Domokos, Ferenc Győri, Tamás Berki
      First page: 178
      Abstract: This paper aimed to analyze fundamental movement skill (FMS) assessment tools that could be used for primary school children. In this narrative review, the Motoriktest für Vier- bis Sechjärige Kinder (MOT 4–6), Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (M-ABC-2), Motorische Basiskompetenzen (MOBAK) Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder (KTK), Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD), Maastricht Motoriek Test (MMT) and the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) were analyzed from a methodological perspective, such as the number of test items, tools and types of tests, in terms of the FMS area. The analysis revealed that to assess locomotor movement skills, the BOT-2 has an excellent test for running ability, but for detecting technical difficulties, the TGMD is recommended. To test hopping, the MMT is the best test. Object control movement skills are measured with throws, dribbles and catches. Most of the tools assessed these skills, but it turned out that the TGMD is the best for measuring object control. Stability movement skills are tested with static and dynamic balance tests. Dynamic balance is more frequently used, and the MOT 4–6, KTK and BOT-2 have the most tools to use. However, the MMT is an excellent test for static balance. Fine motor movement skills are easy to assess with the MMT and MOT 4–6, since they have low equipment requirements. The BOT-2 is the best measurement tool; however, it has high equipment requirements. All of the FMS assessment tools are good; however, we concluded that although these tools are excellent for research purposes, they are difficult to apply in a school setting. Thus, teachers and coaches are advised to always select a single task from the available assessment tools that is appropriate for the skills they would like to measure.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090178
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 179: Are Late-Born Young Soccer Players Less Mature
           Than Their Early-Born Peers, Although No Differences in Physical and
           Technical Performance Are Evident'

    • Authors: Eduard Bezuglov, Georgiy Malyakin, Anton Emanov, Grigory Malyshev, Maria Shoshorina, Evgeny Savin, Artemii Lazarev, Ryland Morgans
      First page: 179
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to compare the status of somatic maturity, anthropometry, strength, speed, and soccer-specific technical skills of players from leading youth soccer academies born in different quarters of the same calendar year. A total of 678 young male soccer players from eight leading Russian soccer academies took part in the study. The following anthropometric measures and physical characteristics were measured: height, weight, body mass index, countermovement jumps (CMJ), 5, 10, and 20 m sprints, speed dribbling, foot and body ball juggling, and short and long pass accuracy. The determination of somatic maturity as a percentage of projected adult height was collected. All subject dates of birth were divided into four quartiles according to the month of birth. The analysis of all data obtained was conducted both within the total sample and by quartiles of birth, according to the age group categories of 12–13 years, 14–15 years, and 16–17 years and the degree of somatic maturity. There was a widespread relative age effect, with 43.5% of early-born players and only 9.6% of late-born players representing the sample. Early-born players were more mature than late-born players (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001) but had no statistically significant differences in strength, speed, or soccer-specific skills.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090179
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 180: Cryo plus Ultrasound Therapy, a Novel
           Rehabilitative Approach for Football Players with Acute Lateral Ankle
           Injury Sprain: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    • Authors: Antonio Ammendolia, Alessandro de Sire, Lorenzo Lippi, Valerio Ammendolia, Riccardo Spanò, Andrea Reggiani, Marco Invernizzi, Nicola Marotta
      First page: 180
      Abstract: Background: Acute lateral ankle sprains are common injuries among athletes, but the optimal treatment strategies in elite athletes are still debated. This proof-of-concept study aimed to assess the impact of cryo-ultrasound therapy on the short-term recovery of football players with acute lateral ankle sprains. Methods: Semi-professional football players with grade I or II lateral ankle sprains were randomly assigned to the experimental group (receiving cryo-ultrasound therapy combined with conventional physical therapy) or control group (sham cryo-ultrasound therapy combined with conventional physical therapy). Pain intensity and physical functioning were assessed by the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) at baseline (T0) at the end of treatment (T1), after one month (T2), and two months after treatment (T3). Results: After the study intervention, significant between groups differences were reported in terms of pain relief (NRS: 4.08 ± 1.29 vs. 5.87 ± 1.19; p = 0.003) and physical function (FADI: 50.9 ± 10.3 vs. 38.3 ± 11.5; p = 0.021). However, no significant between group differences were reported at T2 and T3. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: Cryo-ultrasound therapy combined with conventional physical therapy can accelerate recovery and early return to sport in elite football players with acute lateral ankle sprains. While this study contributes valuable insights into the potential benefits of cryo-ultrasound therapy, further investigations with a longer follow-up are needed to validate and optimize the application of physical agent modalities in the management of ankle injuries.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090180
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 181: Effects of Complex Training on Jumping and
           Change of Direction Performance, and Post-Activation Performance
           Enhancement Response in Basketball Players

    • Authors: Piotr Biel, Paulina Ewertowska, Petr Stastny, Michał Krzysztofik
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Exercise order is one of the significant factors modulating training effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of an 8-week complex (CPX) training program utilizing intra-CPX active recovery with compound training (CMP) on bilateral and single-leg jumping performance, change of direction test time (shuttle test), and the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) response in a group of basketball players. Thirteen participants were performing CPX bi-weekly combined with regular pre-season basketball practice, while eleven participants were performing CMP for 8 weeks. Before and after the interventions, the following fitness tests were assessed: (i) bilateral countermovement jump, (ii) single-leg countermovement jump, (iii) shuttle run test. All tests were performed pre- and post-conditioning activity (CA—three sets of five drop jumps). The results showed a statistically significant increase in non-dominant (p = 0.019) and dominant single-leg jump relative peak power (p = 0.001), and in non-dominant single-leg jump height (p = 0.022) post-training compared to pre-training. The CA was significantly and similarly effective in eliciting a PAPE response in all tests before and after each intervention (p < 0.039; for all). However, the magnitude of improvement in CMJ and shuttle test time was trivial to small and did not reach statistical significance. Both 8 weeks of CPX and CMP training led to significant improvements in the SLJ power output of both the dominant and non-dominant limbs as well as the height of the non-dominant SLJ. Neither of the training methods had significant impacts on the magnitude of the PAPE response.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090181
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 182: Questions of Identity in Sport Psychology

    • Authors: Karen Howells
      First page: 182
      Abstract: As with other academic disciplines, sport psychology academics working in higher education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) in lecturer and senior lecturer positions are typically required to hold a PhD in sport psychology or a related discipline. To work in applied practice with athletes, coaches, National Governing Bodies (NGBs), and sporting organisations, practitioners are required to acquire a qualification that affords registration with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) through either the British Psychology Society (BPS) or the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES). Accordingly, scholar–practitioners, who have “a foot in both worlds” (Tenkasi and Hay, 2008), are required to have two related but distinct qualifications, each of which requires considerable resources (i.e., time, finances, and commitment) to achieve. This paper addresses some of the dilemmas and conflicts that these individuals may encounter in their primary workplace, which typically does not provide for applied practice (either in time or financial incentives). Specifically, issues around the knowledge-transfer gap will be addressed. Real-world examples will be in the form of reflections from the author’s own experiences. I am a senior lecturer in sport and exercise psychology at Cardiff Metropolitan University and the programme director of the MSc Sport Psychology. The role requires me to be HCPC registered, as well as have a PhD in sport psychology. I am also an HCPC Practitioner Psychologist, registered following completion of the BPS Qualification in Sport and Exercise Psychology (QSEP). My practice is limited to minimal private work and the supervision of trainee sport psychologists (BPS). At the end of the paper, I leave the reader with three questions to prompt reflection on what being a sport psychologist means and what contributions scholar–practitioners may offer to academic institutions and the clients we work with.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090182
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 183: Coconut Water: A Sports Drink Alternative'

    • Authors: Brendan J. O’Brien, Leo R. Bell, Declan Hennessy, Joshua Denham, Carl D. Paton
      First page: 183
      Abstract: Coconut water is used as an alternative to conventional sports drinks for hydration during endurance cycling; however, evidence supporting its use is limited. This study determined if drinking coconut water compared to a sports drink altered cycling performance and physiology. In a randomized crossover trial, 19 experienced male (n = 15) and female (n = 4) cyclists (age 30 ± 9 years, body mass 79 ± 11 kg, V̇O2 peak 55 ± 8 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed two experimental trials, consuming either a commercially available sports drink or iso-calorific coconut water during 90 min of sub-maximal cycling at 70% of their peak power output, followed by a simulated, variable gradient, 20 km time trial. Blood glucose, lactate, sweat loss, and heart rate were monitored throughout the 90 min of sub-maximal cycling, as well as the time trial performance (seconds) and average power (watts). A repeated measures analysis of variance and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) analysis were applied. There were no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between the treatments for any of the measured physiological or performance variables. Additionally, the effect size analysis showed only trivial (d ≤ 0.2) differences between the treatments for all the measured variables, except blood glucose, which was lower in the coconut water trial compared to the sports drink trial (d = 0.31). Consuming coconut water had a similar effect on the cycling time trial performance and the physiological responses to consuming a commercially available sports drink.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090183
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 184: Development of a Cutting Technique
           Modification Training Program and Evaluation of its Effects on Movement
           Quality and Cutting Performance in Male Adolescent American Football

    • Authors: Lutz Thieschäfer, Julius Klütz, Julian Weig, Thomas Dos’Santos, Dirk Büsch
      First page: 184
      Abstract: This study developed a cutting technique modification training program and investigated its effects on cutting performance and movement quality in adolescent American football players. For six weeks, an intervention group (IG) of 11 players participated in 25 min cutting technique modification training sessions integrated into team training twice a week, while a control group (CG) of 11 players continued their usual team training. Movement quality was assessed by evaluating 2D high-speed videos, obtained during preplanned 45° and 90° cutting tests, using the Cutting Movement Assessment Score (CMAS) qualitative screening tool. Cutting performance was assessed based on change of direction deficit (CODD). Significant interaction effects of time × group were found for CMAS in 45° and 90° cuttings (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.76, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.64, respectively), with large improvements in the IG (p < 0.001, g = −2.16, p < 0.001, g = −1.78, respectively) and deteriorations in the CG for 45° cuttings (p = 0.002, g = 1.15). However, no statistically significant differences in CODD were observed pre-to-post intervention. The cutting technique modification training was effective at improving movement quality without impairing cutting performance, and it can be used by practitioners working with adolescent athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090184
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 185: Muscle Activation and Ground Reaction Force
           between Single-Leg Drop Landing and Jump Landing among Young Females
           during Weight-Acceptance Phase

    • Authors: Metaneeya Pilanthananond, Kittichai Tharawadeepimuk, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan, Weerawat Limroongreungrat
      First page: 185
      Abstract: Single-leg drop landing (SLDL) and jump landing (SLJL) are frequently used as assessment tools for identifying potential high-risk movement patterns; thus, understanding differences in neuromuscular responses between these types of landings is essential. This study aimed to compare lower extremity neuromuscular responses between the SLDL and SLJL. Thirteen female participants performed an SLDL and SLJL from a 30-cm box height. Vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), time to peak vGRF, and surface electromyography (sEMG) data were collected. Continuous neuromuscular responses, peak vGRF, and time to peak vGRF were compared between the tasks. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis demonstrated that the SLJL had a significantly higher sEMG activity in the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) within the first 10% of the landing phase compared with SLDL. At 20–30% of the landing phase, sEMGs in the RF and VL during the SLDL were significantly higher compared with SLJL (p < 0.05). A higher peak vGRF and shorter time to peak vGRF was observed during SLJL (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings highlight that SLJL exhibited greater RF, VL, and VM activities than SLDL at initial impact (10% landing), coinciding with a higher peak vGRF and shorter time to attain peak vGRF. Our findings support the role of the quadriceps as the primary energy dissipator during the SLJL.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090185
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 186: Comparison of Ultra-Short Race Pace and
           High-Intensity Interval Training in Age Group Competitive Swimmers

    • Authors: Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Athanasios Kabasakalis, Anastasios Papadopoulos, Georgios Mavridis, Georgios Tsalis
      First page: 186
      Abstract: The aim of this study was tο examine the acute responses to an Ultra-Short Race Pace Training (USRPT) and a High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), both oriented for the event of 100 m freestyle. Eighteen national-level swimmers (8 boys, 10 girls) aged 13.5 ± 0.1 years, with 8.0 ± 0.5 years of experience participated in the study. All participants completed a USRPT and a HIIT protocol consisting of 2 × 10 × 25 m (USRPT1 & USRPT2) and 5 × 50 m. Significantly higher swimming velocity (SV) were achieved in USRPT compared to HIIT (p < 0.001), while significantly lower distance per stroke (DPS) and stroke index (SI) were obtained (p = 0.007 and p < 0.001). Also, significantly lower blood lactate and glucose (BL & BG) concentrations were found after USRPT (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.037). Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were significantly lower after USRPT than HIIT (p < 0.001 and p = 0.015). According to the results, an USRPT swimming set consisting of 20 × 25 m at a 100 m pace seems to induce more specific responses in kinematic characteristics, biomarkers, HR and RPE compared to a 5 × 50 m HIIT set.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090186
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 187: Predicting Risk Factors of Lower Extremity
           Injuries in Elite Women’s Football: Systematic Review and

    • Authors: Feim Gashi, Tine Kovacic, Arbnore Ibrahimaj Gashi, Arben Boshnjaku, Ismet Shalaj
      First page: 187
      Abstract: This study identified and analyzed the risk factors of lower extremity injuries (LEI) in elite women football players to improve career and health outcomes. To address this aim, a systematic review and meta-analysis methodology was used. In total, four relevant research articles were identified through database searching and screening using the PRISMA flow diagram. From these articles, eight predictors were identified that influence the risk of LEI among elite women football players: higher body mass index (OR 1.51, 95% CI); previous knee injury (OR 3.57, 95% CI); low normalized knee separation (≤10th percentile) (RR 1.92, 95% CI); all previous injury (previous ACL tear: OR 5.24, 95% CI; ankle sprain: 1.39, 95% CI; knee sprain: 1.50, 95% CI); and previous injury in the lower body (OR 2.97, 95% CI). Meanwhile, lower knee valgus angle in a drop-jump landing (OR 0.64, 95% CI) was found to decrease the risk of LEI among elite women football players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11090187
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 9 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 139: Motor Coordination in Children: A Comparison
           between Children Engaged in Multisport Activities and Swimming

    • Authors: Dušan Stanković, Maja Horvatin, Jadranka Vlašić, Damir Pekas, Nebojša Trajković
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Motor coordination has a crucial role in various physical activities and sports, highlighting its significance in overall movement proficiency and performance. This study aimed to compare motor coordination in children engaged in multisport versus swimming activities. The participants of this study included 180 boys and girls (girls = 87) aged 8.25 years ± 0.89. A total of three groups were included: group 1 consisted of inactive children, group 2 included children participating in swimming, and group 3 included children enrolled in multisport. Motor coordination was assessed using the Kiphard–Schilling body coordination test, evaluated by motor quotient (MQ): walking backwards, hopping for height, jumping sideways, and moving sideways. Additionally, a total motor quotient (Total MQ) was calculated based on the performance in all four tests. ANOVA revealed a significant difference in Total MQ and all subtests between the groups (p < 0.01). A significant difference in Total MQ was found not only between the inactive and multisport groups (Diff = 19.8000; 95%CI = 13.1848 to 26.4152; p = 0.001) but also between the multisport and swimming groups (Diff = 12.8000; 95%CI = 6.3456 to 19.2544; p = 0.001). In conclusion, the results revealed that children involved in multisport activities exhibited significantly better motor coordination compared to both the swimming group and the inactive group. Therefore, to enhance the growth of motor coordination abilities, it is crucial that parents, instructors, and coaches encourage kids to engage in multisport physical activities on a daily basis.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080139
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 140: Effectiveness of a Judo Intervention Programme
           on the Psychosocial Area in Secondary School Education Students

    • Authors: David Lindell-Postigo, Félix Zurita-Ortega, Eduardo Melguizo-Ibáñez, Gabriel González-Valero, Manuel Ortiz-Franco, José Luis Ubago-Jiménez
      First page: 140
      Abstract: Currently, many combat sports are pedagogically conceived as uneducational and unreliable for the development of young people. The present research aims to investigate the influence of a Judo intervention programme on the motivational climate towards sport, aggressive behaviour, emotional intelligence, and self-concept in secondary school students and to establish the relationships between them. This objective was broken down into (a) developing an explanatory model of the variables mentioned above and (b) testing the model equations through a multi-group analysis in terms of pre-test and post-test. The present study conducted a pre–post-test quasi-experimental design with a single experimental group. The sample consisted of a total of 139 adolescents (12.67 ± 1.066), 50.4% of whom were male (n = 70) and 49.6% female (n = 69). The results show that the intervention decreased all types of aggression and increased levels of emotional intelligence. An increase in social, physical and academic self-concept and decreases in the family and emotional areas were also observed. Finally, for the motivational climate, a tendency towards the ego climate to the detriment of the task climate was observed. It is concluded that the Judo intervention programme is effective in decreasing aggressive behaviour and effective in increasing levels of emotional intelligence and self-concept.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080140
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 141: A Systematic Review of Dynamic Forces and
           Kinematic Indicators of Front and Roundhouse Kicks across Varied
           Conditions and Participant Experience

    • Authors: Michal Vagner, Daniel John Cleather, Vladan Olah, Jan Vacek, Petr Stastny
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Impact force and maximum velocity are important indicators of kick efficiency. Therefore, this systematic review compared the front kick (FK) and roundhouse kick (RK), including their impact force, maximum velocity, angular velocity, and execution time, considering various target types and experience levels. Following PRISMA guidelines, the Web of Science, SportDiscus, and PubMed were systematically searched for articles published from January 1982 to May 2022. Normalized kicking values were compared using one-way ANOVA. Eighteen articles included FKs (sample: 113 elite men, 109 sub-elite men, and 46 novices), and twenty-five articles included RKs (sample: 238 elite men, 143 sub-elite men, and 27 novice men). The results indicate that the impact force of the FK were 47% (p < 0.01), 92% (p < 0.01), and 120% (p < 0.01) higher than those of the RK across novice, sub-elite, and elite groups, respectively. Moreover, the maximum foot velocity of the RK was 44% (p < 0.01) and 48% (p < 0.01) higher than that of the FK for the sub-elite and elite groups, respectively. Furthermore, the elite group had 65% (p < 0.01) higher knee extension angular velocity with the RK than with the FK and 138% (p < 0.01) higher hip extension angular velocity with the FK than with the RK. In summary, the findings suggest that the FK is more effective in generating forceful kicks, while the RK has the potential for rapid execution.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080141
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 142: In-Season Longitudinal Hydration/Body Cell
           Mass Ratio Changes in Elite Rugby Players

    • Authors: Álex Cebrián-Ponce, Cristian Petri, Pascal Izzicupo, Matteo Levi Micheli, Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco, Marta Carrasco-Marginet, Gabriele Mascherini
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Background: Hydration status has a direct role in sports performance. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) and Urine Specific Gravity (USG) are commonly used to assess hydration. The study aims to identify the sensitivity and relationship between BIVA and USG in a field sports setting. Methods: BIVA and USG measurements were conducted five times throughout one rugby season. 34 elite male rugby players (25.1 ± 4.4 years; 184.0 ± 7.8 cm; 99.9 ± 13.4 kg) were enrolled. Differences over time were tested using one-way repeated measures ANOVA, and Bonferroni’s post-hoc test was applied in pairwise comparisons. Resistance-reactance graphs and Hotelling’s T2 test were used to characterize the sample and to identify bioelectrical changes. A repeated measures correlation test was conducted for BIVA-USG associations. Results: Two clear trends were seen: (1) from July to September, there was a vector shortening and an increase of the phase angle (p < 0.001); and (2) from December to April, there was a vector lengthening and a decrease of the phase angle (p < 0.001). USG reported neither changes nor correlation with BIVA longitudinally (p > 0.05). Vector variations indicated a body fluid gain (especially in the intracellular compartment) and a body cell mass increase during the preseason, suggesting a physical condition and performance improvement. During the last months of the season, the kinetic was the opposite (fluid loss and decreased body cell mass). Conclusions: Results suggested that BIVA is sensitive to physiological changes and a better option than USG for assessing hydration changes during a rugby sports season.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080142
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 143: Educational Needs for Coaching Judo in Older
           Adults: The EdJCO Focus Groups

    • Authors: Federico Palumbo, Simone Ciaccioni, Flavia Guidotti, Roberta Forte, Envic Galea, Attilio Sacripanti, Nuša Lampe, Špela Lampe, Toma Jelušić, Slaviŝa Bradić, Maria-Loredana Lascau, Alina Rodica-Borza, Raúl Camacho Pérez, Fernando Diéguez Rodríguez-Montero, Mesut Kapan, Kaya Gezeker, Laura Capranica, Antonio Tessitore
      First page: 143
      Abstract: Judo coaches are urged to develop specific competencies and skills for addressing the special needs of older practitioners. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the experts’ opinions on judo training in late adulthood to develop sound educational programs for coaches of older judo practitioners. Overall, eighty-eight experts from an international consortium of judo and educational partners participated in national focus groups. During the focus groups, experts discussed five themes and generated statements pertinent to educate coaches to support older judo practitioners (e.g., benefits; necessary knowledge; risks; training groups definition; tools; and tests for monitoring training plans). The initial list of 262 statements was synthesized, validated, analyzed, and organized into a final list of 55 statements and six macro-areas: aging process (n = 10); safety and first aid (n = 6); physiology and fitness (n = 12); psychology and mental health (n = 11); organization and environment (n = 5); adapted judo teaching and training (n = 11). The present international eminence-based study, harmonizing diverse intercultural perspectives, highlighted the specific needs of older judo practitioners. The results of this study will contribute to the structure of a sound educational program for coaches of older judo practitioners to enhance the quality of older adults’ sports experiences by linking safety, enjoyment, social interactions, and learning principles.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080143
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 144: Muscle Damage, Inflammation, and Muscular
           Performance following the Physical Ability Test in Professional

    • Authors: Matthew L. Sokoloski, Brandon R. Rigby, George A. King, Kyle D. Biggerstaff, Christopher J. Irvine, Andrew M. Bosak, Ryan A. Gordon, Emily L. Zumbro, Cayla E. Clark, Nicole L. Varone, Brett W. Crossland
      First page: 144
      Abstract: Proper monitoring of fatigue and muscular damage may be used to decrease the high levels of cardiovascular disease, overuse musculoskeletal injuries, and workers compensation claims within the profession of firefighting. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle damage, muscular fatigue, and inflammation responses following a typical firefighting shift. Twenty-four professional firefighters completed two Physical Ability Tests to standardize the tasks typically performed in a day of work, and to elicit similar physiological responses. Participants were then monitored for 48 h. Prior to, and 48 h following the Physical Ability Tests, participants were evaluated for changes in strength, power, range-of-motion, as well as blood markers including myoglobin and c-reactive protein. Following the Physical Ability Tests, significant differences in myoglobin (p < 0.05), grip strength (p < 0.05), vertical jump (p < 0.05), and sit-and-reach (p < 0.05) were observed. No difference in c-reactive protein was observed (p > 0.05). After 24 hours following a shift, firefighters exhibited decreased strength, power, and range-of-motion. This may lead to decreases in performance and an increased risk of injury.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080144
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 145: The Effect of Acute Exercise on State Anxiety:
           A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Madeleine Connor, Elaine A. Hargreaves, Orla K. Scanlon, Olivia K. Harrison
      First page: 145
      Abstract: Acute exercise has been shown to induce a small reduction in state anxiety, yet the most beneficial exercise stimulus is not clear. This review provides an update on the papers published since the last comprehensive review in 2015, with specific emphasis on whether study quality has improved. Randomised control trials, conducted in samples of healthy adults with non-clinical anxiety, were sourced from PubMed, PsycInfo, and Scopus. Study characteristics and study quality were assessed in nine studies comprising thirteen exercise conditions. Acute exercise significantly reduced anxiety in 53% (N = 7/13) of the exercise conditions. In comparison to a control condition, four showed exercising to be more effective, and one was as effective as the control. Two of the effective studies did not contain a control group. Six conditions were ineffective in reducing anxiety. There was no clear pattern of what combination of exercise mode, duration, and intensity was most effective, suggesting a variety may be effective in reducing anxiety. Methodological limitations still exist within the research, e.g., participant recruitment not considering baseline anxiety; variations in the control condition content. Future research should include participant samples exhibiting moderate-to-high levels of anxiety and examine self-selected exercise intensities.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080145
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 146: Using a Standing Heel-Rise Test as a Predictor
           of Ankle Muscle Strength in the Elderly

    • Authors: Weerasak Tapanya, Sinthuporn Maharan, Noppharath Sangkarit, Puttipong Poncumhak, Saisunee Konsanit
      First page: 146
      Abstract: The senior population is at increased risk of falling due to a reduction in ankle muscle strength. Evaluating the strength of the ankle muscles in older adults is of paramount importance. The purpose of this study was to formulate an equation to estimate ankle muscle strength by utilizing the basic physical characteristics of the subject and the variables related to their ability to perform the standing heel-rise test (SHRT). One hundred and thirty-two healthy elderly participants (mean age 67.30 ± 7.60) completed the SHRT and provided demographic information. Ankle plantar flexor (PF) muscle strength was evaluated using a push–pull dynamometer. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to develop a prediction equation for ankle PF muscle strength. The study revealed that the ankle PF strength equation was derived from variables including the power index of the SHRT, gender, age, calf circumference, and single-leg standing balance test. The equation exhibited a strong correlation (r = 0.816) and had a predictive power of 65.3%. The equation is represented as follows: ankle PF strength = 24.31 − 0.20(A) + 8.14(G) + 0.49(CC) + 0.07(SSEO) + 0.20(BW/t-SHRT). The equation had an estimation error of 5.51 kg. The strength of ankle PFs in elderly individuals can be estimated by considering demographic variables, including gender, age, calf circumference, single-leg standing balance test, and the power index of the SHRT. These factors were identified as significant determinants of ankle PF strength in this population.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080146
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 147: Effect of Self-Myofascial Release of the Lower
           Back on Myofascial Gliding, Lumbar Flexibility, and Abdominal Trunk Muscle
           Strength: A Crossover Study

    • Authors: Yuki Nakai, Katsutoshi Oe, Ryuko Matsuno, Ryoji Kiyama, Masayuki Kawada, Yasufumi Takeshita, Takasuke Miyazaki, Sota Araki
      First page: 147
      Abstract: Roller massage has been recognized as an effective intervention for managing various conditions. However, data on the effects of roller massage on the dynamic mechanisms of the myofascial and soft tissues of the lower back are limited. This study aimed to examine the effect of the self-myofascial release of the lower back on myofascial gliding, lumbar flexibility, and abdominal trunk muscle strength using a roller massager. This crossover study included 24 college athletes who underwent three interventions—roller massage, static stretching, and control (rest). Before and after the intervention, lumbar and fascial gliding were evaluated using ultrasonography. Long-seat anteflexion (lumbar flexibility) and abdominal trunk muscle strength were assessed. The movement velocities of the subcutaneous tissue and the multifidus muscle over time were calculated using echo video analysis software, and gliding was estimated using the cross-correlation coefficient between the velocities. Gliding, lumbar flexibility, and abdominal trunk muscle strength showed significant intervention-by-time interactions. Roller massage significantly improved gliding, lumbar flexibility, and abdominal trunk muscle strength. The self-myofascial release of the lower back using a roller massager improved the lumbar/fascia gliding, lumbar flexibility, and abdominal trunk muscle strength compared to static stretching.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080147
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 148: Acute Effects of Supra- and High-Loaded Front
           Squats on Mechanical Properties of Lower-Limb Muscles

    • Authors: Michal Krzysztofik, Michal Wilk, Dominik Kolinger, Anna Pisz, Katarzyna Świtała, Jan Petruzela, Petr Stastny
      First page: 148
      Abstract: Knowledge about the acute effects of supramaximal-loaded resistance exercises on muscle mechanical properties is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to examine changes in dominant limb biceps femoris and vastus lateralis oscillation frequency and stiffness before and after high- and supramaximal-loaded front squats. Nineteen male handball players participated in the experimental session with a barbell front squat 1RM. The first set was performed at 70% of the 1RM for four repetitions, and the second and third sets were performed at 90%1RM in an eccentric–concentric or an eccentric-only manner at 120% of the 1RM for three repetitions. The handheld myometer was used for the measurement of the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis stiffness and the oscillation frequency of the dominant limb 5 min before and at the 5th and 10th min after front squats. A two-way ANOVA neither indicated a statistically significant interaction (p = 0.335; η2 = 0.059 and p = 0.103; η2 = 0.118), the main effect of a condition (p = 0.124; η2 = 0.126 and p = 0.197; η2 = 0.091), nor the main effect of the time point (p = 0.314; η2 = 0.06 and p = 0.196; η2 = 0.089) for vastus lateralis and biceps femoris stiffness. However, there was a statistically significant interaction (F = 3.516; p = 0.04; η2 = 0.163) for vastus lateralis oscillation frequency. The post hoc analysis showed a significantly higher vastus lateralis oscillation frequency at POST (p = 0.037; d = 0.29) and POST_10 (p = 0.02; d = 0.29) compared to PRE during the SUPRA condition. Moreover, Friedman’s test indicated statistically significant differences in biceps femoris oscillation frequency (test = 15.482; p = 0.008; Kendall’s W = 0.163). Pairwise comparison showed a significantly lower biceps femoris oscillation frequency in POST (p = 0.042; d = 0.31) and POST_10 (p = 0.015; d = 0.2) during the HIGH condition compared to that in the corresponding time points during the SUPRA condition. The results of this study indicate that the SUPRA front squats, compared to the high-loaded ones, cause a significant increase in biceps femoris and vastus lateralis oscillation frequency.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080148
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 149: Effects of Exercise on Quality of Life in
           Subjects with Alzheimer’s Disease: Systematic Review with
           Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    • Authors: Mariana Mendes, Érica Correia, Anabela Vitorino, José Rodrigues, Luís Cid, Teresa Bento, Raul Antunes, Diogo Monteiro, Nuno Couto
      First page: 149
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia that progressively affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It can interfere with daily activities and lead to a decline in cognitive abilities over time. Exercise-based interventions can complement Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Exercise is a valuable tool in all healthcare settings and has shown promise as an effective cognitive improvement intervention for people with cognitive impairments. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to analyze the effect of physical exercise on the QoL of subjects with Alzheimer’s disease. A search was performed with the help of the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science. Randomized controlled trials with exercise-based interventions were selected. Four studies met the inclusion criteria, which included interventions based on exercise. The effects were summarized using standardized mean differences (95% confidence intervals) using random-effect models. The results showed that exercise had no significant effect on the QoL of subjects with Alzheimer. Thus, the effect of exercise interventions on the QoL of patients with Alzheimer’s disease is not conclusive. More research is needed about this topic and the way in which the QoL is assessed; the necessity to conduct an objective way to assess the QoL in this population is mandatory.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080149
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 150: Plyometric Jump Training Exercise Optimization
           for Maximizing Human Performance: A Systematic Scoping Review and
           Identification of Gaps in the Existing Literature

    • Authors: Ekaitz Dudagoitia Barrio, Rohit K. Thapa, Francisca Villanueva-Flores, Igor Garcia-Atutxa, Asier Santibañez-Gutierrez, Julen Fernández-Landa, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
      First page: 150
      Abstract: Background: Plyometric jump training (PJT) encompasses a range of different exercises that may offer advantages over other training methods to improve human physical capabilities (HPC). However, no systematic scoping review has analyzed either the role of the type of PJT exercise as an independent prescription variable or the gaps in the literature regarding PJT exercises to maximize HPC. Objective: This systematic scoping review aims to summarize the published scientific literature and its gaps related to HPC adaptations (e.g., jumping) to PJT, focusing on the role of the type of PJT exercise as an independent prescription variable. Methods: Computerized literature searches were conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS electronic databases. Design (PICOS) framework: (P) Healthy participants of any age, sex, fitness level, or sports background; (I) Chronic interventions exclusively using any form of PJT exercise type (e.g., vertical, unilateral). Multimodal interventions (e.g., PJT + heavy load resistance training) will be considered only if studies included two experimental groups under the same multimodal intervention, with the only difference between groups being the type of PJT exercise. (C) Comparators include PJT exercises with different modes (e.g., vertical vs. horizontal; vertical vs. horizontal combined with vertical); (O) Considered outcomes (but not limited to): physiological, biomechanical, biochemical, psychological, performance-related outcomes/adaptations, or data on injury risk (from prevention-focused studies); (S) Single- or multi-arm, randomized (parallel, crossover, cluster, other) or non-randomized. Results: Through database searching, 10,546 records were initially identified, and 69 studies (154 study groups) were included in the qualitative synthesis. The DJ (counter, bounce, weighted, and modified) was the most studied type of jump, included in 43 study groups, followed by the CMJ (standard CMJ or modified) in 19 study groups, and the SJ (standard SJ or modified) in 17 study groups. Strength and vertical jump were the most analyzed HPC outcomes in 38 and 54 studies, respectively. The effects of vertical PJT versus horizontal PJT on different HPC were compared in 21 studies. The effects of bounce DJ versus counter DJ (or DJ from different box heights) on different HPC were compared in 26 studies. Conclusions: Although 69 studies analyzed the effects of PJT exercise type on different HPC, several gaps were identified in the literature. Indeed, the potential effect of the PJT exercise type on a considerable number of HPC outcomes (e.g., aerobic capacity, flexibility, asymmetries) are virtually unexplored. Future studies are needed, including greater number of participants, particularly in groups of females, senior athletes, and youths according to maturity. Moreover, long-term (e.g., >12 weeks) PJT interventions are needed
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080150
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 151: Evaluation of the Training Session in Elite
           Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes Based on Biomechanical and Thermal

    • Authors: Larissa Christine Vieira Santos, Felipe J. Aidar, Rodrigo Villar, Gianpiero Greco, Jefferson Lima de Santana, Anderson Carlos Marçal, Paulo Francisco de Almeida-Neto, Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral, Georgian Badicu, Hadi Nobari, Raphael Frabrício de Souza, Walderi Monteiro da Silva Júnior
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Background: Paralympic powerlifting (PP) is performed on a bench press, aiming to lift as much weight as possible in a single repetition. Purpose: To evaluate thermal asymmetry and dynamic force parameters with 45 and 80% 1 Repetition Maximum (1 RM) in PP athletes. Methods: Twelve elite PP male athletes were evaluated before and after a training session regarding skin temperature (thermography) and dynamic force indicators (Average Propulsive Velocity-MPV, Maximum Velocity-VMax, and Power). The training consisted of five series of five repetitions (5 × 5) with 80% 1 RM. The force indicators and dynamics before and after (45% 1 RM) were evaluated in series “1” and “5” with 80% 1 RM. Results: The temperature did not present asymmetry, and there were differences between the moment before and after. In MPV, Vmax, and Power, with 45% 1 RM, there were differences both in asymmetry and in moments (p < 0.005). With 80% 1 RM, asymmetry was observed, but no differences between moments (p < 0.005). Conclusion: No thermal asymmetry was observed. There were reductions in MVP and VMax at 45 and 80% 1 RM but without significant differences between time points (before and after). However, there was asymmetry in the moments before and after within a safety standard, where Paralympic powerlifting was safe in terms of asymmetries.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080151
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 152: Shoulder, Trunk, and Hip Sagittal Plane
           Kinematics during Stand-Up Paddle Boarding

    • Authors: Jamie E. Hibbert, Corina Kaufman, Deanna J. Schmidt
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) as both a competitive and recreational sport has grown in popularity over the last decade. Better understanding paddling kinematics is beneficial for both injury prevention and informing coaching practices in this growing sport. The purpose of this study was to analyze sagittal plane kinematics during both standing and kneeling paddling postures commonly adopted by injury-free, recreational SUP participants. Eighteen recreational SUP participants (seven males/eleven females) were asked to complete a series of paddling tasks on a SUP ergometer in two postures, during which kinematic data were acquired. Sagittal plane kinematic data were analyzed for joint excursion, or range of motion used, while paddling on both sides of the body in each posture. Analysis of variance was used to compare joint excursions across tasks. There were no significant differences in hip or trunk sagittal plant excursion between postures. However, there was significantly greater sagittal plane excursion at the shoulder in the kneeling as compared to the standing posture with the shoulder opposite the paddling side demonstrating the greatest total excursion. These results help establish the parameters of the paddling technique currently in use among injury-free SUP participants and may be used in the future to inform coaching practices.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080152
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 153: The Gaze Patterns of Group Fitness Instructors
           Based on Different Levels of Training and Professional Experience

    • Authors: Francisco Campos, Catarina M. Amaro, João P. Duarte, Rui Mendes, Fernando Martins
      First page: 153
      Abstract: The way in which group fitness instructors observe participants has a great influence on their pedagogical intervention. Based on the above, the main objective of this research is to characterize and compare their gaze patterns according to their training and professional experience. Twenty group fitness instructors of choreographed classes participated, aged between 18 and 42 years old, and for the comparison, four groups were created. Eye movements were captured with TOBII Pro Glasses 3, and data were coded and analyzed using the TOBII Pro Lab software. For the characterization of the gaze patterns, descriptive statistics were used in terms of count (f/m) and duration (s/m), while the comparison was performed using a one-way ANOVA test. More trained and experienced instructors tend to look at participants less, in count (80.59 ± 0.74) and duration (17.74 ± 0.71), with significant differences between the groups in some areas of interest (head, lower body, and other). There are also significant differences in the total number of eye fixations (F = 34.614; p = 0.001; η2 = 0.866; effect size very high). In conclusion, and projecting future works, it is important to understand how these gaze patterns are related to pedagogical behaviors in general or based on some specific factors (e.g., pedagogical feedback).
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080153
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 154: Lateral Force and EMG Activity in Wide- and
           Narrow-Grip Bench Press in Various Conditions

    • Authors: Michiya Tanimoto, Hiroshi Arakawa, Mauto Sato, Akinori Nagano
      First page: 154
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the lateral force and contribution of shoulder horizontal adductor and elbow extensor muscles activity during wide- and narrow-grip bench press (BP) in various conditions, such as resistance-trained/non-trained, concentric/eccentric, and muscle fatigue/non-fatigue. We measured the lateral force on the bar and the electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of pectoralis major (PM) and triceps brachii (TB) during 10 RM BP with wide grip (81 cm) and narrow grip (40 cm) in seven resistance-trained men and seven non-trained men. The all-reps average of the lateral-to-vertical force ratio both in resistance-trained and non-trained subjects was about 30% outward for the wide grip and about 10% inward for the narrow grip. The EMG contribution ratio PM/TB shows no significant differences between narrow and wide grip in all evaluated conditions except in non-trained subjects’ muscle fatigue eccentric phase. Both resistance-trained and non-trained subjects did not push the bar straight upward, and the EMG PM/TB was almost unchanged by hand width. The direction adjustment of the force on the bar that achieves almost the same muscle activity degree of the shoulder and elbow joints might be optimal BP kinetics.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080154
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 155: Constituent Year Effects and Performance in
           Alpine Skiing Junior World Championships

    • Authors: Øyvind Bjerke, Håvard Lorås, Arve Vorland Pedersen
      First page: 155
      Abstract: This study examines constituent year effect (CYE) and race performance among junior alpine skiers in the World Championships. In various junior age cohorts competing together, variation in skiing performance can be expected not only due to practice load and experience but also due to inter-individual differences in physical and psychological maturation. Within a one-year cohort, this effect has been referred to as the birth month effect or the relative age effect (RAE). In cohorts with multiple age bands, the effect is termed the constituent year effect (CYE). The CYE works in principle as the RAE but can function as a magnifying lens of the development within a larger multi-year cohort. The results of the current study indicate that CYEs are present among junior alpine skier performance in the junior World Championships. The magnitude of the constituent year effect is greater in speed events (i.e., downhill and super-G) than in technical events (i.e., slalom and giant slalom), and greater among male skiers compared to female skiers. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research on relative age effects more generally and within the sport context specifically.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080155
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 156: Physical Fitness Tests as Predictors of
           High-Intensity Running Performance in Rugby

    • Authors: Takashi Sato, Minas Nalbandian, Masaki Takeda
      First page: 156
      Abstract: Understanding the physical fitness elements that influence high-intensity running ability during rugby matches is crucial for optimizing player performance and developing effective training strategies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between various physical fitness components and high-intensity running ability in rugby. For this purpose, 60 Japanese university rugby players were randomized into four groups and two matches were played. The participants were monitored in two matches, and their running abilities were assessed using GPS sensors. The running time was divided into three running velocity categories: distance run at ≤5.4 km/h (low-intensity running); distance run at 5.5~17.9 km/h (medium-intensity running), and distance run at ≥18.0 km/h ≤(high-intensity running) and backs and forwards were evaluated separately. To determine which physical fitness test is more predictive of performance, we decided to correlate several physical test performances with the running time intensities during the matches. Independently of the position, the high-intensity running time correlated with the repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the 40 m sprint speed. The results suggest that RSA measured in the field is the most important high-intensity running ability predictor during a match for both positions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080156
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 157: Functional and Morphological Adaptations in
           the Heart of Children Aged 12–14 Years following Two Different
           Endurance Training Protocols

    • Authors: Lefteris Rafailakis, Chariklia K. Deli, Ioannis G. Fatouros, Athanasios Tsiokanos, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Poulios, Dimitrios Soulas, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas
      First page: 157
      Abstract: This study investigated the cardiac functional and the morphological adaptations because of two endurance training protocols. Untrained children (N = 30, age: 12–14 years) were divided into three groups (N = 10/group). The first group did not perform any session (CONTROL), the second performed ventilatory threshold endurance training (VTT) for 12 weeks (2 sessions/week) at an intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT) and the third (IT) performed two sessions per week at 120% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Two other sessions (30 min running at 55–65% of VO2max) per week were performed in VVT and IT. Echocardiograms (Left Ventricular end Diastolic Diameter, LVEDd; Left Ventricular end Diastolic Volume, LVEDV; Stroke Volume, SV; Ejection Fraction, EF; Posterior Wall Thickness of the Left Ventricle, PWTLV) and cardiopulmonary ergospirometry (VO2max, VT, velocity at VO2max (vVO2max), time in vVO2max until exhaustion (Tlim) was conducted before and after protocols. Significant increases were observed in both training groups in LVEDd (VTT = 5%; IT = 3.64%), in LVEDV (VTT = 23.7%; ITT = 13.6%), in SV (VTT = 25%; IT = 16.9%) but not in PWTLV and EF, after protocols. No differences were noted in the CONTROL group. VO2max and VT increased significantly in both training groups by approximately 9% after training. Our results indicate that intensity endurance training does not induce meaningful functional and morphological perturbations in the hearts of children.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080157
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 158: Dietary Intake and Supplement Use in
           Competitive Women Bodybuilders

    • Authors: John E. Haubenstricker, Jerry W. Lee, Gina Segovia-Siapco, Ernesto Medina
      First page: 158
      Abstract: (1) Background: Women bodybuilders use extreme diets, dietary supplementation, and training regimes to sculpt their physiques. Women’s participation in bodybuilding competitions has increased since the 1980s. Currently, studies on their dietary intake and supplement use are limited. Their dietary intake may be of poor quality and low in several micronutrients, while supplement use appears to be omnipresent. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine and compare the dietary intake, supplement use, and diet quality of in-season and off-season women bodybuilders. (2) Methods: In a cross-sectional design, we compared dietary intake, supplement use, and diet quality between seasons in women bodybuilders (n = 227). An online questionnaire was developed, validated, and administered to assess all non-dietary and supplement variables. The Automated Self-Administered 24 h Dietary Assessment Tool was used to collect four 24 h dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) was used to calculate diet quality. The analysis of covariance and Welch’s t-tests were used to assess the differences between in-season and off-season women bodybuilders’ dietary intake, supplement, and HEI-2015 variables. (3) Results: In-season competitors reported consuming significantly less energy, carbohydrates, and fat but more protein than off-season competitors. All competitors consumed excess protein, while in-season competitors consumed excess fat and off-season competitors consumed less energy than the physique athlete nutrition recommendations. All competitors’ micronutrient intakes were above the Dietary Reference Intakes. Supplements were used by all competitors, and the mean number used was similar between seasons. The HEI-2015 scores were not significantly different between seasons yet were below the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans. (4) Conclusion: Women bodybuilders would benefit from health education to achieve physique athlete nutrition recommendations, improve diet quality, and safe/efficacious supplement use to reach physique goals and improve overall health.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080158
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 159: Spinal Muscle Thickness and Activation during
           Abdominal Hollowing and Bracing in CrossFit® Athletes

    • Authors: Ioannis Tsartsapakis, Georgia-Andriana Pantazi, Agapi Konstantinidou, Aglaia Zafeiroudi, Eleftherios Kellis
      First page: 159
      Abstract: Exercises that improve muscle activation are essential for maintaining spinal stability and preventing low back pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of abdominal hollowing and bracing on the activation of the core muscles in CrossFit® participants using ultrasound and electromyography (EMG). Twenty-four healthy adults aged 21 to 42 years old with at least two years of CrossFit® experience performed three core stability exercises (plank, side plank, bridge) with abdominal hollowing and bracing. We measured the ultrasound relative thickness of the local core muscles (transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and lumbar multifidus), and the EMG percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the global core muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, and iliocostalis lumborum). Analysis of variance tests showed that the relative thickness of the local core muscles was greater (p = 0.016) during hollowing (range from 26.8 ± 5.33 to 88.4 ± 11.9% of rest) than bracing (range from 15.9 ± 3.54 to 61.2 ± 15.9% of rest), while the EMG of the global muscles was greater (p = 0.001) in bracing (range from 24.4 ± 7.30 to 72.5 ± 9.17% of MVC) than hollowing (range from 16.4 ± 3.70 to 56.6 ± 7.65% of MVC). These results indicate that the recruitment of spinal muscles during popular exercises is achieved with both hollowing and bracing. Nevertheless, it appears that hollowing tends to recruit more of the local muscles, whilst bracing recruits more of the global muscles. The grading of the exercises varied between muscles and varied between maneuvers, especially for the surface abdominals and lumbar muscles. CrossFit® practitioners can choose to use either hollowing or bracing to activate their core muscles more selectively or more appropriately, depending on the goal and purpose of the exercise.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080159
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 160: Emotional Intelligence in Spanish Elite
           Athletes: Is There a Differential Factor between Sports'

    • Authors: Daniel Mon-López, Cecilia Blanco-García, Jorge Acebes-Sánchez, Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Moisés Marquina, Adrián Martín-Castellanos, Alfonso de la Rubia, Carlos Cordente Martínez, Jesús Oliván Mallén, María Garrido-Muñoz
      First page: 160
      Abstract: Emotional intelligence is a determinant factor in sports performance. The present study analysed differences in total emotional intelligence and its four dimensions in 2166 Spanish athletes (25.20 ± 10.17 years) from eight sports (volleyball, track and field, shooting, football, basketball, handball, gymnastics, and judo). A total of 1200 men and 966 women answered anonymously using a Google Forms questionnaire sent via WhatsApp about demographics and psychological variables. A Pearson correlation was conducted to assess the age–emotional intelligence relationship. An independent T-test and One-Way ANOVA were carried out to check for age differences between biological sex and sport and a One-Way ANCOVA to determine differences between sports controlled by age. Age differences were observed by sex and sport (p < 0.001). An association was found between age and emotional intelligence dimensions (p < 0.001), except for other’s emotional appraisal (p > 0.05). Judo was the sport with the highest levels of regulation of emotions, other’s emotional appraisal, use of emotion, and total emotional intelligence (p < 0.05). Generally, emotional intelligence was found to be more developed in individual sports than in team sports, except football. Consequently, psychological skills like emotional intelligence could be critical to achieving high performance, depending on the sport.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11080160
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 122: Social and Individual Factors Associated with
           Eating Disorders in Young Athletes: Effects on Concentration and Fatigue

    • Authors: Juan Carlos Checa Olmos, Montserrat Monserrat Hernández, Teresa Belmonte García, Diana Jiménez Rodríguez, Antonio Rodríguez Martínez, Pablo Berenguel Martínez, Antonio Miguel Berrio López
      First page: 122
      Abstract: Eating disorders are a growing societal problem, especially among young people. This study aims to determine the individual and social factors that support and perpetuate the risk of eating disorders (ED) and their possible consequences on an individual’s athletic and academic performances. The sample consisted of 395 athletes between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.07; SD = 1.35), of whom 142 (35.9%) were female, and 253 (64.1%) were male. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on sociodemographic data, body image, use of social networks, social relationships, sports practice, risk of developing ED, and academic and sports performance. In the resulting analysis, an initial cross-tabulation was carried out to observe the body distortion of the respondents as a function of BMI, followed by a linear regression to analyze the factors influencing the risk of suffering from ED. In addition, correlations were made to determine the relationship between the risk of manifesting ED and academic and sports performance. The main results show that 77.7% of the young athletes present a risk of ED (M = 13.3; DT = 3.33) due to a high body image distortion, which becomes the determining factor. In addition, relationships with family and friends have a significant influence on this. On the other hand, behaviors related with eating disorders affect concentration (r = −0.122; p = 0.01) and fatigue (r = −0.376; p < 0.01). For all these reasons, generating and promoting prevention and early detection guidelines during adolescence is necessary.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070122
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 123: Expert Opinions about Barriers and
           Facilitators to Physical Activity Participation in Ghanaian Adults with
           Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    • Authors: Mohammed Amin, Debra Kerr, Yacoba Atiase, Yusif Yakub, Andrea Driscoll
      First page: 123
      Abstract: Most adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not meet their physical activity (PA) goals despite its importance in improving their health outcomes. Our study aim was to explore the opinions of healthcare professionals regarding barriers and facilitators to PA participation in Ghanaian adults with T2DM. Using qualitative descriptive design, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 13 healthcare professionals experienced in diabetes management in Ghana. Three main themes relating to PA barriers and facilitators were identified in a thematic analysis: health system-related factors, healthcare practitioner factors, and patient factors. Inadequate accessibility to physical therapists and therapy centres hindered the provision of PA programs. Nurses and doctors lacked sufficient knowledge and training on effective PA interventions for individuals with T2DM. Time constraints during patient consultations limited discussions on PA, while the cost associated with accessing physical therapy posed a significant challenge. Patients often disregarded PA advice from physical therapists due to their reliance on doctors, and some perceived PA as irrelevant for diabetes treatment. Despite these barriers, healthcare professionals expressed belief in PA facilitators, including integrating physical therapists and diabetes educators into diabetes care, providing structured exercise resources, improving curriculum planning to emphasise PA in health science education, and addressing knowledge gaps and misconceptions. Overall, this study highlights patient-related and healthcare system-related factors that influence PA behaviour in Ghanaian adults with T2DM. Findings from this study should inform the development of tailored PA programs for this population.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070123
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 124: Effects of Flywheel vs. Free-Weight Squats and
           Split Squats on Jumping Performance and Change of Direction Speed in
           Soccer Players

    • Authors: Jakub Jarosz, Paulina Królikowska, Patryk Matykiewicz, Piotr Aschenbrenner, Paulina Ewertowska, Michał Krzysztofik
      First page: 124
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare (i) The effects of a flywheel and free-weight resistance training program; and (ii) The effects of performing lateral and frontal split squats as part of a flywheel-resistance training program on jumping performance, the 5–0–5 change of direction test time, and the one-repetition maximum (1RM) back squat in soccer players. Twenty-four male amateur soccer players participated in this study and were randomly and equally assigned to one of three different test groups: forward split-squat group (FSQ); lateral split-squat group (LSQ); and free-weight training group (TRAD). Athletes in the FSQ group performed a squat and a forward split squat on a flywheel device, while those in the LSQ group performed a squat and a lateral split squat (instead of a forward split squat) on a flywheel device. Each training lasted 4 weeks. The main finding was that all training groups, such as TRAD, FSQ, and LSQ, significantly improved broad jump length (p = 0.001; effect size [ES] = 0.36), 5–0–5 COD time with a turn on the dominant limb (p = 0.038; ES = 0.49), and 1RM back squat (p = 0.001; ES = 0.4). In turn, both flywheel-resistance training groups (FSQ and LSQ) significantly improved their counter-movement jump height (p = 0.001; ES = 0.8 and p = 0.002; ES = 0.58; respectively) with no effect in the TRAD (p = 0.676; ES = 0.07) training group. Both free-weight and flywheel-resistance training lasting 4 weeks performed in-season contributed to significant improvement in 1RM back squat, broad jump performance, and 5–0–5 change of direction testing time, while flywheel-resistance training might be superior in counter-movement jump height enhancement in soccer players. Moreover, the manner in which split squats were performed was not a factor influencing the obtained results.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070124
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 125: Velocity-Based Strength Training: The Validity
           and Personal Monitoring of Barbell Velocity with the Apple Watch

    • Authors: Basil Achermann, Katja Oberhofer, Stephen J. Ferguson, Silvio R. Lorenzetti
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Velocity-based training (VBT) is a method to monitor resistance training based on measured kinematics. Often, measurement devices are too expensive for non-professional use. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of the Apple Watch 7 and the Enode Pro device for measuring mean, peak, and propulsive velocity during the free-weighted back squat (in comparison to Vicon as the criterion). Velocity parameters from Vicon optical motion capture and the Apple Watch were derived by processing the motion data in an automated Python workflow. For the mean velocity, the barbell-mounted Apple Watch (r = 0.971–0.979, SEE = 0.049), wrist-worn Apple Watch (r = 0.952–0.965, SEE = 0.064) and barbell-mounted Enode Pro (r = 0.959–0.971, SEE = 0.059) showed an equal level of validity. The barbell-mounted Apple Watch (Vpeak: r = 0.952–0.965, SEE = 0.092; Vprop: r = 0.973–0.981, SEE = 0.05) was found to be the most valid for assessing propulsive and peak lifting velocity. The present results on the validity of the Apple Watch are very promising, and may pave the way for the inclusion of VBT applications in mainstream consumer wearables.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070125
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 126: Association between Pain and Frequent Physical
           Exercise among Adults in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Database

    • Authors: David R. Axon, Taylor Maldonado
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Pain affects over 20% of United States adults, and less than 50% of United States adults participate in frequent physical exercise. This cross-sectional database study included 13,758 United States adults aged >18 years from the 2020 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) and analyzed the association between severity of pain (independent variable) and frequent physical exercise (dependent variable), adjusting for demographic, economic, limitation, and health variables using multivariable logistic regression. The study showed 50.3% of adults report frequently exercising. Only 37.1% of adults reported experiencing pain of any degree, with a majority of them experiencing little pain. In the adjusted model, extreme pain vs. none, quite a bit of pain vs. none, Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic ethnicity, having a functional limitation vs. no limitation, and being overweight/obese vs. not being obese/overweight were associated with lower odds of reporting doing frequent physical exercise. Meanwhile, being ≥65 or 40–64 vs. 18–39 years of age, male vs. female, white vs. not white race, private or public vs. no health coverage, and good vs. poor general health were associated with greater odds of reporting doing frequent physical exercise. These variables associated with frequent physical exercise should be considered in future work when designing health interventions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070126
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 127: Time Course of Performance Indexes, Oxidative
           Stress, Inflammation, and Muscle Damage Markers after a Female Futsal

    • Authors: Athanasios Souglis, Dimitrios I. Bourdas, Aristotelis Gioldasis, Ioannis Ispirlidis, Anastassios Philippou, Emmanouil Zacharakis, Alexadros Apostoldis, Georgios Efthymiou, Antonios K. Travlos
      First page: 127
      Abstract: Background: Our aims were to investigate the time-course effects of a futsal match on performance, oxidative stress, and muscle damage markers, as well as inflammatory and antioxidant responses during a 6-day post-match period. Methods: Thirty-four female high-level futsal players were assessed on several oxidative stress, inflammation, subjective muscle soreness, subjective rate perceived exertion, and performance tests before a futsal match, immediately after, and 24 h to 144 h after. Results: Counter movement jump, 20 m, and 10 m sprints performance significantly decreased immediately after the match (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline 72 h post-match (p > 0.05). Delayed onset muscle soreness peaked 24 h post-match and rate perceived exertion peaked post-match (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline 96 h post-match (p > 0.05). Inflammatory biomarkers peaked at 24 h (p < 0.05) and remained significantly elevated for 72 h after the match (p < 0.05). Muscle damage biomarkers peaked at 24 h (p < 0.05) and remained significantly (p < 0.05) elevated for at least 72 h after the match. Oxidative stress markers peaked at 24 h–48 h (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline 120 h post-match (p > 0.05). In respect to antioxidant responses, these peaked at 24 h–48 h post-match (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline 120 h after the match (p > 0.05). Conclusions: A single futsal match induces short/mid-term changes in performance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and muscle damage markers for about 72 h–96 h post-match.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070127
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 128: Dropping Out or Continuing Playing—A
           Case Study of Adolescent’s Motives for Participation in Football

    • Authors: Jostein Bergin, Pål Lagestad
      First page: 128
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate dropout and continuation motives among boys in youth football. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all players from a former football team, consisting of 13 young people who were 17 years old when the in-depth interviews were conducted. Short interviews with the same players five years earlier (at the age of 12) were also included as part of the data. This strategy was used to gain a longitudinal perspective and a better insight into the participants’ experience of organized football. Including in-depth data from all players at a football team—both players that dropped out and continued playing football, and also including some short interviews data from a longitudinal perspective, this study bring new findings into the discussion about sport participation. When the in-depth interviews were conducted, six of the participants had dropped out of football, while seven were still active. The results show that social factors, ambition, other interests and differences in skill and physical development, were all reasons for dropout from this team. Among those who continued playing football, the social aspect of football, their love for the sport, competitive instinct and the training benefits the sport provided, were reasons they continued playing. Furthermore, the findings showed that those who reported the lowest ambitions at the age of twelve, had dropped out of football, while the one with the highest ambitions had continued playing football. Our findings indicate that ambition can be a crucial factor in relation to participation in football, and also that the social aspect of football is an important motivational factor that coaches and parents should be aware of.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070128
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 129: Star Excursion Balance Test as a Predictor of
           Musculoskeletal Injury and Lower Back Pain in Non-Professional Soccer

    • Authors: Iva Sklempe Kokic, Katarina Petric, Danijela Kuna, Stjepan Jelica, Tomislav Kokic
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Soccer is a sport with worldwide popularity but has a substantial risk of injury. Clinical screening tools are an important factor in strategies of injury prevention. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and injury and lower back pain (LBP) in amateur soccer players. The research was performed as a longitudinal cohort study on 42 amateur male soccer players with 15.8 ± 6.6 years of soccer playing (age: 25.5 ± 6 years). Participants were surveyed with regard to their soccer playing, injuries, and LBP, and the SEBT was performed. They were followed for 3.5 months. At the follow-up, an additional set of data regarding injuries and LBP was gathered. Significant differences were found in all directions and in the composite score of the SEBT between uninjured and injured players. Shorter distance in all directions and a lower composite score were associated with injury in general. Shorter distances in all but the anterior direction and a lower composite score were associated with lower extremity injury, and shorter anterior distance was associated with LBP. Amateur soccer players with lower SEBT scores are more prone to injuries in general, as well as injuries of the lower extremities. SEBT presents as a useful clinical screening tool in identifying amateur soccer players at risk of injury.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070129
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 130: Speed Matters in Nordic Hamstring Exercise:
           Higher Peak Knee Flexor Force during Fast Stretch-Shortening Variant
           Compared to Standard Slow Eccentric Execution in Elite Athletes

    • Authors: Jesper Augustsson, Tobias Alt, Håkan Andersson
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Hamstring strain injuries are prevalent in many sports. Research has demonstrated that the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE), a knee-dominant exercise addressing the posterior chain muscles, can aid in reducing the risk of hamstring injuries in athletes. However, most research on hamstring injury prevention has focused on performing the eccentric version of the NHE (NHEECC). In contrast, in sports, it is quite frequent for athletes to use an eccentric–concentric version of the NHE. Additionally, eccentric NHE is typically performed using a slow, controlled tempo. The effect of a fast stretch-shortening cycle NHE (NHESSC) compared to standard slow NHEECC on peak knee flexor force has not been investigated. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate fast NHESSC vs. standard slow NHEECC. Our hypothesis posited that peak knee flexor force would be greater for fast NHESSC compared with standard slow NHEECC. The study involved 22 elite athletes (actively competing in both national and international events) consisting of female (n = 10) and male (n = 7) track and field athletes and male football players (n = 5), aged 17–31 years. The participants performed maximum trials of slow NHEECC and fast NHESSC repetitions in which measurement of bilateral peak knee flexor force was conducted at the ankle with the use of a load cell. During the NHEs, a linear encoder was used to measure both the position where the peak knee flexor force was recorded and the average eccentric velocity. SSC contributed to an enhanced NHE performance, where bilateral absolute peak knee flexor force was 13% higher for fast NHESSC vs. standard slow NHEECC (822 vs. 726 N, p < 0.01, ES = 0.54). Participants achieved a 32% greater forward distance at the breakpoint stage during NHEECC compared to the coupling phase for NHESSC (54 vs. 41 cm, p < 0.001, ES = 1.37). Eccentric average velocity was more than three times higher for NHESSC compared with NHEECC (0.38 vs. 0.12 m/s, p < 0.001, ES = 3.25). The key findings of this study were that SSC contributed to an enhanced NHE performance, where absolute peak knee flexor force was 13% greater for fast NHESSC compared to standard slow NHEECC. The fast NHESSC could therefore be an interesting alternative to the standard slow NHEECC execution, as it may offer potential advantages for sprint performance, as well as hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070130
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 131: Profiling the Physical Performance of Young
           Boxers with Unsupervised Machine Learning: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Rodrigo Merlo, Ángel Rodríguez-Chávez, Pedro E. Gómez-Castañeda, Andrés Rojas-Jaramillo, Jorge L. Petro, Richard B. Kreider, Diego A. Bonilla
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Mexico City is the location with the largest number of boxers in Mexico; in fact, it is the first city in the country to open a Technological Baccalaureate in Education and Sports Promotion with a pugilism orientation. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the physical–functional profile of applicants for admission to the baccalaureate in sports. A total of 227 young athletes (44F; 183M; 15.65 (1.79) years; 63.66 (14.98) kg; >3 years of boxing experience) participated in this study. Body mass (BM), maximal isometric handgrip (HG) strength, the height of the countermovement jump (CMJ), the velocity of straight boxing punches (PV), and the rear hand punch impact force (PIF) were measured. The young boxers were profiled using unsupervised machine learning algorithms, and the probability of superiority (ρ) was calculated as the effect size of the differences. K-Medoids clustering resulted in two sex-independent significantly different groups: Profile 1 (n = 118) and Profile 2 (n = 109). Except for BM, Profile 2 was statistically higher (p < 0.001) with a clear distinction in terms of superiority on PIF (ρ = 0.118), the PIF-to-BM ratio (ρ = 0.017), the PIF-to-HG ratio (ρ = 0.079) and the PIF-to-BM+HG ratio (ρ = 0.008). In general, strength levels explained most of the data variation; therefore, it is reasonable to recommend the implementation of tests aimed at assessing the levels of isometric and applied strength in boxing gestures. The identification of these physical–functional profiles might help to differentiate training programs during sports specialization of young boxing athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070131
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 132: A 6-Week Badminton-Based Movement Intervention
           Enhances Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Fitness in Saudi Boys
           and Girls

    • Authors: Michael J. Duncan, Abdulrahman AlShabeb, Katie Fitton Davies, Nadia Alshahrani, Yazeed Almasoud
      First page: 132
      Abstract: This study examined the short (pre-post) and longer-term (post to 10 weeks post) effects of the Badminton World Federation (BWF) Shuttle Time program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical fitness in Saudi boys and girls. Seventy-six children aged 9–11 years (44 boys, 32 girls; mean ± SD = 10.2 ± 0.9 years) undertook twice weekly Shuttle Time sessions for 6 weeks. Pre, post, and 10 weeks post, FMS was measured using the test of gross motor development 3 and physical fitness was measured via 10 m sprint speed, standing long jump, seated medicine ball throw, and a 6 min walk test (6MWT). There were significant improvements in FMS from pre to post (p = 0.0001) and post to 10-weeks post (p = 0.0001) for both boys and girls. Girls demonstrated a significantly greater magnitude of change in FMS. For 10 m sprint time, seated medicine ball throw, standing long jump, and 6MWT performance, both boys and girls significantly improved from pre-10 weeks post (all p = 0.001). The magnitude of change was greater pre to 10-weeks post for girls for the seated medicine ball throw, but was greater for boys for the standing long jump and 6MWT. In terms of practical applications, the BWF Shuttle Time program is feasible for administration in the Saudi context and is beneficial in developing FMS and fitness for Saudi children aged 8–12 years.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070132
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 133: The Participation of Trans Women in
           Competitive Fencing and Implications on Fairness: A Physiological
           Perspective Narrative Review

    • Authors: Victoria Tidmas, Clare Halsted, Mary Cohen, Lindsay Bottoms
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Debate has surrounded whether the participation of trans women in female sporting categories is fair, specifically the retained male physiological advantage due to increased testosterone compared to cisgender females. Recently, individual sporting organisations have been investigating and assessing policies regarding trans women athlete participation in female categories, resulting in several banning participation. This review aims to discuss the scientific evidence and provide appropriate guidance for the inclusion of trans women in elite competitive female fencing categories. Fencing is an intermittent sport, where competitions can span 1 to 3 days. The lunge is the most common movement used to attack opponents, where a successful hit relies on the speed of the action. Male puberty induced increased circulating testosterone promotes a greater stature, cardiovascular function, muscle mass, and strength compared to cisgender females, culminating in a ~12–40% sport performance advantage. Elite cisgender male fencers perform significantly higher, ~17–30%, jump heights and leg power measures compared to elite cisgender female fencers, resulting in faster lunges. Trans women receiving androgen-suppression therapy for 12 months showed significant reductions in strength, lean body mass, and muscle surface area, but even after 36 months, the measurements of these three indices remained above those for cisgender females. Previous male muscle mass and strength can be retained through continuation of resistance training. The literature reviewed shows that there is a retained physiological advantage for trans women who have undergone male puberty when participating in the elite competitive female fencing category. A proposed solution of an open or third gender category for elite fencing competition promotes fair competition, while allowing trans women to compete in their chosen sport.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070133
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 134: Injury Prevalence among Young Elite Baseball

    • Authors: Daeho Ha, Satoshi Nagai, Byungjoo Noh, Naoki Mukai, Shumpei Miyakawa, Masahiro Takemura
      First page: 134
      Abstract: This study aimed to describe the injury profiles of young Korean baseball players according to position and age as the proportion and distribution of injuries based on playing position and age remains unclear. A total of 271 elite youth baseball players aged 8 to 16 years were divided into two groups: elementary school (ES) (n = 135) and middle school (MS) (n = 136). The participants’ basic, baseball practice, and injury information were collected. Injuries in the MS group were not limited to the elbow and shoulder, and injury prevalence varied by age group and baseball position. The most injured body region in the ES group was the elbow joint, regardless of the position. In contrast, the most injured body region in the MS group was the lower back, except for infielders whose elbows were the most injured. Additionally, the MS group was more likely to experience injuries to the lower back (OR = 4.27, 95% CI = 2.47–7.40), shoulder (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.08–3.43; p = 0.024), and knee (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.17–3.94; p = 0.012). Our findings indicate that excessive practice and a lack of rest during MS (growth spurt period) can significantly increase the risk of lower back problems in young baseball players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070134
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 135: Translation and Adaptation of the Adult
           Developmental Coordination Disorder/Dyspraxia Checklist (ADC) into Asian

    • Authors: Saidmamatov Orifjon, Jasurbek Jammatov, Cláudia Sousa, Rita Barros, Olga Vasconcelos, Paula Rodrigues
      First page: 135
      Abstract: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that emerges in childhood and its symptoms continue through adulthood. The Adult Developmental Coordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist was the first instrument used to screen adults with possible DCD. The psychometric characteristics of the Uzbek version of the scale were explored. An independent translation of the questionnaire from the original version into the Uzbek language was made. The sample comprised 301 Uzbekistan adults, aged between 17 and 42 years old (M = 20.66; SD = 2.26). Analyses were performed using R software (4.1.0). Descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and evidence of reliability in terms of internal consistency were assessed using the psych package (2.1.6), intraclass correlation coefficients were assessed using the irr package (0.84.1), and weighted Kappa were assessed using vcd package (1.4-10). To analyse the factor structure of the ADC scale, when applied to an Uzbekistan sample, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed. In the Uzbek version, a one-factor structure was identified, and moderated psychometric properties were found, which makes it a possible alternative to the original scale when applied to adults. This Uzbek version reduces respondents’ fatigue since it is smaller than the original one. More studies are needed to confirm the cut-off scores of this new version.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070135
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 136: Determination of the Prevalence of Knee and
           Hip Clinical Osteoarthritis in the Active Professional Male Footballer and
           Its Association with Pain, Function, Injury and Surgery

    • Authors: Lervasen Pillay, Dina C. Janse van Rensburg, Gopika Ramkilawon, Mario Maas, Emmanuel Orhant, Jussi Rantanen, Jari Salo, Gino Kerkhoffs, Vincent Gouttebarge
      First page: 136
      Abstract: Objective: To comment on and explore (1) the prevalence of clinical knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA); (2) the association between pain or function and clinical knee or hip OA; (3) the association between injury or surgery and clinical knee or hip OA. Methods: Participants were recruited from FIFPRO members. A total of 101 footballers consented to answer (1) a developed questionnaire, (2) patient-reported outcome measures, and (3) be evaluated by their team physician for clinical knee or hip OA. Results: Of the 53% evaluated for clinical knee and hip OA, a prevalence of 9.43% and 7.55% of knee and hip OA, respectively, was found. There was a significant and strong association between knee (p = 0.033; Cramers v Value = 0.523) and hip pain (p = 0.005; Cramers v Value = 0.602) and clinical OA. A significant association existed between Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome short form Scores and clinical OA of the hip (p = 0.036). The odds of clinical knee OA were 1.5 and 4.5 times more after one or more injuries or surgeries, respectively. There was no association between playing position and clinical OA. Conclusion: There is a low prevalence of a clinical knee or hip OA in the active professional male footballer. Pain may be a valid symptom to predict or monitor knee or hip OA. Validated assessment tools should be utilised to identify a negative effect on function. The odds of developing clinical OA in the knee with the number of injuries or surgeries. The hip presents with earlier clinical signs of OA compared to the knee.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070136
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 137: Salivary Markers Responses in the
           Post-Exercise and Recovery Period: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Rafael Santos Neves, Marco Antônio Rabelo da Silva, Mônica A. C. de Rezende, Adriana Caldo-Silva, João Pinheiro, Amândio M. C. Santos
      First page: 137
      Abstract: The use of saliva to monitor immune and hormonal responses in training, competitions, and during recovery is an easy and non-invasive alternative means of collecting samples compared to serum collection. Saliva can provide insight into a number of interesting biomarkers such as cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulins, alpha-amylase, and melatonin, among others. High-intensity and exhaustive exercises, such as training or competition, provide variations in immune, protein and hormonal markers. An adequate recovery period, calming down, and recovery methods can contribute to a fast normalization of these markers, decreasing illness, as well as the likelihood of overtraining and injuries, but their effectiveness is still inconclusive. The aim of this review was to investigate the evidence of salivary markers in post-exhaustive exercise during the recovery period. This study is a systematic review from three electronic databases with studies from 2011 to 2021 within healthy humans. The search found 213 studies, and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, while excluding duplicated studies, 14 studies were included in this review. The most cited salivary markers were cortisol and testosterone, as well as their ratio, alpha-amylase and IgA. Half of the studies applied a variety of recovery methods that showed controversial results over salivary markers’ impact. However, they showed an impact on the markers from the exercise, which was still dependent on exercise intensity, methodology, and duration.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070137
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 138: The Effect on Flexibility and a Variety of
           Performance Tests of the Addition of 4 Weeks of Soleus Stretching to a
           Regular Dynamic Stretching Routine in Amateur Female Soccer Players

    • Authors: Mohammad Alimoradi, Mansour Sahebozamani, Elham Hosseini, Andreas Konrad, Sajad Noorian
      First page: 138
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks of soleus stretching on ankle flexibility and dynamic balance, as well as selected monitoring and performance tests in soccer. Forty-five healthy female soccer players were randomly divided into a regular stretching group, a regular stretching group with soleus stretching, and a control group. Dynamic stretching protocols were performed for 4 weeks during three sessions per week as part of routine exercises. The regular group stretched three muscle groups (i.e., gastrocnemius, quadriceps, and hamstrings), while the regular + soleus group also stretched the soleus muscle. Before and after the stretching intervention, the ankle range of motion test, Y-balance test, drop jump test, dynamic knee valgus test, and Illinois Agility Running Test were performed. Ankle ROM, Y-balance, and DJ significantly improved in both intervention groups compared to controls. Only the regular + soleus group showed improvement in the Illinois Agility Running Test. Additionally, athletes performing the additional soleus stretching had greater improvements in ankle ROM and DJ but not in DKV or Y-balance. The results showed that adding soleus stretching into regular protocols can provide benefits for female soccer players in terms of performance parameters.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11070138
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 109: Exploring the Relationship between
           Micronutrients and Athletic Performance: A Comprehensive Scientific
           Systematic Review of the Literature in Sports Medicine

    • Authors: Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi, Mariam Ali Hussain, Khadija Majdy Raziq, Khawla Khaled Alsendi, Reem Osama Alaamer, Manar Jaradat, Sondos Alobaidi, Raghad Al Aqili, Khaled Trabelsi, Haitham Jahrami
      First page: 109
      Abstract: The aim of this systematic review is twofold: (i) to examine the effects of micronutrient intake on athletic performance and (ii) to determine the specific micronutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, that offer the most significant enhancements in terms of athletic performance, with the goal of providing guidance to athletes and coaches in optimizing their nutritional strategies. The study conducted a systematic search of electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus) using keywords pertaining to micronutrients, athletic performance, and exercise. The search involved particular criteria of studies published in English between 1950 and 2023. The findings suggest that vitamins and minerals are crucial for an athlete’s health and physical performance, and no single micronutrient is more important than others. Micronutrients are necessary for optimal metabolic body’s functions such as energy production, muscle growth, and recovery, which are all important for sport performance. Meeting the daily intake requirement of micronutrients is essential for athletes, and while a balanced diet that includes healthy lean protein sources, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is generally sufficient, athletes who are unable to meet their micronutrient needs due to malabsorption or specific deficiencies may benefit from taking multivitamin supplements. However, athletes should only take micronutrient supplements with the consultation of a specialized physician or nutritionist and avoid taking them without confirming a deficiency.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060109
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 110: The Effects of Massage Therapy on Sport and
           Exercise Performance: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Miloš Dakić, Lazar Toskić, Vladimir Ilić, Saša Đurić, Milivoj Dopsaj, Jožef Šimenko
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Background: A massage is a tool that is frequently used in sports and exercise in general for recovery and increased performance. In this review paper, we aimed to search and systemize current literature findings relating to massages’ effects on sports and exercise performance concerning its effects on motor abilities and neurophysiological and psychological mechanisms. Methods: The review has been written following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis) guidelines. One hundred and fourteen articles were included in this review. Results: The data revealed that massages, in general, do not affect motor abilities, except flexibility. However, several studies demonstrated that positive muscle force and strength changed 48 h after the massage was given. Concerning neurophysiological parameters, the massage did not change blood lactate clearance, muscle blood flow, muscle temperature, or activation. However, many studies indicate pain reduction and delayed onset muscle soreness, which are probably correlated with the reduction of the level of creatine kinase enzyme and psychological mechanisms. In addition, the massage treatment led to a decrease in depression, stress, anxiety, and the perception of fatigue and an increase in mood, relaxation, and the perception of recovery. Conclusion: The direct usage of massages just for gaining results in sport and exercise performance seems questionable. However, it is indirectly connected to performance as an important tool when an athlete should stay focused and relaxed during competition or training and recover after them.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060110
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 111: Exercise-Induced Fatigue Impairs Change of

    • Authors: Zlatan Bilić, Filip Sinković, Petar Barbaros, Dario Novak, Erika Zemkova
      First page: 111
      Abstract: This study investigates the effect of exercise-induced fatigue on change of direction performance and serve precision among young tennis players. A group of 21 players (age 12.90 ± 0.76 years), ranked among the top 50 players on the national tennis federation scale and the top 300 on the “Tennis Europe” scale, participated in the study. They underwent a standardized physiological load protocol using the “300-m running test” which consists of consecutive runs for 15 shares of 20 m (15 × 20). Its intensity was determined using the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale where subjects evaluated their level of experienced load on a scale from 0 to 10. Prior to and after the protocol, they performed a pre-planned change of direction T-test and serve precision test. Results showed significant increase of time in the T-test (from 11.75 ± 0.45 s to 12.99 ± 0.4 s, p = 0.00) and decrease in serve precision parameter from (6.00 ± 1.04 to 4.00 ± 1.26, p = 0.00) after the fatigue test protocol. The RPE increased from 5 to 9, after the fatigue protocol, indicating the desired fatigue effect. These findings indicate that exercise-induced fatigue impairs change of direction performance and serve precision among young tennis players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060111
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 112: CrossFit®: ‘Unknowable’ or
           Predictable'—A Systematic Review on Predictors of CrossFit®

    • Authors: Nicole Meier, Jennifer Schlie, Annette Schmidt
      First page: 112
      Abstract: The functional fitness training program CrossFit® is experiencing fast-growing and widespread popularity with day-to-day varying ‘Workouts of the Day’ (WOD). Even among tactical athletes, the training program is widely applied. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data on which parameters influence CrossFit® performance. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the existing literature to identify and summarize predictors of CrossFit® performance and performance enhancement. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search of the following databases was conducted in April 2022: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science. Using the keyword ‘CrossFit’, 1264 entries are found, and 21 articles are included based on the eligibility criteria. In summary, the studies show conflicting results, and no specific key parameter was found that predicts CrossFit® performance regardless of the type of WOD. In detail, the findings indicate that physiological parameters (in particular, body composition) and high-level competitive experience have a more consistent influence than specific performance variables. Nevertheless, in one-third of the studies, high total body strength (i.e., CrossFit® Total performance) and trunk strength (i.e., back squat performance) correlate with higher workout scores. For the first time, this review presents a summary of performance determinants in CrossFit®. From this, a guiding principle for training strategies may be derived, suggesting that a focus on body composition, body strength, and competition experience may be recommended for CrossFit® performance prediction and performance enhancement.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060112
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 113: Anthropometric Measures, Muscle Resistance,
           and Balance in Physically Active, Aged Adults

    • Authors: Filipe Rodrigues, Raul Antunes, Rui Matos, Miguel Jacinto, Diogo Monteiro, Pedro Forte, António Miguel Monteiro, Tiago M. Barbosa
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between age, body mass index, muscle strength, and balance in physically active, aged adults. Methods: Eighty-five participants were recruited for this study, having an average age of 70.31 years (SD = 9.90), ranging from 50 to 92 years. Twenty-six (30.6%) participants were male and fifty-nine (69.4%) were female. The participants had an average body mass index of 27.30 kg/m2 (SD = 3.62), ranging from 20.32 to 38.58 kg/m2. Participants undertook the Timed-Up and Go to test balance, and the chair-stand test to assess lower body strength. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. Three models (Model 1, 2, and 3) were tested to assess their relationships with balance: M1—Lower body muscle strength; M2—Lower body muscle strength and body mass index; M3—Lower body muscle strength, body mass index, and age. Results: All hierarchical models displayed significant variance. The third model explained 50.9% of the variance in dynamic balance, [F(3, 81) = 27.94, p < 0.001, R = 0.71, Ra2 = 0.51]. The difference in Ra2 between the first, second, and third models was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Age, body mass index, and lower body muscle strength had significant (p < 0.05) correlations with balance. In terms of the significant impact of each predictor, age had the strongest association with balance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results are useful to understand mechanisms or diagnose people at risk of fall.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060113
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 114: Scapular Resting Posture and Scapulohumeral
           Rhythm Adaptations in Volleyball Players: Implications for Clinical
           Shoulder Assessment in Athletes

    • Authors: Augusto Gil Pascoal, Andrea Ribeiro, Jorge Infante
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Volleyball players develop shoulder sports-related adaptations due to repetitive overhead motions. It is essential to differentiate between these sports-related adaptations and pathological patterns in clinical assessments, particularly on scapular resting posture and scapulohumeral rhythm. Using an electromagnetic tracking system, the 3D shoulder kinematics of 30 male elite asymptomatic volleyball players and a matching control group were recorded at rest and in eight humeral elevation positions, in 15-degree increments from 15 to 120 degrees. The results indicated that the dominant scapular resting posture of the volleyball group was more anteriorly tilted than the control group (Volleyball: mean = −12.02°, STD = 4.16°; Control: mean = −7.45°, STD = 5.42°; Mean difference = 4.57°; STD = 6.85°; CI95% = 2.1° to 7.1°). The scapulohumeral rhythm in the volleyball group showed greater scapular internal rotation (Volleyball: mean = 41.60°, STD = 9.14°; Control: mean = 35.60°, STD = 6.03°; mean difference = 6.02°, STD = 1.47°; CI95% = 4.80° to 7.25°) and anterior tilt (Volleyball: mean = −9.10°, STD = 5.87°; mean = −2.3°, STD = 9.18°; mean difference = 6.88°, STD = 0.66°; CI95% = 6.34° to 7.43°). These findings suggest that volleyball players have developed a sports-related scapular adaptive pattern. This information may be valuable for clinical assessment and rehabilitation planning in injured volleyball players and may aid in the decision-making process for determining a safe return-to-play after a shoulder injury.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060114
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 115: Multicomponent Training and Optimal Dosing
           Strategies for Adults with Hypertension: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Authors: Isabel López-Ruiz, Fernando Lozano, María Dolores Masia, Noelia González-Gálvez
      First page: 115
      Abstract: (1) Background: Non-pharmacological interventions have demonstrated efficacy in the prevention, management, and control of hypertension. Multicomponent training confers a host of benefits to the general populace. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of multicomponent training on the blood pressure of adults with hypertension and ascertain the nature of the dose–response relationship. (2) Methods: This systematic review adhered to the PRISMA guidelines and was registered in PROSPERO. Eight studies were included, following a literature search across PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and EBSCO. Randomized controlled trials implementing multicomponent training interventions on adults with hypertension were considered for inclusion. A quality assessment was performed using the PEDro scale, with a random-effects model utilized for all analyses. (3) Results: Multicomponent training yielded a significant reduction in systolic (MD = −10.40, p < 0.001) and diastolic (MD = −5.97, p < 0.001) blood pressure relative to the control group. Interventions lasting over 14 weeks with a minimum frequency of three sessions per week, each lasting 60 min, were deemed most effective. (4) Conclusion: An optimal training intensity was achieved with 30 min of aerobic exercise at 75% of the heart rate reserve, whereas sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of one repetition maximum produced the best outcomes in strength training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060115
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 116: High-Intensity Functional Training: Perceived
           Functional and Psychosocial Health-Related Outcomes from Current
           Participants with Mobility-Related Disabilities

    • Authors: Lyndsie M. Koon, Jean P. Hall, Kristen A. Arnold, Joseph E. Donnelly, Katie M. Heinrich
      First page: 116
      Abstract: Background: People with mobility-related disabilities (MRDs) experience many personal and environmental barriers to engagement in community-based exercise programs. We explored the experiences of adults with MRD who currently participate in high-intensity functional training (HIFT), an inclusive and accessible community-based exercise program. Methods: Thirty-eight participants completed online surveys with open-ended questions, with ten individuals also participating in semi-structured interviews via telephone with project PI. Surveys and interviews were designed to examine changes to perceived health, and the elements of HIFT that promote sustained participation. Results: Thematic analysis revealed themes related to health changes following HIFT participation including improved physical, functional, and psychosocial health outcomes. Other themes emerged within the HIFT environment that promoted adherence for participants such as accessible spaces and equipment, and inclusive HIFT sessions and competitions. Additional themes included participants’ advice for the disability and healthcare communities. The resulting themes are informed by the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Conclusion: The findings provide initial data on the potential effects of HIFT on multiple dimensions of health outcomes and contribute to the growing literature on community-based programs that are adaptable and inclusive for people with MRD.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060116
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 117: Agreement between Force Platform and
           Smartphone Application-Derived Measures of Vertical Jump Height in Youth
           Grassroots Soccer Players

    • Authors: Jason Tallis, Rhys O. Morris, Michael J. Duncan, Emma L. J. Eyre, Lucas Guimaraes-Ferreira
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Given the importance of vertical jump assessments as a performance benchmarking tool, the assessment of neuromuscular function and indicator of health status, accurate assessment is essential. This study compared countermovement jump (CMJ) height assessed using MyJump2 (JHMJ) to force-platform-derived jump height calculated from time in the air (JHTIA) and take-off velocity (JHTOV) in youth grassroots soccer players. Thirty participants (Age: 8.7 ± 0.42 yrs; 9 females) completed bilateral CMJs on force platforms whilst jump height was simultaneously evaluated using MyJump2. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Standard error of measurement (SEM), coefficient of variance (CV) and Bland–Altman analysis were used to compare performance of MyJump2 to force-platform-derived measures of CMJ height. The median jump height was 15.5 cm. Despite a high level of agreement between JHTIA and JHTOV (ICC = 0.955), CV (6.6%), mean bias (1.33 ± 1.62 cm) and 95% limits of agreement (LoA −1.85–4.51 cm) were greater than in other comparisons. JHMJ performed marginally better than JHTIA when compared to JHTOV (ICC = 0.971; 95% CI’s = 0.956–0.981; SEM = 0.3 cm; CV = 5.7%; mean bias = 0.36 ± 1.61 cm; LoA = −3.52–2.80 cm). Irrespective of method, jump height did not differ between males and females (p > 0.381; r < 0.093), and the comparison between assessment tools was not affected by sex. Given low jump heights achieved in youth, JHTIA and JHMJ should be used with caution. JHTOV should be used to guarantee accuracy in the calculation of jump height.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060117
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 118: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the
           Differences in Mean Propulsive Velocity between Men and Women in Different

    • Authors: Raúl Nieto-Acevedo, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Francisco Javier Díaz-Lara, Alfonso de la Rubia, Jaime González-García, Daniel Mon-Lopez
      First page: 118
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining the differences in the mean propulsive velocities between men and women in the different exercises studied (squat, bench press, inclined bench press and military press). Quality Assessment and Validity Tool for Correlational Studies was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Six studies of good and excellent methodological quality were included. Our meta-analysis compared men and women at the three most significant loads of the force–velocity profile (30, 70 and 90% of 1RM). A total of six studies were included in the systematic review, with a total sample of 249 participants (136 men and 113 women). The results of the main meta-analysis indicated that the mean propulsive velocity is lower in women than men in 30% of 1RM (ES = 1.30 ± 0.30; CI: 0.99–1.60; p < 0.001) and 70% of 1RM (ES = 0.92 ± 0.29; CI: 0.63, 1.21; p < 0.001). In contrast, for the 90% of the 1RM (ES = 0.27 ± 0.27; CI: 0.00, 0.55), we did not find significant differences (p = 0.05). Our results support the notion that prescription of the training load through the same velocity could cause women to receive different stimuli than men.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060118
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 119: Electromyographic and Stabilometric Analysis
           of the Static and Dynamic “Standing Bird Dog” Exercise

    • Authors: Raffaele Losavio, Samuele Contemori, Stefano Bartoli, Cristina V. Dieni, Roberto Panichi, Andrea Biscarini
      First page: 119
      Abstract: (1) Background: The “bird dog” exercise is considered one of the most effective therapeutic exercises for lumbopelvic rehabilitation and the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The “standing bird dog” (SBD) exercise, executed in a single-leg stance, constitutes a natural and challenging variation in the “bird dog”; nevertheless, this exercise has not yet been investigated. This study provides a stabilometric and electromyographic analysis of the SBD performed in static and dynamic conditions and in ipsilateral and contralateral variations; (2) Methods: A time-synchronized motion capture system, wireless electromyography sensors, and triaxial force platform were used to analyze the selected SBD exercises; (3) Results: In dynamic conditions, the gluteus maximum, multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, and gluteus medius reached a mean activation level higher than in the static condition, with peak activation levels of 80%, 60%, 55%, and a 45% maximum voluntary isometric contraction, respectively. In the static condition, balance control was more challenging in the mediolateral compared to the anteroposterior direction. In the dynamic condition, the balance challenge was higher in the anteroposterior direction and higher than the static condition in both directions; (4) Conclusions: The SBD was proved to be effective for strengthening the hip and lumbar extensor muscles and provided a powerful challenge to single-leg balance control in both mediolateral and anteroposterior directions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060119
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 120: Fatigue-Induced Neuromuscular Performance
           Changes in Professional Male Volleyball Players

    • Authors: Damjana V. Cabarkapa, Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Shay M. Whiting, Andrew C. Fry
      First page: 120
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to assess pre-post practice changes in countermovement vertical jump (CVJ) force-time metrics and to determine the relationship between internal and external load variables within a cohort of professional male volleyball players. Ten elite athletes competing in one of the top professional European leagues participated in the present study. While standing on a uni-axial force plate, each athlete performed three CVJs immediately prior to the regular training session. Each athlete wore an inertial measurement unit (VertTM) through an entire practice from which the following external load metrics were obtained: Stress (i.e., an algorithm-derived metric used to quantify the percentage of high-impact movements), Jumps (i.e., the total number of jumps performed during the practice session), and Active Minutes (i.e., the total amount of time performing dynamic movements). Immediately post-practice, each athlete completed another set of three CVJs and reported their subjective measure of internal load using a Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale (Borg CR-10). While no statistically significant differences were observed in any of the force-time metrics examined in the present study pre-post practice (e.g., eccentric and concentric peak and mean force and power, vertical jump height, contraction time, countermovement depth), our findings indicate a strong positive association between RPE and Stress (r = 0.713) and RPE and Jumps (r = 0.671). However, a weak non-statistically significant correlation was observed between RPE and Active Minutes (r = −0.038), indicating that internal load seems to be more dependent on the intensity rather than the duration of the training session for this sport.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060120
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 121: Intra- and Inter-Day Reliability of Inertial
           Loads with Cluster Sets When Performed during a Quarter Squat on a
           Flywheel Device

    • Authors: Shane Ryan, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Declan Browne, Jeremy A. Moody, Paul J. Byrne
      First page: 121
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to (i) estimate the intra- and inter-day reliability of mean concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) power at different inertial loads during a flywheel quarter-squat using a cluster set approach and (ii) to determine the acute effect of internal and external attentional focus on mean power when performing the flywheel quarter squat. Twelve collegiate field sport male athletes (age 22.4 ± 3.2 years, weight 81.4 ± 10.3 kg, height 1.81 ± 0.06 m) attended four cluster set testing sessions separated by 7 days. Sessions consisted of 4 sets of 15 repetitions using 4 inertial loads (0.025, 0.050, 0.075, and 0.100 kg·m2). A cluster block consisted of 5 repetitions, including “momentum repetitions” (4 × 5 + 5 + 5). Mean power (MP), CON power, ECC power, and ECC overload were recorded for both internal and external attentional focus groups. The external instructional group attained familiarization after two flywheel sessions (ES = 0.03–0.15) with little volatility between performance measures (CV% = 3.39–9.22). The internal instructional group showed large differences in MP output from session 2 to session 3 for all loads (ES = 0.59–1.25). In conclusion, the flywheel cluster set approach is a reliable training modality for maintaining MP output during all repetitions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11060121
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 93: Acute Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant
           Extract on Cycling Time-Trial Are Performance Dependent in
           Endurance-Trained Cyclists: A Home-Based Study

    • Authors: Stefano Montanari, Sam D. Blacker, Mark E. T. Willems
      First page: 93
      Abstract: The intake of anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract (300 mg per day) over a week enhanced 16.1 km cycling time trial (TT) performance in endurance-trained cyclists without acute performance effects. In the present study, the acute effects of an intake of 900 mg of NZBC extract 2 h before performing the 16.1 km cycling TT were examined. A total of 34 cyclists (26 males; 8 females) (age: 38 ± 7 years, V˙O2max: 57 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed 4 16.1 km TTs (2 familiarization and 2 experimental trials) over 4 mornings on a home turbo-trainer connected with the online training simulator ZWIFT. There was no difference in time to complete the 16.1 km TT between conditions (placebo: 1422 ± 104 s; NZBC extract: 1414 ± 93 s, p = 0.07). However, when participants were split between faster (<1400 s; 1 female; 16 males) and slower (>1400 s; 7 females; 10 males) cyclists based on average familiarization TTs, a difference in TT performance was observed only in the slower group (placebo: 1499 ± 91 s; NZBC extract: 1479 ± 83 s, p = 0.02). At 12 km (quartile analysis), power output (p = 0.04) and speed (p = 0.04) were higher compared to the placebo with no effects on heart rate and cadence. The acute effects of 900 mg of NZBC extract on a 16.1 km cycling time-trial may depend on the performance ability of male endurance-trained cyclists. More work is needed to address whether there is a sex-specific time-trial effect of NZBC extract independent of performance ability.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050093
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 94: Whole Body Vibration Training Improves Maximal
           Strength of the Knee Extensors, Time-to-Exhaustion and Attenuates
           Neuromuscular Fatigue

    • Authors: Serge S. Colson, Jennifer Gioda, Flavio Da Silva
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Whole-body vibration (WBV) training programs were reported to improve knee extensor muscle (KE) strength in healthy participants. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms of these strength gains remain unresolved. In addition, WBV training was shown to increase the time-to-exhaustion of a static submaximal endurance task. However, the effects of WBV training on neuromuscular fatigue (i.e., a decrease of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction; MVIC) induced by an endurance task is unknown. We, therefore, investigated the influence of WBV training on (i) KE MVIC and neuromuscular function, (ii) the time-to-exhaustion of the KE associated with a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise, and (iii) KE neuromuscular fatigue and its etiology. Eighteen physically active males were assigned to a WBV group (n = 10) or a sham training group (SHAM; n = 8). The MVIC of the KE, voluntary activation, and electrically evoked responses of the KE were assessed (i) before and after a fatiguing exercise (i.e., submaximal isometric contraction) performed until failure, and (ii) before (PRE) and after a 6-week training (POST) period. At POST, the WBV training increased the KE MVIC (+12%, p = 0.001) and voluntary activation (+6%, p < 0.05) regardless of the fatiguing exercise. The time-to-exhaustion was also lengthened at POST in the WBV group (+34%, p < 0.001). Finally, the relative percentage of MVIC decrease after fatiguing exercises diminished in the WBV group between PRE and POST (−14% vs. −6%, respectively, p < 0.001). Significant neural adaptation enhancements account for the trend in KE strength improvements observed after the WBV training program. In addition, the WBV training was effective at increasing the time-to-exhaustion and attenuating neuromuscular fatigue.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050094
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 95: SCS 5th Annual Conference. São
           Paulo, Brazil, 2022

    • Authors: Pedro E. Alcaraz, Elena Marín-Cascales, Anthony J. Blazevich, Lucas A. Pereira, Valter P. Mercer, Túlio B. M. A. Moura, Victor Fernandes, Tomás T. Freitas, Irineu Loturco
      First page: 95
      Abstract: On behalf of the Strength and Conditioning Society (SCS) and the Nucleus of High Performance in Sport (NAR), we are pleased to present the abstracts of the SCS 5th Annual Conference, which, for the first time, took place outside of Europe. The event was held at NAR’s state-of-the-art facilities in São Paulo, Brazil, on 3–5 November 2022, and comprised several invited sessions from international and national speakers on a variety of topics related to strength and conditioning practices and their application to health, injury prevention and sports performance. These included strength training in high-performance sports and older adults, sleep and recovery in elite athletes, performance optimization of the female athlete, high-intensity interval training, velocity-based resistance training, and running and cycling biomechanics, among others. The Conference also included different practical workshops conducted by renowned academics and practitioners on post-competition recovery strategies, plyometric training, hamstring strain injuries in soccer, and resisted sprint training. Finally, the event disseminated up-to-date strength and conditioning research by providing practitioners and researchers with the opportunity to present their most recent findings. In this regard, all abstracts of the communications presented at the SCS 5th Annual Conference can be found in this Conference Report.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050095
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 96: Between-Session Reliability of Strength- and
           Power-Related Variables Obtained during Isometric Leg Press and
           Countermovement Jump in Elite Female Ice Hockey Players

    • Authors: Henrik Petré, Niklas Psilander, Hans Rosdahl
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Isometric leg press (ILP) and countermovement jump (CMJ) are commonly used to obtain strength- and power-related variables with important implications for health maintenance and sports performance. To enable the identification of true changes in performance with these measurements, the reliability must be known. This study evaluates the between-session reliability of strength- and power-related measures obtained from ILP and CMJ. Thirteen female elite ice hockey players (21.5 ± 5.1 years; 66.3 ± 8.0 kg) performed three maximal ILPs and CMJs on two different occasions. Variables from the ILP (peak force and peak rate of force development) and CMJ (peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and peak jump height) were obtained. The results were reported using the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of three trials. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were high (ICC > 0.97; CV < 5.2%) for all outcomes. The CV for the CMJ (1.5–3.2%) was lower than that for the ILP (3.4–5.2%). There were no differences between reporting the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of the three trials for the outcomes. ILP and CMJ are highly reliable when examining strength- and power-related variables in elite female ice hockey players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050096
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 97: Professional Athletes Maintain High TNF-Alpha
           or IFN-Gamma Related Inflammatory Status after Recovering from COVID-19
           Infection without Developing a Neutralizing Antibody Response

    • Authors: Mira Ambrus, Eszter Fodor, Timea Berki, Veronika Müller, Ádám Uhlár, István Hornyák, Zsombor Lacza
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Introduction: Professional athletes are endangered by COVID-19 and belong to the high-risk population due to their lifestyle. To obtain information on the behavior of COVID-19 in professional athletes, serological, cytokine, and virus neutralization capacities were analyzed. Materials and methods: Hungarian national teams participated in international sports events during the early phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020. Altogether, 29 professional athletes volunteered to donate plasma. Their serological status was evaluated by IgA, IgM, and IgG ELISAs and the highest virus neutralization titer in an in vitro live tissue assay. Plasma cytokine patterns were analyzed with a Bioplex multiplex ELISA system. Results: Surprisingly, only one athlete (3%) had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, while IgA was more common (31%). Neither plasma showed direct virus neutralization in a titer over 1:10; hence, they were not suitable for reconvalescent treatment. The ‘cytokine storm’ markers IL-6 and IL-8 were at baseline levels. In contrast, either the TNF-alpha-related cytokines or the IFN-gamma-associated cytokines were elevated. There was a strong negative correlation between the TNF-alpha- or IFN-gamma-related cytokines. Conclusions: Professional athletes are susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection without developing long-term immunity through neutralizing immunoglobulins. Elevated secretory and cellular immunity markers indicate that these systems are probably responsible for virus elimination in this subpopulation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050097
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 98: Age and Visual Contribution Effects on Postural

    • Authors: Arunee Promsri
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Postural control, the ability to control the body’s position in space, is considered a critical aspect of health outcomes. This current study aimed to investigate the effects of age and visual contribution on postural control. To this end, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract movement components/synergies (i.e., principal movements, PMs) from kinematic marker data of bipedal balancing on stable and unstable surfaces with eyes closed and open, pooled from 17 older adults (67.8 ± 6.6 years) and 17 young adults (26.6 ± 3.3 years), one PCA-analysis for each surface condition. Then, three PCA-based variables were computed for each PM: the relative explained variance of PM-position (PP_rVAR) and of PM-acceleration (PA_rVAR) for measuring the composition of postural movements and of postural accelerations, respectively, and the root mean square of PM-acceleration (PA_RMS) for measuring the magnitude of neuromuscular control. The results show the age and visual contribution effects observed in PM1, resembling the anteroposterior ankle sway in both surface conditions. Specifically, only the greater PA1_rVAR and PA1_RMS are observed in older adults (p ≤ 0.004) and in closed-eye conditions (p < 0.001), reflecting their greater need for neuromuscular control of PM1 than in young adults and in open-eye conditions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050098
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 99: Blood Flow Restriction Is Not Useful as Soccer
           Competition Recovery in Youth Male National-Level Soccer Players: A
           Crossover Randomised Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Christian Castilla-López, Natalia Romero-Franco
      First page: 99
      Abstract: In soccer, blood flow restriction (BFR) is used to optimise between-match recovery. However, the benefits are unclear. This study evaluated the effects of BFR as a recovery strategy after a competition on countermovement jump (CMJ) height, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the wellness of soccer players. Forty national-level soccer players were allocated into two conditions: BFR (an active recovery session wearing a BFR device, 24 h after a competition) or NoBFR (the same recovery without BFR). CMJ, RPE and wellness were evaluated the day (CMJ and RPE) or the morning (wellness) before the competition; just after the competition (CMJ and RPE); and 24, 48 (wellness) and 72 h later. After 4 weeks, the players changed conditions. All players showed impaired CMJ (p = 0.013), RPE (p < 0.001) and wellness (p < 0.001) after the match compared with the baseline. The CMJ returned to the baseline 24 h later and wellness returned 48 h later. Only in the BFR condition did the RPE remain impaired 24 h after the match, which was also the moment after finishing the BFR recovery session (p < 0.001). BFR during active recovery does not provide any additional benefits compared with traditional exercise modalities to recover CMJ, RPE and wellness in youth national-level soccer players. BFR could even induce an immediate higher RPE.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050099
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 100: Age-Related Differences between Maximum Flight
           Height of Basic Skills on Floor, Beam and Vault and Physical Condition of
           Youth Female Artistic Gymnasts

    • Authors: Christoph Schärer, Luca Reinhart, Klaus Hübner
      First page: 100
      Abstract: In women’s artistic gymnastics, difficult elements with great flight heights have to be performed on the apparatuses. However, the importance of the physical condition for generating flight height and its development with age remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the age-related differences of lower body power, reactive strength, 20 m sprint speed, flight heights (basic elements on beam and floor) and run-up speed on the vault of 33 youth female gymnasts. Further, we calculated correlations between all parameters separately for different age groups (7–9 y; 10–12 y; 13–15 y). We found larger differences between the age groups 7–9 y and 10–12 y than between 10–12 y and 13–15 y on the apparatuses (10–12 y vs. 7–9 y: +23% to +52%; 13–15 y vs. 10–12 y: +2% to +24%) and for physical conditioning variables (10–12 y vs. 7–9 y: +12 to +24%; 13–15 y vs. 10–12 y: + 5% to +16%). The correlations between flight heights and physical condition were the lowest for age group 7–9 y (r: from −0.47 to 0.78; 10–12 y: r: from −0.19 to 0.80; 13–15 y: r: from −0.20 to 0.90). An optimal application of the physical condition to enhance the gymnastics-specific performance (e.g., flight height) is strongly age-dependent. Regular monitoring of jumping abilities and the derivation of training recommendations can accelerate this development and the future performance of young athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050100
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 101: Effect of Physical Activity on Metabolic
           Syndrome Markers in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and

    • Authors: Mohammed Amin, Debra Kerr, Yacoba Atiase, Rami Kamel Aldwikat, Andrea Driscoll
      First page: 101
      Abstract: People with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are reported to have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which increases their risk of cardiovascular events. Our aim was to determine the effect of physical activity (PA) on metabolic syndrome markers in people with T2DM. The study design was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of PA on MetS in adults with T2DM. Relevant databases including SPORTdiscus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, SocINDEX were searched up to August 2022. Primary endpoints were changes in MetS markers (blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood sugar, and waist circumference) after an exercise intervention. Using a random effect model with 95% confidence interval (CI), the mean difference between intervention groups and control groups were calculated. Twenty-six articles were included in the review. Overall, aerobic exercise had a significant effect on waist circumference (Mean Difference: −0.34 cm, 95% CI: −0.84, −0.05; effect size: 2.29, I2 = 10.78%). The effect sizes on blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood sugar were not statistically significant. No significant differences were found between exercise and control group following resistance training. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise can improve waist circumference in people with T2DM and MetS. However, both aerobic and resistance exercise produced no significant difference in the remaining MetS markers. Larger and higher-quality studies are required to determine the full effects of PA on MetS markers in this population.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050101
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 102: The Effect of a Home-Based Tele-Exercise
           Training Program on the Quality of Life and Physical Performance in Breast
           Cancer Survivors

    • Authors: Andreana Andrioti, Argyro Papadopetraki, Maria Maridaki, Anastassios Philippou
      First page: 102
      Abstract: The number of breast cancer (BCa) survivors has been steadily increasing due to advances in anti-cancer treatments, though these individuals suffer from various cancer- and treatment-related long-term side effects. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of a home-based tele-exercise training intervention on physical- and mental health-associated parameters in BCa survivors. A total of 13 female BCa survivors (age: 58.31 ± 3.13 years, BMI: 25.68 ± 0.62 kg/m2, waist circumference: 96.54 ± 1.84 cm) participated in a two-month group tele-exercise program twice per week which included aerobic, resistance and flexibility exercises. The results of the study revealed that the tele-exercise intervention improved participants’ body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.001), cardiorespiratory fitness (6 min walk test) (p < 0.001) and muscle function (sit to stand (p < 0.01), sit ups (p < 0.001) and push-ups (p < 0.001)). Beneficial effects were also observed on perceived anxiety (Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale) (p < 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (PCL-C) (p < 0.01), self-reported fatigue (p < 0.001), quality of life (QoL) (p < 0.05) and physical (p < 0.05), cognitive (p < 0.01) and emotional (p < 0.05) functioning (EORTQ-QLQ-C30). Our findings suggest that common cancer- and treatment-related adverse effects on physical performance, mental health and the overall QoL can be ameliorated through tele-exercise training programs in BCa survivors.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050102
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 103: Sports Performance and Breathing Rate: What Is
           the Connection' A Narrative Review on Breathing Strategies

    • Authors: Gian Mario Migliaccio, Luca Russo, Mike Maric, Johnny Padulo
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Breathing is a natural and necessary process for humans. At the same time, the respiratory pace and frequency can vary so much, depending on the status of the subject. Specifically, in sports, breathing can have the effect of limiting performance from a physiological point of view, or, on the other hand, breathing can regulate the psychological status of the athletes. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review is to focus on the literature about the physiological and psychological aspects of breathing pace in sports performance, merging these two aspects because they are usually considered split, in order to create a new integrated vision of breathing and sports performance. Voluntary breathing can be divided into a slow or fast pace (VSB and VFB, respectively), and their effects on both the physiological and psychological parameters are very different. VSB can benefit athletes in a variety of ways, not just physically but mentally as well. It can help improve cardiovascular fitness, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve overall health and well-being, allowing athletes to maintain focus and concentration during training and competition. VFB is normal during physical training and competition, but away from training, if it is not voluntary, it can cause feelings of anxiety, panic, dizziness, and lightheadedness and trigger a stress response in the body, affecting the athlete’s quality of life. In summary, the role of breathing in the performance of athletes should be considered, although no definitive data are available. The connection between breathing and sports performance is still unclear, but athletes can obtain benefits in focus and concentration using slow breathing strategies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050103
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 104: A Holistic Analysis of Team Dynamics Using
           Relational Coordination as the Measure regarding Student Athlete Total
           Load: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Cathrine Nyhus Hagum, Espen Tønnessen, Marie Aarrestad Nesse, Shaher A. I. Shalfawi
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Background: Despite its small population, Norway wins a disproportionately large number of medals in international competitions. Therefore, it has been thought that the Norwegian sports model and sports school programs are influential in developing young Norwegian athletes to achieve such results. Today, more than 110 Norwegian private and public schools offer the elite sports program in Norway. Most student athletes attending those schools combine their high school education with elite sports, where they attend training sessions at both school and clubs. The number of people involved with the student athlete on a daily basis (i.e., other student athletes, club coaches, school coaches, schoolteachers, parents, and health personnel) indicate the importance of optimal communication and coordination. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no previous studies have explored communication and coordination among this population group. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to use a holistic analysis of team dynamics using the Relational Coordination Survey as a measure to explore the relational coordination within and between student athletes, club coaches, and school coaches. A secondary objective of this study was to explore student athletes’, club coaches’, and school coaches’ relational coordination with schoolteachers, parents, and health personnel. In addition, the study aimed to explore differences in student athletes’ relational coordination with their significant others according to sport, school, performance level, sex, and school year. Methods: The quality of relational coordination was measured by a cross-sectional questionnaire of student athletes (n = 345), club coaches (n = 42), and school coaches (n = 25) concerning training load and life load. Multiple one-way analyses of variance were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The results show that student athletes, club coaches, and school coaches perceived moderate to weak relational coordination with parents, schoolteachers, and health personnel. Student athletes’ relational coordination score with parents was the only strong score observed. Furthermore, the results reveal notable differences in student athletes’ relational coordination with the roles according to their characteristics. Conclusions: The findings suggest a potential for enhancing relationships and communication within and between the significant roles involved with student athletes. The results further indicate that those involved with the student athlete should consider a holistic approach to enhance communication and coordination, including physical, psychological, and other life factors, for optimal student athlete management and development. More resources are necessary to facilitate effective communication and coordination regarding the student athlete’s total load.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050104
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 105: Single and Combined Effects of Preferred Music
           and Endpoint Knowledge on Jump Performance in Basketball Players

    • Authors: Nidhal Jebabli, Mariem Khlifi, Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Manar Boujabli, Anissa Bouassida, Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman, Roland van den Tillaar
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Both music and endpoint knowledge of exercise have been shown to independently influence exercise performance. However, whether these factors work as synergists or counteract one another during exercise is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the single and combined effect of listening to preferred music and types of endpoint knowledge on repeated countermovement jump (CMJ) test performance. Twenty-four (n = 24) current or previously competitive basketball players underwent CMJ testing under the following endpoint knowledge conditions: (1) unknown/no knowledge, (2) knowledge of the number of jumps, and (3) knowledge of exercise duration. For each of these, participants listened to either their preferred music or no music during the duration of testing. For the exercise portion, participants completed repeated CMJs where participants were encouraged to jump as high as possible with jump height, contact time, and flight time as outcomes. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and feeling scale were measured before and after exercise. The results showed that, regardless of knowledge type, preferred music resulted in a significant decrease in both contact time and flight time (F ≥ 10.4, p ≤ 0.004, and ηp2 ≥ 0.35), and a significant improvement of jump height (F = 11.36, p = 0.001, and ηp2 = 0.09) and feeling scale ratings (F = 36.9, p < 0.001, and ηp2 = 0.66) compared to no-music condition, while RPE was not significantly affected. Regardless of the presence of music, knowledge of the number of jumps and duration resulted in lower contact time (p < 0.001, 0.9 < d < 1.56) versus unknown condition during CMJs. Moreover, a significant decrease in RPE values was found during prior endpoint knowledge of number (p = 0.005; d = 0.72) and duration (p = 0.045; d = 0.63) compared to unknown condition. However, feeling scale ratings were not significantly affected. Moreover, no interactions with significance findings were found for any parameters. Overall, data suggest that listening to music and endpoint knowledge alter exercise responses in basketball players, but they do not interact with one another.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050105
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 106: Tennis Specialization and Consequence of
           Injury/Illness Following Retirement

    • Authors: Ecaterina Vasenina, Jeffrey R. Stout, David H. Fukuda
      First page: 106
      Abstract: (1) Background: There is a lack of literature that examines the impact of early vs. late sport specialization on quality of life after retirement from tennis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between early specialization in the sport of tennis and health outcomes after retirement from collegiate/professional sport; (2) Methods: Participants were recruited through social media posts, newsletters, and contacts with tennis organizations. Basic demographic and injury information was collected from 157 former tennis players, along with the age of tennis specialization and two questionnaires: the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Questionnaire on Health Problems (OSTRC), and the CDC HRQOL-14 “Healthy Days Measure” Questionnaire (HRQOL); (3) Results: Significant differences (F1,117 = 5.160, p < 0.025) in the specialization age between the low (11.9 ± 4.5 y) and high (9.8 ± 4.1 y) OSTRC groups were found after covarying for the current age. No difference (F1,72 = 0.676, p < 0.414) was shown among the high (10.9 ± 4.4 y) and low (11.28 ± 4.6 y) HRQOL groups for the specialization age after covarying for the current age. A weak negative correlation was identified between the OSTRC score and specialization age (r = −0.233, p = 0.008), while no significant changes were shown between the specialization age and HRQOL score (r = −0.021, p = 0.857), or between the OSTRC and HRQOL scores (r = 0.146, p = 0.208); (4) Conclusions: Retired tennis players with low injury/illness severity scores specialized in tennis later than those with high injury/illness severity scores, while no differences in the specialization age were noted when the sample was separated into HRQOL groups.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050106
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 107: Relationship between Bioelectrical Impedance
           Phase Angle and Upper and Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Athletes from
           Several Sports: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Everton Cirillo, Alberto Pompeo, Fabiane Tavares Cirillo, José Vilaça-Alves, Pablo Costa, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Antonio Carlos Dourado, José Afonso, Filipe Casanova
      First page: 107
      Abstract: The phase angle (PhA) of bioelectrical impedance is determined by primary factors such as age, body mass index and sex. The researchers’ interest in applying PhA to better understand the skeletal muscle property and ability has grown, but the results are still heterogeneous. This systematic review with a meta-analysis aimed to examine the existence of the relationship between PhA and muscle strength in athletes. The data sources used were PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science and the study eligibility criteria were based on the PECOS. The searches identified 846 titles. From those, thirteen articles were eligible. Results showed a positive correlation between PhA and lower limb strength (r = 0.691 [95% CI 0.249 to 0.895]; p = 0.005), while no meta-analysis was possible for the relationships between PhA and lower limb strength. Furthermore, GRADE shows very low certainty of evidence. In conclusion, it was found that most studies showed a positive correlation between PhA and vertical jump or handgrip strength. The meta-analysis showed the relationship between PhA and vertical jump, however, little is known for the upper limbs as was not possible to perform a meta-analysis, and for the lower limbs we performed it with four studies and only with vertical jump.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050107
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 108: Post-Activation Performance Enhancement and
           Motor Imagery Are Efficient to Emphasize the Effects of a Standardized
           Warm-Up on Sprint-Running Performances

    • Authors: Valentin Rumeau, Sidney Grospretre, Nicolas Babault
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Warm-up routines include various tasks focused on the peripheral contractile properties and nervous motor command. This present study was aimed at investigating the acute effects of different warm-up routines, emphasizing either peripheral (post-activation performance enhancement, PAPE) or central (motor imagery, MI) contributions on sport-specific tasks. Eleven young female athletes took part in this cross-over, randomized, controlled trial. They underwent three experimental sessions composed of a standardized warm-up followed by 10 min of (1) rest (CONTROL), (2) maximal concentric leg press (PAPE), or (3) mental repetitions of sprint tasks (MI). Post-tests consisted of reaction time, arrowhead agility test, 20 m sprint, repeated sprint ability, and NASA-TLX fatigue questionnaire. PAPE and MI significantly enhanced the arrowhead agility test (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively) and repeated sprint ability (p = 0.002 and p = 0.035, respectively) compared to CONTROL, without any difference between PAPE and MI. The 20 m sprint time was better after PAPE as compared to MI (p = 0.005) and CONTROL (p < 0.001), without any difference between MI and CONTROL. Reaction time and the NASA-TLX questionnaire were not affected by the warm-up modalities (p > 0.05). PAPE was the most efficient to optimize warm-up due to its greater peripheral contribution that would improve muscle contractility. MI specifically improved the imagined tasks mostly by central contribution.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11050108
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 88: An Intense Bout of Acute Aerobic Exercise, but
           Not a Carbohydrate Supplement, Improves Cognitive Task Performance in a

    • Authors: Megan Sax van der Weyden, Joel Martin, Jose Rodriguez, Ali Boolani
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Background: There are contradictory findings in the literature on whether an acute bout of aerobic exercise leads to a post-exercise improvement in cognitive function (CF). Moreover, participants used in the published literature are not representative of the racial make-up of sport or tactical populations. Methods: A randomized crossover design was incorporated, with participants randomly consuming water or a carbohydrate sports drink within the first 3 min of a graded maximal exercise test (GMET) conducted in a laboratory. Twelve self-identified African American participants, (seven males, five females, age = 21.42 ± 2.38 years, height = 174.94 ± 12.55 cm, mass = 82.45 ± 33.09 kg) completed both testing days. Participants completed the CF tests immediately pre- and post-GMET. CF was assessed with the Stroop color and word task (SCWT) and concentration task grid (CTG). Participants completed the GMET when they reported a score of 20 on the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale. Results: Time to complete the SCWT incongruent task (p < 0.001) and CTG performance (p < 0.001) significantly improved post-GMET in both conditions. VO2max was positively correlated with pre- and post-GMET SCWT performance. Conclusions: The findings of our study suggest that an acute bout of maximal exercise significantly improves CF. Additionally, cardiorespiratory fitness is positively associated with CF in our sample of student athletes from a historically Black college and university.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040088
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 89: Low Pre-Season Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Strength
           Ratio Identified in Players Who Further Sustained In-Season Hamstring
           Strain Injuries: A Retrospective Study from a Brazilian Serie A Team

    • Authors: Filipe Veeck, Cassio V. Ruas, Matheus Daros Pinto, Rafael Grazioli, Gustavo Pacheco Cardoso, Thiago Albuquerque, Lucas Schipper, Henrique Gonçalves Valente, Victor H. Santos, Márcio Dornelles, Paulo Rabaldo, Clarice S. Rocha, Bruno Manfredini Baroni, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
      First page: 89
      Abstract: A common pre-season injury prevention assessment conducted by professional football clubs is the hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio calculated by peak torque (PT). However, it is debatable whether players that present low pre-season H:Q ratios are more susceptible to further sustaining in-season hamstring strain injuries (HSI). Based upon retrospective data from a Brazilian Serie A football squad, a particular season came to our attention as ten out of seventeen (~59%) professional male football players sustained HSI. Therefore, we examined the pre-season H:Q ratios of these players. H:Q conventional (CR) and functional (FR) ratios, and the respective knee extensor/flexor PT from the limbs of players further sustaining in-season HSI (injured players, IP) were compared to the proportional number of dominant/non-dominant limbs from uninjured players (UP) in the squad. FR and CR were ~18–22% lower (p < 0.01), whereas quadriceps concentric PT was ~25% greater for IP than UP (p = 0.002). Low scores of FR and CR were correlated (p < 0.01) with high levels of quadriceps concentric PT (r = −0.66 to −0.77). In conclusion, players who sustained in-season HSI had lower pre-season FR and CR compared to UP, which appears to be associated with higher levels of quadriceps concentric torque than hamstring concentric or eccentric torque.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040089
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 90: The Positive Effect of Four-Week Combined
           Aerobic–Resistance Training on Body Composition and Adipokine Levels
           in Obese Females

    • Authors: Purwo Sri Rejeki, Adi Pranoto, Ilham Rahmanto, Nabilah Izzatunnisa, Ghana Firsta Yosika, Yetti Hernaningsih, Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu, Shariff Halim
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Obesity is a metabolic disease that is caused by a lack of physical activity and is associated with an increased risk of chronic inflammation. A total of 40 obese adolescent females with an average age of 21.93 ± 1.35 years and average body mass index (BMI) of 30.81 ± 3.54 kg/m2 were enrolled in this study, randomized, and divided into four groups, i.e., control (CTL; n = 10), moderate intensity aerobic training (MAT; n = 10), moderate intensity resistance training (MRT; n = 10), and moderate intensity combined aerobic–resistance training (MCT; n = 10). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits method was used to analyze the adiponectin and leptin levels between pre-intervention and post-intervention. Statistical analysis was conducted using a paired sample t-test, while correlation analysis between variables used the Pearson product–moment correlation test. Research data showed that MAT, MRT, and MCT significantly increased adiponectin levels and decreased leptin levels compared to the CTL (p ≤ 0.05). The results of the correlation analysis of delta (∆) data showed that an increase in adiponectin levels was significantly negatively correlated with a decrease in body weight (BW) (r = −0.671, p ≤ 0.001), BMI (r = −0.665, p ≤ 0.001), and fat mass (FM) (r = −0.694, p ≤ 0.001) and positively correlated with an increase in skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (r = 0.693, p ≤ 0.001). Whereas, a decrease in leptin levels was significantly positively correlated with a decrease in BW (r = 0.744, p ≤ 0.001), BMI (r = 0.744, p ≤ 0.001), and FM (r = 0.718, p ≤ 0.001) and negatively correlated with an increase in SMM (r = −0.743, p ≤ 0.001). In summary, it can be concluded that our data show that adiponectin levels increased and leptin levels decreased after the intervention of aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic–resistance training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040090
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 91: High-Intensity Training for Knee
           Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Domiziano Tarantino, Tine Theysmans, Rosita Mottola, Jonas Verbrugghe
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. Exercise therapy has been identified as a first-line treatment option in patients suffering from knee OA. High-intensity training (HIT) is an innovative exercise modality with potential in improving various disease-related outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore the impact of HIT on knee OA symptoms and physical functioning. A comprehensive search of scientific electronic databases was conducted to identify articles on the effects of HIT on knee OA. Thirteen studies were included in this review. Ten compared the effects of HIT with those of low-intensity training, moderate-intensity continuous training, or a control group. Three evaluated the effects of HIT alone. Eight reported a decrease in knee OA symptoms (especially pain), and eight reported an increase in physical functioning. HIT was shown to improve knee OA symptoms and physical functioning, but also aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life with minimal or no adverse events. However, compared with other exercise modalities, no clear superiority of HIT was found. HIT is a promising exercise strategy in patients with knee OA; nonetheless, the actual quality of evidence remains very low, and more high-quality studies are needed to confirm these promising outcomes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040091
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
  • Sports, Vol. 11, Pages 92: Impact of the Anatomical Accelerometer
           Placement on Vertical Jump Performance Characteristics

    • Authors: Damjana V. Cabarkapa, Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Nicolas M. Philipp, Andrew C. Fry
      First page: 92
      Abstract: With rapid technological development over recent years, the use of wearable athlete monitoring devices has substantially gained popularity. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of the anatomical placement of an accelerometer on biomechanical characteristics of countermovement vertical jump with and without an arm swing when compared to the force plate as a criterion measure. Seventeen recreationally active individuals (ten males and seven females) volunteered to participate in the present study. Four identical accelerometers sampling at 100 Hz were placed at the following anatomical locations: upper-back (UB), chest (CH), abdomen (AB), and hip (HP). While standing on a uni-axial force plate system sampling at 1000 Hz, each participant completed three non-sequential maximal countermovement vertical jumps with and without an arm swing. All devices recorded the data simultaneously. The following variables of interest were obtained from ground reaction force curves: peak concentric force (PCF), peak landing force (PLF), and vertical jump height (VJH). The findings of the present study reveal that the most appropriate anatomical locations to place the accelerometer device when attempting to estimate PCF, PLF, and VJH during a countermovement vertical jump with no arm swing are CH, AB, and UB, and during a countermovement vertical jump with an arm swing are UB, HP, and UB, respectively. Overall, these findings may help strength and conditioning professionals and sports scientists to select appropriate anatomical locations when using innovative accelerometer technology to monitor vertical jump performance characteristics.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2023-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports11040092
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2023)
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